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Watermelon
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Cucurbitales
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Genus: Citrullus
Species: C. lanatus
Binomial name
Citrullus lanatus
(Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai
.Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai, family Cucurbitaceae) can be both the fruit and the plant of a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) herb originally from southern Africa and one of the most common types of melon.^ All About Watermelons The watermelon is a useful plant originating from central and southern Africa an...
  • Watermelon Recipes, Stories, History & More 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Citrullus lanatus CULTURE: Watermelons are less tolerant of cool conditions than cantaloupe.

^ Cucurbits are a large, diverse group of warm-season plants in the Cucurbitaceae family.
  • M173 High Tunnel Melon and Watermelon Production | University of Missouri Extension 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This flowering plant produces a special type of fruit known by botanists as a pepo, a berry, which has a thick rind (exocarp) and fleshy center (mesocarp and endocarp); pepos are derived from an inferior ovary and are characteristic of the Cucurbitaceae.^ Cantaloupe can produce two types of flowers.
  • M173 High Tunnel Melon and Watermelon Production | University of Missouri Extension 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The watermelon fruit, loosely considered a type of melon (although not in the genus Cucumis), has a smooth exterior rind (green, yellow, and sometimes white) and a juicy, sweet interior flesh (usually pink, but sometimes orange, yellow, red, and sometimes green if not ripe).^ North and have sweet, deep red flesh.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

^ The flesh is pink-red, sweet and tasty.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

^ Dark green rind and very sweet, deep red flesh; excellent flavor.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

Contents

History

.Watermelon is thought to have originated in southern Africa, where it is found growing wild, because it reaches maximum genetic diversity resulting in sweet, bland and bitter forms there.^ Originated in southern Africa, this nutritious fruit is eaten all over the world and provides essential nutrients t...
  • Watermelon | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ All About Watermelons The watermelon is a useful plant originating from central and southern Africa an...
  • Watermelon Recipes, Stories, History & More 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How wild--who would have thought watermelon would stand up to a grill?
  • Food Blogga: Try Grilled Watermelon for Your Labor Day Weekend Barbecue 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC foodblogga.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

Alphonse de Candolle, in 1882,[1] already considered the evidence sufficient to prove that watermelon was indigenous to tropical Africa.[2] .Though Citrullus colocynthis is often considered to be a wild ancestor of watermelon, and is now found native in north and west Africa, Fenny Dane and Jiarong Liu,[3] suggest on the basis of chloroplast DNA investigations, that the cultivated and wild watermelon appear to have diverged independently from a common ancestor, possibly C. ecirrhosus from Namibia.^ Now, it appears Watermelon's future is tied up in the politics of bankruptcy.
  • Archives: 1998-1999 - AustinChronicle.com 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.austinchronicle.com [Source type: General]

^ Even though it’s just the two of us now, I buy watermelon every week and announce the weight to Jeff when he comes home.
  • Food Blogga: Try Grilled Watermelon for Your Labor Day Weekend Barbecue 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC foodblogga.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Both melons and watermelon are native to Africa and thrive in a warm, dry climate with a long growing season.
  • M173 High Tunnel Melon and Watermelon Production | University of Missouri Extension 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A close-up of a watermelon leaf
It is not known when the plant was first cultivated, but Zohary and Hopf note evidence of its cultivation in the Nile Valley from at least as early as the second millennium BC. .Although watermelon is not depicted in any Egyptian hieroglyphic text nor does any ancient writer mention it, finds of the characteristically large seed are reported in Twelfth dynasty sites; numerous watermelon seeds were recovered from the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun.^ One ounce of muskmelon seeds contains 950 to 1,200 seeds while one ounce of watermelon seeds contains 300 (large-seeded cultivars) to 650 (small-seeded cultivars) seeds (Table 2).
  • M173 High Tunnel Melon and Watermelon Production | University of Missouri Extension 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Botanical Medicine of Edgar Cayce Watermelon Seed Tea The Healing Nature of Watermelon Seed Tea Articles about Health, Mind & Soul, Ancient Mysteries, Our Earth, and Edgar Cayce .
  • Watermelon Recipes, Stories, History & More 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
By the 10th century AD, watermelons were being cultivated in China, which is today the world's single largest watermelon producer. By the 13th century, Moorish invaders had introduced the fruit to Europe; and, according to John Mariani's The Dictionary of American Food and Drink, "watermelon" made its first appearance in an English dictionary in 1615.
In Vietnam, legend holds that watermelon was discovered in Vietnam long before it reached China, in the era of the Hùng Kings. According to legend, watermelon was discovered by Prince Mai An Tiêm, an adopted son of the 11th Hùng King. When he was exiled unjustly to an island, he was told that if he could survive for six months, he would be allowed to return. When he prayed for guidance, a bird flew past and dropped a seed. He cultivated the seed and called its fruit "dưa tây" or western melon, because the birds who ate it flew from the west. .When the Chinese took over Vietnam in about 110 BC, they called the melons "dưa hảo" (good melon) or "dưa hấu", "dưa Tây", "dưa hảo", "dưa hấu"—all words for "watermelon". An Tiêm's island is now a peninsula in the suburban district of Nga Sơn.^ Not only had Watermelon already paid to manufacture these albums, now they needed to pay for their storage as well.
  • Archives: 1998-1999 - AustinChronicle.com 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.austinchronicle.com [Source type: General]

