Weapon of mass destruction: Wikis

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A weapon of mass destruction ('WMD) is a weapon that can kill large numbers of humans and/or cause great damage to man-made structures (e.g. buildings), natural structures (e.g. mountains), or the biosphere in general. The scope and application of the term has evolved and been disputed, often signifying more politically than technically. Coined in reference to aerial bombing with chemical explosives, it has come to distinguish large-scale weaponry of other technologies, such as chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear. This differentiates the term from more technnical ones such as chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear weapons (CRBN).

Contents

Early uses of the term

The first use of the term "weapon of mass destruction" on record is by Cosmo Gordon Lang, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1937 in reference to the aerial bombardment of Guernica, Spain:

Who can think at this present time without a sickening of the heart of the appalling slaughter, the suffering, the manifold misery brought by war to Spain and to China? Who can think without horror of what another widespread war would mean, waged as it would be with all the new weapons of mass destruction?[1]

At that time, there were no nuclear weapons; biological weapons were already being researched by Japan (see Unit 731),[2] and chemical weapons had seen wide use, most notably in World War I.

Following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and progressing through the Cold War, the term came to refer more to non-conventional weapons. The application of the term to specifically nuclear and radiological weapons is traced by William Safire to the Russian phrase oruziye massovovo porazheniya.

He credits James Goodby (of the Brookings Institution) with tracing what he considers the earliest known English-language use soon after the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (although it is not quite verbatim): a communique from a November 15, 1945, meeting of Harry Truman, Clement Attlee and Mackenzie King (probably drafted by Vannevar Bush– or so Bush claimed in 1970) referred to "weapons adaptable to mass destruction".

That exact phrase, says Safire, was also used by Bernard Baruch in 1946 (in a speech at the United Nations probably written by Herbert Bayard Swope).[3] The same phrase found its way into the UN resolution to create the Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)), which used the wording "... atomic weapons and of all other weapons adaptable to mass destruction".

An exact use of this term was given in a lecture "Atomic Energy as an Atomic Problem" by J. Robert Oppenheimer. The lecture was delivered to the Foreign Service and the State Department, on September 17, 1947. The lecture is reprinted in The Open Mind (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1955).

"It is a very far reaching control which would eliminate the rivalry between nations in this field, which would prevent the surreptitious arming of one nation against another, which would provide some cushion of time before atomic attack, and presumably therefore before any attack with weapons of mass destruction, and which would go a long way toward removing atomic energy at least as a source of conflict between the powers".

The term was also used in the introduction to the hugely influential US Government Document known as NSC-68 written in April 1950.[5]

An early use of the exact phrase in an international treaty was in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, however no definition was provided.

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Evolution of its use

During the Cold War, the term "weapons of mass destruction" was primarily a reference to nuclear weapons. At the time, as a necessary deterrent against nuclear or conventional attack from the Soviet Union (see Mutual Assured Destruction), and the euphemism "strategic weapons" was used to refer to the American nuclear arsenal.

The term "weapons of mass destruction" continued to see periodic use throughout this time, usually in the context of nuclear arms control; Ronald Reagan used it during the 1986 Reykjavík Summit, when referring to the 1967 Outer Space Treaty.[4] Reagan's successor, George H.W. Bush, used the term in an 1989 speech to the United Nations, using it primarily in reference to chemical arms.[5]

The end of the Cold War reduced U.S. reliance on nuclear weapons as a deterrent, causing it to shift its focus to disarmament. This period coincided with an increasing threat to U.S. interests from Islamic nations and independent Islamic groups. With the 1990 invasion of Kuwait and 1991 Gulf War, Iraq's nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons programs became a particular concern of the first Bush Administration.[6] Following the war, the Clinton Administration and other western politicians and media continued to use the term, usually in reference to ongoing attempts to dismantle Iraq's weapons programs.

After the September 11, 2001 attacks and the 2001 anthrax attacks, an increased fear of non-conventional weapons and asymmetrical warfare took hold of the United States and other Western powers. This fear reached a crescendo with the 2002 Iraq disarmament crisis and the alleged existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq that became the primary justification for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. However, no WMD were found in Iraq.

