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Warthog
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Suidae
Genus: Phacochoerus
Species: P. africanus
Binomial name
Phacochoerus africanus
(Gmelin, 1788)
Subspecies

4 sp., see text

     Distribution of the Common Warthog     Possible range or accidental records
P. a. sundevallii, Kruger Park, South Africa

The Warthog or Common Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus, "African Lens-Pig") is a wild member of the pig family that lives in Africa.

The common name comes from the four large wart-like protrusions found on the head of the warthog, which serve the purpose of defence when males fight. They are the only widely recognised species in their genus, though some authors divide them into two species. On that classification, P. africanus is the Common (or Northern) Warthog and P. aethiopicus is the Desert Warthog, also known as the Cape or Somali Warthog.

Contents

Subspecies

  • Nolan Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus africanus) (Gmelin, 1788) – Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Chad, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan
  • Eritrean Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus aeliani) Cretzschmar, 1828 – Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia
  • Central African Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus massaicus) Lönnberg, 1908 – Kenya, Tanzania
  • Southern Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus sundevallii) Lönnberg, 1908 – Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Zimbabwe
P. a. massaicus, male, Serengeti, Tanzania

Description

Warthogs range in size from 0.91 to 1.5 metres (3.0 to 4.9 ft) in length and 50 to 150 kg (110 to 330 lb) in weight. A warthog is identifiable by the two pairs of tusks protruding from the mouth, which are used as weapons against predators. The upper canine teeth can grow to 23 cm (9.1 in), and are of a squashed circle shape in cross section, almost rectangular, being about 4.5 cm (1.8 in) deep and 2.5 cm (0.98 in) wide. The tusk will curve 90 degrees or more from the root,[citation needed] and the tusk will not lie flat on a table, as it curves somewhat backwards as it grows. The tusks are used for digging, for combat with other hogs, and in defence against predators—the lower set can inflict severe wounds.

Warthog ivory is taken from the constantly growing canine teeth. Each warthog has a pair of teeth in each jaw with the lower teeth being far shorter than the upper teeth. Both pairs grow upwards, with the upper teeth being by far the more spectacular in appearance. The lower pair, however, are the more dangerous: the teeth are straight, sharply pointed, and keep a keen edge by the upper pair rubbing against the lower pair. The tusks, more often the upper set, are worked much in the way of elephant tusks with all designs scaled down. Tusks are carved predominantly for the tourist trade in East and Southern Africa.[citation needed]

The male is called a boar, the female a sow, and the young piglets.

Ecology

Warthog feeding on its knees-001.ogv
Warthog feeding on its knees

Although warthogs are commonly seen in (and associated with) open grasslands, they will seek shelter and forage in denser vegetation. In fact, warthogs prefer to forage in dense, moist areas when available.[citation needed] The common warthog diet is omnivorous, composed of grasses, roots, berries and other fruits, bark, fungi, eggs, dead animals, and even small mammals, reptiles and birds. The diet is seasonably variable, depending on availability of different food items. Areas with many bulbs, rhizomes and nutritious roots can support large numbers of warthogs. Warthogs are powerful diggers, using both heads and feet. When feeding, they often bend the front legs backwards and move around staying on the knuckles.[2] Although they can dig their own burrows, they commonly occupy abandoned burrows of aardvarks or other animals. The warthog commonly enters burrows "back-end first", with the head always facing the opening and ready to burst out as needed.

Warthogs are fast runners and quite capable jumpers. They will often run with their tails in the air. Despite poor eyesight, warthogs have a good sense of smell, which they use for locating food, detecting predators and recognizing other animals.

Although capable of fighting, with males aggressively fighting each other during mating season, a primary defence is to flee by means of fast sprinting. The main warthog predators are humans, lions, leopards, crocodiles, and hyenas. Cheetahs are also capable of catching small warthogs. However, if a female warthog has any piglets to defend she will defend them very aggressively. It has been reported that warthogs have given lions deep, serious, deadly wounds, which sometimes end with the lion bleeding to death.

Warthogs have been observed allowing banded mongooses to groom them to remove ticks.[3]

Related species

Behavior

Longevity

Wild warthogs can live up to 15 years, and captive warthogs may live as long as 18 years.[citation needed] The typical gestation period is 5 or 6 months and the litter is 2 to 8 piglets, although 2 to 4 is more typical.[citation needed] Piglets are weaned at 3 or 4 months of age, reaching sexual maturity at 18 to 24 months. Females may give birth twice or, in extremely rare cases, up to five times per year.

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Cumming, D.H.M. (2008). Phacochoerus africanus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 5 April 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern.
  2. ^ Unwin, Mike (2003). Southern African wildlife: a visitor's guide. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 68. ISBN 9781841620602. 
  3. ^ Warthog - Africa's Jester

External links

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Simple English

For the aircraft, see A-10 Warthog.
Warthog
File:Lightmatter
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Suidae
Genus: Phacochoerus
Species: P. africanus
Binomial name
Phacochoerus africanus
(Pallas, 1766)

Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) are remarkable animals. They are found in most of Africa south of the Sahara and are widely distributed in East Africa. They are the only pigs able to live in areas without water for several months of the year. By tolerating a higher-than-normal body temperature, the warthog is perhaps able to conserve moisture inside its body that might otherwise be used for cooling. (Camels and desert gazelles have developed a similar mechanism for survival in hot, arid environments.)

Habitat

Warthogs are found in moist and arid savannas. They avoid rainforest, deserts and high mountains.


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