^ All About Watermelons The watermelon is a useful plant originating from central and southern Africa an...
  • Watermelon Recipes, Stories, History & More 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only do they have a security interest in all of Watermelon's assets, they also have the only debt that must be paid outright -- what is referred to in bankruptcy law as a "secure" debt.
  • Archives: 1998-1999 - AustinChronicle.com 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.austinchronicle.com [Source type: General]

[5][6]
Watermelons on display by a roadside vendor in Delhi, India
Museums Online South Africa list watermelons as having been introduced to North American Indians in the 1500s. Early French explorers found Native Americans cultivating the fruit in the Mississippi Valley. .Many sources list the watermelon as being introduced in Massachusetts as early as 1629. Southern food historian John Egerton has said he believes African slaves helped introduce the watermelon to the United States.^ Watermelon (especially yellow-orange varieties) is one of the rare food sources of citrulline, an amino acid used in wound healing and cell division.
  • Watermelon Recipes, Stories, History & More 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Watermelon, this meant as many as 70,000 albums being returned to the label.
  • Archives: 1998-1999 - AustinChronicle.com 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.austinchronicle.com [Source type: General]

^ Indeed, in those early years, Watermelon enjoyed a solid reputation for being fair with their artists.
  • Archives: 1998-1999 - AustinChronicle.com 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.austinchronicle.com [Source type: General]

Texas Agricultural Extension horticulturalist Jerry Parsons lists African slaves and European colonists as having distributed watermelons to many areas of the world. Parsons also mentions the crop being farmed by Native Americans in Florida (by 1664) and the Colorado River area (by 1799). .Other early watermelon sightings include the Midwestern states (1673), Connecticut (1747), and the Illiana region (1822).^ Other indicators of maturity include increased "waxiness" of the rind, drying of the tendril closest to the fruit and a dull, muffled sound when the watermelon is thumped, depending on the variety.
  • M173 High Tunnel Melon and Watermelon Production | University of Missouri Extension 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Charles Fredric Andrus, a horticulturist at the USDA Vegetable Breeding Laboratory in Charleston, South Carolina, set out to produce a disease-resistant and wilt-resistant watermelon.^ This watermelon produces 20-lb fruit that have a light pea-green rind that is resistant to sunburn.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

The result was "that gray melon from Charleston." Its oblong shape and hard rind made it easy to stack and ship. Its adaptability meant it could be grown over a wide geographical area. .It produced high yields and was resistant to the most serious watermelon diseases: anthracnose and fusarium wilt.^ This watermelon produces 20-lb fruit that have a light pea-green rind that is resistant to sunburn.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

Square watermelon from Japan
.Today, farmers in approximately 44 states in the U.S. grow watermelon commercially, and almost all these varieties have some Charleston Gray in their lineage.^ We walked into it knowing some of these problems could occur, but when all of them did we were shocked."
  • Archives: 1998-1999 - AustinChronicle.com 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.austinchronicle.com [Source type: General]

