Welsh language: Wikis

  
  
  
  

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Welsh
Cymraeg, y Gymraeg
Pronunciation [kəmˈrɑːɨɡ]
Spoken in United Kingdom, Argentina (Chubut),
Total speakers 750,000+:
Wales: 611,000[1]
England: 150,000[2]
Chubut, Argentina: 25,000[3]
Ranking 266
Language family Indo-European
Writing system Latin alphabet (Welsh variant)
Official status
Official language in Wales
Regulated by Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg (Welsh Language Board)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 cy
ISO 639-2 wel (B)  cym (T)
ISO 639-3 cym
Percentage of Welsh speakers by principal area

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced [kəmˈrɑːɨɡ, ə ɡəmˈrɑːɨɡ]) is a member of the Brythonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, in England by some along the Welsh border and in the Welsh immigrant colony in the Chubut Valley in Argentine Patagonia.[4]

There are speakers of Welsh throughout the world, most notably in the rest of Great Britain, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

The most recent census figures (2001) presented in "Main Statistics about Welsh"[5] by the Welsh Language Board, indicate 582,400 (20.8% of the population of Wales in households or communal establishments) were able to speak Welsh and 457,946 (16.3%) can speak, read and write it. These 2001 figures mark a substantial - 9% - increase when compared with the figures of 508,100 (18.7%) for 1991. Increasing use of the English language had led to a decline in the numbers of Welsh speakers. Since the introduction of the Welsh Language Act 1993, giving Welsh equal status with English in the public sector in Wales, this has been slowed.

The results of the "2004 Welsh Language Use Survey" indicate that there are 611,000 Welsh speakers in Wales (21.7% of the population living in households, a lower figure of 19.7% is given in the same paper). Of those 611,000 Welsh speakers 62% claim to speak Welsh daily; that figure rises to 88% amongst those who consider themselves fluent in Welsh[5].

A greeting in Welsh is one of 55 languages included on the Voyager Golden Record chosen to be representative of Earth in NASA's Voyager program launched in 1977.[6] The greetings are unique to each language, with the Welsh greeting being "Iechyd da i chwi yn awr ac yn oesoedd" which translates into English as "Good health to you now and forever". [7]

See Welsh English, sometimes known as "Wenglish", for the English language as spoken in Wales. Officially, the English and Welsh languages have equal status in Wales.

Contents

History

Welsh as a distinct language emerged in the 6th century from British, the common ancestor of Welsh, Breton, Cornish, and the extinct language or dialect known as Cumbric.

Like most languages, there are identifiable periods within the history of Welsh, although the boundaries between these are often indistinct.

The name "Welsh" originated as an exonym given to its speakers by the Anglo-Saxons, meaning "foreign speech". The native term for the language is Cymraeg, and for Wales, Cymru.

Status

Bilingual road markings in Wales

The 2004 Welsh Language Use Survey shows 21.7% of the population of Wales are Welsh speakers. This is an increase from 20.5% in the 2001 census, and from 18.5% in 1991. The 2001 census also shows that about 25% of Welsh residents were born outside Wales. The number of Welsh speakers in the rest of Britain has not yet been compiled for statistical purposes. In 1993, S4C, the Welsh-language TV channel, published the results of a survey into the numbers of people who speak or understand Welsh, and this estimated that there were some 133,000 Welsh-speakers living in England, about 50,000 of them in the Greater London area and border towns and villages in the Welsh Marches such as Oswestry.[8]

Historically, large numbers of Welsh people spoke only Welsh,[9] but monoglot Welsh speakers are now virtually non-existent, at least above school age. Almost without exception, Welsh speakers in Wales also speak English (while in Chubut Province, Argentina, almost all speakers can speak Spanish; cf. Welsh settlement in Argentina). However, some Welsh speakers are more comfortable expressing themselves in Welsh than in English. A speaker's choice of language can vary according to the subject domain and the social context, even within a single discourse (known in linguistics as code-switching).

Although Welsh is a minority language, support for the language grew during the second half of the 20th century, along with the rise of organisations such as the nationalist political party Plaid Cymru from 1925 and the Welsh Language Society, Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg from 1962.

Welsh as a first language is largely concentrated in the north and west of Wales, principally Gwynedd, Conwy, Denbighshire, Anglesey, Carmarthenshire, north Pembrokeshire, Ceredigion, parts of west Glamorgan, north-west and extreme south-west Powys, although first-language and other fluent speakers can be found throughout Wales.

Bilingual road sign in Cardiff.

