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Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water.[1] It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to drinking water, safety of human contact and for the health of ecosystems.

Contents

Standards

In the setting of standards, agencies make political and technical/scientific decisions about how the water will be used.[2] In the case of natural water bodies, they also make some reasonable estimate of pristine conditions. Different uses raise different concerns and therefore different standards are considered. Natural water bodies will vary in response to environmental conditions. Environmental scientists work to understand how these systems function which in turn helps to identify the sources and fates of contaminants. Environmental lawyers and policy makers work to define legislation that ensure that water is maintained at an appropriate quality for its identified use.

The vast majority of surface water on the planet is neither potable nor toxic. This remains true even if sea water in the oceans (which is too salty to drink) is not counted. Another general perception of water quality is that of a simple property that tells whether water is polluted or not. In fact, water quality is a very complex subject, in part because water is a complex medium intrinsically tied to the ecology of the Earth. Industrial pollution is a major cause of water pollution, as well as runoff from agricultural areas, urban stormwater runoff and discharge of treated and untreated sewage (especially in developing countries).

Categories

The parameters for water quality are determined by the intended use. Work in the area of water quality tends to be focused on water that is treated for human consumption or in the environment.

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Human consumption

Contaminants that may be in untreated water include microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria; inorganic contaminants such as salts and metals; pesticides and herbicides; organic chemical contaminants from industrial processes and petroleum use; and radioactive contaminants. Water quality depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human uses such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse (which may lower the level of the water).

In the United States, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits the amounts of certain contaminants in tap water provided by public water systems. The Safe Drinking Water Act authorizes EPA to issue two types of standards: primary standards regulate substances that potentially affect human health, and secondary standards prescribe aesthetic qualities, those that affect taste, odor, or appearance. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water that must provide the same protection for public health. Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of these contaminants does not necessarily indicate that the water poses a health risk.

Some people use water purification technology to remove contaminants from the municipal water supply they get in their homes, or from local pumps or bodies of water. For people who get water from a local stream, lake, or aquifer (well), their drinking water is not filtered by the local government.

Environmental water quality

Water runoff

Environmental water quality, also called ambient water quality, relates to water bodies such as lakes, rivers, and oceans. Water quality standards vary significantly due to different environmental conditions, ecosystems, and intended human uses. Toxic substances and high populations of certain microorganisms can present a health hazard for non-drinking purposes such as irrigation, swimming, fishing, rafting, boating, and industrial uses. These conditions may also affect wildlife which use the water for drinking or as a habitat. Modern water quality laws general specify protection of fisheries and recreational use and require as a minimum,retention of current quality standards.

There is some desire among the public to return water bodies to pristine, or pre-industrial conditions. Most current environmental laws focus of the designation of uses. In some countries these allow for some water contamination as long as the particular type of contamination is not harmful to the designated uses. Given the landscape changes in the watersheds of many freshwater bodies, returning to pristine conditions would be a significant challenge. In these cases, environmental scientists focus on achieving goals for maintaining healthy eco-systems and may concentrate of the protection of populations of endangered species and protecting human health.

Measurement

The complexity of water quality as a subject is reflected in the many types of measurements of water quality indicators. Some of the simple measurements listed below can be made on-site — temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, Oxygen Reduction potential (ORP)— in direct contact with the water source in question. More complex measurements that must be made in a lab setting require a water sample to be collected, preserved, and analyzed at another location. Making these complex measurements can be expensive. Because direct measurements of water quality can be expensive, ongoing monitoring programs are typically conducted by government agencies. However, there are local volunteer programs and resources available for some general assessment. Tools available to the general public are on-site test kits commonly used for home fish tanks and biological assessments.

Testing in response to natural disasters and other emergencies

Inevitably after events such as earthquakes and Tsunamis, there is an immediate response by the aid agencies as relief operations get underway to try and restore basic infrastructure and provide the basic fundamental items that are necessary for survival and subsequent recovery. Access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation is a priority at times like this. The threat of disease increases hugely due to the large numbers of people living close together, often in squalid conditions, and without proper sanitation.

After a natural disaster, as far as water quality testing is concerned there are widespread views on the best course of action to take and a variety of methods can be employed. The key basic water quality parameters that need to be addressed in an emergency are bacteriological indicators of fecal contamination, Free Chlorine Residual, pH, turbidity and possibly Conductivity/TDS. There are a number of portable water test kits on the market widely used by aid and relief agencies for carrying out such testing.

