The Full Wiki

Warsaw: Wikis

  
  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Warsaw
Warszawa
Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa
(Capital City of Warsaw)
Top left: Royal Castle, Top right: Old Town Market Place,
Bottom left: Presidential Palace, Bottom right: Wilanów Palace.

Flag

Coat of arms
Motto: Semper invicta  (Latin "Always invincible")
Warsaw is located in Poland
Warsaw
Coordinates: 52°13′56.28″N 21°00′30.36″E / 52.2323°N 21.0084333°E / 52.2323; 21.0084333
Country  Poland
Voivodeship Masovian
County city county
City rights turn of the 13th century
Boroughs
Government
 - President Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO)
Area
 - City 516.9 km2 (199.6 sq mi)
 - Metro 6,100.43 km2 (2,355.4 sq mi)
Elevation 78-116 m (328 ft)
Population (2009)
 - City 1,711,466
 Density 3,311.02/km2 (8,575.5/sq mi)
 Metro 3,350,000
 - Metro Density 549.19/km2 (1,422.4/sq mi)
 - Demonym Varsovian
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 00-001 to 04-999
Area code(s) +48 22
Car plates WA, WB, WD, WE, WF, WH, WI, WJ, WK, WN, WT, WU, WW, WX, WY
Demonym Varsovian
Website http://www.um.warszawa.pl/
.Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] ( listen); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.^ Poland's capital city is on its rebirth.
  • Warsaw Vacations - Hotels, sightseeing tours, train trips, transfers in Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC europe.solartours.com [Source type: General]

^ Polish capital city.
  • Warsaw Hostel Search: Book Cheap Warsaw Hostels with HostelBookers.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.hostelbookers.com [Source type: General]

^ Warsaw Getaway Close X Poland's capital city is on its rebirth.
  • Warsaw Vacations - Hotels, sightseeing tours, train trips, transfers in Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC europe.solartours.com [Source type: General]

.It is located on the Vistula River roughly 360 kilometers (224 mi) from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometers (186 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains.^ THE PORT IN SZCZECIN The development of Szczecin was determined by its great location at the point where the Oder joins the Baltic Sea.
  • Poland and Poles 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC poland.gov.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its population as of June 2009 was estimated at 1,711,466, and the Warsaw metropolitan area at approximately 2,785,000.[1] The city area is 516.9 square kilometers (199.6 sq mi), with an agglomeration of 6,100.43 square kilometers (2,355.4 sq mi) (Warsaw Metro Area – Obszar Metropolitalny Warszawy).^ Hence approximately 30% of the population of Warsaw was packed into only 2.4% of the city’s area.

^ The 2009 Warsaw, IN, population is 13,396.
  • Warsaw, Indiana (IN) - Sperling's BestPlaces 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the eve of World War Two the Jewish population in Warsaw numbered 337,000 about 29% of the total population of the city, this figure rose to 445,000 by March 1941.

[2] .Warsaw is the 9th largest city in the European Union by population.^ Hence approximately 30% of the population of Warsaw was packed into only 2.4% of the city’s area.

.Warsaw is one of the Alpha Cities.^ Campanile Varsovie / Warszawa Hotel Campanile Warsaw is located very close to the centre of city and it has a direct connection with one of the main access roads.
  • Booking.com: hotel Premiere Classe Varsovie/Warszawa, Warsaw, Poland - 356 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

Warszawianka (1831) (French: La Varsovienne) is widely considered the unofficial anthem of Warsaw.[3] .On 9 November 1940 the City of Warsaw was awarded the highest military decoration for courage in the face of the enemy - Order Virtuti Militari for the heroic defence in 1939.^ In November 1940, the Germans finally established the Warsaw ghetto.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Blazing fires lit up the city” On 23 September 1939 Mayor Stefan Starzynski appointed Czerniakow as Chairman of the Jewish Community in Warsaw.

^ In mid-November 1940 the Jewish ghetto in Warsaw was sealed off by a high wall, its construction took many months to complete.

[4]
.Warsaw is also known as the "phoenix city", as it received extensive damage during World War II, and rebuilt with the effort of Polish citizens.^ The beautiful and historic old town district of Warsaw is the oldest part in the city and has a selection of traditional Polish restaurants, cafes and shops.
  • Booking.com: hotel Premiere Classe Varsovie/Warszawa, Warsaw, Poland - 356 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ On the eve of World War Two the Jewish population in Warsaw numbered 337,000 about 29% of the total population of the city, this figure rose to 445,000 by March 1941.

^ During his reign Poland fought heavy wars with Muscovy and Sweden , and their allies(the latter referred to in Polish history as the deluge), and against a Cossack uprising in the Ukraine.
  • POLAND, PART 3 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.halat.pl [Source type: Original source]

[5][6] Warsaw has given its name to the Warsaw Confederation, Warsaw Pact, the Duchy of Warsaw, Warsaw Convention, Treaty of Warsaw and the Warsaw Uprising.

Contents

Etymology and names

Warsaw's Polish name, Warszawa (also formerly spelled Warszewa or Warszowa), means "belonging to Warsz" (Warsz being a shortened form of slavic male name Warcisław, see also etymology of Wrocław).[7] Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman Wars and his wife Sawa.[8] Actually, Warsz was a 12th/13th century nobleman who owned a village located at the site of today's Mariensztat neighbourhood.[9] .The official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa (English: "The Capital City of Warsaw").^ "Warsaw is an amazing city!The map reminded me those months I spent in the capital...I guess I have to go back :)" .
  • Map of Warsaw | Warsaw Map | Poland 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsaw-life.com [Source type: General]

^ Warsaw Getaway Close X Poland's capital city is on its rebirth.
  • Warsaw Vacations - Hotels, sightseeing tours, train trips, transfers in Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC europe.solartours.com [Source type: General]

^ Campanile Varsovie / Warszawa Hotel Campanile Warsaw is located very close to the centre of city and it has a direct connection with one of the main access roads.
  • Booking.com: hotel Premiere Classe Varsovie/Warszawa, Warsaw, Poland - 356 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

[10] A native or resident of Warsaw is called Varsovian (from French varsovien, an inhabitant of Warsaw).[11]
.Other names for Warsaw include Warschau (German), Варшава/Varshava (Russian), Varšuva (Lithuanian), Varsovia (Spanish and Latin), Varsovie (French), Varsó (Hungarian), Varsavia (Italian), and וואַרשע/Varshe (Yiddish).^ It may be that the attack included two other Lithuanian Banners, namely .
  • Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.kismeta.com [Source type: Original source]

Geography

Location and topography

Warsaw seen from SPOT satellite
.Warsaw lies in east-central Poland about 300 km (190 mi) from Carpathian Mountains and about 260 km (160 mi) from Baltic Sea, 523 km (325 mi) east of Berlin, Germany.^ Warsaw Central Railway Station 0.9 km .
  • Booking.com: hotel Premiere Classe Varsovie/Warszawa, Warsaw, Poland - 356 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ Warsaw Central Railway Station 0.8 km .
  • Booking.com: Novotel Warszawa Centrum, Warsaw, Poland - 242 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ Warsaw became the capital of Poland in 1596, the city flanks both sides of the Vistula River, two thirds of the cities area lying on the west bank and one third on the east bank.

[12] .The city straddles the Vistula River.^ Various proposals were considered, one was relocation to the eastern part of the city, over the Vistula River, in the suburb of Praga.

.It is located in the heartland of the Masovian Plain, and its average elevation is 100 metres (330 ft) above sea level, although there are some hills (mostly artificial) located within the confines of the city.^ There are 86 physicians per 100,000 population in Warsaw, IN. The US average is 170.
  • Warsaw, Indiana (IN) - Sperling's BestPlaces 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.bestplaces.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Warsaw is located on two main geomorphologic forms: the plain moraine plateau and the Vistula Valley with its asymmetrical pattern of different terraces.^ Very well located (close to nice restaurants, coffee shops, shopping mall, train station and in walking distance to main attractions of Warsaw) .
  • Booking.com: Novotel Warszawa Centrum, Warsaw, Poland - 242 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ General ranking: Comfortable hotel offering excellent French restaurant, different standard rooms, located in the center of Warsaw.

^ Cozy hotel with spacious soundproof rooms, excellent restaurant serving international dishes, and fitness center, located close to the center of Warsaw and the main train station.

[13] .The Vistula River is the specific axis of Warsaw, which divides the city into two parts, left and right.^ The beautiful and historic old town district of Warsaw is the oldest part in the city and has a selection of traditional Polish restaurants, cafes and shops.
  • Booking.com: hotel Premiere Classe Varsovie/Warszawa, Warsaw, Poland - 356 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ Part was to move along the left bank to Kazun, to prevent the Swedes passage across the Vistula and in this way to protect Warsaw from that direction.
  • Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.kismeta.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Warsaw became the capital of Poland in 1596, the city flanks both sides of the Vistula River, two thirds of the cities area lying on the west bank and one third on the east bank.

The left one is situated both on the moraine plateau (10 to 25 m (32.81 to 82.02 ft) above Vistula level) and on the Vistula terraces (max. 6.5 m (21.33 ft) above Vistula level).[13] The significant element of the relief, in this part of Warsaw, is the edge of moraine plateau called Warsaw Escarpment. .It is 20 to 25 m (65.62 to 82.02 ft) high in the Old Town and Central district and about 10 m (32.81 ft) in the north and south of Warsaw.^ Warsaw’s historic Old Town district is just 1 km from the hotel.
  • Booking.com: Novotel Warszawa Centrum, Warsaw, Poland - 242 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ Warsaw's Old Town - approx.
  • Booking.com: hotel Premiere Classe Varsovie/Warszawa, Warsaw, Poland - 356 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of nearby Old Town buildings host Warsaw finest galleries, museums, restaurants, pubs and clubs.
  • Warsaw Hostel Search: Book Cheap Warsaw Hostels with HostelBookers.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.hostelbookers.com [Source type: General]

[13] It goes through the city and plays an important role as a landmark.
The plain moraine plateau has only few natural and artificial ponds and also groups of clay pits.[13] The pattern of the Vistula terraces is unsymmetrical. .The left side consist mainly of two levels: the highest one former flooded terraces and the lowest one the flood plain terrace.^ His comrades made him as comfortable as possible in one of the outside rooms and left an armed guard at his side.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

The contemporary flooded terrace has still visible valleys and ground depressions with water systems coming from Vistula old - riverbed. .They consist of still quite natural streams and lakes as well as the pattern of drainage ditches.^ But as was quite natural for human beings, they still tried to postpone death and "honour" for as long a time as possible.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

The right side of Warsaw has different pattern of geomorfological forms. There are several levels of the plain Vistula terraces (flooded as well as former flooded once) and only small part and not so visible moraine escarpment. Aeolian sand with number of dunes parted by peat swamps or small ponds cover the highest terrace. These are mainly forested areas (pine forest).[13]

Climate

Warsaw's climate is humid continental (Koppen Dfb) with relatively cool winters and mild summers. The average temperature is −3 °C (27 °F) in January and 19.3 °C (66.7 °F) in July. Temperatures may often reach 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer. Yearly rainfall averages 495 millimeters (19.5 in), the most rainy month being July. Spring and fall are usually beautiful seasons, the former crisp and sunny and full of blooms and the latter alternately sunny and misty, and cool but not cold.
Climate data for Warsaw
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.5
(55)
15.9
(61)
23.3
(74)
29.1
(84)
32.7
(91)
34.8
(95)
36.0
(97)
36.4
(98)
33.0
(91)
26.1
(79)
19.3
(67)
16.1
(61)
36.4
(98)
Average high °C (°F) 0.1
(32)
0.9
(34)
4.7
(40)
12.2
(54)
19.4
(67)
21.7
(71)
23.8
(75)
23.0
(73)
18.3
(65)
12.9
(55)
5.0
(41)
2.1
(36)
12.0
(54)
Daily mean °C (°F) -3.0
(27)
-2.3
(28)
1.7
(35)
8.2
(47)
14.0
(57)
17.6
(64)
19.3
(67)
18.3
(65)
14.0
(57)
8.2
(47)
2.9
(37)
-0.5
(31)
8.2
(47)
Average low °C (°F) -6.1
(21)
-5.5
(22)
-1.3
(30)
4.2
(40)
8.6
(47)
13.5
(56)
14.8
(59)
13.6
(56)
9.7
(49)
3.5
(38)
0.8
(33)
-3.1
(26)
4.4
(40)
Record low °C (°F) -30.7
(-23)
-30.4
(-23)
-23.5
(-10)
-10.1
(14)
-3.6
(26)
0.3
(33)
4.2
(40)
2.0
(36)
-4.7
(24)
-9.0
(16)
-18.2
(-1)
-27.4
(-17)
-30.7
(-23)
Precipitation mm (inches) 21
(0.83)
25
(0.98)
24
(0.94)
33
(1.3)
44
(1.73)
62
(2.44)
73
(2.87)
63
(2.48)
42
(1.65)
37
(1.46)
38
(1.5)
33
(1.3)
495
(19.49)
Sunshine hours 43 59 115 150 211 237 226 214 153 99 39 25 1,571
% Humidity 81 82 78 71 67 68 72 74 75 77 80 86 76
Avg. precipitation days 15 14 13 12 12 13 13 12 12 13 14 16 159
Source: [14] 2010-01-25

Districts

District Population Area
Mokotów 226,911 35.4 km2 (13.7 sq mi)
Praga Południe 185,077 22.4 km2 (8.6 sq mi)
Ursynów 143,935 44.6 km2 (17.2 sq mi)
Wola 142,025 19.26 km2 (7.4 sq mi)
Bielany 135,307 32.3 km2 (12.5 sq mi)
Śródmieście 134,306 15.6 km2 (6.0 sq mi)
Targówek 122,872 24.37 km2 (9.4 sq mi)
Bemowo 107,197 24.95 km2 (9.6 sq mi)
Ochota 91,643 9.7 km2 (3.7 sq mi)
Białołęka 76,999 74 km2 (28.6 sq mi)
Praga Północ 73,207 11.4 km2 (4.4 sq mi)
Wawer 66,094 79.71 km2 (30.8 sq mi)
Żoliborz 49,275 8.5 km2 (3.3 sq mi)
Ursus 47,285 9.35 km2 (3.6 sq mi)
Włochy 39,778 28.63 km2 (11.1 sq mi)
Rembertów 22,688 19.30 km2 (7.5 sq mi)
Wesoła 20,749 22.6 km2 (8.7 sq mi)
Wilanów 15,188 36.73 km2 (14.2 sq mi)
Total 1,700,536 517.90 km2 (200.0 sq mi)
.Warsaw is a powiat (county), and is further divided into 18 boroughs, each one known as a dzielnica (districts - see map), each one with its own administrative body.^ Warsaw Richmond County Virginia Add extra pins to the map by clicking on the list above the map.
  • Warsaw, Virginia Town Information - ePodunk 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.epodunk.com [Source type: News]

[15] Each of the boroughs includes several neighbourhoods which have no legal or administrative status. .Warsaw has two historic districts, called Old Town (Stare Miasto) and New Town (Nowe Miasto) in the borough of Śródmieście.^ These new old town images you posted lately draw my attention to this wonderful gallery.
  • Warsaw by Night Photo Gallery by Tomasz Dziubinski Photography at pbase.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amazing shots Tomasz - your night photography is very atmospheric and places you right in Warsaw Old Town.
  • Warsaw by Night Photo Gallery by Tomasz Dziubinski Photography at pbase.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warsaw - New Town .
  • Warsaw by Night Photo Gallery by Tomasz Dziubinski Photography at pbase.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]

Cityscape

Overview

Warsaw's mixture of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country. During WWII, Warsaw was razed to the ground by bombing raids and planned destruction.[17] After liberation, rebuilding began as in other cities of the communist-ruled PRL. Most of the historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed. However, some of the buildings from the 19th century that had been preserved in reasonably reconstructible form were nonetheless eradicated in the 1950s and 1960s (e.g. Leopold Kronenberg Palace).[18] Mass residential blocks were erected, with basic design typical of Eastern bloc countries.
Public spaces attract heavy investment, so that the city has gained entirely new squares, parks and monuments. Warsaw's current urban landscape is one of modern and contemporary architecture.