Georgia, Florida, Texas, California and Arizona are the USA's largest watermelon producers.
This now-common watermelon is often large enough that groceries often sell half or quarter melons. .There are also some smaller, spherical varieties of watermelon, both red- and yellow-fleshed, sometimes called "icebox melons."^ Watermelon (especially yellow-orange varieties) is one of the rare food sources of citrulline, an amino acid used in wound healing and cell division.
  • Watermelon Recipes, Stories, History & More 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A good-sized melon with fine-textured, bright red flesh; another good shipping variety, sweet and tasty.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

^ Sweet, red flesh; an old variety that can attain great size.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

In Japan, farmers of the Zentsuji region found a way to grow cubic watermelons, by growing the fruits in glass boxes and letting them naturally assume the shape of the receptacle.[7] .The square shape is designed to make the melons easier to stack and store, but the square watermelons are often more than double the price of normal ones.^ By 1997, Watermelon was taking in more old product than new cash.
  • Archives: 1998-1999 - AustinChronicle.com 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.austinchronicle.com [Source type: General]

^ There are other MP3 players - many of them with more capabilities and at a lower price than the iPod - but the fact is, most people still buy the iPod.
  • Microsoft says "watermelon red" Zune is in the works -- Engadget 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.engadget.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, the UCC-1 filing made it look like Watermelon was more than willing to sell its artists over to Sire, a label none of them had originally agreed to sign with.
  • Archives: 1998-1999 - AustinChronicle.com 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.austinchronicle.com [Source type: General]

Pyramid shaped watermelons have also been developed and any polygonal shape may potentially also be used.

Culture

Flower stems of male and female watermelon blossoms, showing ovary (incipient fruit if pollinated) on the female
For commercial plantings, one beehive per acre (over 9,000 m² per hive) is the minimum recommendation by the US Department of Agriculture for pollination of conventional, seeded varieties. Because seedless hybrids have sterile pollen; pollinizer rows of varieties with viable pollen must also be planted. Since the supply of viable pollen is reduced and pollination is much more critical in producing the seedless variety, the recommended number of hives per acre, or pollinator density, increases to three hives per acre (1,300 m² per hive).
Seedless watermelon

Nutrition

Watermelon, raw (edible parts)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 127 kJ (30 kcal)
Carbohydrates 7.55 g
Sugars 6.2 g
Dietary fiber 0.4 g
Fat 0.15 g
Protein 0.61 g
Water 91.45 g
Vitamin A equiv. 28 μg (3%)
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.033 mg (3%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.021 mg (1%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.178 mg (1%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.221 mg (4%)
Vitamin B6 0.045 mg (3%)
Folate (Vit. B9) 3 μg (1%)
Vitamin C 8.1 mg (14%)
Calcium 7 mg (1%)
Iron 0.24 mg (2%)
Magnesium 10 mg (3%)
Phosphorus 11 mg (2%)
Potassium 112 mg (2%)
Zinc 0.10 mg (1%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
A basket of watermelons displayed in a Singapore supermarket.
.Watermelon contains about 6% sugar and 92% water by weight.^ The heavier it feels, the better -- a good watermelon is 92% water, which makes up most of its weight.
  • Watermelon Recipes, Stories, History & More 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] As with many other fruits, it is a source of vitamin C.
.Notable is the inner rind or the watermelon which is usually a light green or white color.^ Unique fruit have a yellow/lime-colored rind with jagged deep green stripes.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

^ This rare variety of Black Diamond has light yellow flesh with a deep black-green rind.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

^ This watermelon produces 20-lb fruit that have a light pea-green rind that is resistant to sunburn.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