Because of its prolific use during this period, the American Dialect Society voted "weapons of mass destruction" (and its abbreviation, "WMD") the word of the year in 2002,[7] and in 2003 Lake Superior State University added WMD to its list of terms banished for "Mis-use, Over-use and General Uselessness".[8]

Definitions of the term

Military / strategic definitions

The most widely used definition of "weapons of mass destruction" is that of nuclear, biological or chemical weapons (NBC) although there is no treaty or customary international law that contains an authoritative definition. Instead, international law has been used with respect to the specific categories of weapons within WMD, and not to WMD as a whole.

The acronyms NBC (for nuclear, biological and chemical) or CBR (chemical, biological, radiological) are used with regards to battlefield protection systems for armored vehicles, because all three involve insidious toxins that can be carried through the air and can be protected against with vehicle air filtration systems.

However, there is an argument that nuclear and biological weapons do not belong in the same category as chemical and "dirty bomb" radiological weapons, which have limited destructive potential (and close to none, as far as property is concerned), whereas nuclear and biological weapons have the unique ability to kill large numbers of people with very small amounts of material, and thus could be said to belong in a class by themselves.

The NBC definition has also been used in official U.S. documents, by the U.S. President,[9][10] the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency,[11] the U.S. Department of Defense,[12][13] and the U.S. Government Accountability Office.[14]

Other documents expand the definition of WMD to also include radiological or conventional weapons. The U.S. military refers to WMD as:

Chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons capable of a high order of destruction or causing mass casualties and exclude the means of transporting or propelling the weapon where such means is a separable and divisible part from the weapon. Also called WMD.[15]

The significance of the words separable and divisible part of the weapon is that missiles such as the Pershing II and the SCUD are considered weapons of mass destruction, while aircraft capable of carrying bombloads are not.

Chemical weapons expert Gert G. Harigel considers only nuclear weapons true weapons of mass destruction, because "only nuclear weapons are completely indiscriminate by their explosive power, heat radiation and radioactivity, and only they should therefore be called a weapon of mass destruction". He prefers to call chemical and biological weapons "weapons of terror" when aimed against civilians and "weapons of intimidation" for soldiers.

Testimony of one such soldier expresses the same viewpoint.[16] For a period of several months in the winter of 2002–2003, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz frequently used the term "weapons of mass terror," apparently also recognizing the distinction between the psychological and the physical effects of many things currently falling into the WMD category.

Gustavo Bell Lemus, the Vice President of Colombia, at the 2001 United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects, quoted the Millennium Report of the UN Secretary-General to the General Assembly, in which Kofi Annan said that small arms could be described as WMD because the fatalities they cause "dwarf that of all other weapons systems - and in most years greatly exceed the toll of the atomic bombs that devastated Hiroshima and Nagasaki".[17]

An additional condition often implicitly applied to WMD is that the use of the weapons must be strategic. In other words, they would be designed to "have consequences far outweighing the size and effectiveness of the weapons themselves".[18] The strategic nature of WMD also defines their function in the military doctrine of total war as targeting the means a country would use to support and supply its war effort, specifically its population, industry, and natural resources.

Within U.S. civil defense organizations, the category is now Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE), which defines WMD as:

(1) Any explosive, incendiary, poison gas, bomb, grenade, or rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces [113 g], missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce [7 g], or mine or device similar to the above. (2) Poison gas. (3) Any weapon involving a disease organism. (4) Any weapon that is designed to release radiation at a level dangerous to human life.[citation needed]

Legal definitions

The US Code provides several different definitions of weapons of mass destruction, applicable in different contexts:

For the general purposes of national defense,[19] US Code[20] defines a weapon of mass destruction as:

"any weapon or device that is intended, or has the capability, to cause death or serious bodily injury to a significant number of people through the release, dissemination, or impact of—
  • toxic or poisonous chemicals or their precursors;
  • a disease organism; or
  • radiation or radioactivity."[21]

For the purposes of the prevention of weapons proliferation,[22] US Code defines weapons of mass destruction as:

"chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, and chemical, biological, and nuclear materials used in the manufacture of such weapons."[23]

For the purposes of US Criminal law concerning terrorism,[24] weapons of mass destruction are defined as:

  • "any destructive device as defined in section 921 of this title;
  • any weapon that is designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals, or their precursors;
  • any weapon involving a biological agent, toxin, or vector ...; or
  • any weapon that is designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life."[25]
The cited section 921 defines a destructive device as:
"any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas—bomb, grenade, rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces [113 grams], missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce [7 grams], mine, or device similar to any of the devices described in the preceding clauses...."[26]