Architecture

Łazienki Palace, also called the "Palace on the Water"
Warsaw's palaces, churches and mansions display a richness of color and architectural details. Buildings are representatives of nearly every European architectural style and historical period. The city has wonderful examples of architecture from the gothic, renaissance, baroque and neoclassical periods, all of which are located within easy walking distance of the town centre.
Gothic architecture is represented in the majestic churches but also at the burgher houses and fortifications. The most significant buildings are St. John's Cathedral (14th century), the temple is a typical example of the so-called Masovian gothic style, St. Mary's Church (1411), a town house of Burbach family (14th century),[19] Gunpowder Tower (after 1379) and the Royal Castle Curia Maior (1407–1410). The most notable examples of Renaissance architecture in the city are the Barczyko house (1562), building called "The Negro" (early 17th century) and Salwator tenement (1632). The most interesting examples of mannerist architecture are the Royal Castle (1596–1619) and the Jesuit Church (1609–1626) at Old Town. Among the first structures of the early baroque the most important are St. Hyacinth's Church (1603–1639) and Zygmunt's Column (1644).
Building activity occurred in numerous noble palaces and churches during the later decades of the 17th century. One of the best examples of this architecture are Krasiński Palace (1677–1683), Wilanów Palace (1677–1696) and St. Kazimierz Church (1688–1692). The most impressive examples of rococo architecture are Czapski Palace (1712–1721), Palace of the Four Winds (1730s) and Visitationist Church (façade 1728–1761). The neoclassical architecture in Warsaw can be described by the simplicity of the geometrical forms teamed with a great inspiration from the Roman period. Some of the best examples of the neoclassical style are the Palace on the Water (rebuilt 1775–1795), Królikarnia (1782–1786), Carmelite Church (façade 1761–1783) and Evangelical Holy Trinity Church (1777–1782). The economic growth during the first years of Congress Poland caused a rapid rise architecture. The Neoclassical revival affected all aspects of architecture, the most notable are the Great Theater (1825–1833) and buildings located at Bank Square (1825–1828).
Bas-relief of an iron forger at MDM neighbourhood (Constitution Square), one of prime examples of socialist realism in Polish architecture.
Exceptional examples of the bourgeois architecture of the later periods were not restored by the communist authorities after the war (like mentioned Kronenberg Palace and Insurance Company Rosja building) or they were rebuilt in socialist realism style (like Warsaw Philharmony edifice originally inspired by Palais Garnier in Paris). Despite that the Warsaw University of Technology building (1899–1902)[20] is the most interesting of the late 19th century architecture. Warsaw’s municipal government authorities have decided to rebuild the Saxon Palace and the Brühl Palace, the most distinctive buildings in prewar Warsaw.[21]
Notable examples of contemporary architecture include the Palace of Culture and Science (1952–1955), a Soc-realist skyscraper located in the city centre, and the Constitution Square with its monumental Socialist realism architecture.[22] .The central part of the right-bank (east) Praga borough it is a place where very run-down houses stand right next to modern apartment buildings and shopping malls.^ Amazing shots Tomasz - your night photography is very atmospheric and places you right in Warsaw Old Town.
  • Warsaw by Night Photo Gallery by Tomasz Dziubinski Photography at pbase.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Modern architecture in Warsaw is represented by the Metropolitan Office Building at Pilsudski Square by Lord Foster,[23] Warsaw University Library (BUW) by Marek Budzyński and Zbigniew Badowski, featuring a garden on its roof and view of the Vistula River, Rondo 1 office building by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill and Golden Terraces, consisting of seven overlapping domes retail and business centre.

Flora and fauna

.Greenspace covers a quarter of the surface area of Warsaw,[24] including a broad range of greenstructures, from small neighborhood parks, green spaces along streets and in courtyards, trees and avenues to large historic parks, nature conservation areas and the urban forests at the fringe of the city.^ Sziomo, the Deputy Area Commander, his arm wounded, covers the withdrawal from 72 Nowolipie Street.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

Peacocks - one of a number of animal species in the Royal Baths Park.
There are as many as 82 parks in the city which cover 8 % of its area.[25] The oldest ones, once parts of representative palaces, are Saxon Garden, the Krasiński Palace Garden, the Royal Baths Park, the Wilanów Palace Park and the Królikarnia Palace Park (See also: Greenery in the city).
The Saxon Garden, covering the area of 15.5 ha, was formally a royal garden. The are over 100 different species of trees and the avenues are a place to sit and relax. In the 19th century the Krasiński Palace Garden was remodelled by Franciszek Szanior. Within the central area of the park one can still find old trees dating from that period: maidenhair tree, black walnut, Turkish hazel and Caucasian wingnut trees. With its benches, flower carpets, a pond with ducks on and a playground for kids, the Krasiński Palace Garden is a popular strolling destination for the Varsovians. The Royal Baths Park covers the area of 76 ha. The unique character and history of the park is reflected in its landscape architecture (pavilions, sculptures, bridges, cascades, ponds) and vegetation (domestic and foreign species of trees and bushes). What makes this park different from other green spaces in Warsaw is the presence of peacocks and pheasants, which can be seen here walking around freely, and royal carps in the pond. The Wilanów Palace Park, dates back to the second half of the 17th century. It covers the area of 43 ha. Its central French-styled area corresponds to the ancient, baroque forms of the palace. The eastern section of the park, closest to the Palace, is the two-level garden with a terrace facing the pond. The park around the Królikarnia Palace is situated on the old escarpment of the Vistula. The park has lanes running on a few levels deep into the ravines on both sides of the palace.
19th century New Orangery houses a palm house.
Other green spaces in the city include the Botanic Garden and the University Library garden. They have extensive botanical collection of rare domestic and foreign plants, while a palm house in the New Orangery displays plants of subtropics from all over the world.[26]
The flora of the city can be considered very rich in species. The species richness is mainly due to the location of Warsaw within the border region of several big floral regions comprising substantial proportions of close-to-wilderness areas (natural forests, wetlands along the Vistula) as well as arable land, meadows and forests. .Bielany Forest, located within the borders of Warsaw, is the remaining part of the Masovian Primeval Forest.^ Jan III. Sobiesky hotel - Located in the heart of the Warsaw's business district, the four star Jan III Sobieski Hotel is within easy reach from all parts of the city, and is only 7,5 km from the OKECIE International Airport.

Bielany Forest nature reserve is connected with Kampinos Forest.[27] It is home to rich fauna and flora. Within the forest there are three cycling and walking trails.
.About 15 km from Warsaw, the Vistula river's environment changes strikingly and features a perfectly preserved ecosystem, with a habitat of animals that includes the otter, beaver and hundreds of bird species.^ In the meantime legends about "hundreds" of dead Germans and the "tremendous" power of the ZOB started circulating throughout Warsaw.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[28]
The Warsaw Zoo covers an area of 40 hectares (100 acres).[29] There are about 5,000 animals representing nearly 500 species.[29] Although officially created in 1928,[29] it traces back its roots to 17th century private menageries, often open to the public.[30][31]

History

Early history

.The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were Bródno (9th/10th century) and Jazdów (12th/13th century).^ On May 10th, 1943, the first period of our bloody history, the history of the Warsaw Jews, came to an end.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[33] After Jazdów was raided, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa. .The Płock prince Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern Warsaw, about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the capital of Masovia in 1413.[33] Fourteenth-century Warsaw's economy rested on crafts and trade.^ In 1941 a Youth Division was established at the Jewish Social Mutual Aid Organization and the Zukunft became one of the Division's important contributors.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Polish Crown in 1526.[33]

16th to 18th century

In 1529 Warsaw for the first time became the seat of the General Sejm, permanent from 1569.[33] In 1573 the city gave its name to the Warsaw Confederation, formally establishing religious freedom in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Due to its central location between the Commonwealth's capitals of Kraków and Vilnius, Warsaw became the capital of the Commonwealth, and of the Polish Crown, in 1596, when King Sigismund III Vasa moved the court from Kraków to Warsaw.[33]
In the following years the town expanded towards the suburbs. Several private independent districts were established, the property of aristocrats and the gentry, which were ruled by their own laws. Three times between 1655–1658 the city was under siege and three times it was taken and pillaged by the Swedish, Brandenburgian and Transylvanian forces.[33][34]
In 1700, the Great Northern War broke out. The city was besieged several times and was obliged to pay heavy contributions.[32] Warsaw turned into an early-capitalistic principal city.
Religion was an element of Russification in the Russian Empire. This Roman Catholic Church in Warsaw was seized and converted into a Russian Orthodox Church while Warsaw was a part of the Russian Empire.[35]

19th to 20th century

Warsaw remained the capital of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1795, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia to become the capital of the province of South Prussia. Liberated by Napoleon's army in 1806, Warsaw was made the capital of the newly created Duchy of Warsaw.[33] Following the Congress of Vienna of 1815, Warsaw became the center of the Congress Poland, a constitutional monarchy under a personal union with Imperial Russia.[33] The Royal University of Warsaw was established in 1816.
Following the repeated violations of the Polish constitution by the Russians, the 1830 November Uprising broke out. However, the Polish-Russian war of 1831 ended in the uprising's defeat and in the curtailment of the Kingdom's autonomy.[33] On 27 February 1861 a Warsaw crowd protesting the Russian rule over Poland was fired upon by the Russian troops.[36][37] Five people were killed. The Underground Polish National Government resided in Warsaw during January Uprising in 1863–4.[37]
Warsaw flourished in the late nineteenth century under Mayor Sokrates Starynkiewicz (1875–92), a Russian-born general appointed by Tsar Alexander III. .Under Starynkiewicz Warsaw saw its first water and sewer systems designed and built by the English engineer William Lindley and his son, William Heerlein Lindley, as well as the expansion and modernization of trams, street lighting and gas works.^ Usually no electricity was available, and working by carbide gas lights proved extremely strenuous.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ While the first of this group emerge on the street, a German search-light illuminates the entire wall section.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[33]
The history of contemporary civilization knows no event of greater importance than the Battle of Warsaw, 1920, and none of which the significance is less appreciated.

Sir Edgar Vincent d'Abernon[38]

Warsaw became the capital of the newly-independent Poland in 1918. In the course of the Polish-Bolshevik War of 1920, the huge Battle of Warsaw was fought on the Eastern outskirts of the city in which the capital was successfully defended and the Red Army defeated.[39] Poland stopped by itself the full brunt of the Red Army and defeated an idea of the "export of the revolution."[40][41]

World War II

Sea of rubble[42] - over eight out of every ten buildings in Warsaw were destroyed by the end of World War II. In left centre can be seen ruins of Old Town Market Square.
.During the World War II, central Poland, including Warsaw, came under the rule of the General Government, a German Nazi colonial administration.^ The Germans apparently came to the conclusion that the remaining Jews could not be persuaded to leave the Warsaw ghetto voluntarily.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A nominal number of 33,400 Jews working in factories and for German employers, 3,000 employees of the Jewish Council included, remained in Warsaw.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During a meeting of the ZOB Command in the first days of April we resolved to extend our activities to include the entire area of the General Government.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

.All higher education institutions were immediately closed and Warsaw's entire Jewish population – several hundred thousand, some 30% of the city – herded into the Warsaw Ghetto.^ Those who were killed in action had done their duty to the end, to the last drop of blood that soaked into the pavements of the Warsaw ghetto.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By now everybody understood that the ghetto was to be liquidated, but nobody yet realized that its entire population was destined to die.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Tobbens and Schultz area they first of all attempted to disrupt the regular movements of German units into the central ghetto.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[43] .When the order came to annihilate the Ghetto as part of Hitler's "Final Solution" on April 19, 1943, Jewish fighters launched the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.^ In November 1940, the Germans finally established the Warsaw ghetto.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Germans apparently came to the conclusion that the remaining Jews could not be persuaded to leave the Warsaw ghetto voluntarily.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He, together with Szmul Zygielbojm and in cooperation with the efforts of Warsaw's mayor, Starzynski, organized Jewish detachments which took an active part in the defence of the capitai.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[44] .Despite being heavily outgunned and outnumbered, the Ghetto held out for almost a month.^ For one thing, the ZOB was already almost non-existent, but even the remnants that had remained could not all be taken out of the ghetto together.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[44] .When the fighting ended, almost all survivors were massacred, only few managed to escape or hide.^ Their taste which one could almost feel in one's mouth--it was only a short walk from one's home to the "Umschlagplatz" from which the cars left--blinded people to all the other things at the end of the same road.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[44][45]
By July 1944, the Red Army was deep into Polish territory and pursuing the Germans toward Warsaw.[17] .Knowing that Stalin was hostile to the idea of an independent Poland, the Polish government-in-exile in London gave orders to the underground Home Army (AK) to try to seize the control of Warsaw from the Germans before the Red Army arrived.^ When the Germans approached at 11 a.m., he gave his arms and ammunition to the guard "so it may serve further" and ordered him to join the others inside.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, on 1 August 1944, as the Red Army was nearing the city, the Warsaw Uprising began.^ The small group that was still alive at the time took an active part in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising as the "ZOB Group".
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[17] .The armed struggle, planned to last 48 hours, went on for 63 days.^ After two days, every hour of which seemed to last ages, the chosen ones were escorted back to their places of work, where they were henceforth to be billeted.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

(Stalin gave orders to his troops to wait out the uprising, so that the Soviet Army can take credit, and thus begin the propaganda, for liberating the Polish capital). Eventually the Home Army fighters and civilians assisting them were forced to capitulate.[17] They were transported to the PoW camps in Germany, while the entire civilian population was expelled.[17] Polish civilian deaths are estimated at between 150,000 and 200,000.[47]
The Germans then razed Warsaw to the ground. Hitler, ignoring the agreed terms of the capitulation, ordered the entire city to be razed to the ground and the library and museum collections taken to Germany or burned.[17] Monuments and government buildings were blown up by special German troops known as Verbrennungs- und Vernichtungskommando ("Burning and Destruction Detachments").[17] About 85% of the city had been destroyed, including the historic Old Town and the Royal Castle.[48]
On January 17, 1945 - after the beginning of the Vistula–Oder Offensive of the Red Army - Soviet troops entered the ruins of the city of Warsaw, and liberated Warsaw's suburbs from German occupation. The city was swiftly taken by the Soviet Army, which rapidly advanced towards Łódź, as German forces regrouped at a more westward position.

