The Full Wiki

Week-day names: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The names of the days of the week from the Roman period have been both named after the seven planets of classical astronomy and numbered, beginning with Sunday. Either of these systems was adopted in many languages, with some exceptions due to a number of religious and secular reasons. In Slavic languages, a numbering system was adopted, but beginning with Monday.

Contents

Weekdays named after planets

History

Weekday heptagram

The order of the week days can be derived "geometrically" from an acute heptagram, the {7/3} star polygon (as 24 mod 7 = 3). The luminaries are arranged in the same Ptolemaic/Stoic order around the points of the heptagram. Tracing the unicursal line from one planet to the next gives the order of the

This weekday heptagram probably dates to the Hellenistic period.[1]

Between the 1st and 3rd centuries the Roman Empire gradually replaced the eight day Roman nundinal cycle with the seven-day week. The astrological order of the days was explained by Vettius Valens and Dio Cassius (and Chaucer gave the same explanation in his Treatise on the Astrolabe). According to these authors, it was a principle of astrology that the heavenly bodies presided, in succession, over the hours of the day. The Ptolemaic system asserts that the order of the heavenly bodies, from the farthest to the closest to the Earth, is: Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon. (This order was first established by the Greek Stoics.)

In astrological theory, not only the days of the week, but the hours of the day are dominated by the seven luminaries. If the first hour of a day is dominated by Saturn (Saturn), then the second hour is dominated by Jupiter (Jupiter), the third by Mars (Mars), and so on with the Sun (Sun), Venus (Venus), Mercury (Mercury), and the moon (Moon), so that the sequence of planets repeats every seven hours. Therefore, the twenty-fifth hour, which is the first hour of the following day, is dominated by the Sun; the forty-ninth hour, which is the first hour of the next day, by the Moon. Thus, if a day is labelled by the planet which dominates its first hour, then Saturn's day is followed by the Sun's day, which is followed by the Moon's day, and so forth, as shown below.

According to Vettius Valens, the first hour of the day began at sunset, which follows Greek and Babylonian convention. He also states that the light and dark halves of the day were presided over by the heavenly bodies of the first hour of each half. This is confirmed by a Pompeian graffito which calls 6 February 60 a Sunday, even though by modern reckoning it is a Wednesday. Thus this graffito used the daylight naming convention of Valens whereas the nighttime naming convention of Valens agrees with the modern astrological reckoning, which names the day after the ruler of the first daylight hour.

These two overlapping weeks continued to be used by Alexandrian Christians during the fourth century, but the days in both were simply numbered 1–7. Although names of gods were not used, the week beginning on Wednesday was named in Greek ton theon ([day] of the gods), as used by the late fourth-century editor of the Easter letters of Bishop Athanasius, and in a table of Easter dates for 311–369 that survives in an Ethiopic copy. These overlapping weeks are still used in the Ethiopic computus. Each of the days of the week beginning on Sunday is called a "Day of John" whereas each of the days of the week beginning on Wednesday is called a "tentyon", a simple transcription of the Greek ton theon.

Hour: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Stellar Object → Day
Day 1 Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Saturn → Saturday
Day 2 Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Sun → Sunday
Day 3 Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Moon → Monday
Day 4 Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mars → Tuesday
Day 5 Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Mercury → Wednesday
Day 6 Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Jupiter → Thursday
Day 7 Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Venus → Friday

Greco-Roman tradition

The earliest attestation of a seven day week associated with heavenly luminaries are from Vettius Valens, an astrologer writing ca 170 CE in his Anthologiarum. The order was Sun, Moon, Ares, Hermes, Zeus, Aphrodite, and Cronos; the similarity of Cronos with Chronos was remarked as early as Ptolemy. From Greece the planetary week names passed to the Romans, and from Latin to other languages of southern and western Europe, and to other languages later influenced by them.

