|— City —|
Watertown's Main Street
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
|- City Manager||Michael J. Driscoll|
|- Total||4.2 sq mi (10.8 km2)|
|- Land||4.1 sq mi (10.6 km2)|
|- Water||0.1 sq mi (0.1 km2)|
|Elevation||36 ft (11 m)|
|- Density||7,932.0/sq mi (3,068.0/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (UTC-5)|
|- Summer (DST)||Eastern (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||617 / 857|
|GNIS feature ID||0612401|
Watertown, first known as Saltonstall Plantation, was one of the earliest of the Massachusetts Bay settlements. It was begun early in 1630 by a group of settlers led by Sir Richard Saltonstall and the Rev. George Phillips and officially incorporated that same year. The alternate spelling "Waterton" is seen in some early documents.
The first buildings were upon land now included within the limits of Cambridge known as Gerry's Landing. For its first quarter century Watertown ranked next to Boston in population and area. Since then its limits have been greatly reduced. Thrice portions have been added to Cambridge, and it has contributed territory to form the new towns of Weston (1712), Waltham (1738), Belmont (1859), and Lincoln. In 1632 the residents of Watertown protested against being compelled to pay a tax for the erection of a stockade fort at Cambridge; this was the first protest in America against taxation without representation and led to the establishment of representative government in the colony. As early as the close of the 17th century Watertown was the chief horse and cattle market in New England and was known for its fertile gardens and fine estates. Here about 1632 was erected the first grist mill in the colony, and in 1662 one of the first woolen mills in America was built here.
The Provincial Congress of Massachusetts, after adjournment from Concord, met from April to July 1775 in the First Parish Church, the site of which is marked by a monument. The Massachusetts General Court held its sessions here from 1775 to 1778. Committees met in the nearby Edmund Fowle House. Boston town meetings were held here during the siege of Boston, when many Boston families made their homes in the neighborhood. For several months early in the American Revolution the Committees of Safety and Correspondence made Watertown their headquarters and it was from here that General Joseph Warren set out for Bunker Hill.
From 1832 to 1834 Theodore Parker conducted a private school here and his name is still preserved in the Parker School, though the building no longer operates as a public school.
The Watertown Arsenal operated continuously as a military munitions and research facility from 1816 until 1995, when the Army sold the property, by then known as the Army Materials Technology Laboratory, to the town of Watertown. The Arsenal is notable for being the site of a 1911 strike prompted by the management methods of operations research pioneer Frederick Winslow Taylor (Taylor and 1911 Watertown Arsenal Strike). Taylor's method, which he dubbed "Scientific Management," broke tasks down into smaller components. Workers no longer completed whole items; instead, they were timed using stopwatches as they did small tasks repetitively, as Taylor attempted to find the balance of tasks that resulted in the maximum output from workers. The strike and its causes were controversial enough that they resulted in Congressional hearings in 1911; Congress passed a law in 1915 banning the method in government owned arsenals. Taylor's methods spread widely, influencing such industrialists as Henry Ford, and the idea is one of the underlying inspirations of the factory (assembly) line industrial method. The Watertown Arsenal was the site of a major superfund clean-up in the 1990s, and has now become a center for shopping, dining and the arts, with the opening of several restaurants and a new theatre. The site includes the Arsenal Center for the Arts, a regional arts center that opened in 2005. The Arsenal is now owned by Harvard University, and the Harvard Business School publishing arm has a presence there.
The Perkins School for the Blind, founded in 1829, has been located in Watertown since 1912.
In 1988, Watertown Square became the new location for the Armenian Library and Museum of America, said to host the largest collection of Armenian artifacts in North America.
Watertown is located at  To the north, it is bordered by the town of Belmont, along Belmont Street; to the south, it is bordered by Newton and Brighton - the border being largely formed by the Charles River. However, in Watertown Square, the nexus of the town, the town's border extends south of the Charles to encompass the neighborhood surrounding Casey Playground. To the East lies the City of Cambridge, the border to which is almost entirely the well-known Mount Auburn Cemetery, most of which is actually in Watertown (though commonly believed to be in Cambridge). To the west lies the more expansive city of Waltham, but there is no clear geographic feature dividing the two municipalities.(42.371296, -71.181961).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.2 square miles (10.8 km²), of which 4.1 square miles (10.6 km²) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.1 km² or 1.20%) is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 32,986 people, 14,629 households, and 7,329 families residing in the city. The population density was 8,025.7 people per square mile (3,098.8/km²). There were 15,008 housing units at an average density of 3,651.5/sq mi (1,409.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 91.42% White, 1.73% African American, 0.16% Native American, 3.87% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.85% from other races, and 1.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.68% of the population.
There were 14,629 households out of which 17.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.9% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 49.9% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.86.
In the city the population was spread out with 14.1% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 39.8% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, and 16.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 86.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $59,764, and the median income for a family was $67,441. Males had a median income of $46,642 versus $39,840 for females. The per capita income for the city was $33,262. About 4.5% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over.