Modern times

In 1945, after the bombing, the revolts, the fighting, and the demolition had ended, most of Warsaw lay in ruins.
.After the war, under a Communist regime set up by the conquering Soviets, large prefabricated housing projects were erected in Warsaw to address the housing shortage, along with other typical buildings of an Eastern Bloc city, such as the Palace of Culture and Science.^ In this area, as in the others, the Germans finally "saved" their military honour by setting house after house on fire.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

The city resumed its role as the capital of Poland and the country's centre of political and economic life. Many of the historic streets, buildings, and churches were restored to their original form. In 1980, Warsaw's historic Old Town was inscribed onto UNESCO's World Heritage list.[49]
John Paul II's visits to his native country in 1979 and 1983 brought support to the budding solidarity movement and encouraged the growing anti-communist fervor there.[50] In 1979, less than a year after becoming pope, John Paul celebrated Mass in Victory Square in Warsaw and ended his sermon with a call to "renew the face" of Poland: Let Thy Spirit descend! Let Thy Spirit descend and renew the face of the land! This land![50] These words were very meaningful for the Polish citizens who understood them as the incentive for the democratic changes.[50]
In 1995, the Warsaw Metro opened. With the entry of Poland into the European Union in 2004, Warsaw is currently experiencing the biggest economic boom of its history.[51] The opening match of UEFA Euro 2012 is scheduled to take place in Warsaw.[52]

Demographics

Population 1880–2006
Historically, Warsaw has been a destination for internal and foreign immigration, especially from Central and Eastern Europe. .For nearly 300 years it was known as the "Old Paris" or "Second Paris".[42] It was always a centre of European culture, existed as a major European city, and was a destination for many Europeans.^ Metropol hotel - The Metropol Hotel was built in the 60s but as the result of the major repair and many improvements, it is a modern hotel in the city.

Demographically it was the most diverse city in Poland, with a significant numbers of foreign-born inhabitants. In addition to Polish majority, there was a significant Jewish minority in Warsaw. According to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 638,000, Jews constituted 219,000 (so around 34% percent).[53] .Warsaw's prewar Jewish population of more than 350,000 constituted about 30 percent of the city's total population.^ More than 2,000 people participated in the festivities occasioned by the Bund's 44th anniversary in October 1941.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A nominal number of 33,400 Jews working in factories and for German employers, 3,000 employees of the Jewish Council included, remained in Warsaw.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[54] .World War II changed all of this, and to this day there is much less ethnic diversity than in the previous 300 years of the city's history.^ All day long they camped in the courtyards, ate there, slept there, lived there.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In ten days all "volunteers", children's homes ("Korczak's Children"), and refugee shelters were shipped out, and the systematic "blockades" of city blocks and streets began.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The 300,000 Jews there experienced a deeper feeling of loneliness and helplessness than the others.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[54] Most of the modern day population growth is based on internal migration and urbanization.
Comparison of Warsaw's city boundaries today and in 1939
  • 1700: 30,000 (est.)
  • 1792: 120,000
  • 1800: 63,400
  • 1830: 139,700
  • 1850: 163,600
  • 1882: 383,000
  • 1900: 686,000
  • 1925: 1,003,000
  • 1939: 1,300,000
  • 1945: 422,000 (September)
  • 1950: 803,800
  • 1960: 1,136,000
  • 1970: 1,315,600
  • 1980: 1,596,100
  • 1990: 1,655,700
  • 2000: 1,672,400
  • 2002: 1,688,200
  • 2006: 1,702,100[55]

Municipal government

The rococo Branicki Palace houses the city government.
The Warsaw Act abolished all the former counties around Warsaw and formed one city powiat with a unified municipal government.[56]
Legislative power in Warsaw is vested in a unicameral Warsaw City Council (Rada Miasta), which comprises 60 members.[56] Council members are elected directly every four years. Like most legislative bodies, the City Council divides itself into committees which have the oversight of various functions of the city government.[56] Bills passed by a simple majority are sent to the mayor (the President of Warsaw), who. may sign them into law. If the mayor vetoes a bill, the Council has 30 days to override the veto by a two-thirds majority vote.
Each of the 18 separate city districts has its own council (Rada dzielnicy).[56] Their duties are focused on aiding the President and the City Council, as well as supervising various municipal companies, city-owned property and schools. The head of each of the District Councils is named the Mayor (Burmistrz) and is elected by the local council from the candidates proposed by the President of Warsaw.

Politics

The Sejm building.
As the capital of Poland, Warsaw is the political centre of the country. All state agencies are located there, including the Polish Parliament, the Presidential Office and the Supreme Court. In the Polish parliament the city and the area are represented by 31 MPs (out of 460). Additionally, Warsaw elects two MEPs.

Infrastructure

Warsaw has seen major infrastructural changes over the past few years amidst increased foreign investment and economic growth. The city has a much improved infrastructure with new roads, flyovers, bridges, healthcare facilities, sanitation, etc.[57]
The city center.
.Warsaw lacks a good circular road system and most traffic goes directly through the city centre.^ City Centre Warsaw .

Currently two circular roads are under consideration.[58] .It is to be completed between 2010 and 2012. The city has one international airport, Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport, located just 10 kilometers (6 mi) from the city centre.^ Jan III. Sobiesky hotel - Located in the heart of the Warsaw's business district, the four star Jan III Sobieski Hotel is within easy reach from all parts of the city, and is only 7,5 km from the OKECIE International Airport.

^ Grand hotel - Hotel Grand is located in the heart of the city, near the shopping and business centre.

^ Courtyard Warsaw International Airport Hotel .

[59] With around 100 international and domestic flights a day and with over 9,268,551 passengers served in 2007, it is by far the biggest airport in Poland.[59]
Public transport in Warsaw includes buses, trams (streetcars), metro, light rail Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa line and regional rail.[60] Regional rail is operated by Szybka Kolej Miejska (Fast Urban Rail) and Koleje Mazowieckie (Mazovian Railoads). There are also some suburban bus lines run by private operators.[61] Bus service covers the entire city, with approximately 170 routes totalling about 2,603 kilometers (1,617 mi) long, and with some 1,600 vehicles.
Plac Wilsona metro station
Currently, the Tramwaje Warszawskie (Warsaw Trams) company runs 863 cars on over 240 kilometers (149 mi) of tracks. .Twenty-odd lines run across the city with additional lines opened on special occasions (such as All-Saints Day).^ In ten days all "volunteers", children's homes ("Korczak's Children"), and refugee shelters were shipped out, and the systematic "blockades" of city blocks and streets began.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

The first section of the Warsaw Metro was opened in 1995 initially with a total of 11 stations.[62] It now has 21 stations running a distance of approximately 23 kilometres.[63] Initially, all of the trains were Russian built. In 1998, 108 new carriages were ordered from Alstom.[62] The second line running east-west will be about 31 kilometres. The central section is now in the bidding stage and will be 6 km. long with seven stations.[62] .The main railway station is Warszawa Centralna serving both domestic traffic to almost every major city in Poland, and international connections.^ Yuexiu Main Railway Station .

There are also five other major railway stations and a number of smaller suburban stations.
Warsaw ranks among the best in medical facilities in Poland. .The city is home to the Children's Memorial Health Institute (CMHI), the highest-reference hospital for all of Poland, as well as an active research and education center.^ The sick, adults as well as children, previously brought here from the hospital, lie deserted in the cold halls.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In ten days all "volunteers", children's homes ("Korczak's Children"), and refugee shelters were shipped out, and the systematic "blockades" of city blocks and streets began.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[64] While the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology it is one of the largest and most modern oncological institutions in Europe.[65] The clinical section is located in a 10-floor building with 700 beds, 10 operating theatres, an intensive care unit, several diagnostic departments, and an outpatient clinic.[65]

Leisures

Events

Jazz concert in Tygmont Club.
.Several commemorative events take place every year.^ Such was the feeling of excitement and apprehension that several street fights with members of the Jewish police who were taking part in the "action" took place.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

Gatherings of thousands of people on the banks of the Vistula on Midsummer’s Night for a festival called Wianki (Polish for Wreaths) have become a tradition and a yearly event in the programme of cultural events in Warsaw.[66][67] The festival traces its roots to a peaceful pagan ritual where maidens would float their wreaths of herbs on the water to predict when they would be married, and to whom.[66] By the 19th century this tradition had become a festive event, and it continues today.[66] The city council organize concerts and other events.[67] Each Midsummer’s Eve, apart from the official floating of wreaths, jumping over fires, looking for the fern flower, there are musical performances, dignitaries' speeches, fairs and fireworks by the river bank.[67]
.The Warsaw Film Festival, an annual festival that takes place every October.^ This matter, argued back and forth among our comrades, was finally settled at a meeting of the Warsaw Party cadres which took place on October 15th.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[68] Films are usually screened in their original language with Polish subtitles and participating cinemas include Kinoteka (Palace of Science and Culture), Multikino at Golden Terraces and Kultura. Over 100 films are shown throughout the festival, and awards are given to the best and most popular films.[68]

Sports

On 9 April 2008 the President of Warsaw, Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz, obtained from the mayor of Stuttgart Wolfgang Schuster a challenge award – a commemorative plaque awarded to Warsaw as the European capital of Sport in 2008.[69]
The National Stadium, a planned 50k seat football (soccer) stadium, is currently under construction on the site of Warsaw's recently demolished 10th-Anniversary Stadium.[70] The national stadium is due to host the opening match (a group match), remaining 2 group matches, a quarterfinal, and a semifinal of the UEFA Euro 2012 hosted jointly by Poland and Ukraine.[71]
The Olympic Center in Warsaw
There are many sports centres in the city as well. Most of these facilities are swimming pools and sports halls, many of them built by the municipality in the past several years. The main indoor venue is Hala Torwar, used for all kinds of indoor sports.
The best of the city's swimming centres is at Wodny Park Warszawianka, 4 km south of the centre at Merliniego Street, where there's an Olympic-sized pool as well as water slides and children's areas.[72] Legia Warszawa, the army club with a nationwide following, play at Polish Army Stadium, just southeast of the centre at Łazienkowska Street. .Their local rivals, Polonia Warsaw, have signifiantly less supporters, yet they managed to win Ekstraklasa Championship in 2000. Polonia's home venue is located at Konwiktorska Street, a ten-minute walk north from the Old Town.^ In ten days all "volunteers", children's homes ("Korczak's Children"), and refugee shelters were shipped out, and the systematic "blockades" of city blocks and streets began.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

Warsaw is a city of active leisure as well. Near the city centre there are sporting facilities such as golf courses, swimming pools and aqua-parks, artificial rivers, slides and paddling pools.
Club Sport Founded League Venue Head Coach
Legia Warszawa[73] Football 1916 Ekstraklasa Polish Army Stadium Jan Urban
Polonia Warszawa[74] Football 1911 Ekstraklasa Stadion Polonii José Mari Bakero
Legia Warszawa[75] Basketball 1947 Second League OSiR Bemowo Robert Chabelski
Polonia Gaz Ziemny Warszawa[76] Basketball 1911 Polska Liga Koszykówki Hala Sportowa "Koło" Wojciech Kamiński

Culture

Theatre in the past

Great Theater, home of Poland's National Theatre and Opera.
From 1833 to the outbreak of World War II, Plac Teatralny (Theatre Square) was the country's cultural hub and home to the various theatres.[77]
The main building housed the Great Theater from 1833–4, the Rozmaitości Theatre from 1836 to 1924 and then the National Theatre, the Reduta Theatre from 1919 to 1924, and from 1928 to 1939 – the Nowy Theatre, which staged productions of contemporary poetical drama, including those directed by Leon Schiller.[77]
Nearby, in Ogród Saski (the Saxon Garden), the Summer Theatre was in operation from 1870 to 1939,[78] and in the inter-war period, the theatre complex also included Momus, Warsaw's first literary cabaret, and Leon Schiller's musical theatre Melodram. The Wojciech Bogusławski Theatre (1922–6), was the best example of "Polish monumental theatre". From the mid-1930s, the Great Theatre building housed the upati Institute of Dramatic Arts – the first state-run academy of dramatic art, with an Acting Department and a Stage Directing Department.[77]
Plac Teatralny and its environs was the venue for numerous parades, celebrations of state holidays, carnival balls, and concerts.

Theatre

Warsaw is home to over 30 major theatres spread throughout the city, including the National Theatre (founded in 1765) and the Grand Theatre in Warsaw (established 1778).[79]
Warsaw also attracts many young and off-stream directors and performers who add to the city's theatre culture. Their productions may be viewed mostly in smaller theatres and Houses of Culture (Domy Kultury), mostly outside Śródmieście (downtown Warsaw). Warsaw hosts the International Theatrical Meetings.