Day:
(see Irregularities)
Monday
Luna (English: Luna)
Tuesday
Mars (Mars)
Wednesday
Mercurius (Mercury)
Thursday
Iuppiter (Jupiter)
Friday
Venus (Venus)
Saturday
Saturnus (Saturn)
Sunday
Sôl (Sol)
Ancient Greek ημέρα Σελήνης
heméra Selénes
ημέρα Άρεως
heméra Áreos
ημέρα Ερμου
heméra Hermou
ημέρα Διός
heméra Diós
ημέρα Αφροδίτης
heméra Aphrodítes
ημέρα Κρόνου
heméra Krónou
ημέρα Ηλίου
heméra Heliou
Latin dies Lunae dies Martis dies Mercurĭi dies Jovis dies Venĕris dies Saturni dies Solis
Italian lunedì martedì mercoledì giovedì venerdì sabato [♃1] domenica [☉1]
Spanish lunes martes miércoles jueves viernes sábado [♃1] domingo [☉1]
Romanian luni marţi miercuri joi vineri sâmbătă [♃1] duminică [☉1]
French lundi mardi mercredi jeudi vendredi samedi [♃1] dimanche [☉1]
Galician luns martes mércores xoves venres sábado [♃1] domingo [☉1]
Catalan dilluns dimarts dimecres dijous divendres dissabte [♃1] diumenge [☉1]
Friulian lunis martars miercus joibe vinars sabide [♃1] domenie [☉1]
Interlingua Lunedi Martedi Mercuridi Jovedi Venerdi Sabbato [♃1] Dominica [☉1]
Ido Lundio Mardio Merkurdio Jovdio Venerdio Saturdio [♃1] Sundio
Esperanto lundo mardo merkredo ĵaŭdo vendredo sabato [♃1] dimanĉo [☉1]
Uropi Lundia Mardia Mididia Zusdia Wendia Sabadia [♃1] Soldia
Irish An Luan
Dé Luain
An Mháirt
Dé Máirt
An Chéadaoin [☿2]
Dé Céadaoin
An Déardaoin [♄1]
Déardaoin
An Aoine [♀1]
Dé hAoine
An Satharn
Dé Sathairn
An Domhnach [☉1]
Dé Domhnaigh
Scots Gaelic Di-Luain Di-Màirt Di-Ciadain [☿2] Di-Ardaoin [♄1] Di-Haoine [♀1] Di-Sàthairne Di-Dòmhnaich [☉1]
Welsh dydd Llun dydd Mawrth dydd Mercher dydd Iau dydd Gwener dydd Sadwrn dydd Sul
Cornish Dy Lun Dy Meurth Dy Mergher Dy Yow Dy Gwener Dy Sadorn Dy Sul
Breton Di'lun Di'meurzh Di'merc’her Di'riaou Di'gwener Di'sadorn Di'sul
Manx Jelune Jemayrt Jecrean Jerdrein Jeheiney Jesarn Jedoonee [☉1]
Albanian E hënë E martë E mërkurë E enjte E premte E shtunë E diel
Tagalog Lunes Martes Miyerkules Huwebes Biyernes Sabado [♃1] Linggo [☉1]

Germanic languages

The Germanic peoples adapted the system introduced by the Romans but glossed their indigenous gods over the Roman deities (with the exception of Saturday) in a process known as Interpretatio germanica:

  • Monday: Old English Mōnandæg (pronounced [mon.nan.dæg] or [mon.nan.dæj'), meaning "Moon's Day". This is likely based on a translation of the Latin name Dies Lunae (cf. Romance language versions of the name, e.g., French Lundi, Spanish, Lunes, Romanian Luni, Italian Lunedì). In North Germanic mythology, the moon is personified as a god; Máni.
  • Tuesday: Old English Tiwesdæg (pronounced [ti.wes.dæg] or [ti.wes.dæj], meaning "Tiw's day." Tiw (Norse Týr) was a one-handed god associated with single combat and pledges in Norse mythology and also attested prominently in wider Germanic paganism. The name of the day is based on Latin Dies Martis, "Day of Mars" (the Roman war god); compare: French Mardi, Spanish Martes, Romanian Marţi and Italian Martedì.
  • Wednesday: Old English Wōdnesdæg (pronounced [woːd.nes.dæg] or [woːd.nes.dæj) meaning the day of the Germanic god Wodan (later known as Óðinn among the North Germanic peoples), and a prominent god of the Anglo-Saxons (and other Germanic peoples) in England until about the seventh century. It is based on Latin Dies Mercurii, "Day of Mercury"; compare: French Mercredi, Spanish Miércoles, Romanian Miercuri and Italian Mercoledì. The connection between Mercury and Odin is more strained than the other syncretic connections. The usual explanation is that both Wodan and Mercury were considered psychopomps, or leaders of souls, in their respective mythologies; both are also associated with poetic and musical inspiration. German Mittwoch and Finnish keskiviikko both mean 'mid-week'.
  • Thursday: Old English Þūnresdæg (pronounced [θuːn.res.dæg] or [θuːn.res.dæj]), meaning the Þunor's day. Þunor is commonly known in Modern English as Thor, the god of thunder in Germanic Heathenism. It is based on the Latin Dies Iovis, "Day of Jupiter"; compare: French Jeudi, Spanish Jueves, Romanian Joi and Italian Giovedì. In the Roman pantheon, Jupiter was the chief god, who seized and maintained his power on the basis of his thunderbolt (Fulmen).
  • Friday: Old English Frigedæg (pronounced [fri.je.dæg] or [fri.je.dæj]), meaning the day of the Anglo-Saxon goddess Fríge, and is attested among the North Germanic peoples as Frigg. It is based on the Latin Dies Veneris, "Day of Venus"; compare: French Vendredi, Spanish Viernes, Romanian Vineri and Italian Venerdì. Venus was the Roman goddess of beauty, love and sex.
  • Saturday: the only day of the week to retain its Roman origin in English, named after the Roman god Saturn associated with the Titan Cronus, father of Zeus and many Olympians. Its original Anglo-Saxon rendering was Sæturnesdæg (pronounced [sæ.tur.nes.dæg] or [sæ.tur.nes.dæj]). In Latin it was Dies Saturni, "Day of Saturn"; compare: French Samedi. The Spanish and Portuguese Sábado, the Romanian Sâmbătă, and the Italian Sabato come from Sabbata Dies (Day of the Sabbath).
  • Sunday: Old English Sunnandæg (pronounced [sun.nan.dæg] or [sun.nan.dæj), meaning "Sun's Day". This is a translation of the Latin phrase Dies Solis. English, like most of the Germanic languages, preserves the original pagan/sun associations of the day. Many other European languages, including all of the Romance languages, have changed its name to the equivalent of "the Lord's day" (based on Ecclesiastical Latin Dies Dominica). Compare: Spanish and Portuguese Domingo, French Dimanche, Romanian Duminică and Italian Domenica. In both West Germanic and North Germanic mythology the sun is personified as a goddess; Sunna/Sól.
Day:
(see Irregularities)
Monday
Mona/Máni
Tuesday
Tiw/Tyr
Wednesday
Woden/Odin
Thursday
Thunor/Thor
Friday
Frige or Freya
Saturday
Saturn
Sunday
Sunna/Sól
Old English Mōnandæg Tiwesdæg Wodnesdæg Þunresdæg Frigesdæg Sæternesdæg Sunnandæg
Old High German Mānetag Ziestag Wodanstag (Wuotanstag) Donerestag Friatag Sambaztag [♃1] Sunnuntag
German Montag Dienstag [♂1] Mittwoch [☿1] Donnerstag Freitag Samstag [♃1] or Sonnabend [♃3] Sonntag
Dutch maandag dinsdag [♂1] woensdag donderdag vrijdag zaterdag zondag
Old Norse Mánandagr Tysdagr Óðensdagr Þorsdagr Friádagr Laugardagr [♃2] Sunnundagr
West Frisian Moandei Tiisdei Woansdei Tongersdei Freed Sneon[♃3] or Saterdei Snein
Norwegian, Bokmål mandag tirsdag onsdag torsdag fredag lørdag [♃2] søndag
Norwegian, Nynorsk måndag tysdag onsdag torsdag fredag laurdag [♃2] sundag
Danish mandag tirsdag onsdag torsdag fredag lørdag [♃2] søndag
Swedish måndag tisdag onsdag torsdag fredag lördag [♃2] söndag
Finnish maanantai tiistai keskiviikko [☿1] torstai perjantai lauantai [♃2] sunnuntai
Estonian esmaspäev teisipäev kolmapäev
or kesknädal [☿1]
neljapäev reede laupäev [♃2] pühapäev [☉2]

Hindu astrology

The Greco-Roman scheme of planetary names was also adopted into Hindu astrology during the 2nd century CE. Sanskrit attestations of the navagraha "nine astrological forces", seven of which are used for day names, date to the Yavanajataka "Sayings of the Greeks", a 150 CE translation of a 120 CE Greek Alexandrian text.

