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Weimar
Coat of arms of Weimar
Weimar is located in Germany
Weimar
Coordinates 50°59′0″N 11°19′0″E / 50.983333°N 11.316667°E / 50.983333; 11.316667
Administration
Country Germany
State Thuringia
District Urban district
Town subdivisions 12 districts
Lord Mayor Stefan Wolf (SPD)
Basic statistics
Area 84.26 km2 (32.53 sq mi)
Elevation 208 m  (682 ft)
Population  64,720  (31 December 2007)[1]
 - Density 768 /km2 (1,989 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate WE
Postal codes 99401–99441
Area codes 03643, 036453
Website www.weimar.de
Classical Weimar*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

The city hall
State Party  Germany
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, vi
Reference 846
Region** Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1998  (22nd Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

Weimar (German pronunciation: [ˈvaɪmaʁ]) is a city in Germany mostly known for its cultural heritage. It is located in the Bundesland of Thuringia (German: Thüringen), north of the Thüringer Wald, east of Erfurt, and southwest of Halle and Leipzig. Its current population is approximately 65,000. The oldest record of the city dates from the year 899. Weimar was the capital of the Duchy (after 1815 the Grand Duchy) of Saxe-Weimar (German Sachsen-Weimar). Its cultural heritage includes the Weimar Classicism of Goethe and Schiller, the Bauhaus as well as the Weimar Republic.

Contents

History

The Grand-Ducal Palace.

The oldest records about Weimar date back to the year 899. Its name changed over the centuries from "Wimares" through "Wimari" to "Wimar" and finally "Weimar". In 1410 it received city rights, however the growth of the city was severely affected by the 1424 fires.

In 1552 Weimar became the capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar (German Sachsen-Weimar) and remained so until 1918.

18th and 19th centuries

During the regencies of Anna Amalia (1758–1775) and her son Carl August (1809–1828), Weimar became an important cultural centre of Europe, having been home to such luminaries as Goethe, Schiller, and Herder; and in music the piano virtuosi Hummel (a pupil of Mozart, Liszt and Bach). It has been a site of pilgrimage for the German intelligentsia since Goethe first moved to Weimar in the late 18th century. The tombs of Goethe and Schiller, as well as their archives, may be found in the city. Goethe's Elective Affinities (1809) is set around the city of Weimar.

Weimar Republic

The period in German history from 1919 to 1933 is commonly referred to as the Weimar Republic, as the Republic's constitution was drafted here because the capital, Berlin, with its street rioting after the 1918 German Revolution, was considered too dangerous for the National Assembly to use it as a meeting place.

Weimar was, beside Dessau, the center of the Bauhaus movement. The city houses art galleries, museums and the German national theatre. The Bauhaus University and the Liszt School of Music Weimar attracted many students, specializing in media and design, architecture, civil engineering and music, to Weimar.

Nazi Germany

Buchenwald's main gate, with the slogan Jedem das Seine (literally, "to each his own", but figuratively "everyone gets what they deserve")

In 1937, the Nazis constructed the Buchenwald concentration camp, only eight kilometers from Weimar's city center. The slogan Jedem das Seine (literally "to each his own", but figuratively "everyone gets what he deserves") was placed over the camp's main entrance gate. Between July 1938 and April 1945, some 240,000 people were incarcerated in Buchenwald by the Nazi regime, including 168 Western Allied POWs.[2] The number of deaths at Buchenwald is estimated at 56,545.[3] The Buchenwald concentration camp provided slave labour for local industry (arms industry of Wilhelm-Gustloff-Werk).[4] World War II ended with Nazi Germany's defeat and division into East and West Germany. From 1945 to 1950, the Soviet Union used the occupied Buchenwald concentration camp to imprison defeated Nazis and other Germans. The camp slogan remained Jedem das Seine. On 6 January 1950, the Soviets handed over Buchenwald to the East German Ministry of Internal Affairs.

German Democratic Republic (East Germany)

Weimar was part of the German Democratic Republic (DDR, East Germany) from 1949 to 1990.

Recent years

The European Council of Ministers selected the city as European Capital of Culture for 1999.

On 3 September 2004, a fire broke out at the Duchess Anna Amalia Library. The library contains a 13,000-volume collection including Goethe's masterpiece Faust, in addition to a music collection of the Duchess. An authentic Lutheran Bible from 1534 was saved from the fire. The damage stretched into the millions of dollars. The number of books in this historic library exceeded 1,000,000, of which 40,000 to 50,000 were destroyed past recovery. The library, which dates back to 1691, belongs to UNESCO world heritage, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe. The fire, with its destruction of much historical literature, amounts to a huge cultural loss for Germany, Europe, and indeed the world. A number of books were shock-frozen in the city of Leipzig to save them from rotting.