Music

Thanks to numerous musical venues, including the Teatr Wielki, the Polish National Opera, the Chamber Opera, the National Philharmonic Hall and the National Theatre, as well as the Roma and Buffo music theatres and the Congress Hall in the Palace of Culture and Science, Warsaw hosts many events and festivals. Among the events worth particular attention are: the International Frederick Chopin Piano Competition, the International Contemporary Music Festival Warsaw Autumn, the Jazz Jamboree, Warsaw Summer Jazz Days, the International Stanisław Moniuszko Vocal Competition, the Mozart Festival, and the Festival of Old Music.[80]

Museums and art galleries

The levelling of Warsaw during the war has left gaping holes in the city's historic collections. [81] And although a considerable amount of treasures were spirited away to safety as the storm clouds gathered in 1939, it is also true that a great number of collections from palaces and museums in the countryside were brought to Warsaw at that time as the capital was considered a safer place than some remote castle in the borderlands.[81] Thus losses were heavy.[81]
Yet in spite of this, Warsaw still boasts some wonderful museums. As interesting examples of expositions the most notable are: the world’s first Museum of Posters boasting one of the largest collections of art posters in the world,[82] Museum of Hunting and Riding and the Railway Museum. From among Warsaw’s 60 museums, the most prestigious ones are National Museum with a wide collection of works whose origin ranges in time from antiquity till the present epoch as well as one of the best collections of paintings in the country and Museum of the Polish Army whose set portrays the history of arms.
The collections of Łazienki and Wilanów palaces (both buildings came through the war in good shape) are a delight, as are those of the Royal Castle. The Palace in Natolin – a former rural residence of Duke Czartoryski. Its interiors and park are accessible to tourists.
.Holding Poland's largest private collection of art, the Carroll Porczyński Collection Museum[83] displays works from such varied artists as Rubens, Goya, Constable, Renoir, van Gogh and Dalí, and countless others.^ Van Gogh Museum Area .

[84]
17th century Ostrogski Castle houses the Chopin Museum.
A fine tribute to the fall of Warsaw and history of Poland can be found in the Warsaw Uprising Museum and in the Katyń Museum which preserves the memory of the crime.[85] Museum of Independence host of sentimental and patriotic paraphernalia connected with these fateful epochs, as well as some invaluable art collections. Dating back to 1936 Warsaw Historical Museum contains 60 rooms which host a permanent exhibition of the history of Warsaw from its origins until today.
The 17th century Royal Ujazdów Castle houses Centre of Contemporary Art, with some permanent and temporary exhibitions, concerts, shows and creative workshops. Zachęta National Gallery of Art is the oldest exhibition site in Warsaw, with a tradition stretching back to the mid 19th century. The gallery organises exhibitions of modern art by Polish and international artists and promotes art in many other ways.
.The city also possesses some marvellous oddities such as the Museum of Caricature (the only one of its kind in the world)[86] and a magnificent Motorisation Museum, which has everything from 1930's classics to cars that were owned by Elvis Presley and Marilyn Monroe.^ It was only a short address, but it was so effective, that not a single one of the sixty people moved to enter the car.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Samek Kostryrski, one of our bravest sent to the "Umschlag" for some of our comrades, met death in such a manner.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Only some youth groups, such as Hashomer and Hechalutz, shared our convictions.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[87]

Media and film

Main TVP headquarters at Woronicza street.
Warsaw is the media centre of Poland, and the location of the main headquarters of TVP and other numerous local and national TV and radio stations, such as TVN, Polsat, TV4, TV Puls, Canal+ Poland, Cyfra+ and MTV Poland.[88]
.Since May 1661 the first Polish newspaper, Polish Ordinary Mercury, was printed in Warsaw.^ On May 10th, 1943, the first period of our bloody history, the history of the Warsaw Jews, came to an end.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

The city is also the printing capital of Poland with a wide variety of domestic and foreign periodicals expressing diverse views, and domestic newspapers are extremely competitive. Rzeczpospolita, Gazeta Wyborcza, Dziennik Polska-Europa-Świat Poland's large nationwide daily newspapers[89] have their headquarters in Warsaw.
Warsaw also has a sizable movie and television industry. The city houses several movie companies and studios. Among the movie campanies are TOR, Czołówka, Zebra and Kadr who is behind several international movie productions.[90]
Over the next few years the new Film City in Nowe Miasto, located a mere 80 km from Warsaw, will become the centre of Polish film production and international co-production.[90] It is to be the largest high-tech film studio in Europe.[90] The first projects filmed in the new Film City will be two films about the Warsaw Uprising.[90] Two backlots will be constructed for these projects - a lot of pre-WWII Warsaw and city ruins.[90]
Since World War II, Warsaw has been the most important centre of film production in Poland. It has also been featured in numerous movies, both Polish and foreign, for example: Kanał and Korczak by Andrzej Wajda, The Decalogue by Krzysztof Kieślowski, also including Oscar winner The Pianist by Roman Polański.[91]

Education

Rococo Czapski Palace houses the Academy of Fine Arts.
Warsaw holds some of the finest institutions of higher education in Poland. It is home to four major universities and over 62 smaller schools of higher education.[92] .The overall number of students of all grades of education in Warsaw is almost 500,000 (29.2% of the city population; 2002).^ The number of people anxious to obtain the three kilograms of bread was such that the transports, now leaving twice daily with 12,000 people, could not accommodate them all.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Almost all the leading personalities had left Warsaw on September 7th.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A nominal number of 33,400 Jews working in factories and for German employers, 3,000 employees of the Jewish Council included, remained in Warsaw.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

The number of university students is over 280,000.[93] Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities.
The University of Warsaw was established in 1816, when the partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the oldest and most influential Polish academic center, in Kraków.[94] Warsaw University of Technology is the second academic school of technology in the country, and one of the largest in Central Europe, employing 2,000 professors.[95] Other institutions for higher education include the Medical University of Warsaw, the largest medical school in Poland and one of the most prestigious, the National Defence University, highest military academic institution in Poland, the Fryderyk Chopin Music Academy the oldest and largest music school in Poland, and one of the largest in Europe,[96] the Warsaw School of Economics, the oldest and most renowned economic university in the country,[97] and the University of Life Science the largest agricultural university founded in 1818.[98]
Warsaw has numerous libraries, many of which contain vast collections of historic documents. The most important library in terms of historic document collections include the National Library of Poland. Library holds 8.2 million volumes in its collection.[99] Formed in 1928[100] sees itself as a successor to the Załuski Library, the biggest in Poland and one of the first and biggest libraries in the world.[100][101]
Another important library - the University Library, founded in 1816,[102] is home to over two million items.[103] The building was designed by architects Marek Budzyński and Zbigniew Badowski and opened on the December 15, 1999.[104] It is surrounded by green. .The University Library garden, designed by Irena Bajerska, was opened on June 12, 2002. It is one of the largest and most beautiful roof gardens in Europe with an area of more than 10,000 m2 (107,639.10 sq ft), and plants covering 5,111 m2 (55,014.35 sq ft).^ More than 2,000 people participated in the festivities occasioned by the Bund's 44th anniversary in October 1941.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the more notorious sadists, a Schutzpolizei gendarme by the name of Frankenstein, had on his conscience over 300 people murdered in one month, more than half of whom were children.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[105] As the university garden it is open to the public every day.[105]

Economy

In 2008, Warsaw was ranked the world's 35th most expensive city to live in.[106] It was classified as an "Alpha world city -" (also known as a "major world city") by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network from Loughborough University, placing it on a par with cities such as Amsterdam or Rome.[107] The city also ranked 8th out of 65 cities on Mastercard's Emerging Markets Index (2008).[108]

Business and commerce

Downtown Warsaw.
.Warsaw, especially its city centre (Śródmieście), is home not only to many national institutions and government agencies, but also to many domestic and international companies.^ Jan III. Sobiesky hotel - Located in the heart of the Warsaw's business district, the four star Jan III Sobieski Hotel is within easy reach from all parts of the city, and is only 7,5 km from the OKECIE International Airport.

^ Not only all factory workers, but all those who had been working in "Aryan" enterprises, as well as government agencies became unemployed.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ City Centre Warsaw .

In 2006, 304,016 companies were registered in the city.[109] Foreign investors' financial participation in the city's development was estimated in 2002 at over 650 million euro. Warsaw produces 12% of Poland's national income[110] which, per capita, in 2008 was 305,1% of the Polish average (or 160% of European Union average). .The nominal GDP (PPP) per capita in Warsaw was about $38,000 in 2005 (€25,500).^ A nominal number of 33,400 Jews working in factories and for German employers, 3,000 employees of the Jewish Council included, remained in Warsaw.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[110] Warsaw leads the region of Central Europe in foreign investment and in 2006, GDP growth met expectations with a level of 6.1%.[111] It also has one of the fastest growing economies, with GDP growth at 6.5 percent in 2007 and 6.1 percent in the first quarter of this year.[112]
Golden Terraces shopping centre.
At the same time the unemployment rate is one of the lowest in Poland, not exceeding 3%, according to the official figures. The city itself collects around 8,740,882,000 złotys in taxes and direct government grants.
It has been said that Warsaw, together with Frankfurt, London, Paris, Moscow and Rotterdam is one of the tallest cities in Europe.[113] Eleven of the tallest skyscrapers in Poland, of which nine are office buildings, are located in Warsaw. The tallest structure, the centrally-located Palace of Culture and Science, is the European Union's seventh-tallest building. Warsaw hosts the headquarters of Frontex, the EU's border control agency.[114]

Warsaw Stock Exchange

Exchange Building, home of the exchange from 1876 until World War II.
.Warsaw's first stock exchange was established in 1817 and continued trading until World War II. It was re-established in April 1991, following the end of the post-war communist control of the country and the reintroduction of a free-market economy.^ On May 10th, 1943, the first period of our bloody history, the history of the Warsaw Jews, came to an end.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[115] Today, the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) is, according to many indicators,[112] the largest market in the region, with 374 companies listed and total capitalization of 162 584 mln EUR as of 31 August 2009.[116] From 1991 until 2000, the stock exchange was, ironically, located in the building previously used as the headquarters of the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR).[117] .The city is considered to be one of the most attractive business locations in Europe.^ Grand hotel - Hotel Grand is located in the heart of the city, near the shopping and business centre.

[112]

Industry

During Warsaw's reconstruction after World War II, the communist authorities decided that the city would become a major industrial centre. .Numerous large factories were built in the city or just outside it.^ All night we walked through the sewers, crawling through numerous entanglements built by the Germans for just such an emergency.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

The largest were the Huta Warszawa Steel Works and two car factories.
As the communist economy deteriorated, these factories lost significance and most went bankrupt after 1989.[118][119] Today, the Arcelor Warszawa Steel Mill (formerly Huta Warszawa) is the only major factory remaining. The FSO car factory produces cars mostly for export.
.The number of state-owned enterprises continues to decrease while the number of companies operating with foreign capital grows.^ In the meantime our number decreased as a result of continuous executions.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[118] The largest foreign investors are Daewoo, Coca-Cola Amatil and Metro AG.[118] Warsaw has the biggest concentration of electronics and high-tech industry in Poland and the growing consumer market perfectly fosters the development of the food-processing industry.[118]

Tourist attractions

Sights

Historic Centre of Warsaw*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Warsaw - Royal Castle Square.jpg
State Party  Poland
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, vi
Reference 30
Region** Europe
Inscription history
Inscription 1980  (4th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.
Although today's Warsaw is a fairly young city, it has many tourist attractions. Apart from the Warsaw Old Town quarter, carefully reconstructed after World War II, each borough has something to offer. Among the most notable landmarks of the Old Town are the Royal Castle, King Zygmunt's Column, Market Square, and the Barbican.
Further south is the so-called Royal Route, with many classicist palaces, the Presidential Palace and the Warsaw University campus. Also the popular Nowy Świat Street is worth mentioning. Wilanów Palace, the former royal residence of King John III Sobieski, is notable for its baroque architecture and beautiful parks.[120]
Warsaw's oldest public park, the Saxon Garden, is located within 10 minutes' walk from the old town.[121] Warsaw's biggest public park and said to be the most beautiful is the Royal Baths Park. .It is also very old – established in the 17th century and given its current classical shape in late 18th century[122] – is located further south, on the Royal Route, about 3 km (1.9 mi) from the Warsaw Old Town.^ Just a few minutes walk from the famous Old Town and the Royal Palace.

^ Ideally located in the tranquil heart of Warsaw's financial, government and diplomatic quarter, and within easy walking distance to the Old Town, Lazienki Park, and the boutique shopping in Nowy Swiat street.

^ Old Town Apartments Warsaw .

The Powązki Cemetery is one of the oldest cemeteries in Europe,[123] full of sculptures, some of them by the most renowned Polish artists of the 19th and 20th centuries. Since it serves the religious communities of Warsaw, be it Catholics, Jews, Muslims or Protestants, it is often called a necropolis. Nearby is the Okopowa Street Jewish Cemetery, one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe.
In many places in the city the Jewish culture and history resonates down through time.[124] Among them the most notable are the Jewish theater, the Nożyk Synagogue, Janusz Korczak's Orphanage and the picturesque Próżna Street.[124] .The tragic pages of Warsaw’s history are commemorated in places such as the Monument to the Ghetto Heroes, the Umschlagplatz, fragments of the Ghetto wall on Sienna Street and a mound in memory of the Jewish Combat Organization.^ It happened under the ghetto wall, on Franciszkanska Street.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Such disturbances could not be tolerated near the ghetto wall.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Such was the feeling of excitement and apprehension that several street fights with members of the Jewish police who were taking part in the "action" took place.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[124]
There are also many places commemorating the heroic history of Warsaw.[125] Pawiak, an infamous German Gestapo prison now occupied by a Mausoleum of Memory of Martyrdom and the museum, is only the beginning of a walk in the traces of Heroic City.[125] The Warsaw Citadel, an impressive 19th century fortification built after the defeat of the November Uprising, was a place of martyr for the Poles.[125] Another important monument, the statue of Little Insurgent located at the ramparts of the Old Town, commemorates the children who served as messengers and frontline troops in the Warsaw Uprising, while the impressive Warsaw Uprising Monument by Wincenty Kućma was erected in memory of the largest insurrection of World War II.[125][126]
In Warsaw there are many places connected with the life and work of Fryderyk Chopin. The heart of Polish-born composer is sealed inside Warsaw's Holy Cross Church.[127] During the summer time the Chopin Monument in the Royal Baths Park is a place where pianists give a concerts to the park audience.[128]
Also many references to Marie Curie, her work and her family can be found in Warsaw: Marie's birthplace at the Warsaw New Town, the working places where she did her first scientific works[129] and the Radium Institute at Wawelska Street for the research and the treatment of cancer which she founded in 1925.[130]

Warsaw Mermaid

The 1659 coat of arms of Old Warsaw on the cover of one of Warsaw's accounting books.
The mermaid (syrenka) is Warsaw's symbol[131] and can be found on statues throughout the city and on the city's coat of arms. This imagery has been in use since at least the mid-14th century.[132] The oldest existing armed seal of Warsaw is from the year 1390, consisting of a round seal bordered with the Latin inscription Sigilium Civitatis Varsoviensis (Seal of the city of Warsaw).[133] City records as far back as 1609 document the use of a crude form of a sea monster with a female upper body and holding a sword in its claws.[134] In 1653 the poet Zygmunt Laukowski asks the question:
Warsaw of strong walls; why was the emblem Mermaid with sharp sword, given you by the kings?