Watertown is a major center of the Armenian diaspora in the United States, with the third-largest Armenian community in the United States, estimated as numbering 7,000 to over 8,000 as of 2007. Watertown ranks only behind the California cities of Glendale and Fresno. However, the census of 2000 put the Armenian population at 222,708 or 99.2 percent. Watertown is also the venue for the publication of long-running Armenian newspapers in English and Armenian, including:
As property values within the Boston metropolitan area continue to rise, Watertown has gained in appeal as an attractive, affordable alternative to more expensive communities such as Cambridge, Brookline, Belmont, and Boston proper. Close to Soldiers Field Road and the Massachusetts Turnpike, major arteries into downtown Boston, Watertown has easy access to both Boston nightlife and more suburban communities such as Newton. Watertown Square is the terminus of several MBTA bus and trackless trolley routes. The former A-Watertown branch of the MBTA Green Line ran to Watertown until 1969.
WATERTOWN, a township of Middlesex county, Massachu - setts, U.S.A., on the Charles river, about 6 m. W. of Boston. Pop. (1890) 7073; (1900) 9706, of whom 2885 were foreign - born and 53 were negroes; (1910 census) 12,875. Area, 4.1 sq. m. Watertown is served by the Fitchburg division of the Boston & Maine railway, and is connected with Boston, Cambridge, Newton (immediately adjacent and served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railway) and neighbouring towns by electric railways. It is a residential and manufacturing suburb of Boston. The township is at the head of navigation on the Charles, and occupies the fertile undulating plains along the river running back to a range of hills, the highest of which are Whitney Hill (200 ft.) and Meeting House Hill (250 ft.). Within the township are several noteworthy examples of colonial architecture. There are several small parks and squares, including Central Square, Beacon Square, about which the business portion of the township is centred, and Saltonstall Park, in which is a monument to the memory of Watertown's soldiers who died in the Civil War, and near which are the Town House and the Free Public Library, containing a valuable collection of 60,000 books and pamphlets and historical memorials. There are two interesting old burying-grounds: one on Grove Street, near the Cambridge line, first used in 1642, contains a monument to John Coolidge, killed during the British retreat from Concord and Lexington on the 19th of April 1775; the other is near the centre of the village about the former site of the First Parish Church. In Coolidge's Tavern (still standing) Washington was entertained on his New England tour in 1789; and in a house recently moved from Mt Auburn Street to Marshall Street the Committee of Safety met in 1775. Within the town - ship are mounds and earthworks which Professor E. N. Iforsford thought were the remains of a Norse settlement in the 11th century, and which include a semicircular amphitheatre of six tiers or terraces which he thought was an assembly place, and a portion of a stone wall or dam. The Federal government maintains at Watertown one of its principal arsenals, occupying grounds of about Ioo acres along the river. Several of the original low brick buildings, built between 1816 and 1820r still stand. In 1905 the value of Watertown's factory products was $15,524,675.
Watertown was one of the earliest of the Massachusetts Bay settlements, having been begun early in 1630 by a group of settlers led by Sir Richard Saltonstall and the Rev. George Phillips. The first buildings were upon land now included within the limits of Cambridge. For the first quarter century Watertown ranked next to Boston in population and area. Since then its limits have been greatly reduced. Thrice portions have been added to Cambridge, and it has contributed territory to form the new townships of Weston (1712), Waltham (1738), and Belmont (1859). In 1632 the residents of Watertown protested against being compelled to pay a tax for the erection of a stockade fort at Cambridge; this was the first protest in America against taxation without representation and led to the establishment of representative government in the colony. As early as the close of the 17th century Watertown was the chief horse and cattle market in New England and was known for its fertile gardens and fine estates. Here about 1632 was erected the first grist mill in the colony, and in 1662 one of the first woollen mills in America was built here. In the First Parish Church, the site of which is marked by a monument, the Provincial Congress, after adjournment from Concord, met from April to July 1775; the Massachusetts General Court held its sessions here from 1775 to 1778, and the Boston town meetings were held here during the siege of Boston, when many of the well-known Boston families made their homes in the neighbourhood. For several months early in the War of Inde - pendence the Committees of Safety and Correspondence made Watertown their headquarters and it was from here that General Joseph Warren set out for Bunker Hill. In1832-1834Theodore Parker conducted a private school here and his name is still preserved in the Parker School.
See S. A. Drake, History of Middlesex County (2 vols., Boston, 1880); Conyers Francis, A Historical Sketch of Watertown to the close of its Second Century (Cambridge, 1830); S. F. Whitney, Historical Sketch of Watertown (Boston, 1906); and "Watertown," by S. F. Whitney, in vol. iii. of D. Hamilton Hurd's History of Middlesex County (Philadelphia, 1890). The Watertown Records (4 vols., Watertown and Boston, 1894-1906) have been published by the Historical Society of Watertown (organized in 1888 and incorporated in 1891).
The first settlement was made by Sir Richard Saltonstall and the Rev. George Phillips who were the leaders of a compny of about forty male English immigrants who in 1630 proceeded about four miles up the Charles River.
The first of the inland towns of its day, Watertown was incorporated 7 Sep 1630. It had original approximate boundaries of 8 miles from the town center.
By 1635 this town included modern day Watertown, Waltham, Weston, and parts of Lincoln and Cambridge.