Day Sunday
Surya (the Sun)
Monday
Soma (the Moon)
Tuesday
Mangala (Mars)
Wednesday
Budha (Mercury)
Thursday
Guru (Jupiter)
Friday
Shukra (Venus)
Saturday
Shani (Saturn)
Sanskrit भानुवासरम्
Bhaanu
इन्दुवासरम्
Indu
भौमवासरम्
Bhauma
सौम्यवासरम्
Saumya
गुरूवासरम
Guru
भृगुवासरम्
Bhrgu
स्थिरवासरम्
Sthira
Hindi रविवार
Ravivār
सोमवार
Somavār
मंगलवार
Mangalavār
बुधवार
Budhavār
गुरूवार
Guruvār
शुक्रवार
Shukravār
शनिवार
Shanivār
Marathi रविवार
Ravivār
सोमवार
Somavār
मंगळवार
MangaLavār
बुधवार
Budhavār
गुरूवार
Guruvār
शुक्रवार
Shukravār
शनिवार
Shanivār
Bengali রবিবার
Robibar
সোমবার
Shombar
মঙ্গলবার
Monggolbar
বুধবার
Budhbar
বৃহস্পতিবার
Brihôshpotibar
শুক্রবার
Shukrobar
শনিবার
Shonibar
Urdu Itwaar meaning? Peer [☽4] or Shambah Mangal Budh Jumaa-raat Raat = Eve Jumaah [♀4] Saneechar or Haftah [♃6]
Burmese တနင်္ဂနွေ
Taninganway
(Tananganve)
တနင်္လာ
Taninla
(Tanangla)
အင်္ဂါ
Inga
(Angga)
ဗုဒ္ဓဟူး
Boddhahu (night=new day) ရာဟူး Rahu
ကြာသာပတေး
Kyathabaday
(Krasapate)
သောကြာ
Thaukkya
(Saukra)
စနေ
Sanay
(Cane)
Gujarati રવિવાર
Ravivār
સોમવાર
Somvār
મંગળવાર
Mangaḷvār
બુધવાર
Budhvār
ગુરૂવાર
Guruvār
શુક્રવાર
Shukravār
શનિવાર
Shanivār
Maldivian އާދީއްތަ
Aadheettha
ހޯމަ
Homa
އަންގާރަ
Angaara
ބުދަ
Budha
ބުރާސްފަތި
Buraasfathi
ހުކުރު
Hukuru
ހޮނިހިރު
Honihiru
Tamil ஞாயிற்று கிழமை
Nyāyitru day
திங்கட் கிழமை
Thingat day
செவ்வாய்க் கிழமை
Sevvāi day
புதன்க் கிழமை
Budhan day
வியாழக் கிழமை
Vyāzha day
வெள்ளிக் கிழமை
Velli day
சனிக் கிழமை
Shani day
TELUGU ఆదివారం
Aadi Vaaram
సోమవారం
Soma Vaaram
మంగళవారం
Mangala Vaaram
బుధవారం
Budha Vaaram
గురువారం
Bestha/Guru/Lakshmi Vaaram
శుక్రవారం
Shukra Vaaram
శనివారం
Shani Vaaram
Malayalam Nyāyar Thingal Chouvva Budhan Vyāzha Velli Sheni
Kannada ಭಾನುವಾರ
Bhanu Vaara
ಸೋಮವಾರ
Soma Vaara
ಮಂಗಳವಾರ
Mangala Vaara
ಬುಧವಾರ
Budha Vaara
ಗುರುವಾರ
Guru Vaara
ಶುಕ್ರವಾರ
Shukra Vaara
ಶನಿವಾರ
Shani Vaara
Thai วันอาทิตย์
Wan āthit
วันจันทร์
Wan chan
วันอังคาร
Wan angkhān
วันพุธ
Wan phut
วันพฤหัสบดี
Wan phruehatsabodi
วันศุกร์
Wan suk
วันเสาร์
Wan sao
Mongolian адъяа
adiya
сумъяа
sumiya
ангараг
angarag
буд
bud
бархабадь
barhasbadi
сугар
sugar
санчир
sanchir
Javanese Raditya Soma Anggara Buda Respati Sukra Tumpek
Balinese Redite Coma Anggara Buda Wraspati Sukra Saniscara