This area is edible and contains many hidden nutrients that most people avoid eating due to its void taste.
.The amino acid citrulline was first extracted from watermelon and analysed.^ Watermelon (especially yellow-orange varieties) is one of the rare food sources of citrulline, an amino acid used in wound healing and cell division.
  • Watermelon Recipes, Stories, History & More 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] Watermelons contain a significant amount of citrulline and after consumption of several kg an elevated concentration is measured in the blood plasma; this could be mistaken for citrullinaemia or other urea cycle disorder.[10]
Watermelon rinds are also edible, and sometimes used as a vegetable.[11] In China, they are stir-fried, stewed, or more often pickled. .When stir-fried, the de-skinned and de-fruited rind is cooked with olive oil, garlic, chili peppers, scallions, sugar and rum.^ Can be cooked in many ways: stir-fried, or in curries, soups.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

Pickled watermelon rind is also commonly consumed in the Southern US,[12] Russia, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria. In the Balkans, especially Serbia, watermelon slatko is also popular.[13] Watermelon juice can also be made into wine.[14]
Watermelon is also mildly diuretic.[15]
Watermelons contain large amounts of beta carotene.[16]
.Watermelon with red flesh is a significant source of lycopene.^ Very unique spotted rind, with very crisp, sweet red flesh that bursts with rich, old-time watermelon flavor!
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

A traditional food plant in Africa, this fruit has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare.[17]

Varieties

Watermelon with yellow flesh
.There are more than twelve hundred[18] varieties of watermelon ranging in size from less than a pound, to more than two hundred pounds with flesh that is red, orange, yellow, or white.^ Sweet, red flesh; an old variety that can attain great size.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

^ A good-sized melon with fine-textured, bright red flesh; another good shipping variety, sweet and tasty.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

^ A fairly early orange-fleshed variety that has great taste and texture.
  • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

[19] Several notable varieties are included here.
  • Carolina Cross: This variety of watermelon produced the current world record watermelon weighing 262 pounds (119 kg). .It has green skin, red flesh and commonly produces fruit between 65 and 150 pounds (29 and 68 kg).^ Round, 10" fruit with green striped skin and bright red, sweet flesh.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This watermelon produces 20-lb fruit that have a light pea-green rind that is resistant to sunburn.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Large fruit are nearly round and have attractive dark green skin.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    It takes about 90 days from planting to harvest.[20]
  • .
  • Yellow Crimson Watermelon: variety of watermelon that has a yellow colored flesh.^ This rare variety of Black Diamond has light yellow flesh with a deep black-green rind.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A sweet-flavored, pink-fleshed watermelon that has a pale greenish cream-colored rind.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Black Diamond Yellow Flesh Watermelon .
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    .This particular type of watermelon has been described as "sweeter" and more "honey" flavored than the more popular red flesh watermelon.^ Crisp and sweet, medium red flesh, mild flavor.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Dark green rind and very sweet, deep red flesh; excellent flavor.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Flesh is brilliant red, solid, and of a fine flavor.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    [21]
  • Orangeglo: This variety has a very sweet orange pulp, and is a large oblong fruit weighing 9–14 kg (20-30 pounds). .It has a light green rind with jagged dark green stripes.^ Skin is striped dark green...
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Unique fruit have a yellow/lime-colored rind with jagged deep green stripes.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This watermelon produces 20-lb fruit that have a light pea-green rind that is resistant to sunburn.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    It takes about 90–100 days from planting to harvest.[22]
  • .
  • The Moon and Stars variety of watermelon has been around since 1926.[23] The rind is purple/black and has many small yellow circles (stars) and one or two large yellow circles (moon).^ Brilliant red, sweet and crisp, this elongated variety of the famous "Moon & Stars" is among the best of its type.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This rare variety of Black Diamond has light yellow flesh with a deep black-green rind.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Very tough rinds make this one of the best yellow varieties for shipping.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    The melon weighs 9–23 kg (20-50 pounds).[24] .The flesh is pink or red and has brown seeds.^ The flesh is pink-red, sweet and tasty.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    The foliage is also spotted. The time from planting to harvest is about 90 days.[25]
  • .
  • Cream of Saskatchewan: This variety consists of small round fruits, around 25 cm (10 inches) in diameter.^ Small fruit weigh about 10 lbs.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Round, 10" fruit with green striped skin and bright red, sweet flesh.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Fruits around 8-10 lbs each, with a...
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    It has a quite thin, light green with dark green striped rind, with sweet white flesh and black seeds. It can grow well in cool climates. It was originally brought to Saskatchewan, Canada by Russian immigrants. These melons take 80–85 days from planting to harvest.[26]
.
Watermelon output in 2005
  • Melitopolski: This variety has small round fruits roughly 28–30 cm (11-12 inches) in diameter.^ Round 10"-12" fruit have dark green rind...
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    It is an early ripening variety that originated from the Volga River region of Russia, an area known for cultivation of watermelons. The Melitopolski watermelons are seen piled high by vendors in Moscow in summer. This variety takes around 95 days from planting to harvest.[27]
  • .
  • Densuke Watermelon: This variety has round fruit up to 25 lb (11 kg).^ Pre-1935 variety, round in shape, can grow up to 50 lbs.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This watermelon is very early and has good-sized 15 to 18-lb fruit that have striped...
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This watermelon produces 20-lb fruit that have a light pea-green rind that is resistant to sunburn.
    • Watermelon 10 January 2010 22:19 UTC rareseeds.com [Source type: General]