—Zygmunt Laukowski[135]

1855 bronze sculpture of The Warsaw Mermaid in the Old Town Market Place
The origin of the legendary figure is not fully known. The best-known legend, by Artur Oppman, is that long ago two of Triton's daughters set out on a journey through the depths of the oceans and seas. One of them decided to stay on the coast of Denmark and can be seen sitting at the entrance to the port of Copenhagen. The second mermaid reached the mouth of the Vistula River and plunged into its waters. She stopped to rest on a sandy beach by the village of Warszowa, where fishermen came to admire her beauty and listen to her beautiful voice. A greedy merchant also heard her songs; he followed the fishermen and captured the mermaid.[136]
.Another legend says that a mermaid once swam to Warsaw from the Baltic Sea for the love of the Griffin, the ancient defender of the city, who was killed in a struggle against the Swedish invasions of the 17th century.^ Those who were killed in action had done their duty to the end, to the last drop of blood that soaked into the pavements of the Warsaw ghetto.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

The mermaid, wishing to avenge his death, took the position of defender of Warsaw, becoming the symbol of the city.[136]
Every member of the Queen's Royal Hussars of the United Kingdom light cavalry wears the Maid of Warsaw, the crest of the City of Warsaw, on the left sleeve of his No. 2 (Service) Dress.[137] Members of 651 Squadron Army Air Corps of the United Kingdom also wear the Maid of Warsaw on the left sleeve of their No. 2 (Service) Dress.[138]

Famous people

Marie Curie was born in Warsaw.
One of the most famous people born in Warsaw is Maria Skłodowska-Curie, who achieved international recognition for her scientific discovery of radiation.[139] Famous musicians include Władysław Szpilman and Fryderyk Chopin. Chopin was born in the village of Żelazowa Wola, about sixty kilometers from Warsaw, but moved to the city with his family when he was seven months old.[140] Famous artist born in Warsaw was Tamara de Lempicka.[141] She was born Maria Górska in Warsaw to wealthy parents and in 1916 she married a Polish lawyer Tadeusz Łempicki.[142] Better than anyone else she represents the Art Deco style in painting.[141] Warsaw was beloved city of Isaac Bashevis Singer, which he described in many of his novels.[143]

Rankings

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Warsaw is twinned with:[144]
References - city's official site[157]