The Federal Bureau of Investigation's definition is similar to that presented above from the terrorism statute:

  • "Any explosive or incendiary device, as defined in Title 18 USC, Section 921: bomb, grenade, rocket, missile, mine, or other device with a charge of more than four ounces;
  • Any weapon designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through the release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals or their precursors;
  • Any weapon involving a disease organism; or
  • Any weapon designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to human life."[27]

Indictments and convictions for possession and use of WMD such as truck bombs,[28] pipe bombs,[29] shoe bombs,[30] cactus needles coated with botulin toxin,[31] etc. have been obtained under 18 USC 2332a.

The Washington Post reported on 30 March 2006: "Jurors asked the judge in the death penalty trial of Zacarias Moussaoui today to define the term "weapons of mass destruction" and were told it includes airplanes used as missiles". Moussaoui was indicted and tried for the use of airplanes as WMD.

WMD use and control

The development and use of WMD is governed by international conventions and treaties, although not all countries have signed and ratified them:

In 1996 the International Court of Justice provided an advisory opinion regarding the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons. The statement is an authoritative legal pronouncement but not legally binding. It stated that any threat of the use of force, or the use of force, by means of nuclear weapons that is contrary to Article 2, paragraph 4 of the United Nations Charter or that fails to meet all the requirements of Article 51 would be unlawful.

Adopted by the UN Security Council on April 28, 2004, UN Resolution 1540 recognizes the threat posed to international peace and security by the contributions of non-state actors (e.g., terrorist groups and clandestine procurement networks) to the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, as well as their means of delivery. It requires all UN Member States to adopt measures to prevent such proliferation.

WMD use, possession and access

Nuclear weapons

U.S. nuclear warheads, 1945–2002

The only country to have used a nuclear weapon in war is the United States, which dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II. There are eight countries that have declared they possess nuclear weapons and are known to have tested a nuclear weapon, only five of which are members of the NPT. The eight are: People's Republic of China; France; India; Pakistan; Russia; the United Kingdom; the United States of America; and North Korea.

Israel is considered by most analysts to have nuclear weapons numbering in the low hundreds as well, but maintains an official policy of nuclear ambiguity, neither denying nor confirming its nuclear status.

Iran is suspected by western countries of seeking nuclear weapons, a claim that it denies. While the truth is unknown, the November 2007 NIE on Iran stated that Iran halted its nuclear weapons program in the fall of 2003.[32]

South Africa developed a small nuclear arsenal in the 1980s but disassembled them in the early 1990s, making it the only country to have fully given up an independently developed nuclear weapons arsenal. Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine inherited stockpiles of nuclear arms following the break-up of the Soviet Union, but relinquished them to the Russian Federation.

Countries with access to nuclear weapons through nuclear sharing agreements include: Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Turkey. North Korea has claimed to have developed and tested nuclear devices. Although outside sources have been unable to unequivocally support the state's claims, North Korea has officially been identified to have nuclear weapons.

United States politics

Due to the indiscriminate impact of WMDs, the fear of a WMD attack has shaped political policies and campaigns, fostered social movements, and has been the central theme of many films. Support for different levels of WMD development and control varies nationally and internationally. Yet understanding of the nature of the threats is not high, in part because of imprecise usage of the term by politicians and the media.

Fear of WMD, or of threats diminished by the possession of WMD, has long been used to catalyze public support for various WMD policies. They include mobilization of pro- and anti-WMD campaigners alike, and generation of popular political support. The term WMD may be used as a powerful buzzword,[33] or to generate a culture of fear.[34]. It is also used ambiguously, particularly by not distinguishing among the different types of WMD.[35]

A television commercial called Daisy, promoting Democrat Lyndon Johnson's 1964 presidential candidacy, invoked the fear of a nuclear war and was an element in Johnson's subsequent election.

More recently, the threat of potential WMD in Iraq was used by President George W. Bush to generate public support for the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[36][37] Broad reference to Iraqi WMD in general was seen as an element of President Bush's arguments.[35]

As Paul Wolfowitz explained: "For bureaucratic reasons, we settled on one issue, weapons of mass destruction, because it was the one reason everyone could agree on."[38] To date, however, Coalition forces have found mainly degraded artillery shells.