East Asian Seven Luminaries

The East Asian naming system of week-days closely parallels that of the Latin system and is ordered after the "Seven Luminaries" (七曜), which consists of the Sun, Moon and the five planets visible to the naked eye. The five planets are named after the five elements in traditional East Asian philosophy: Fire (Mars), Water (Mercury), Wood (Jupiter), Gold (Venus), and Earth (Saturn).[citation needed] The earliest known reference in East Asia to the seven-day week in its current order and name is the writings attributed to the Chinese astrologer Fan Ning, who lived in the late 4th century of Jin Dynasty. Later diffusions from the Manichaeans are documented with the writings of the Chinese Buddhist monk Yi Jing and the Ceylonese Buddhist monk Bu Kong of the 8th century under the Tang Dynasty. The Chinese transliteration of the planetary system was soon brought to Japan by the Japanese monk Kobo Daishi; surviving diaries of the Japanese statesman Fujiwara Michinaga show the seven day system in use in Heian Period Japan as early as 1007. In Japan, the seven day system was kept in use (for astrological purposes) until its promotion to a full-fledged (Western-style) calendrical basis during the Meiji era. In China, with the founding of the Republic of China in 1911, Monday through Saturday in China are now numbered one through six, with the reference to the Sun remaining for Sunday (星期日).

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Celestial Object Sun (日) Moon (月) Mars (火星) Mercury (水星) Jupiter (木星) Venus (金星) Saturn (土星)
Old Chinese 日曜日 Rìyàorì 月曜日 Yuèyàorì 火曜日 Huǒyàorì 水曜日 Shuǐyàorì 木曜日 Mùyàorì 金曜日 Jīnyàorì 土曜日 Tǔyàorì
Japanese 日曜日 Nichiyōbi 月曜日 Getsuyōbi 火曜日 Kayōbi 水曜日 Suiyōbi 木曜日 Mokuyōbi 金曜日 Kin'yōbi 土曜日 Doyōbi
Korean (Hangul) 일요일 Iryoil 월요일 Woryoil 화요일 Hwayoil 수요일 Suyoil 목요일 Mogyoil 금요일 Geumyoil 토요일 Toyoil
Tibetan gza' nyi ma gza' zla ba gza' mig dmar gza' lhag pa gza' phur bu gza' pa sangs gza' spen pa

Numbered weekdays

Weekdays numbered from Sunday

For the majority of the Abrahamic religions the first day of the week is Sunday. Biblical Sabbath (originally corresponding to Saturday), when God rested from six-day Creation, made the day following Sabbath the first day of the week (corresponding to Sunday). Seventh-day Sabbaths were sanctified for celebration and rest. After the week was adopted in early Christian Europe, Sunday remained the first day of the week, but also gradually displaced Saturday as the day of celebration and rest, being considered the Lord's Day.

Saint Martin of Dumio (c. 520580), archbishop of Braga, decided it unworthy to call days by pagan gods and decided to use ecclesiastic terminology to designate them. This was the birth of the present Portuguese numbered system. Martin also tried to replace the names of the planets, but was not successful. In the Middle Ages, Galician-Portuguese retained both systems. The Roman gods' names are still used in Galician language.

In the Hebrew and Islamic calendars the days extend from sunset to sunset. Thus, Jewish Shabbat starts at sunset on Friday and extends into Saturday. The first day of the Islamic calendar, yaum al-ahad, starts on Saturday after sunset and extends to sunset on Sunday.

Icelandic is notably divergent, maintaining only the Sun and Moon (sunnudagur and mánudagur respectively), while dispensing with the names of the explicitly heathen gods in favour of a combination of numbered days and days whose names are linked to pious or domestic routine (föstudagur, "Fasting Day" and laugardagur, "Washing Day"). The "washing day" is also used in other North Germanic languages, although the "pagan" names generally are retained.