Varieties

See also

References

Bibliography

Notes

  1. ^ (English) "Study on Urban Functions". European Spatial Planning Observation Network. 2007. http://www.espon.eu/mmp/online/website/content/projects/261/420/index_EN.html. Retrieved 2009. 
  2. ^ (English) "Warsaw". www.goeuro2012.com. http://www.goeuro2012.com/html/warsaw.html. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  3. ^ (Polish) Piotr Olechno (2008-08-28). "Sen zamiast Warszawianki". www.polskatimes.pl. http://www.polskatimes.pl/warszawa/40061,sen-zamiast-warszawianki,id,t.html. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  4. ^ (English) "Coat of Arms and Colours of the Capital City of Warsaw". bip.warszawa.pl. http://bip.warszawa.pl/English/Main_Menu/capital_city_of_warsaw/coat_of_arms_colours.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-14. 
  5. ^ (English) "The SETAC Europe 18th Annual Meeting". www.setac.eu. http://www.setac.eu/warsaw/city.html. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
  6. ^ (Polish) "The city of phoenix – War*saw everything". http://miastofeniksa.pl/. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
  7. ^ (Polish) Kazimierz Rymut (1987). Nazwy miast Polski. Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. ISBN 83-04-02436-5. 
  8. ^ "The Warsaw Mermaid". http://www.warsaw-life.com/poland/warsaw-legend. Retrieved February 11, 2008. 
  9. ^ "Historia Warszawy" (in Polish). http://www.um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/miasto/historia.htm. Retrieved February 11, 2008. 
  10. ^ (Polish) "Ustawa o ustroju miasta stołecznego Warszawy". www.prawo.lex.pl. http://www.prawo.lex.pl/bap/samorzad/Dz.U.2002.41.361.html. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  11. ^ (English) "Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary". mw1.merriam-webster.com. http://mw1.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/varsovian. Retrieved 2010-02-19. 
  12. ^ (English) "Geography of Warsaw". geography.howstuffworks.com. http://geography.howstuffworks.com/europe/geography-of-warsaw.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  13. ^ a b c d e (English) Ewa, Kaliszuk. "Warsaw - basic data for greenstructure study". www.map21ltd.com. http://www.map21ltd.com/COSTC11/wkgr1A_2.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  14. ^ (English) "Institute of Meteorology and Water Management". www.imgw.pl. http://www.imgw.pl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=147&Itemid=180. 
  15. ^ (Polish) "Dzielnice". www.um.warszawa.pl. http://www.um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/miasto/dzielnice.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  16. ^ (English) "Old Town Warsaw". www.scrapbookpages.com. http://www.scrapbookpages.com/poland/Warsaw/Warsaw02.html. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g (English) "Warsaw Uprising of 1944". www.warsawuprising.com. http://www.warsawuprising.com/timeline.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  18. ^ (Polish) "Pałac Leopolda Kronenberga". www.warszawa1939.pl. http://www.warszawa1939.pl/index.php?r1=malachowskiego_4&r3=0. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  19. ^ (English) "A town house of Burbach family". eGuide / Treasures of Warsaw on-line. http://um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/perelki/index_en.php?mi_id=43&dz_id=2. Retrieved 2009-02-23. 
  20. ^ (Polish) "Politechnika Warszawska". www.warszawa1939.pl. http://www.warszawa1939.pl/index.php?r1=politechnika&r3=0. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  21. ^ (English) "As good as new". www.e-warsaw.pl. http://www.e-warsaw.pl/new/index.php?dzial=aktualnosci&ak_id=551&kat=3. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  22. ^ (English) "Plac Konstytucji (Constitution Square)". www.grandeuropeantours.com. http://www.grandeuropeantours.com/cityguide/city/112/detailID/187891.html. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  23. ^ (English) "Metropolitan Life". www.warsawvoice.pl. 4 February 2004. http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/4682/. Retrieved 2009-02-23. 
  24. ^ (English) Warsaw Tourist Office. "Fall in love with Warsaw". www.warsawtour.pl. http://www.warsawtour.pl/files/Zakochaj_angielski.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-23. 
  25. ^ (Polish) "Parki i lasy Warszawy". www.um.warszawa.pl. http://www.um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/miasto/parki-5.php. Retrieved 2009-02-25. 
  26. ^ (Polish) "Nowa Pomarańczarnia". ePrzewodnik / Perełki Warszawy on-line. http://um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/perelki/?mi_id=148&dz_id=14. Retrieved 2009-02-24. 
  27. ^ (English) "Nature reserves as a refuge of Grifola frondosa (DICKS.: FR.) GRAY in central Poland". bpn.com.pl. http://bpn.com.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=230&Itemid=170. Retrieved 2009-02-24. 
  28. ^ (English) "Kayaking on the Vistula". www.warsawvoice.pl. 30 August 2006. http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/12179/. Retrieved 2009-02-24. 
  29. ^ a b c (English) "Warsaw Zoo". www.zoo.waw.pl. http://www.zoo.waw.pl/. Retrieved 2009-02-24. 
  30. ^ Warsaw Zoo opened March 11, 1928, on Ratuszowa Street. It was not the first zoological garden in Warsaw; King Jan Sobieski III kept a court menagerie in Wilanów. Several private zoos were also established in Warsaw in the 19th century. (English) "New Zoo Revue". www.warsawvoice.pl. 24 April 2003. http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/2044/. Retrieved 2009-05-09. 
  31. ^ (English) Vernon N. Kisling, ed (2000). Zoo and aquarium history: ancient animal collections to zoological gardens. CRC Press. pp. 118–119. ISBN 08-49321-00-X. http://books.google.pl/books?id=dxTrR5nOE0UC&printsec=frontcover. 
  32. ^ a b (Polish) Historia Warszawy (History of Warsaw). Warsaw. 2004. ISBN 83-89632-04-7. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j (English) "Warsaw's history". www.e-warsaw.pl. http://www.e-warsaw.pl/miasto/historia.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  34. ^ (English) Neal Ascheron. "The Struggles for Poland". www.halat.pl. http://www.halat.pl/poland2.html. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  35. ^ (English) Richard S. Wortman (2000). Scenarios of Power: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy. Princeton University Press. ISBN 06-91029-47-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=wGp4M2DzfMQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Scenarios+of+Power&hl=pl#PPP1,M1. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  36. ^ (French) Zbigniew Naliwajek. Romain Rolland et la littérature polonaise. Revue de littérature comparée 3/2003 (n°307), p. 325-338.
  37. ^ a b (English) Augustin P. O'Brien (1864). Petersburg and Warsaw: Scenes Witnessed During a Residence in Poland and Russia in 1863-4. R. Bentley. http://books.google.com/books?id=WlYBAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Petersburg+and+Warsaw:+scenes+witnessed&hl=pl#PPR1,M1. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  38. ^ (English) "Vistula River Victory". www.electronicmuseum.ca. http://www.electronicmuseum.ca/Soviet-Polish-War/spw_3.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  39. ^ (English) "Poland, History » Poland in the 20th century » From the Treaty of Versailles to the Treaty of Riga". www.britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/466681/Poland/28213/From-the-Treaty-of-Versailles-to-the-Treaty-of-Riga#ref=ref397007&tab=active~checked%2Citems~checked&title=Poland%20%3A%3A%20From%20the%20Treaty%20of%20Versailles%20to%20the%20Treaty%20of%20Riga%20--%20Britannica%20Online%20Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  40. ^ (English) Witold Lawrynowicz. "Battle Of Warsaw 1920". www.scrapbookpages.com. http://www.hetmanusa.org/engarticle1.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  41. ^ (English) Zdzisław G. Kowalski. "Documents of the Battle of Warsaw 1920". Memory of the World. http://www.archiwa.gov.pl/memory/sub_listakrajowa/index.php?va_lang=en&fileid=019. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  42. ^ a b (English) M.M. (2 August 2006). "Warsaw: A Last Glimpse". www.warsawvoice.pl. http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/11932/. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  43. ^ (English) "Warsaw". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005069. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  44. ^ a b c (English) "The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/wgupris.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  45. ^ (English) "The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising". www.aish.com. http://www.aish.com/holocaust/overview/he05n27.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  46. ^ (English) "Warsaw Uprising". ww.britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/636161/Warsaw-Uprising. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  47. ^ Borkiewicz, Adam (1957). Powstanie warszawskie 1944: zarys działań natury wojskowej. Warsaw: PAX. 
  48. ^ (English) "Warsaw Uprising of 1944". www.warsawuprising.com. http://www.warsawuprising.com/faq.htm#Warsaw%20Ghetto%20Uprising. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  49. ^ (English) "Historic Centre of Warsaw". whc.unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/30. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  50. ^ a b c (English) "Pope in Warsaw". www.destinationwarsaw.com. http://www.destinationwarsaw.com/site.php5/Show/135.html. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  51. ^ (English) "Attracting foreign investments". www.polandtrade.com.hk. The Warsaw Voice. http://www.polandtrade.com.hk/new/eng/news_september2004.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  52. ^ (English) "The National Stadium in Warsaw". www.poland2012.net. http://www.poland2012.net/stadiums-in-poland/. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  53. ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman, Poles, Jews, and the politics of nationality, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0299194647, Google Print, p. 16
  54. ^ a b (English) "Warsaw". www.ushmm.org. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005069. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  55. ^ (English) "Demographic Yearbooks of Poland 1939–1979, 1980–1994". www.stat.gov.pl. Central Statistical Office of Poland. http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/index_ENG_HTML.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  56. ^ a b c d (English) "Administration". e-warsaw.pl. http://e-warsaw.pl/2/index.php?id=568. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  57. ^ (English) Michal Jeziorski (7 March 2007). "Improving Infrastructure". www.warsawvoice.pl. http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/14144. Retrieved 2009-05-28. 
  58. ^ (Polish) "Warszawa". euro.budowlany.pl. February 2, 2005. http://euro.budowlany.pl/pl/prezentacja_warszawa.php. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  59. ^ a b (English) "Frederick Chopin International Airport". www.airport-technology.com. http://www.airport-technology.com/projects/fredericchipin/. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  60. ^ (English) "Public transport". www.e-warsaw.pl. http://www.e-warsaw.pl/miasto/transport.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  61. ^ (English) "From monopoly towards market". siteresources.worldbank.org. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTTRANSPORT/Resources/336291-1119275973157/td-ut5.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  62. ^ a b c (English) "A History of Subway Construction". www.metro.waw.pl. http://www.metro.waw.pl/page.php?id=111. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  63. ^ (English) "Technical and Operating Data of the Existing Subway Section". www.metro.waw.pl. http://www.metro.waw.pl/page.php?id=56. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  64. ^ (English) Ewa Pronicka and coordinators (27 April 2004). "Perfect for Children". www.warsawvoice.pl. http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/5508/. Retrieved 2009-03-02. 
  65. ^ a b (English) Denise Wise, PT, PhD, with Kristin Wodzinski, PT. "People to People: Russia and Poland". www.apta.org. http://www.apta.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&TEMPLATE=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&CONTENTID=28705. Retrieved 2009-03-02. 
  66. ^ a b c (English) Staś Kmieć. "Midsummer’s Eve". www.polamjournal.com. http://www.polamjournal.com/Library/Holidays/Sobotka/sobotka.html. Retrieved 2009-02-02. 
  67. ^ a b c (Polish) Staś Kmieć. "Wianki 2008". www.aktivist.pl. http://www.aktivist.pl/wydarzenie/eventId,393787,wianki-2008-wydarzenie.html. Retrieved 2009-02-02. 
  68. ^ a b (English) "Warsaw Film Festival". www.wff.pl. http://www.wff.pl/content/festiwal/O_Festiwalu.xml. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 
  69. ^ (English) "European Capitals of Sport". www.aces-europa.eu. http://www.aces-europa.eu/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=i8gr5Zb1M8I%3D&tabid=55&mid=379. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  70. ^ (English) Ryan Lucas. "UEFA turns attention to Euro 2012". sports.sportsillustrated.cnn.com. http://sports.sportsillustrated.cnn.com/euro/story.asp?i=20080630175055520000101&ref=hea&tm=. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  71. ^ (English) "Warsaw". www1.e2012.org. http://www1.e2012.org/en/4_51.html. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  72. ^ (English) "Wodny Park". www.wodnypark.com.pl. http://www.wodnypark.com.pl/index.php?lang=en. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  73. ^ (Polish) "KP Legia Warszawa". legia.com. http://legia.com/www/index.php. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  74. ^ (Polish) "KSP Polonia Warszawa". www.ksppolonia.pl. http://www.ksppolonia.pl/. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  75. ^ (Polish) "Legia LIVE!". www.legialive.pl. http://www.legialive.pl/kosz/. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  76. ^ (Polish) "Polonia". www.polonia.waw.pl. http://www.polonia.waw.pl/. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  77. ^ a b c (English) "The Theatre's history". www.teatrwielki.pl. 1998. http://www.teatrwielki.pl/show_book.php?book=historia&nlang=en. Retrieved 2008-02-21. 
  78. ^ (Polish) "Teatr Letni". warszawa1939.pl. http://www.warszawa1939.pl/index.php?r1=letni&r3=0. Retrieved 2008-02-14. 
  79. ^ "Teatr Wielki-Polish National Opera". http://www.teatrwielki.pl/show_book.php?book=historia. Retrieved February 11, 2008. 
  80. ^ (English) Poland. Rough Guides. 2002. ISBN 18-58288-49-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=YgQ0B1CNYfQC&pg=PA70&dq=guide+warsaw&lr=&hl=pl#PPA128,M1. 
  81. ^ a b c (Polish) Włodzimierz Kalicki. "Sztuka zagrabiona". Polish American Congress of Southern California. http://www.poloniacal.org/sztuka/sztuka1.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  82. ^ (English) "The Poster Museum at Wilanów". www.postermuseum.pl. http://www.postermuseum.pl/en/page/show/history. Retrieved 2009-02-10. 
  83. ^ Official name: Museum of John Paul II Collection
  84. ^ (English) "Museum of John Paul II Collection". www.muzeummalarstwa.pl. http://www.muzeummalarstwa.pl/collection.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-24. 
  85. ^ (Polish) "Muzeum Katyńskie". www.muzeumwp.pl. http://www.muzeumwp.pl/muzeum_katynskie.php/. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  86. ^ (English) "Exhibitions". www.warsaw.com. http://www.warsaw.com/v/exhibitions/. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  87. ^ (English) "Museum history". www.muzeum-motoryzacji.com.pl. http://www.muzeum-motoryzacji.com.pl/podstrony/hist_muzeum_ang.html. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  88. ^ (English) Chris Dziadul. "A decade of progress". www.broadbandtvnews.com. http://www.broadbandtvnews.com/archive_cen/051007.html. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
  89. ^ (English) "Press release". www.instytut.com.pl. 6 October 2008. http://www.instytut.com.pl/IMM/o_firmie/Press_release_media_August2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
  90. ^ a b c d e (English) "Poland film production guide 2008". www.pisf.pl. http://www.pisf.pl/pliki/47/ed/47ed315731f90c9/pg2008_i.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
  91. ^ (English) "The Pianist". www.thepianistmovie.com. http://www.thepianistmovie.com/index2.html. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
  92. ^ (English) "Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Poland 2008". www.stat.gov.pl. http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/PUBL_as_statitical_yearbook_of_the_rep_of_poland_2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  93. ^ (Polish) "Studia w liczbach: Warszawa bije Kraków". miasta.gazeta.pl. 2008-03-10. http://miasta.gazeta.pl/krakow/1,37650,5009717.html. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  94. ^ (English) "University of Warsaw". www.uw.edu.pl. http://www.uw.edu.pl/en/page.php/about_uw/rese.html. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  95. ^ (English) "Warsaw University of Technology (WUT)". www.onelab.eu. http://www.onelab.eu/index.php/partners/onelab2-t-z/warsaw-university-of-technology-.html. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  96. ^ (English) "The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music". www.infochopin.pl. http://www.infochopin.pl/en/miejsca.php/99/. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  97. ^ (English) "Warsaw School of Economics - Overview". www.sgh.waw.pl. http://www.sgh.waw.pl/en/ogolne-en/. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  98. ^ (English) "Warsaw University of Life Sciences". www.sggw.pl. http://www.sggw.pl/en/node/613. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  99. ^ (Polish) "Historia zbiorów". www.bn.org.pl. http://www.bn.org.pl/index.php?id=4. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  100. ^ a b (English) Maria Witt (September 15 and October 15, 2005). "The Zaluski Collection in Warsaw". The Strange Life of One of the Greatest European Libraries of the Eighteenth Century. FYI France. http://www.fyifrance.com/f102005c.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 
  101. ^ (English) S.D. Chrostowska. "Polish Literary Criticism Circa 1772: A Genre Perspective". utoronto.ca. http://www.utoronto.ca/tsq/14/chrostowska14.shtml. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 
  102. ^ (Polish) "Historia". www.buw.uw.edu.pl. http://www.buw.uw.edu.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=32&Itemid=76. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  103. ^ (Polish) "Zbiory główne". www.buw.uw.edu.pl. http://www.buw.uw.edu.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=56&Itemid=121. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  104. ^ (English) "Library building". www.buw.uw.edu.pl. http://www.buw.uw.edu.pl/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=285&Itemid=91. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  105. ^ a b (English) "Garden". www.buw.uw.edu.pl. http://www.buw.uw.edu.pl/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=286&Itemid=91. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  106. ^ "Economist Intelligence Unit report". http://economist.com/markets/indicators/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8860366. Retrieved June 15, 2007. 
  107. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2008". http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html. Retrieved September 6, 2009. 
  108. ^ "New MasterCard Research Ranks 65 Cities in Emerging Markets Poised to Drive Long-Term Global Economic Growth | MasterCard". Mastercard.com. 2008-10-22. http://www.mastercard.com/us/company/en/newsroom/pr_new_mastercard_research_ranks_65_Cities_in_emerging_markets.html. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  109. ^ (Polish) "Podmioty gospodarki narodowej". www.stat.gov.pl. 15 February 2007. http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/warsz/ASSETS_podmioty_war_2006.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  110. ^ a b (English) "Warsaw City Report – March 2007". www.pbwfund.com. http://www.pbwfund.com/_php/get.php/Warsaw%20city%20report%20-%20March%202007.pdf?id=51&content=application%2Fpdf. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  111. ^ (English) "Agriculture and industry". www.pmrconsulting.com. http://www.pmrconsulting.com/Countries/Poland.html. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  112. ^ a b c (English) "Big Chance for the Capital". Warsaw - CEE Financial Hub Conference. www.warsawvoice.pl. 11 June 2008. http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/18028. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  113. ^ (English) "Europes Top Skyscraper Cities". www.skyscrapernews.com. http://www.skyscrapernews.com/britains.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  114. ^ (English) "Frontex purpose". www.frontex.europa.eu. http://www.frontex.europa.eu/more_about_frontex/. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  115. ^ (English) "History". www.gpw.pl. http://www.gpw.pl/gpw.asp?cel=e_ogieldzie&k=1&i=/historia/historia&sky=1. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  116. ^ "Giełda Papierów Wartościowych w Warszawie". Gpw.pl. http://www.gpw.pl/gpw.asp?cel=e_informacje&k=1&i=/periodical_statistic/opis_statistic&sky=1&nagnaz=Information%20and%20statistics. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  117. ^ (English) "Tourism". www.poland.gov.pl. http://www.poland.gov.pl/Poland,and,Poles,545.html. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  118. ^ a b c d (English) "Industry". www.e-warsaw.pl. http://www.e-warsaw.pl/ekonomia/przemysl.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  119. ^ (English) Jerzy J. Parysek. "The socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polish cities after 1989". www.ff.uni-lj.si. http://www.ff.uni-lj.si/oddelki/geo/Publikacije/Dela/files/Dela_21/012%20parysek.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  120. ^ (English) "Palace". wilanow-palac.art.pl. http://www.wilanow-palac.art.pl/index.php?id=343&menuid=136. Retrieved 2008-02-21. 
  121. ^ (Polish) "Ogród Saski". ePrzewodnik. http://um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/zielona/?mi_id=43&dz_id=1. Retrieved 2008-02-10. 
  122. ^ (Polish) "Historia". www.lazienki-krolewskie.pl. http://www.lazienki-krolewskie.pl/. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  123. ^ "Short and long history of the Powiązki Cemetery" (in Polish). http://ceo.rsi.pl/dokument.php?dzial=2143&id=48006&PHPSESSID=f6c400ad7970068b81fd2708234f8f93. Retrieved February 11, 2008. 
  124. ^ a b c (English) "Warsaw Judaica". www.um.warszawa.pl. http://www.um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/perelki/index_en.php?mi_id=270&dz_id=18. Retrieved 2010-01-26. 
  125. ^ a b c d (English) "Heroic City". www.um.warszawa.pl. http://www.um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/perelki/index_en.php?mi_id=174&dz_id=17. Retrieved 2010-01-26. 
  126. ^ (English) James Ramsay Montagu Butler, Norman Henry Gibbs, J. M. A. Gwyer, John Patrick William Ehrman, Michael Eliot Howard (1976). "History of the Second World War; United Kingdom military series 5". in James Ramsay Montagu Butler. Grand strategy. H. M. Stationery Off. p. 369. 
  127. ^ (English) "Church of the Holy Cross". eGuide / Treasures of Warsaw on-line. http://um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/perelki/index_en.php?mi_id=112&dz_id=16. Retrieved 2009-02-23. 
  128. ^ (English) "Frédéric Chopin Monument". eGuide / Treasures of Warsaw on-line. http://um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/perelki/index_en.php?mi_id=165&dz_id=16. Retrieved 2009-02-23. 
  129. ^ (English) "Polish Girlhood (1867–1891)". www.aip.org. American Institute of Physics. http://www.aip.org/history/curie/polgirl2.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-25. 
  130. ^ (English) "The Radium Institute (1919–1934)". www.aip.org. American Institute of Physics. http://www.aip.org/history/curie/radinst1.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-25. 
  131. ^ "The Mermaid". http://www.ucl.ac.uk/atlas/polish/mywarsaw/warsaw10.html. Retrieved February 11, 2008. 
  132. ^ "Warsaw Mermaid's Statue". http://www.um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/perelki/index_en.php?mi_id=47&dz_id=2. Retrieved July 10, 2008. 
  133. ^ (English) "History of Warsaw's Coat of Arms". www.e-warsaw.pl. http://www.e-warsaw.pl/miasto/herb.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  134. ^ (English) Ewa Bratosiewicz. "Other symbols of Warsaw". www.warsaw-guide.invito.pl. http://www.warsaw-guide.invito.pl/index.php?str=x41. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  135. ^ "Warsaw Mermaid - Syrena". http://biega.com/syrena.html. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  136. ^ a b (English) "History of Warsaw's Coat of Arms". www.e-warsaw.pl. http://www.e-warsaw.pl/miasto/herb-1.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  137. ^ (English) "The Maid of Warsaw". The Queen's Own Hussars Museum. http://www.qohmuseum.org.uk/maid.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  138. ^ (English) "RAF Odiham". www2.army.mod.uk. p. 16. http://www2.army.mod.uk/linkedfiles/soldierwelfare/supportagencies/aws/communityguides/swf_sa_aws_cg_w/raf_odiham_2008/raf_odiham_section_1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  139. ^ (English) "Marie Curie - The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903". nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1903/marie-curie-bio.html. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  140. ^ (English) Joanna Ławrynowicz. "Frederick Francois Chopin, the most eminent Polish composer". www.infochopin.pl. http://www.infochopin.pl/en/artykuly.php/1/. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  141. ^ a b (English) Women artists in the 20th and 21st century. Taschen. 2001. p. 576. ISBN 38-22858-54-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZSvSfCmzo2wC&printsec=frontcover&hl=pl. 
  142. ^ (Polish) "Tamara Łempicka". www.marchand.pl. http://www.marchand.pl/artysta.php?id=134&biografia=f&l=pl. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
  143. ^ (Polish) "The 5th Festival of Jewish Culture 'Singer's Warsaw'". www.jewish-theatre.com. http://www.jewish-theatre.com/visitor/article_display.aspx?articleID=2973. Retrieved 2009-03-04. 
  144. ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl. Biuro Promocji Miasta. 2005-05-04. http://um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/new/index.php?dzial=aktualnosci&ak_id=3284&kat=11. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  145. ^ "Berlin's international city relations". Berlin Mayor's Office. http://www.berlin.de/rbmskzl/staedteverbindungen/index.en.html. Retrieved 2009-07-01. 
  146. ^ "Twin Towns". www.amazingdusseldorf.com. http://www.amazingdusseldorf.com/community-local/people/twin-towns.html. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  147. ^ "Sister Cities of Istanbul". http://www.greatistanbul.com/sister_cities.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  148. ^ Erdem, Selim Efe (2003-11-03). "İstanbul'a 49 kardeş" (in Turkish). Radikal. http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=94185. "49 sister cities in 2003" 
  149. ^ Madrid city council webpage "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. http://www.munimadrid.es/portal/site/munimadrid/menuitem.dbd5147a4ba1b0aa7d245f019fc08a0c/?vgnextoid=4e84399a03003110VgnVCM2000000c205a0aRCRD&vgnextchannel=4e98823d3a37a010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD&vgnextfmt=especial1&idContenido=508c7aefd9b5b010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD Madrid city council webpage. 
  150. ^ Partners - Oslo kommune
  151. ^ "Twin cities of Riga". Riga City Council. http://www.riga.lv/EN/Channels/Riga_Municipality/Twin_cities_of_Riga/default.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  152. ^ "Saint Petersburg in figures - International and Interregional Ties". Saint Petersburg City Government. http://eng.gov.spb.ru/figures/ities. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  153. ^ "Online Directory: California, USA". Sister Cities International. http://web.archive.org/web/20080116164532/http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/usa/CA. Retrieved April 22, 2009. 
  154. ^ Seul Metropolitan Government. "International Cooperation: Sister Cities". http://english.seoul.go.kr/gover/cooper/coo_02sis.html. 
  155. ^ Sister city list (.DOC)
  156. ^ "Tel Aviv sister cities" (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality. http://www.tel-aviv.gov.il/Hebrew/Cityhall/TwinCities/Index.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-14. 
  157. ^ (Polish) "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl. Biuro Promocji Miasta. 2005-05-04. http://um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/new/index.php?dzial=aktualnosci&ak_id=3284&kat=11. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  158. ^ The return of squads of Polish army from Wierzbna is showing the general view of Krakowskie Przedmieście with Tyszkiewicz Palace (left).
  159. ^ The painting shows the Vistula embankment near the Kierbedź Bridge in Warsaw. The framework bridge was constructed by Stanisław Kierbedź in 1850–1864. It was recognized by once as modern structure and as "amazing heap of iron" by others. The bridge was destroyed by the Nazis in 1944.
  160. ^ Full name: Nowy Świat Street in Warsaw on a Summer's Day.
  161. ^ "Poet of Flaming Warsaw". http://www.warsawuprising.com/paper/baczynski.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  162. ^ "Rescuing poetry". http://info-poland.buffalo.edu/classroom/milosz/Resc.html. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Warsaw is a huge city with several district articles containing sightseeing, restaurant, nightlife and accommodation listings — consider printing them all.
Warsaw's Old Town
Warsaw's Old Town
.Warsaw [1] (Polish: Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and, with 1.7 million inhabitants, its largest city.^ Warsaw In Your Pocket From Polish WOW! Factor Poland Set For Chopin 2010 - this year would have been Chopin's 200th birthday.
  • Warsaw In Your Pocket | Facebook 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: General]

^ The beautiful and historic old town district of Warsaw is the oldest part in the city and has a selection of traditional Polish restaurants, cafes and shops.
  • Booking.com: hotel Premiere Classe Varsovie/Warszawa, Warsaw, Poland - 356 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ Poland - Warsaw Tell a friend Poland Hotels in Poland Holiday homes in Poland Electronic Translators Dating Polish Singles Home Major cities Warsaw .
  • Poland - Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.pl-info.net [Source type: General]

.It is located on the Vistula River (Polish: Wisła), roughly equidistant (350 km, 217 mi) from both the Baltic Sea (Bałtyk) in the north and the Carpathian Mountains (Karpaty) in the south.^ It is located on the Vistula River roughly 370 kilometers from both the Baltic Sea coast and the Carpathian Mountains.