Famous residents of Weimar

Schiller House.
Goethe's garden house.
Liszt's garden house.

Districts

  • Ehringsdorf
  • Gaberndorf
  • Gelmeroda
  • Holzdorf
  • Legefeld
  • Niedergrunstedt
  • Oberweimar
  • Possendorf
  • Schöndorf
  • Süßenborn
  • Taubach
  • Tiefurt
  • Tröbsdorf

Education

Transportation

It is connected by one motorway and two routes:

  • Autobahn
  • Routes:
    • 7
    • 85

There are railways running from Weimar to Erfurt (westbound), Halle/Leipzig (north-east-bound), JenaGeraChemnitz (eastbound) and Kranichfeld (southbound). The ICE-line-trains from Frankfurt to Dresden arrive in Weimar every hour.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Weimar is twinned with:

Popular culture

Weimar, as "Traktionstadt Weimar", is the founder of the Traktionstadtsgesellschaft in Philip Reeve's series, the Mortal Engines Quartet. This is a fictional league of German traction cities, later joined by Manchester, formed to combat the Anti-tractionists thousands of years in the future.

See also

References

  1. ^ Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik. "Population data". http://www.tls.thueringen.de/. Retrieved 2007-08-10.  
  2. ^ Bartel, Walter: Buchenwald—Mahnung und Verpflichtung: Dokumente und Berichte (Buchenwald: Warnings and our obligation [to future generations]—Documents and reports), Kongress-Verlag, 1960. p. 87, line 8. (German)
  3. ^ Podcast with one of 2000 Danish policemen in Buchenwald. Episode 6 is about statistics for the number of deaths at Buchenwald.
  4. ^ Edward Victor.Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps.www.edwardvictor.com/Holocaust/List %20 of %20 camps.htm
  5. ^ Liszt School of Music Weimar

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

noframe

Weimar is the town of Goethe and Schiller and is found in Thuringia (Thüringen) state, Germany.

Railway station

By train

The best and most convienent way is by train. Deutsche Bahn offers direct connections from Berlin, Leipzig and Erfurt. Weimar Hauptbahnhof is about a kilometre from Goetheplatz, in the city's center: you can

  • walk: A pleasant ten-minute stroll downhill is a good way to stretch your legs after the train-ride. Cross the square in front of the station and walk down Carl-August-Allee. Go around the right of the building at the end of this road (the Neues Museum), and continue walking in the same direction, now on Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse, continue across the crossing and you soon find yourself in the city centre.
  • take a bus: lines 2, 3, 3A, 3B, and 6 will bring you to Goetheplatz within a few minutes. One-way tickets cost EUR 1.60.

By car

Weimar is connected to the Autobahn A4.

By plane

The nearest airport is in Erfurt [1] but few connections and high fares make it only feasible for business travellers.

The Leipzig Halle Airport (Flughafen) is the closest airport for all intents and purposes. It is an international airport, with most major cities one stop away.

Get around

Weimar is small and the best way is by foot or bike. Weimar has a public transport system but as a tourist you won't need it. Taxis are at night the best way when you feel lost and they are used to cater tourists.

See

Weimar is one of the most historic sites in Germany. It was home of Goethe and Schiller, the two most famous German poets and writers.

  • Bauhaus-University Weimar and the Haus am Horn, part of the Bauhaus Sites protected by UNESCO [2].
  • Stadtschloss (city castle) - Home of the biggest sponsor of Goethe and Schiller. Art gallery.
  • Anna Amalia Bibliothek - Unique library and art selection, famous for it's rococo style. A fire in 2004 did great damage but the lobrary reopened in 2007.
  • Nationaltheater - Foundation place of the first German democracy in 1918 and successor of the Weimar Hof theatre where Goethe's premieres took place. Wellknown theatre today.
  • Park an der Ilm - Picturesque garden with Goethes summer house. Lie down on the lawn and enjoy the scenery
  • Belvedere - charming park with summer castle a short distance to the south of the city
  • Goethe- and Schiller-Memorial in the Theaterplatz - This is a very famous memorial for two great German writers.

Do

The best thing is to take a guided tour through the town because mosts buildings have a story. Either you have time or plan a tour through all buildings of interest.