    The rind is black with no stripes or spots. It is only grown on the island of Hokkaido, Japan, where up to 10 000 watermelons are produced every year. In June 2008, one of the first harvested watermelons was sold at an auction for 650 000 yen (6300 USD), making the most expensive watermelon ever sold. The average selling price is generally around 25 000 yen (250 USD).[28]

Cultural uses and references

Watermelon and other fruit in Boris Kustodiev's Merchant's Wife.
  • In Vietnamese culture, watermelon seeds are consumed during the Vietnamese New Year's holiday, Tết, as a snack.[29]
  • Stereotypical caricatures may depict African Americans as being inordinately fond of watermelon.[30]
  • .
  • The Oklahoma State Senate passed a bill on 17 April 2007 declaring watermelon as the official state vegetable, with some controversy as the watermelon is a fruit.^ Tuesday 17 April 2007 11:20 PM link this .

    [31]
  • The citrulline which exists in watermelon (especially in the rind) is a known stimulator of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is thought to relax and expand blood vessels, much like the erectile dysfunction drug Viagra, and may even increase libido.[32]
  • Fans of the Saskatchewan Roughriders of the CFL started a tradition of hollowing out a watermelon and wearing it as a makeshift football helmet (the color of the Roughriders is green). During the 2009 Grey Cup in Calgary (between the Montreal Alouettes and the Roughriders, thousands of watermelons had to be imported to Calgary supermarkets to prevent a shortage being caused by Rider fans.[33]