^ It is located on the Vistula River roughly 370 kilometers (230 mi) from both the Baltic Sea coast and the Carpathian Mountains.
  • Warsaw Travel Guide, Warsaw City Guide, Hotels Warsaw |Easy Destination 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.easydestination.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The most beautiful places and wonders in Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.yourwonder.com [Source type: General]
  • Warsaw Tickets 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ticketluck.com [Source type: General]

^ It is located on the Vistula River, roughly 370 km from the Baltic Sea coast and the Carpathian Mountains.
  • Warsaw, Poland - Cam, LIVE, Weather | earthTV.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.earthtv.com [Source type: General]

Districts of Warsaw
Districts of Warsaw
.Centrum (Śródmieście, Wola, Mokotów, Żoliborz, Ochota, Praga Północ, and Praga Południe)
The Centrum area, made up of six diverse districts, is a mixture of industrial areas and prestigious residential neighborhoods.^ The Wisa bisects the city; major commercial and historic districts are concentrated on the west bank, and residential neighborhoods occupy the sprawling Praga districts on the east bank.
  • Warsaw, Poland  -  Travel Photos by Galen R Frysinger, Sheboygan, Wisconsin 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.galenfrysinger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Praga district in Eastern Warsaw is like a tribute to Communism, with the most remains of the Communist-style block buildings; this is the area of the city in which the majority of its citizens live.
  • Travel Warsaw Guide - fitforeurope.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fitforeurope.com [Source type: News]

^ The city, including the suburb of Praga on the east side of the Vistula, consists of the Old City ( Stare Miasto ), the New City ( Nowe Miasto ) and the westerly suburbs of Wola and Mokotów.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It will be here that most travelers will spend their time in Warsaw, as most major attractions and hotels are primarily located in Śródmieście, Wola, and Mokotów.^ Best hotels in Warsaw Hotels with Best Location .

^ Maplandia.com in partnership with Booking.com offers highly competitive rates for all types of hotels in Warsaw, from affordable family hotels to the most luxurious ones.
  • Warsaw Map | Poland Google Satellite Maps 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.maplandia.com [Source type: General]

^ The award winning Ramada Plaza Hotel n Warsaw IN is located at the corner of US Hwy 30 and Center Street, only minutes from Downtown Warsaw.
  • Ramada Plaza Warsaw Reserve Cheap Rates Warsaw Hotels 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

Northern Warsaw (Bielany and Białołęka)
Western Warsaw (Bemowo, Włochy and Ursus)
Eastern Warsaw (Targówek, Rembertów, Wawer, and Wesoła)
.Southern Warsaw (Ursynów and Wilanów)
The southern terminal of the Royal Route, Wilanów is home to the Wilanów Palace.^ Former royal residence of king Jan III Sobieski - Wilanów Palace is notable for their baroque architecture and beautiful parks.
  • Study in Poland - Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.studyinpoland.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Numerous neoclassical and baroque palaces and churches line the Royal Way, which terminates at the Wilanw Palace on the southern edge of the city.
  • Warsaw, Poland  -  Travel Photos by Galen R Frysinger, Sheboygan, Wisconsin 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.galenfrysinger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It comprises part of the Royal Route that runs from Warsaw's Royal Castle and Old Town south to King Jan III Sobieski's 17th-century royal residence at Wilanw.
  • Photos from WARSAW, Poland by photographer Svein-Magne Tunli, tunliweb. Famous landmarks with description.  Pictures, Images, Photographs, Photo Gallery, Photography, Sights.  Foto, bilder fra WARSZAWA, Polen. Interactive map Google Earth. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.tunliweb.no [Source type: General]

.Ursynów is home to the historic Natolin park and nature reserve, which hosts the College of Europe Natolin in the Potocki Palace.^ There are several forests and nature reserves within Warsaw's boundaries and on the edge of the city stands Kampinoski National Park.

^ Warsaw Attractions and Sightseeing - attractions in Warsaw, Poland - Warsaw events, tours, parks and historical attractions Home .
  • Warsaw Attractions and Sightseeing - attractions in Warsaw, Poland - Warsaw events, tours, parks and historical attractions 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.worldexecutive.com [Source type: News]

^ The Baroque palace, surrounded by a historical park, has retained part of its collections and original organisation.

.The area saw intense activity on the part of the Polish Home Army during the Warsaw Uprising.^ Area Facts : Warsaw is home to more than 60 institutions of higher learning, and is the commercial center of the Polish manufacturing and automotive industries.
  • Warsaw Hotels - Compare Hotels in Warsaw and Read Reviews 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC warsaw.hotelguide.net [Source type: General]

^ Warsaw was the principal center of unsuccessful Polish uprisings against Russian domination in 1830 and 1863.
  • Warsaw Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ W ith the Soviet Red Army closing fast and the German forces in panic, on August 1, 1944, the Polish underground in Warsaw raised to arms to liberate the city.

.Several palaces located in the districts were destroyed in fighting, but reportedly will be rebuilt.^ Located in the financial district opposite the Palace of .
  • Warsaw Hotels, Poland: Check Warsaw hotel rates, read reviews, and more... 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.hotelstravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Intercontinental Hotel Warsaw Emilii Plater 49 0.5 mi The InterContinental Hotel Warsaw is located at the heart of Warsaw’s financial district and opposite to the Palace of Culture and Science.
  • Warsaw Hotels Poland: 108 Cheap Accommodation Deals 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ In several City Centre, Wola and Zoliborz locations, the fighting begins ahead of schedule.
  • World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: Timeline 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawuprising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Understand

History

.The medieval capital of Poland was the southern city of Krakow, but Warsaw has been the capital of the country since 1596, and has grown to become Poland's largest city and the nation's urban and commercial center.^ Poland again became independent in 1918, and Warsaw became once again a capital city and Poland's largest industrial and commercial center.
  • glbtq >> social sciences >> Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.glbtq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warsaw city center.
  • Warsaw Indiana IN Hotels, Motels & Lodging | Trails.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.trails.com [Source type: News]

^ Warsaw survived, however, and is Poland's capital and largest city.
  • Warsaw Photo Gallery & Warsaw Travel Guide | LukeTravels.com 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.luketravels.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Completely destroyed by the Nazis during World War II, the city managed to lift itself from the ashes.^ Having been completely destroyed, the city somehow managed to lift itself from the ashes.
  • Warsaw Travel Guide, Warsaw City Guide, Hotels Warsaw |Easy Destination 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.easydestination.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eighty-five percent of the Old Town was destroyed during World War II, but today this is hardly noticeable.
  • Warsaw travel guide - Tips for Warsaw, Poland - tripwolf 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.tripwolf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bór-Komorowski and his forces were taken prisoner, and the Germans then systematically deported the remainder of the city’s population and destroyed the city itself.
  • Warsaw Uprising (Polish history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Today, almost every building in Warsaw dates to the postwar era - with what little remains of the old structures being confined largely to the restored districts of Stare Miasto (the 'old city') and Nowe Miasto ('new city'), as well as selected monuments and cemeteries.^ Reconstructed buildings in Old Town Warsaw .
  • Reconstructed buildings in Old Town Warsaw in Poland 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.scrapbookpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Warsaw's Old Town - is the oldest historic district of the city.
  • Warsaw Travel Guide, Warsaw City Guide, Hotels Warsaw |Easy Destination 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.easydestination.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poland, Warsaw, old city .
  • Warsaw Stock Photo Images. 841 Warsaw royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

Warsaw Uprising

.A thriving European capital, Warsaw was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1939, and was the scene of two major uprisings during the war - the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943, and the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. The former involved the remaining Jewish inhabitants of the Warsaw Ghetto, which had already largely been emptied by the Nazi extermination policies of the Holocaust, and was ended by the annihilation of the Ghetto by Nazi forces.^ Jewish actors in Warsaw pre 1939.

^ A meeting of survivors of the warsaw ghetto uprising.

^ Warsaw remained Poland's capital after the war.
  • Warsaw Photo Gallery & Warsaw Travel Guide | LukeTravels.com 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.luketravels.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The latter involved the Polish resistance forces, known as the Home Army (Armia Krajowa, or AK), rising up against the Nazi occupation of the city in hopes that the city could be liberated by Polish forces instead of the facing dubious Soviet 'liberation' from the east.^ However, the Polish underground, known as the Home Army , was anxious because the Soviet Union had already assumed direct control of eastern Poland and had sponsored the formation of the Polish Committee of National Liberation to administer the remainder of Soviet-occupied Polish territory.
  • Warsaw Uprising (Polish history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Polish resistance to the Nazis centered in Warsaw and resulted in the insurrection of 1944, a 63-day siege that left at least another 150,000 dead.
  • Warsaw Photo Gallery & Warsaw Travel Guide | LukeTravels.com 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.luketravels.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without Allied support, the Home Army split into small, disconnected units and was forced to surrender when its supplies gave out (October 2).
  • Warsaw Uprising (Polish history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

The Soviet Union had cooperated with Nazi Germany in the invasion and occupation of Poland in 1939.
.After five years under brutal occupation, with the tide of the war turning against the Third Reich, the leaders of the Polish underground resistance (the AK) made the decision to launch a total effort to dislodge the Nazis from the city of Warsaw.^ After years of occupation and struggle, Krakow has emerged a proud city with a strong sense of identity, yet it has still maintained its artistic and fun-loving soul.
  • http://www.arrivalguides.com/banners/sitemap/krakow_en.html 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.arrivalguides.com [Source type: General]

^ Tens of thousands of Polish insurgents seized the control of the city from the Nazis hoping for a quick end of the German occupation within a week.

^ A Capital Devastated by War 20 wrzesie 2006 No other city in Poland saw more heroism during World War II than Warsaw.
  • Warsaw Voice - A Capital Devastated by War 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawvoice.pl [Source type: News]

.With over 45,000 troops already in Warsaw, the AK and several allied organizations took up strategic locations around the city and launched the Uprising.^ Warsaw has one international airport, Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport (usually referred to as Okęcie airport), located just 10 kilometers from the city centre.
  • Dentists Warsaw - Find the right Dentist in Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.revahealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rates: $180.33 to $224.31 per night Rating: Location: Plac Artura Zawiszy Warsaw , 02 025 0.0 miles of city center.
  • Warsaw Hotels | Warsaw, Poland Hotels, Motels and Lodging 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.geocaching.com [Source type: General]

^ The Germans routed the rebels and following their victory carried out severe reprisals, killing or expelling Warsaw's inhabitants and deliberately demolishing the city.
  • Warsaw Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Across Poland, there were roughly 400,000 troops involved in the resistance.^ His march across Vistula in the north was striking in the operational vacuum, there was no sizeable Polish troops there.
  • Battle Of Warsaw 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.hetmanusa.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Uprising was scheduled to begin on August 1, 1944 at 5PM. However, in the the city center, and the districts of Wola and Żoliborz, fighting broke out before the planned hour.^ In several City Centre, Wola and Zoliborz locations, the fighting begins ahead of schedule.
  • World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: Timeline 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawuprising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ W ith the Soviet Red Army closing fast and the German forces in panic, on August 1, 1944, the Polish underground in Warsaw raised to arms to liberate the city.

^ In fact many believe the Russians cynically waited for Hitler to destroy the city, so it would be easier for Stalin to roll out his master plan later.
  • New kids from the bloc | Travel | The Observer 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Fighting continued until October 5, 1944 when the Home Army and its allied organizations surrendered.^ Without Allied support, the Home Army split into small, disconnected units and was forced to surrender when its supplies gave out (October 2).
  • Warsaw Uprising (Polish history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ After 63 days of heavy fighting the uprising fell (August 1st - start of uprising, capitulation 2nd October 1944).
  • Poland and Poles 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC poland.gov.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among them are some insurgents who decided not to go to POW camps and a few designated by the Home Army to continue the struggle.
  • World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: Timeline 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawuprising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Despite its successes and valor, the Polish fighters were outnumbered and outgunned. .The Home Army was unable to continue its fight without the help of the Allies.^ Without Allied support, the Home Army split into small, disconnected units and was forced to surrender when its supplies gave out (October 2).
  • Warsaw Uprising (Polish history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Among them are some insurgents who decided not to go to POW camps and a few designated by the Home Army to continue the struggle.
  • World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: Timeline 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawuprising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were also supported by the unit of the Military Police of the Polish Home Army (AK), who entered the Ghetto and participated in fighting reliving exhausted Jewish fighters.
  • Warsaw ghetto (Poland) 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.crwflags.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.America and Britain did very little to support the Uprising, other than dropping some supplies over the city (the Soviet Union refused to allow the use of airfields in territory under its control).^ However, the Polish underground, known as the Home Army , was anxious because the Soviet Union had already assumed direct control of eastern Poland and had sponsored the formation of the Polish Committee of National Liberation to administer the remainder of Soviet-occupied Polish territory.
  • Warsaw Uprising (Polish history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Far more prominent is the city's 1989 Monument to the Warsaw Uprising Fighters in Krasinski Square, a kitsch but moving slab of Soviet realist architecture.
  • New kids from the bloc | Travel | The Observer 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ ECONOMY Bright Prospects 2010-01-13 By Andrzej Ratajczyk Poland's economy is likely to grow faster this year than it did in 2009 and more rapidly than other European Union economies, according to most forecasts.