On June 21, 2006, United States Senator Rick Santorum claimed that "We have found weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, chemical weapons." According to the Washington Post, he was referring to 500 such shells "that had been buried near the Iranian border, and then long forgotten, by Iraqi troops during their eight-year war with Iran, which ended in 1988." That night, "intelligence officials reaffirmed that the shells were old and were not the suspected weapons of mass destruction sought in Iraq after the 2003 invasion of Iraq." The shells had been uncovered and reported on in 2004.[39]

In 2004 Polish troops found nineteen 1980s-era rocket warheads, thwarting an attempt by militants to buy them at $5000 each. Some of the rockets contained extremely deteriorated nerve agent.[40]

Media coverage of WMD

In 2004 the Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM) released a report[41] examining the media’s coverage of WMD issues during three separate periods: India’s nuclear weapons tests in May 1998; the US announcement of evidence of a North Korean nuclear weapons program in October 2002; and revelations about Iran's nuclear program in May 2003. The CISSM report notes that poor coverage resulted less from political bias among the media than from tired journalistic conventions. The report’s major findings were that:

  1. Most media outlets represented WMD as a monolithic menace, failing to adequately distinguish between weapons programs and actual weapons or to address the real differences among chemical, biological, nuclear, and radiological weapons.
  2. Most journalists accepted the Bush administration’s formulation of the “War on Terror” as a campaign against WMD, in contrast to coverage during the Clinton era, when many journalists made careful distinctions between acts of terrorism and the acquisition and use of WMD.
  3. Many stories stenographically reported the incumbent administration’s perspective on WMD, giving too little critical examination of the way officials framed the events, issues, threats, and policy options.
  4. Too few stories proffered alternative perspectives to official line, a problem exacerbated by the journalistic prioritizing of breaking-news stories and the “inverted pyramid” style of storytelling.

In a separate study published in 2005,[42] a group of researchers assessed the effects reports and retractions in the media had on people’s memory regarding the search for WMD in Iraq during the 2003 Iraq War. The study focused on populations in two coalition countries (Australia and USA) and one opposed to the war (Germany). Results showed that US citizens generally did not correct initial misconceptions regarding WMD, even following disconfirmation; Australian and German citizens were more responsive to retractions. Dependence on the initial source of information led to a substantial minority of Americans exhibiting false memory that WMD were indeed discovered, while they were not. This led to three conclusions:

  1. The repetition of tentative news stories, even if they are subsequently disconfirmed, can assist in the creation of false memories in a substantial proportion of people.
  2. Once information is published, its subsequent correction does not alter people's beliefs unless they are suspicious about the motives underlying the events the news stories are about.
  3. When people ignore corrections, they do so irrespective of how certain they are that the corrections occurred.

A poll conducted between June and September 2003 asked people whether they thought evidence of WMD had been discovered in Iraq since the war ended. They were also asked which media sources they relied upon. Those who obtained their news primarily from Fox News were three times as likely to believe that evidence of WMD had been discovered in Iraq than those who relied on PBS and NPR for their news, and one third more likely than those who primarily watched CBS.

Media source Respondents believing evidence of WMD had been found in Iraq since the war ended
Fox 33%
CBS 23%
NBC 20%
CNN 20%
ABC 19%
Print media 17%
PBSNPR 11%

Based on a series of polls taken from June-September 2003.[43]

In 2006 Fox News reported the claims of two Republican lawmakers that WMDs had been found in Iraq,[44] based upon unclassified portions of a report by the National Ground Intelligence Center. Quoting from the report Senator Rick Santorum said "Since 2003, coalition forces have recovered approximately 500 weapons munitions which contain degraded mustard or sarin nerve agent". According to David Kay, who appeared before the US House Armed Services Committee to discuss these badly corroded munitions, they were leftovers, many years old, improperly stored or destroyed by the Iraqis.[45] Charles Duelfer agreed, stating on NPR's Talk of the Nation: "When I was running the ISG – the Iraq Survey Group – we had a couple of them that had been turned in to these IEDs, the improvised explosive devices. But they are local hazards. They are not a major, you know, weapon of mass destruction."[46]

Many news agencies, including Fox News, reported the conclusions of the CIA that, based upon the investigation of the Iraq Survey Group, WMDs have yet to be found in Iraq.[47][48]

Public perceptions of WMD

Awareness and opinions of WMD have varied during the course of their history. Their threat is a source of unease, security and pride to different people. The anti-WMD movement is embodied most in nuclear disarmament, and led to the formation of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.