The following is a list of indicators often measured by situational category:

Drinking water


Environmental

Chemical assessment

Physical assessment

Biological assessment

Biological monitoring metrics have been developed in many places, and one widely used measure is the presence and abundance of members of the insect orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. (Common names are, respectively, Mayfly, Stonefly and Caddisfly.) EPT indexes will naturally vary from region to region, but generally, within a region, the greater the number of taxa from these orders, the better the water quality. EPA and other organizations in the United States offer guidance on developing a monitoring program and identifying members of these and other aquatic insect orders.[3][4]

Individuals interested in monitoring water quality who cannot afford or manage lab scale analysis can also use biological indicators to get a general reading of water quality. One example is the IOWATER volunteer water monitoring program, which includes a benthic macroinvertebrate indicator key.[5]

Standards and reports

United States

In the United States, Water Quality Standards are created by state agencies for different types of water bodies and water body locations per desired uses.[6] The Clean Water Act (CWA) requires each governing jurisdiction (states, territories, and covered tribal entities) to submit a set of biennial reports on the quality of water in their area. These reports are known as the 303(d), 305(b) and 314 reports, named for their respective CWA provisions, and are submitted to, and approved by, EPA.[7] These reports are completed by the governing jurisdiction, typically a Department of Environmental Quality or similar state agency, and are available on the web. In coming years it is expected that the governing jurisdictions will submit all three reports as a single document, called the "Integrated Report." The 305(b) report (National Water Quality Inventory Report to Congress) is a general report on water quality, providing overall information about the number of miles of streams and rivers and their aggregate condition. The 314 report has provided similar information for lakes.[8] The CWA requires states to adopt water quality standards for each of the possible designated uses that they assign to their waters. Should evidence suggest or document that a stream, river or lake has failed to meet the water quality criteria for one or more of its designated uses, it is placed on the 303(d) list of impaired waters. Once a state has placed a water body on the 303(d) list, it must develop a management plan establishing Total Maximum Daily Loads for the pollutant(s) impairing the use of the water. These TMDLs establish the reductions needed to fully support the designated uses.

More information about water quality in the United States is on the EPA's "Surf Your Watershed" website.

European Union

United Kingdom

In England and Wales acceptable levels for drinking water supply are listed in the Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations 1989.

South Africa

Water quality guidelines for South Africa are grouped according to potential user types (e.g. domestic, industrial) in the 1996 Water Quality Guidelines. Drinking water quality is subject to the South African National Standard (SANS) 241 Drinking Water Specification [9]. More information about the application of guidelines and legislation is available at Water supply and sanitation in South Africa.

International standards

Water quality regulated by ISO is covered in the section of ICS 13.060 [10], ranging from water sampling, drinking water, industrial class water, sewage water, and examination of water for chemical, physical or biological properties. ICS 91.140.60 covers the standards of water supply systems [11].

See also

References

  1. ^ Diersing, Nancy (May 2009). "Water Quality: Frequently Asked Questions". PDA. NOAA. http://floridakeys.noaa.gov/pdfs/wqfaq.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-24.  
  2. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Washington, DC. "Water Quality Standards Review and Revision." 2006.
  3. ^ For an overview of the U.S. federal biomonitoring publications, see U.S. EPA, "Whole Effluent Toxicity."
  4. ^ U.S. EPA. Washington, DC."Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms." Document No. EPA-821-R-02-012. October 2002.
  5. ^ IOWATER (Iowa Department of Natural Resources). Iowa City, IA. "Benthic Macroinvertebrate Key."
  6. ^ Clean Water Act, Section 303, 33 U.S.C. § 1313.
  7. ^ Clean Water Act, Section 303(d), 33 U.S.C. § 1313; Section 305(b), 33 U.S.C. § 1315(b); Section 314, 33 U.S.C. § 1324.
  8. ^ Note: Congress has not provided funds for implementation of the Section 314 Clean Lakes Program since 1994. See EPA's Clean Lakes Program.
  9. ^ Hodgson K, Manus L. A drinking water quality framework for South Africa. Water SA. 2006;32(5):673-678 [1].
  10. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "13.060: Water quality". http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_ics/catalogue_ics_browse.htm?ICS1=13&ICS2=060. Retrieved 29 February 2008.  
  11. ^ ISO. "91.140.60: Water supply systems". http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_ics_browse?ICS1=91&ICS2=140&ICS3=60&&published=on. Retrieved 29 February 2008.  

External links

International organizations

United States

Europe

Other organizations


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