The nation of thinkers and poets (Land der Dichter und Denker) became a country of judges and hangmen(Richter und Henker) in the period from 1933-45. To complement the experience of Weimar, the cultural capital, make the short trip to the Buchenwald Memorial [3] just 10 kilometers outside town. This is a good experience to see how close genius and nightmare of German history can come.

An excellent introduction to Weimar is Weimar Haus: Das Geschichtserlebnis (in English, "The History Experience"). This is an interactive multimedia tour (choice of languages) through Weimar's history from prehistoric times to the present. It features audio, video, wax figures and detailed sets you move through guided by famous historical figures. Schillerstr. 16.

pèlerinages Kunstfest Weimar - annual event during late summer, four weeks full of cultural events and ectivities.

Zwiebelmarkt - traditionally a harvest market this is today Weimar's biggest fair, one weekend every year in mid October.

In the Theaterplatz there is the Bauhaus-Museum, Weimar is the birthplace of Bauhaus.

Eat

The market square is the home of the centuries-old and extremely tasty Thueringer Bratwurst, which can be bought at one of the many sausage stands during the day. It is widely considered a delicacy. The area is also famous for its cakes, such as the Zupfkuchen, all widely available generally costing around one euro.

There are many good restaurants in the city catering to the tourist market selling all manner of cuisine, and with the compact nature of the city you can never be far away from the food you are wanting.

Drink

In the Hauptbahnhof there is a snack bar where you may find and excellent ice tea.

  • Grand Hotel Russischer Hof, Goetheplatz 2 . 99423 Weimar. 5-star place 135 € (s) / 155 € (d).  edit
  • Labyrinth Hostel Weimar Goetheplatz 6, Tel.: 0178-7487579, E-Mail - Right in the center of town, a new youth hostel and Weimars first private hostel. Prices from 10 €, a bed in a double costs from 20 €
  • Das Hababusch Hostel, Geleitstr. 4, 03643 850737 (, fax: 03643 402615), [4]. checkin: 9am; checkout: 10am-noon. Very central, affordable but a little grungy. It is altogether quite small, so it's a good idea to book ahead of time if possible. €12.50 (dm) / €17.50 (d) / €22.50 (s).  edit
  • DJH Jugendherberge Am Poseckschen Garten, Humboldtstr. 17, 03643 850792 (, fax: 03643 850793), [5]. Near the historical graveyard, this hostel is a bit out of the way. A ten minute walk will bring you downtown, though, and bus-line #6 stops nearby too (Cranachstrasse). ~€20.  edit
  • Tourist-Information Weimar, Markt 10 (close of the city hall), Tel.: +49 3643 745-0, Fax: +49 3643 745420, E-Mail: tourist-info@weimar.de.

Get out

Jena is just a quarter of an hour away. As is Erfurt. The ride to Leipzig takes less than an hour. With a direct connection (no change of trains), Göttingen can be reached in under two hours.

  • Halle (Saale) about 45 minutes away. Has some great things to see. Largest city in Saxony-Anhalt, birthplace of Handel and has a few castles.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

WEIMAR, a city of Germany, the capital of the grand-duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. It is situated in a fertile valley on the Ilm, a small tributary of the Saale, 50 m. S.W. of Leipzig and 141 m. S.W. of Berlin, on the main line of railway to Bebra and Frankfort-on-Main, and at the junction of three lines to Jena, Gera and Berka and Rastenberg. Pop. (1885) 21,565, (1905) 31,121. Weimar owes its importance not to any industrial development, which the grand-dukes discourage within the limits of their Residenz, but to its intimate association with the classical period of German literature, which earned for it the title of the "poets' city" and "the German Athens." The golden age of Weimar, covered by the reign of Charles Augustus from 1775 to 1828, 'has left an indelible impress on the character of the town.