Day
(see Irregularities)
Sunday
First Day
Monday
Second Day
Tuesday
Third Day
Wednesday
Fourth Day
Thursday
Fifth Day
Friday
Sixth Day
Saturday
Seventh Day
Hebrew יום ראשון
yom rishon
Literal transl.: 1st Day
יום שני
yom sheyni
Literal transl.: 2nd Day
יום שלישי
yom shlishi
Literal transl.: 3rd Day
יום רביעי
yom revi'i
Literal transl.: 4th Day
יום חמישי
yom khamishi
Literal transl.: 5th Day
יום שישי
yom shishi
Literal transl.: 6th Day
יום שבת
yom Shabbat[♃1]
Literal transl.: day of rest
Ecclesiastical Latin Dominica [☉1] feria secunda feria tertia feria quarta feria quinta feria sexta sabbatum [♃1]
Portuguese domingo [☉1] segunda-feira terça-feira quarta-feira quinta-feira sexta-feira sábado [♃1]
Greek Κυριακή
Kyriakí [☉1]
Δευτέρα
Dheftéra
Τρίτη
Tríti
Τετάρτη
Tetárti
Πέμπτη
Pémpti
Παρασκευή
Paraskeví [♀2]
Σάββατο
Sávato [♃1]
Georgian კვირა
Kvira [☉1]
ორშაბათი
Oršabat'i
სამშაბათი
Samšabat'i
ოთხშაბათი
Ot'xšabat'i
ხუთშაბათი
Xut'šabat'i
პარასკევი
Paraskevi [♀2]
შაბათი
Šabat'i [♃1]
Armenian Կիրակի
Kiraki [☉1]
Երկուշաբթի
Yerkushabti
Երեքշաբթի
Yerekshabti
Չորեքշաբթի
Chorekshabti
Հինգշաբթի
Hingshabti
Ուրբաթ
Urbat
Շաբաթ
Shabat [♃1]
Vietnamese chủ nhật or chúa nhật [☉1] (ngày) thứ hai (ngày) thứ ba (ngày) thứ tư (ngày) thứ năm (ngày) thứ sáu (ngày) thứ bảy
Icelandic sunnudagur (Sun) mánudagur (Moon) þriðjudagur miðvikudagur [☿1] fimmtudagur föstudagur [♀1] laugardagur [♃2]
Arabic يوم الأحد
yaum al-aḥad
يوم الإثنين
yaum al-ithnayn
يوم الثُّلَاثاء
yaum ath-thulathā’
يوم الأَرْبعاء
yaum al-’arbi‘ā
يوم الخَمِيس
yaum al-khamīs
يوم الجُمْعَة
yaum al-jum‘ah [♀4]
يوم السَّبْت
yaum as-sabt [♃5]
Malay Ahad Isnin Selasa Rabu Khamis Jumaat [♀4] Sabtu [♃5]
Indonesian Minggu [☉1] (Portuguese) Senin Selasa Rabu Kamis Jumat [♀4] Sabtu [♃5]
Javanese Ngaat / Akad meaning? Senen Slasa Rebo Kemis Jemuwah [♀4] Setu [♃5]
Sundanese Minggu / Minggon Senén Salasa Rebo Kemis Jumaah [♀4] Saptu [♃5]
Persian یکشنبه
yekshanbeh
دوشنبه
doshanbeh
سه شنبه
seshanbeh
چهارشنبه
chaharshanbeh
پنجشنبه
panjshanbeh
آدینه Adineh [♀3] or
جمه Jomeh [♀4]
شنبه
shanbeh
(Night & Day) shabAneh rooz
Kazakh жексенбi
zheksenbe
дүйсенбi
Düysenbi
сейсенбi
Seysenbi
сәрсенбі
Särsenbi
бейсенбі
Beysenbi
жұма
Juma [♀4]
сенбі
Senbi
(Night & Day) shabAneh rooz
Turkish pazar [☉4] pazartesi [☽2] salı çarşamba perşembe cuma [♀4] cumartesi [♃4]
Old Turkic birinç kün ikinç kün üçünç kün törtinç kün beşinç kün altınç kün yetinç kün

Weekdays numbered from Monday

The ISO prescribes Monday as the first day of the week with ISO-8601 for software date formats.

Monday nowadays is considered to be the first day of the week for business and social calendars in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, most of Europe, parts of Asia, some USA calendars, as well as several other countries.[citation needed]) On most U.S. and Japanese calendars however, Sunday is the first day of the week.