Welsh is a living language, used in conversation by hundreds of thousands and seen throughout Wales. The Welsh Language Act 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998 provide that the Welsh and English languages should be treated equally in the public sector, so far as is reasonable and practicable. Public bodies are required to prepare for approval a Welsh Language Scheme, which indicates their commitment to the equality of treatment principle. This is sent out in draft form for public consultation for a 3 month period, whereupon comments on it may be incorporated into a final version. It requires the final approval of the Welsh Language Board (Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg). Thereafter, the public body is charged with implementing and fulfilling its obligations under the Welsh Language Scheme. The list of other public bodies which have to prepare Schemes could be added to by initially the Secretary of State for Wales, from 1993–1997, by way of Statutory Instrument. Subsequent to the forming of the National Assembly for Wales in 1997, the Government Minister responsible for the Welsh language can and has passed Statutory Instruments naming public bodies who have to prepare Schemes. Neither 1993 Act nor secondary legislation made under it cover the private sector, although some organisations, notably banks and some railway companies, provide some of their literature through the medium of Welsh.[citation needed]

Local councils and the National Assembly for Wales use Welsh as a quasi-official language, issuing their literature and publicity in Welsh versions (e.g. letters to parents from schools, library information, and council information) and most road signs in Wales are in English and Welsh, including the Welsh placenames. However, some references to destinations in England are still given in English only, even where there are long-established Welsh names (e.g. London - "Llundain"; The [English] Midlands - "Canolbarth Lloegr").

Since 2000, the teaching of Welsh has been compulsory in all schools in Wales up to age 16, and that has had a major effect in stabilising and to some extent reversing the decline in the language. It means, for example, that even the children of non-Welsh-speaking parents from elsewhere in the UK grow up with knowledge of or complete fluency of the language.

Although most road signs throughout Wales are bilingual, the wording on currency is in English only (This is apart from the legend on Welsh pound coins dated 1985 and 1990, which are legal tender in all parts of the UK: Pleidiol wyf i'm gwlad, which means, "True am I to my country"), and derives from the Welsh National Anthem. The new British coinage from 2008 will not bear any Welsh language at all, despite being designed by a resident of North Wales and being minted at the Royal Mint in Llantrisant, South Wales. Although many shops employ bilingual signage, Welsh still rarely appears on product packaging or instructions.[citation needed]

The UK government has ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages in respect of Welsh.[citation needed]

The language has greatly increased its prominence since the creation of the television channel S4C in November 1982, which broadcasts 70% of Channel 4's programming along with a majority of Welsh-language shows[10] during peak viewing hours. Additionally, there is an all-Welsh-language digital station available throughout Europe on satellite called S4C Digidol, in existence since 1998. The main evening television news provided by the BBC in Welsh is available for download.[11] There is also a Welsh-language radio station, BBC Radio Cymru, which was launched in 1977.

There is, however, no daily newspaper in Welsh, the only Welsh-language national newspaper Y Cymro ("The Welshman") being published once a week. A daily newspaper called Y Byd ("The World") was scheduled to be launched on 3 March 2008 but has been scrapped,[12] owing to poor sales of subscriptions[citation needed] and the Welsh Assembly Government deeming the publication as not meeting the criteria necessary for the kind of public funding it needed to be rescued.[citation needed]

Since December 2001 the British Government has planned to ensure that all immigrants speak English. It remains to be seen if Welsh will be considered a separate case. At present, knowledge of Welsh, English or Scottish Gaelic is sufficient for naturalisation purposes and it is believed that this policy will be continued in any proposed changes to the law.[citation needed]

Vocabulary

Welsh vocabulary draws mainly from original Brythonic words (wy "egg", carreg "stone"), with some loans from Latin (ffenestr "window" < Latin fenestra, gwin "wine" < Latin vinum) and English (sicr "sure" < Middle English siker, fideo "video").

Orthography

Welsh is written in a version of the Latin alphabet traditionally consisting of 28 letters, of which eight are digraphs treated as single letters for collation:

a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, l, ll, m, n, o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y

The letter "j" is used in many everyday words borrowed from English, like jam, jôc "joke" and garej "garage". The letters "k", "q", "v", "x", and "z" are used in some technical terms, like kilogram, volt, xeroser and zero, but in all cases can be, and often are, replaced by Welsh letters: cilogram, folt, seroser and sero.[13] The letter "k" was in common use until the sixteenth century, but was dropped at the time of the publication of the New Testament in Welsh, as William Salesbury explained: "C for K, because the printers have not so many as the Welsh requireth". This change was not popular at the time.[14]

In contrast to English practice, "A", "E", "I", "O", "U", "W" & "Y" are all considered vowel letters in Welsh.

The most common diacritic is the circumflex, which disambiguates long vowels, most often in the case of homographs, where the vowel is short in one word and long in the other: e.g. man 'place' vs mân 'fine, small'.