.The Soviet Union took a multifaceted role by allying themselves with the Home Army to win victories against the Germans in other Polish territories, then disarming and imprisoning the Polish soldiers.^ The beginning of the Soviet-German war (summer 1941) was also the time of extensive exterminating activities on the part of the Germans in the Western Ukrainian and White Russian territories.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the Polish underground, known as the Home Army , was anxious because the Soviet Union had already assumed direct control of eastern Poland and had sponsored the formation of the Polish Committee of National Liberation to administer the remainder of Soviet-occupied Polish territory.
  • Warsaw Uprising (Polish history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Without Allied support, the Home Army split into small, disconnected units and was forced to surrender when its supplies gave out (October 2).
  • Warsaw Uprising (Polish history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Soviet Union purposely allowed the Warsaw Uprising to fail by abandoning the Home Army and Varsovians so it could install a puppet government in postwar Poland.^ Monument to the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, Poland, Warsaw .
  • Warsaw Stock Photo Images. 841 Warsaw royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ However, the Polish underground, known as the Home Army , was anxious because the Soviet Union had already assumed direct control of eastern Poland and had sponsored the formation of the Polish Committee of National Liberation to administer the remainder of Soviet-occupied Polish territory.
  • Warsaw Uprising (Polish history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ On January 17, 1945, the Red Army finally rolled into the battered city, installing a communist regime in Poland and arresting the former insurgents.
  • History Cafe - Episode 3: The Warsaw Uprising of 1944 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC thesop.org [Source type: General]

.After the surrender, the German army, despite its agreements under the surrender treaty, systematically destroyed over 85% of Warsaw in retaliation for the uprising, including the historic "Old Town" which was rebuilt after the war.^ The Warsaw Uprising in 1944 was unsuccessful, and the Germans virtually destroyed the city.
  • Warsaw (Poland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warsaw's Old Town - is the oldest historic district of the city.
  • Warsaw Travel Guide, Warsaw City Guide, Hotels Warsaw |Easy Destination 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.easydestination.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M eanwhile, the Germans systematically reinforced their armies in Warsaw.

.Of 987 historically important buildings, only 64 were left untouched by the Germans.^ The number of Germans killed by ZOB bullets was not the only important thing.
  • The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, by Marek Edelman 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.writing.upenn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although many of Warsaw's historic buildings have been reconstructed since 1945, the city only partly resembles what it was historically.
  • Warsaw Photo Gallery & Warsaw Travel Guide | LukeTravels.com 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.luketravels.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Polish soldiers were rounded up and sent to concentration camps.^ Approximately 55,000 civilians will end up in the concentration camps as dangerous elements [ concentration camps ] , and an additional 150,000 are transported into forced labor camps in Germany.
  • World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: Timeline 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawuprising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Polish itinerary also included a visit to the World War II concentration camps at Auschwitz and Birkenau.

^ Before 'W-Hour' (W for wybuch , outbreak in Polish), thousands of mobilized Home Army soldiers are moving into their planned concentration points.
  • World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: Timeline 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawuprising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Warsaw's civilian population was "evacuated" with some being sent to concentration camps, or sent to Germany for forced labor.^ The population was expelled or deported to concentration camps.
  • Warsaw's history 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.e-warsaw.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately 55,000 civilians will end up in the concentration camps as dangerous elements [ concentration camps ] , and an additional 150,000 are transported into forced labor camps in Germany.
  • World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: Timeline 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawuprising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though they treated captured Home Army combatants as prisoners of war, the Germans sent thousands of captured Polish civilians to concentration camps in the Reich.
  • Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.ushmm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others were sent to different Polish cities.^ Warsaw - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia    Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stoleczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city.
  • Poland 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC epa.hakia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the first days of the fighting, Nazi forces indiscriminately murdered about 60,000 civilians, including women and children, in the district of Wola.^ The first day of fighting killed 2,000 insurgents and 500 Germans.
  • World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: Timeline 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawuprising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the occupied areas, particularly in the Wola district, the German forces perpetrated crimes of a massive scale on the civilian population (about 25 to 30,000 people executed by firing squad).

^ Approximately 55,000 civilians will end up in the concentration camps as dangerous elements [ concentration camps ] , and an additional 150,000 are transported into forced labor camps in Germany.
  • World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: Timeline 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawuprising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the end, the Uprising cost 180,000 civilians their lives, the lives of an additional 18,000 insurgents, the capital its glory, and the Polish nation its long-desired independence.^ Approximately 55,000 civilians will end up in the concentration camps as dangerous elements [ concentration camps ] , and an additional 150,000 are transported into forced labor camps in Germany.
  • World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: Timeline 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawuprising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Krakow Close Krakow Krakw is one of the oldest cities of Poland and one of the cultural and artistic centres of the country, the former seat of the Polish kings and national capital.
  • Warsaw Vacations - Hotels, sightseeing tours, train trips, transfers in Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.europeandestinations.com [Source type: General]
  • Warsaw Vacations - Hotels, sightseeing tours, train trips, transfers in Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC europe.solartours.com [Source type: General]
  • Warsaw Vacations - Hotels, sightseeing tours, train trips, transfers in Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC europe.tripmasters.com [Source type: General]

^ Polish casualties in Old Town are 30,000 civilian dead and 7,500 dead and wounded insurgents (77 percent), German casualties were 3,900 dead and wounded (54 percent).
  • World War 2: Warsaw Uprising :: Timeline 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawuprising.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The only thing that persevered was the Polish spirit.

Post-World War II

Capitalist insult
The building where Nowy Świat and Al. .Jerozolimskie met and served as the headquarters for the Central Committee of the Polish Communist party is now the The Banking Finance Center and home to the Warsaw Stock Exchange.^ Warsaw, stock exchange .
  • Poland and Poles 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC poland.gov.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Warsaw was the principal center of unsuccessful Polish uprisings against Russian domination in 1830 and 1863.
  • Warsaw Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the moment it started operations in 1991 the exchange was located in the building that previously housed the headquarters of the Polish United Workers Party (PZPR).
  • Poland and Poles 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC poland.gov.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Warsaw Stock Exchange has since moved, but the irony remains.^ Warsaw, stock exchange .
  • Poland and Poles 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC poland.gov.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE NEW WARSAW STOCK EXCHANGE The Stock Exchange in Warsaw has become a permanent feature of the Polish economy.
  • Poland and Poles 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC poland.gov.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Cafe Furkot is a bar/restaurant I have visited several times since I moved to Warsaw.
  • Warsaw Restaurants - Warsaw Dining Reviews - IgoUgo 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.igougo.com [Source type: General]

.The city was rebuilt in the immediate aftermath of the war, and the monolithic gray apartment blocks that characterize much of the city (especially its outer areas) are a relic of the Stalinist utilitarianism that dominated the rebuilding efforts.^ This large area has several different feels to it: there are still some beautiful pre-war mansions standing (now occupied by businesses or embassies), as well as some typically Socialist rows of dull gray appartment blocks.
  • Warsaw, Poland 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC worldfacts.us [Source type: News]

^ This once depressingly gray and dull area is finally coming to life, and it's future looks bright, especially since the metro cuts right through it.
  • Warsaw, Poland 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC worldfacts.us [Source type: News]

^ Ursynow is another area that has gained a degree of infamy: it is a massive and sprawling example of Socialist planning: it began life as block after characterless block of gray, dull flats.
  • Warsaw, Poland 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC worldfacts.us [Source type: News]

.A typical example of the Stalinist architecture is the monolithic Palace of Culture (palac kultury), with its clocktower, which remains Warsaw's tallest building.^ Warsaw, Palace of Culture and Science, interiors .
  • Poland and Poles 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC poland.gov.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Palace of Culture and Science and the Warsaw skyline .
  • Warsaw Stock Photo Images. 841 Warsaw royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Le Meridien Bristol, Warsaw overlooks the Presidential Palace and neighbours some of the capital city?s finest architecture, including mag...
  • Warsaw Holiday & Tourism Guide - Real Travel 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC realtravel.com [Source type: News]

.Since the fall of communism in 1989, Warsaw has been developing much more rapidly than Poland as a whole.^ There’s so much more than books.
  • Warsaw Missouri (MO) Census and detailed community profile - AmericanTowns.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.americantowns.com [Source type: General]

^ Warsaw has been the capital of Poland for more than 400 years.
  • Settling-in Tips from Staff at Crown Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.crownrelo.com [Source type: General]

^ Focus: Economic Development Mayor Richard M. Daley declared October 27, 1989 "Warsaw Marriott Hotel Day" in Chicago, in recognition of the grand opening of the first western-managed hotel in Warsaw, Poland.

.You wouldn't recognize the city if you saw it ten years ago, and more changes are constantly taking place.^ You wouldn't recognize the city if you last saw it ten years ago or so.
  • Warsaw Travel Guide, Warsaw City Guide, Hotels Warsaw |Easy Destination 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.easydestination.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As our annual Christmas commemoration for this year draws near, Sister Tobler and I are thinking of each of you and of our time together in Poland, now nearly a decade ago.

^ Frankfurt throws more money at the arts than any other European city so you'll most likely catch a groundbreaking exhibition at one of its museums.
  • Warsaw Vacations - Hotels, sightseeing tours, train trips, transfers in Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC europe.solartours.com [Source type: General]

.Warsaw has long been the easiest place in Poland to find employment, and for this reason many of the Polish inhabitants of the city are first or second generation, originating from all over the country.^ Poland, Warsaw, old city, Zamkowy Place .
  • Warsaw Stock Photo Images. 841 Warsaw royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ It is in easy access of many of the city’s wonders including the Baroque palace at Wilanow and Lazienki Park, seat of the last king of Poland.
  • Warsaw Hotels Poland: 108 Cheap Accommodation Deals 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ Zajaczkowska, 11 , Warsaw, Poland Phone - +48 22 851 2323 Blue Cactus has the same owners as the Italian place across the river, Boathouse.
  • Warsaw Restaurants | MyTravelGuide.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.mytravelguide.com [Source type: General]

.Even though much of Warsaw seems to imitate western cities, there are many peculiarities to be found here that you will not find in western capitals.^ Here you can find peace and silence.
  • P&O Apartments - the best alternative for Warsaw Hotels. Accommodation in Warsaw - Apartments and Flats - Rental for days, weeks, months Reent flats in warsaw Apartments in Warsaw Flat to let for days weeks months Warsaw Poland apartments accommodation 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.apart-hotel.warszawa.pl [Source type: General]

^ Close proximity to all of Warsaw`s major attractions and finest shopping, dining and entertainment venues, breathtaking panoramic views of the Polish capital, an interesting contemporary decor, and all the amenities you would expect to find in apartment.

^ Unlike many other sites out there that demand travelers (like you) to invest countless hours browsing though each vacation rental listing, at Rentalo.com we make it easy for travelers to find best Warsaw vacation rentals using our free inquiry service or Warsaw lodging locator service.
  • Warsaw, Poland Vacation Rentals | Warsaw Poland SmartSearch Listings 1 - 15 of 48 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC rentalo.com [Source type: General]

Examples include the communist-era bar mleczny (lit. .'milk bar') that remain in operation (essentially cheap cafeterias for no-frills, working-class traditional Polish dining, which have remained incredibly popular in the face of westernization), as well as Europe's largest outdoor marketplace, following in the footsteps of the traditional Slavic bazaar, which is located in the region of Warsaw on the east bank of the Vistula by the Poniatowski bridge (near the stadium).^ Statue of Warsaw´s mermaid at the banks of the Vistula, Warsaw ...
  • Warsaw Stock Photo Images. 841 Warsaw royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ While lively student hangouts - cafes, restaurants and milk bars - create a mini Left Bank.
  • New kids from the bloc | Travel | The Observer 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The fog banks that had accompanied my morning train from Berlin are now a monotonous sheet hanging from the tops of Warsaw’s well-spaced buildings.
  • Warsaw, Poland » HistoryNet 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: General]

Climate Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.There is more than one meaning of Warsaw discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.^ It means more than we can say.

^ There’s so much more than books.
  • Warsaw Missouri (MO) Census and detailed community profile - AmericanTowns.com 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.americantowns.com [Source type: General]

^ Area Facts: Warsaw is home to more than 60 institutions of higher learning, and is the commercial center of the Polish manufacturing and automotive industries.
  • Warsaw Lodging: Directory of Lodging Options in Warsaw 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC warsaw.lodgingguide.com [Source type: General]

.We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself.^ Thank you for all links!
  • Warszawa I Region Map: Babice — Borzecin Maly | Poland Google Satellite Maps 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.maplandia.com [Source type: General]

^ We enjoy to go everywhere and we are happy to share all the information with you to help you having a pleasant, uncomplicated and safe time without the hassle to figure out everything on your own.
  • Warsaw Gay Guide Poland :: by GayGuide.Net 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC warsaw.gayguide.net [Source type: General]

^ Going Out Cafes, bars, pubs and clubs: at which ones should you spend your drinking money?
  • Warsaw Insider :: Index 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.warsawinsider.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.^ What links here Related changes Special Pages This page was last modified 23:32, 21 Oct 2006.
  • Warsaw, Poland (Capital) - LoveToKnow 1911 28 January 2010 1:01 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you would like to recommend this Warszawa I map page to a friend, or if you just want to send yourself a reminder, here is the easy way to do it.
  • Warszawa I Region Map: Babice — Borzecin Maly | Poland Google Satellite Maps 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.maplandia.com [Source type: General]

^ You are not allowed to alter any portion of the link code or change the layout or targeting for any reason.
  • Warszawa I Region Map: Babice — Borzecin Maly | Poland Google Satellite Maps 20 September 2009 8:37 UTC www.maplandia.com [Source type: General]


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Contents

English

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA: /ˈwɔː(ɹ).sɔː(ɹ)/, SAMPA: /"wO:(r).sO:(r)/

Proper noun

Warsaw
  1. The capital of Poland.

Derived terms

Translations

See also


Simple English

Warsaw (In Polish: Warszawa) is the capital of Poland. It is also the biggest city in that country. There are about 2,000,000 people living there. People from Warsaw are called "Varsovians". [[File:|thumb|400px|]]

Contents

Geography

Warsaw lies near the middle of Poland on both sides of the Vistula river, and about 350 km (225 miles) from the Baltic Sea. It is about 100 m (325 ft) above sea level.

Warsaw is home to 4 universities and 62 colleges, and many theatres and art galleries.

History

People began living in this place in the 13th century. By the 15th century, Warsaw had grown enough to be called a city. It became the capital of Poland in 1596.

The city was destroyed several times in its history, but every time it was rebuilt. The most important of these times was during the Second World War. Poland had been occupied by Germany between 1939 and 1944. On 1 August 1944, the people of Warsaw started fighting to free their city.

Pictures of Warsaw

Other websites

Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:
krc:Варшава


frr:Warschau

mrj:Варшава


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Warsaw, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message