The Slavic, Baltic and Uralic languages (except Finnish) adopted numbering but took Monday rather than Sunday as the "first day". [2]

Chinese Sunday means "week day"(星期日 or 星期天). Monday is named literally "week one", Tuesday is "week two", and so on. When China adopted the Western calendar Sunday was at the beginning of the calendar week but today Monday is preferred.

A second way to refer to weekdays is using the word zhou (周), meaning "cycle." Therefore Sunday is referred to as zhoumo (周末), meaning "cycle's end" and Monday through Saturday is termed accordingly zhouyi (周一) "first of cycle," zhouer (周二) "second of cycle," and etc.

Another Chinese numbering system, found in spoken Mandarin and in southern dialects/languages (i.e. Cantonese and Min), refers to Sunday as the "day of worship" (礼拜日 or 礼拜天) and numbers the other days "first [day after] worship" (Monday) through to "sixth [day after] worship" (Saturday). The Chinese word used for "worship" is associated with Christian and Muslim worship.

Day
(see Irregularities)
Monday
First Day
Tuesday
Second Day
Wednesday
Third Day
Thursday
Fourth Day
Friday
Fifth Day
Saturday
Sixth Day
Sunday
Seventh Day
ISO 8601 # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Russian понедельник
ponedel'nik [☽1]
вторник
vtornik
среда
sreda [☿1]
четверг
chetverg
пятница
pyatnitsa
суббота
subbota [♃1]
воскресенье
voskresen'ye [☉3]
Belarusian Панядзелак
panyadzelyak [☽1]
Аўторак
autorak
Серада
serada [☿1]
Чацьвер
chats'ver
Пятніца
pyatnitsa
Субота
subbota [♃1]
Нядзеля
nyadzelya [☉6]
Ukrainian понедiлок
ponedilok [☽1]
вiвторок
vivtorok
середа
sereda [☿1]
четвер
chetver
п'ятниця
p'yatnitsya
субота
subota [♃1]
недiля
nedilya [☉6]
Polish poniedziałek [☽1] wtorek środa [☿1] czwartek piątek sobota [♃1] niedziela [☉6]
Slovak pondelok [☽1] utorok streda [☿1] štvrtok piatok sobota [♃1] nedeľa [☉6]
Czech pondělí or pondělek [☽1] úterý or úterek středa [☿1] čtvrtek pátek sobota [♃1] neděle [☉6]
Slovene Ponedeljek [☽1] Torek Sreda [☿1] Četrtek Petek Sobota [♃1] Nedelja [☉6]
Croatian Ponedjeljak [☽1] Utorak Srijeda [☿1] Četvrtak Petak Subota [♃1] Nedjelja [☉6]
Serbian Понедељак
Ponedeljak [☽1]
Уторак
Utorak
Среда
Sreda [☿1]
Четвртак
Četvrtak
Петак
Petak
Субота
Subota [♃1]
Недеља
Nedelja [☉6]
Macedonian понеделник [☽1] вторник среда [☿1] четврток петок сабота [♃1] недела [☉6]
Bulgarian понеделник [☽1]
ponedelnik
вторник
vtornik
сряда [☿1]
sryada
четвъртък
chetvartak
петък
petak
събота [♃1]
sabota
неделя [☉6]
nedelya
Lithuanian Pirmadienis Antradienis Trečiadienis Ketvirtadienis Penktadienis Šeštadienis Sekmadienis
Latvian Pirmdiena Otrdiena Trešdiena Ceturtdiena Piektdiena Sestdiena Svētdiena
Hungarian hétfő [☽3] kedd [♂2] szerda [☿1] Slavic csütörtök Slavic péntek Slavic szombat [♃1] vasárnap [☉5]
Estonian esmaspäev teisipäev kolmapäev
or kesknädal [☿1]
neljapäev reede laupäev [♃2] pühapäev [☉2]
Chinese Mandarin 星期一 星期二 星期三 星期四 星期五 星期六 星期日 or 星期天
Chinese Hanyu Pinyin xīngqī yī xīngqī èr xīngqī sān xīngqī sì xīngqī wǔ xīngqī liù 'xīngqī rì or xīngqí tiān
Mongolian
(numerical)
нэг дэх өдөр
neg deh odor
хоёр дахь өдөр
hoyor dahi odor
гурав дахь өдөр
gurav dahi odor
дөрөв дэх өдөр
dorov deh odor
тав дахь өдөр
tav dahi odor
хагас сайн өдөр
hagas sain odor [♀5]
бүтэн сайн өдөр
buten sain odor [☉7]