In spite of its classical associations and of modern improvements, Weimar still retains much of its medieval character. The walls survive, indeed, only in isolated fragments, but the narrow winding streets of the older part of the town, and the market-place surrounded by houses with high-pitched gables and roofs are very picturesque. Of the churches the Stadtkirche (parish church), of which Herder became pastor in 1776, is a Gothic building dating from about 1400, but much altered in detail under "classical" influences. It contains the tombs of the princes of the house of Saxe-Weimar, including those of the elector John Frederick the Magnanimous and his wife, and of Duke Bernhard of Weimar, a hero of the Thirty Years' War. The altar-piece is a triptych, the centre-piece representing the Crucifixion; beside the cross Luther is represented, with the open Bible in his hand, while the blood from the pierced side of the Saviour pours on to his head. The picture is regarded as the masterpiece of Lucas Cranach, who lived for a time at Weimar, in the Briick'sches Haus on the market-place. In front of the church is a statue of Herder, whose house still serves as the parsonage. The other church, the Jakobs- or Hofkirche (court church) is also ancient; its disused churchyard contains the graves of Lucas Cranach and Musaeus. The most important building in Weimar is the palace, a huge structure forming three sides of a quadrangle, erected (1789-1803) under the superintendence of Goethe, on the site of one burned down in 1774. A remnant of the old palace, with a tower, survives. The interior is very fine, and in one of the wings is a series of rooms dedicated to the poets Goethe, Schiller, Herder and Wieland, with appropriate mural paintings. Of more interest, however, is the house in which Goethe himself lived from 1782 to 1832. It was built by the duke as a surprise present for the poet on his return from his Italian tour, and was regarded at the time as a palace of art and luxury. It has therefore a double interest, as the home of the poet, and as a complete example of a German nobleman's house at the beginning of the 19th century, the furniture and fittings (in Goethe's study and bedroom down to the smallest details) remaining as they were when the poet died. 1

________________________________________________________________________________

1 To be strictly accurate, they thus remained until the death of Goethe's last descendant in 1884. The house, which had been left to the grand-duke for the nation, was then found to be so structurally rotten that the interior had to be largely reconstructed. Everything was, however, replaced in the exact position it had previously occupied.

__________________________________________________________________________________

The house is built round a quadrangle, in which is the coach-house with Goethe's coach, and has a beautiful, old-fashioned garden. The interior, apart from the scientific and art collections made by Goethe, is mainly remarkable for the extreme simplicity of its furnishing. The Goethe-Schiller Museum, as it is now called, stands isolated, the adjoining houses having been pulled down to avoid risk of fire.

Of more pathetic interest is the Schillerhaus, in the Schillerstrasse, containing the humble rooms in which Schiller lived and died. The atmosphere of the whole town is, indeed, dominated by the memory of Goethe and Schiller, whose bronze statues, by Rietschel, grouped on one pedestal (unveiled in 1857) stand in front of the theatre. The theatre, built under Goethe's superintendence in 1825, memorable in the history of art not only for its associations with the golden age of German drama, but as having witnessed the first performances of many of Wagner's operas and other notable stage pieces, was pulled down and replaced by a new building in 1907. The most beautiful monument of Goethe's genius in the town is, however, the park, laid out in the informal "English" style, without enclosure of any kind. Of Goethe's classic "conceits" which it contains, the stone altar round which a serpent climbs to eat the votive bread upon it, inscribed to the "genius hujus loci," is the most famous. Just outside the borders of the park, beyond the Ilm, is the "garden house," a simple wooden cottage with a high-pitched roof, in which Goethe used to pass the greater part of the summer. Finally, in the cemetery is the grand ducal family vault, in which Goethe and Schiller also lie, side by side.

Wieland, who came to Weimar in 1772 as the duke's tutor, is also commemorated by a statue (1857), and his house is indicated by a tablet. The town has been embellished by several other statues, including those of Charles Augustus (1875); Lucas Cranach (1886); Marie Seibach (1889); the composer Hummel (1895) and Franz Liszt (1904). Among the other prominent buildings in Weimar are the Griines Schloss (18th century), containing a library of 200,000 volumes and a valuable collection of portraits, busts and literary and other curiosities; the old ducal dower-house (Wittumspalais); the museum, built in1863-1868in the Renaissance style with some old masters and Preller's famous mural paintings illustrating the Odyssey. In 1896 the Goethe-Schiller Archiv, an imposing building on the wooded height above the Ilm, containing MSS. by Goethe, Schiller, Herder, Wieland, Immermann, Fritz Reuter, Morike, Otto Ludwig and others, was opened. Weimar possesses also archaeological, ethnographical and natural science collections and the Liszt Museum (in the gardener's house in the park, for many years the musician's home). Among the educational establishments are a gymnasium, and Realschule, the Sophienstift (a large school for girls of the better class, founded by the grand-duchess Sophia), the grand-ducal school of art, geographical institutes, a technical school, commercial school, music school, teachers' seminaries, and deaf and dumb and blind asylums. An English church was opened in 1899. There are a few industries, printing, tanning and clothweaving.