In 1998 University of New Mexico's Institute for Public Policy released their third report[49] on US perceptions – including the general public, politicians and scientists – of nuclear weapons since the break up of the Soviet Union. Risks of nuclear conflict, proliferation, and terrorism were seen as substantial.

While maintenance of a nuclear US arsenal was considered above average in importance, there was widespread support for a reduction in the stockpile, and very little support for developing and testing new nuclear weapons.

Also in 1998, but after the UNM survey was conducted, nuclear weapons became an issue in India's election of March,[50] in relation to political tensions with neighboring Pakistan. Prior to the election the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) announced it would “declare India a nuclear weapon state” after coming to power.

BJP won the elections, and on May 14, three days after India tested nuclear weapons for the second time, a public opinion poll reported that a majority of Indians favored the country’s nuclear build-up.

On April 15, 2004, the Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) reported[51] that US citizens showed high levels of concern regarding WMD, and that preventing the spread of nuclear weapons should be "a very important US foreign policy goal", accomplished through multilateral arms control rather than the use of military threats.

A majority also believed the US should be more forthcoming with its biological research and its Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty commitment of nuclear arms reduction, and incorrectly thought the US was a party to various non-proliferation treaties.

A Russian opinion poll conducted on August 5, 2005 indicated half the population believes new nuclear powers have the right to possess nuclear weapons.[52] 39% believes the Russian stockpile should be reduced, though not fully eliminated.

WMD in popular culture

Weapons of mass destruction and their related impacts have been a mainstay of popular culture since the beginning of the Cold War, as both political commentary and humorous outlet.

Common hazard symbols

See main article: Hazard symbol

Symbol Unicode Image
Toxic symbol U+2620 Skull and crossbones
Radioactive symbol U+2622 Radioactivity
Biohazard symbol U+2623 Biohazard
Chemical warfare symbol N/A N/A Chemical warfare

Radioactive weaponry/hazard symbol

Radioactivity

The international radioactivity symbol (also known as trefoil) first appeared in 1946, at the University of California, Berkeley Radiation Laboratory. At the time, it was rendered as magenta, and was set on a blue background.[53]

It is drawn with a central circle of radius R, the blades having an internal radius of 1.5R and an external radius of 5R, and separated from each other by 60°.[54] It is meant to represent a radiating atom.

The International Atomic Energy Agency found, however, that the symbol is unintuitive and can be variously interpreted by those uneducated in its meaning, and that its role as a hazard warning was compromised as it did not clearly indicate "danger" to many non-Westerners and children who encountered it. As a result of research, a new radiation hazard symbol was developed to be placed near the most dangerous parts of radiation sources featuring a skull, someone running away, and using the color red rather than yellow as the background.[55]

Biological weaponry/hazard symbol

Biohazard

Developed by Dow Chemical company in the 1960s for their containment products.[56]

According to Charles Dullin, an environmental-health engineer who contributed to its development:[54]