Weekdays numbered from Saturday

Originally, when the Romans named the week-days after pagan Gods, Saturnus (Saturday) was the first day of the Week (first planet in the order explained above).[citation needed]

Day
(see Irregularities)
Saturday
First Day
Sunday
Second Day
Monday
Third Day
Tuesday
Fourth Day
Wednesday
Fifth Day
Thursday
Sixth Day
Friday
Seventh Day
Swahili [3] jumamosi jumapili jumatatu jumanne jumatano alhamisi [♄2] ijumaa [♀4]

Mixing of numbering and planetary names

In Žejane dialect of Istro-Romanian, lur (Monday) and virer (Friday) follow the Latin convention, while utorek (Tuesday), sredu (Wednesday), and četrtok (Thursday) follow the Slavic convention.[4]

Day:
(see Irregularities)
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Istro-Romanian, Žejane dialect lur utorek sredu četrtok virer simbota [♃1] dumireca [☉1]

There are several systems in the different Basque dialects[5].

Day: Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Standard Basque, Guipuscoan Basque astelehena ("week-first") asteartea ("week-between") asteazkena ("week-last") osteguna ("Ortzi/Sky day") ostirala (see Ortzi) larunbata ("fourth", "meeting of friends"), neskenegun ("girls' day") igandea
Biscayne Basque astelena ("week-first"), ilen ("Moon day") martitzena ("Mars day") eguaztena ("day last") eguena ("day of days", "day of light") barikua ("day without supper"), egubakotx zapatua (compare with Spanish sábado from Sabbath) domeka (from Latin dominica [dies])

Notes

Monday

☽1 After No Work
☽2 After Bazaar
☽3 Head of Week
☽4 Master (as in Pir, because Muhammad was born on a Monday[citation needed])

Tuesday

♂1 Thing (Assembly)
♂2 Second day of the week (cf. Hungarian kettő "two")

Wednesday

☿1 Mid-week or Middle
☿2 The First Fast (Christianity)

Thursday

♄1 The day between two fasts (An Dé idir dhá aoin, contracted to An Déardaoin) (Christianity)
♄2 Five (Arabic)

Friday

♀1 The Fast (Celtic) or Fasting Day (Icelandic) (Christianity)
♀2 Good Friday or Preparation (Christianity)
♀3 Day of Faith (Islam)
♀4 Gathering/Assembly/Meeting (Islam)
♀5 Half Weekend

Saturday

♃1 Shabbat or seventh-day Sabbath (Judeo–Christian)
♃2 Wash or Bath day
♃3 Sun-eve (Eve of Sunday)
♃4 After the Gathering (Islam)
♃5 End of the Week (Arabic Sabt = End) (Islam)
♃6 Week

Sunday

☉1 From Latin dominicus "the Lord" (Christian Sabbath)
☉2 Holy Day (Christianity)
☉3 Resurrection (Christianity)
☉4 Bazaar Day
☉5 Market Day
☉6 No Work
☉7 Full Weekend

External links

See also

Books

Websites

References

  1. ^ "It was with the adoption and widespread use of the seven-day week throughout the Hellenistic world of mixed cultures that this heptagram was created." Symbol 29:16
  2. ^ Falk, Michael (1999-03-19). "Astronomical names for the days of the week". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 93 (1999-06): 122–133. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JRASC..93..122F. 
  3. ^ Swahili days, months, dates
  4. ^ http://www.istrianet.org/istria/linguistics/istrorumeno/news/05_1000language-month.htm
  5. ^ Astronomy and Basque Language, Henrike Knörr, Oxford VI and SEAC 99 "Astronomy and Cultural Diversity", La Laguna, June 1999. It references Alessandro Bausani, 1982, The prehistoric Basque week of three days: archaeoastronomical notes, The Bulletin of the Center for Archaeoastronomy (Maryland), v. 2, 16-22.







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message