Various points in the environs of Weimar are also interesting from their associations. A broad avenue of chestnuts, about 2 m. in length, leads southwards from the town to the grand-ducal château of Belvedere, in the gardens of which the open-air theatre, used in Goethe's day, still exists. To the north-east, at about the same distance from the town, are the tiny château and park of Tiefurt, on the banks of the Ilm, the scene of many pastoral court revels in the past. To the north-west is the Ettersberg, with the Ettersburg, a château which was another favourite resort of Charles Augustus and his friends.

The history of Weimar, apart from its association with Charles Augustus and his court, is of little general interest. The town is said to have existed so early as the 9th century. Till 1140 it belonged to the counts of Orlamunde; it then fell to Albert the Bear and the descendants of his second son. In 1247 Otto III. founded a separate Weimar line of counts. In 1345 it became a fief of the landgraves of Thuringia, to whom it escheated in 1385 with the extinction of the line of Otto III. At the partition of Saxony in 1485 Weimar, with Thuringia, fell to the elder, Ernestine, branch of the Saxon house of Wettin, and has been the continuous residence of the senior branch of the dukes of this line since 1572. Under Charles Augustus Weimar became a centre of Liberalism as well as of art. It had previously narrowly escaped absorption by Napoleon, who passed through the town during the pursuit of the Prussians after the battle of Jena in 1806, and was only dissuaded from abolishing the duchy by the tact and courage of the duchess Louisa.

The traditions of Charles Augustus were well maintained by his grandson, the grand-duke Charles Alexander (1818-1901), whose statue now stands in the Karlsplatz. The grand-duke's connexion with the courts of Russia and Holland - his mother was a Russian grand-duchess and his wife, Sophia Louisa (1824-1897), a princess of the Netherlands - tended to give the Weimar society a cosmopolitan character, and the grand-duke devoted himself largely to encouraging men of intellect, whether Germans or foreigners, who came to visit or to settle in the town. The art school, founded by him in 1848, has had a notable series of eminent painters among its professors, including Preller, Bocklin, Kalckreuth, Max Schmidt, Pauwels, Heumann, Verlat and Thedy. Under the patronage of Charles Alexander, also, Weimar became a famous musical centre, principally owing to the presence of Franz Liszt, who from 1848 to 1886 made Weimar his principal place of residence. Other notable conductors of the Weimar theatre orchestra were Eduard Lassen and Richard Strauss.

See Scholl Weimar's Merkwil y digkeiten einst and jetzt (Weimar, 1857); Springer, Weimar's klassische Statten (Berlin, 1868); Ruland, Die Scheitze des Goethe National-Museums in Weimar (Weimar and Leipzig, 1887); Francke, Weimar and Umgebungen (3rd ed., Weimar, 1900); Kuhn, Weimar in Wort and Bild (4th ed., Jena, 1905).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Contents

English

Pronunciation

  • Hyphenation: Wei‧mar

Proper noun

Singular
Weimar

Plural
-

Weimar

  1. A city in Germany located in the Bundesland of Thuringia (German: Thüringen), north of the Thüringer Wald, east of Erfurt, and southwest of Halle and Leipzig.
  2. The period in German history from 1919 to 1933, when the nation was under a constitution drafted in the city of Weimar.

Derived terms

Translations

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German Wikipedia has an article on:
Weimar

Wikipedia de


German

Proper noun

Weimar

  1. Weimar

Hungarian

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Hungarian Wikipedia has an article on:
Weimar

Wikipedia hu

Proper noun

Weimar

  1. Weimar (a city in Germany)

Simple English

Weimar

Weimar
Coordinates 50°59′0″N 11°19′0″E / 50.983333°N 11.316667°E / 50.983333; 11.316667
Administration
Country Germany
State Thuringia
District Urban district
Town subdivisions 21 districts
Lord Mayor Stefan Wolf (SPD)
Basic statistics
Area 84.26 km2 (32.53 sq mi)
Elevation 208 m  (682 ft)
Population  64,481  (31 December 2006)[1]
 - Density 765 /km2 (1,982 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate WE
Postal codes 99401 – 99441
Area codes 03643, 036453
Website www.weimar.de
Classical Weimar*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
File:Weimar City
State Party
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, vi
Reference 846
Region Europe and North America
Inscription History
Inscription 1998  (22nd Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
Region as classified by UNESCO.

Weimar is a city in the middle of Germany, in the state of Thuringa. It has about 60,000 inhabitants and a university.

Most famous citizens in the past were the German poets Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller.

The city is well-known for the Weimar Republic, too. It was founded in Weimar in 1919.

References

  1. Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik. "Population data". http://www.tls.thueringen.de/. Retrieved 2007-08-10. 









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