We wanted something that was memorable but meaningless, so we could educate people as to what it means.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archbishop's Appeal," Times (London), 28 December 1937, p. 9.
  2. ^ Biological Weapons Program - Japan
  3. ^ "Weapons of Mass Destruction", New York Times Magazine, April 19, 1998, p.22. Accessed online 24 February 2007.
  4. ^ CNN Cold War - Historical Documents: Reagan-Gorbachev transcripts
  5. ^ Excerpts From Bush's Speech at the Opening of the U.N. General Assembly - New York Times
  6. ^ Confrontation in the Gulf; U.S. Explores New Strategies to Limit Weapons of Mass Destruction - New York Times
  7. ^ American Dialect Society
  8. ^ Lake Superior State University:: Banished Words List:: 2003
  9. ^ http://nti.org/f_wmd411/f1a1_letter.html
  10. ^ http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2001_presidential_documents&docid=pd14my01_txt-9.pdf
  11. ^ CIA Site Redirect – Central Intelligence Agency
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ Weapons of Mass Destruction: State Department Oversight of Science Centers Program
  15. ^ Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms
  16. ^ A Soldier's Viewpoint on Surviving Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Attacks
  17. ^ Colombia
  18. ^ What makes a weapon one of mass destruction? - Times Online
  19. ^ US CODE: Title 50—War and National Defense
  20. ^ US CODE: 50, ch. 40—Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction
  21. ^ US CODE: 50, ch. 40, § 2302. Definitions
  22. ^ US CODE: 50, ch. 43—Preventing Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism
  23. ^ US CODE: 50, ch. 43; § 2902. Definitions
  24. ^ US CODE: Chapter 113B—Terrorism
  25. ^ US CODE: Title 18, § 2332a. Use of weapons of mass destruction
  26. ^ US CODE: Title 18, § 921. Definitions
  27. ^ What is A Weapon of Mass Destruction
  28. ^ 8/95 Grand Jury Indictment Of McVeigh & Nichols
  29. ^ FindLaw for Legal Professionals – Case Law, Federal and State Resources, Forms, and Code
  30. ^ U.S. v. Richard C. Reid
  31. ^ http://www.terrorisminfo.mipt.org/pdf/usvwiseandgrebe_99-40247.pdf
  32. ^ http://www.dni.gov/press_releases/20071203_release.pdf
  33. ^ David T. Wright - Weapons of mass distraction
  34. ^ Weapons of Mass Destruction Are Overrated as a Threat to America: Newsroom: The Independent Institute
  35. ^ a b https://ssl.tnr.com/p/docsub.mhtml?i=20021007&s=easterbrook100702
  36. ^ Weapons of mass deception - SourceWatch
  37. ^ War Pimps, by Jeffrey St. Clair [Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in President Bush's War on Iraq, by John Stauber and Sheldon Rampton]
  38. ^ Qtd. in Associated Press, "Wolfowitz Comments Revive Doubts Over Iraq's WMD", USA Today, May 30, 2003, accessed May 8, 2007.
  39. ^ Lawmakers Cite Weapons Found in Iraq - washingtonpost.com
  40. ^ "Troops 'foil Iraq nerve gas bid'". BBC. 2 July 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3861197.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  41. ^ [3] by Prof. Susan Moeller
  42. ^ Psychological Science - Journal Information
  43. ^ Misperceptions, the Media and the Iraq War, PIPA, October 2, 2003
  44. ^ "Report: Hundreds of WMDs Found in Iraq". Fox News. 2006-06-22. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,200499,00.html. 
  45. ^ Kay, David. "House Armed Services Committee Hearing", June 29, 2006
  46. ^ Duelfer, Charles. Expert: Iraq WMD Find Did Not Point to Ongoing Program NPR. June 22, 2006
  47. ^ "CIA's Final Report: No WMD Found in Iraq". MSNBC. 2005-04-25. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7634313/. 
  48. ^ "Iraq WMD Inspectors End Search, Find Nothing". Fox News. 2005-04-26. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,154574,00.html. 
  49. ^ Sandia National Laboratories - News Releases
  50. ^ 17 Days in May - India Nuclear Forces
  51. ^ [4]
  52. ^ Russian public opinion on nuclear weapons - Blog - Russian strategic nuclear forces
  53. ^ "Origin of the Radiation Warning Symbol (Trefoil)". http://www.orau.org/ptp/articlesstories/radwarnsymbstory.htm. 
  54. ^ a b "Biohazard and radioactive Symbol, design and proportions". http://www.michigan.gov/documents/CIS_WSH_part476_54539_7.pdf. 
  55. ^ Linda Lodding, "Drop it and Run! New Symbol Warns of Radiation Dangers and Aims to Save Lives," IAEA Bulletin 482 (March 2007): 70–72.
  56. ^ "Biohazard Symbol History". http://www.hms.harvard.edu/orsp/coms/BiosafetyResources/History-of-Biohazard-Symbol.htm. 

Further reading

Debate

Weapons of Mass Destruction was the 2001–2002 Debate Resolution (policy debate).

"Resolved: The United States federal government should establish a foreign policy significantly limiting the use of weapons of mass destruction. (2001-2002)"

Definition and origin

International law

Media

Ethics

Public perceptions

  • [6], The PIPA/Knowledge Networks Poll, April 15, 2004.

External links


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