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Candolle, Origin of Cultivated Plants (1882) pp 262ff, s.v. "Water-melon".
  2. ^ North Carolina State University: Watermelon biogeography.
  3. ^ Dane and Liu,, "Diversity and origin of cultivated and citron type watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)", Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 54.6 (September 2007).
  4. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of Plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 193.
  5. ^ Watermelon Magic, a Tale from Vietnam, Fairy-tales.info, webpage found 2007-11-26.
  6. ^ "Juicy Details: Ian Swift Dives into the Legend of the Watermelon". Vietnam Investment Review, June 2003.
  7. ^ (BBC) Square fruit stuns Japanese shoppers BBC News Friday, 15 June, 2001, 10:54 GMT 11:54 UK
  8. ^ Seven wonders of watermelon
  9. ^ Wada, M. (1930). "Über Citrullin, eine neue Aminosäure im Presssaft der Wassermelone, Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.". Biochem. Zeit. 224: 420.  
  10. ^ H. Mandel, N. Levy, S. Izkovitch, S. H. Korman (2005). "Elevated plasma citrulline and arginine due to consumption of Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon)". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 28 (4): 467–472. doi:10.1007/s10545-005-0467-1.  
  11. ^ "The column of watermelon peel from 5hpk.com". http://www.5hpk.com/Html/TOPIC/200807172.html. Retrieved 2008-07-15.  
  12. ^ Southern U.S. Cuisine: Judy's Pickled Watermelon Rind
  13. ^ Watermelon slatko (Slatko od lubenica)
  14. ^ footnote text here
  15. ^ The Associated Press (2008-07-03). "CBC News - Health - Watermelon the real passion fruit?". Cbc.ca. http://www.cbc.ca/health/story/2008/07/03/science-watermelon.html. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  
  16. ^ "HowStuffWorks "Health Benefits of Watermelon"". Home.howstuffworks.com. http://home.howstuffworks.com/watermelon3.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  
  17. ^ National Research Council (2008-01-25). "Watermelon". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume III: Fruits. Lost Crops of Africa. 3. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-10596-5. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11879&page=165. Retrieved 2008-07-17.  
  18. ^ "Vegetable Research & Extension Center - Icebox Watermelons". http://agsyst.wsu.edu/Watermelon.html. Retrieved 2008-08-02.  
  19. ^ Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds. "Watermelon Heirloom Seeds". http://rareseeds.com/seeds/Watermelon. Retrieved 2008-07-15.  
  20. ^ Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds. "Carolina Cross Watermelon". http://rareseeds.com/seeds/Watermelon/Carolina-Cross. Retrieved 2008-07-15.  
  21. ^ Anioleka Seeds USA. "Yellow Crimson Watermelon". http://www.vegetableseed.net/heirloom-vegetable-seeds/melon-seeds/watermelon-seeds/yellow.html. Retrieved 2007-08-07.  
  22. ^ "Orangeglo Watermelon". http://www.seedsavers.org/prodinfo.asp?number=1108. Retrieved 2007-04-23.  
  23. ^ "Moon and Stars Watermelon Heirloom". http://rareseeds.com/seeds/Watermelon/Moon-and-Stars. Retrieved 2008-07-15.  
  24. ^ Evans, Lynette (2005-07-15). "Moon & Stars watermelon (Citrullus lanatus):Seed-spittin' melons makin' a comeback". http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2005/07/16/HOG4UDNGDB1.DTL. Retrieved 2007-07-06.  
  25. ^ "Moon and Stars Watermelon". http://www.seedsavers.org/prodinfo.asp?number=266. Retrieved 2007-04-23.  
  26. ^ "Cream of Saskatchewan Watermelon". http://www.seedsavers.org/Details.aspx?itemNo=778. Retrieved 2007-04-23.  
  27. ^ "Melitopolski Watermelon". http://www.seedsavers.org/prodinfo.asp?number=267. Retrieved 2007-04-23.  
  28. ^ "Black Japanese watermelon sold at record price". http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5jJBRT0pnOdQVMUzzkKC_cGHo7IdQD914F62O0. Retrieved 2008-06-10.  
  29. ^ The Asian Texans By Marilyn Dell Brady, Texas A&M University Press
  30. ^ Beyond the Lines By Joshua Brown
  31. ^ "Oklahoma Declares Watermelon Its State Vegetable". CBS4denver. 2007-04-18. http://cbs4denver.com/watercooler/Oklahoma.watermelon.state.2.282939.html. Retrieved 2009-10-03.  
  32. ^ "Watermelon May Have Viagra-effect". Sciencedaily.com. 2008-07-01. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080630165707.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-05.  
  33. ^ Watermelon shortage averted CBC News

References

External links


Simple English

Watermelon
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Cucurbitales
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Genus: Citrulus
Species: C. lanatus
Binomial name
Citrullus lanatus
(Thunb.)Matsumura et Nakai
File:Water
Slices of watermelon

A watermelon is a type of edible fruit. They are 92% water. About six percent of a watermelon is sugar. This makes them very sweet. There are many different types of watermelon. Some have a green rind on the outside and a red-pink flesh on the inside, with black seeds. Some can have yellow flesh, and some can be seedless. The green rind on the outside is not usually eaten, though it can be used as a vegetable. It can also be stewed or pickled. Most watermelons are oblong or spherical. In Japan, watermelons are grown in different shapes. Many people like to eat watermelon in the summer because the fruit is cool and refreshing.

Watermelons are a great source vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and vitamin B1. They also contain potassium, magnesium, carotenoid antioxidant, and lycopene.

Look up Citrullus lanatus in Wikispecies, a directory of species
mrj:Арбуз

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 23, 2010

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