Grammar

Phonology

The phonology of Welsh is characterised by a number of sounds that do not occur in English and are typologically rare in European languages, specifically voiceless sonorants such as the voiceless lateral fricative [ɬ], voiceless nasal consonants [m̥], [n̥], and [ŋ̊], and voiceless rhotic [r̥]. Stress usually falls on the penultimate syllable in polysyllabic words, while the word-final unstressed syllable receives a higher pitch than the stressed syllable.

Morphology

Welsh morphology has much in common with that of the other modern Insular Celtic languages, such as the use of initial consonant mutations, and the use of so-called "conjugated prepositions" (prepositions that fuse with the personal pronouns that are their object). Welsh nouns belong to one of two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, but are not inflected for case. Welsh has a variety of different endings to indicate the plural, and two endings to indicate the singular of some nouns. In spoken Welsh, verb inflection is indicated primarily by the use of auxiliary verbs, rather than by the inflection of the main verb. In literary Welsh, on the other hand, inflection of the main verb is usual.

Syntax

The canonical word order in Welsh is verb–subject–object.

Colloquial Welsh inclines very strongly towards the use of auxiliaries with its verbs. The present tense is constructed with bod ("to be") as an auxiliary verb, with the main verb appearing as a verbnoun (loosely equivalent to an infinitive) after the particle yn:

Mae Siân yn mynd i Lanelli
Siân is going to Llanelli.

Here mae is the third-person present form of bod, and mynd is the verb meaning "go". The imperfect tense is constructed in a similar manner, as are the periphrasitic forms of the future and conditional tenses.

In the preterite, future, and conditional tenses, there are inflected forms of all verbs (which are invariably used in the written language). However, it is more common nowadays in speech to use the verbnoun together with the inflected form of gwneud ("to do"), so "I went" can be Mi es i or Mi wnes i fynd. Mi is an example of a preverbal particle; such particles are common in Welsh.

Welsh lacks pronouns for constructing subordinate clauses; instead, preverbal particles and special verb forms are used.

Other features of Welsh grammar

Possessives as direct objects of verbal nouns

The Welsh for "I like Rhodri" is Dw i'n hoffi Rhodri ("I am in liking [of] Rhodri"), where Rhodri is in a possessive relationship to hoffi. With personal pronouns, the possessive form of the personal pronoun is used, as in "I like him" : Dw i'n ei hoffi – literally, "I am in his liking" – "I like you" is Dw i'n dy hoffi ("I am your liking").

Pronoun doubling

In colloquial Welsh, possessive pronouns, whether used in the conventional way to mean "my", "your", etc., or to indicate the direct object of a verbal noun, are commonly reinforced by the use of the corresponding personal pronoun after the noun or verbal noun: ei dŷ e "his house" (literally "his house of him"), Dw i'n dy hoffi di "I like you" ("I am [engaged in the action of] your liking of you"), etc. It should be noted that this 'reinforcement' adds no emphasis to the colloquial register. While the possessive pronoun alone may be used (as is especially common in more formal registers as shown above), it is incorrect - and grammatically incomplete - to use only the personal pronoun.

Counting system

The traditional counting system used by the Welsh language is vigesimal, which is to say it is based on twenties, as in standard French numbers 70 (soixante-dix, literally "sixty-ten") through 99 (quatre-vingt-dix-neuf, literally "four twenty nineteen"). Welsh numbers from 11 through 14 are "x on ten", 16 through 19 are "x on fifteen" (though 18 is more usually "two nines"); numbers from 21 through 39 are "1–19 on twenty", 40 is "two twenties", 60 is "three twenties", etc.

There is also a decimal counting system, which has become relatively widely used, though less so in giving dates and ages. This system is especially in common use for larger numbers, and in Patagonian Welsh. In this system, numerals between 10 and 100 have the form "x ten y", e.g. thirty-five in decimal is tri deg pump (three ten five) while in vigesimal it is pymtheg ar hugain (fifteen – itself "five-ten" – on twenty).

While there is only one word for "one" (un), it triggers the soft mutation (treiglad meddal) of feminine nouns, other than those beginning with "ll" and "rh". There are separate masculine and feminine forms of the numbers "two" (dau and dwy), "three" (tri and tair) and "four" (pedwar and pedair), which must agree with the grammatical gender of the objects being counted.

Dialects

Dialectal differences are very pronounced in the spoken and, to a lesser extent, the written language. A convenient, if slightly simplistic, classification is into North Walian and South Walian forms (or Gog and Hwntw based on the word for North, gogledd, and the south Wales word for 'over there'). The differences between dialects encompass vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar, although particularly in the last regard they are in fact fairly minor.

An example of the difference between North and South Walian usage would be the question "Do you want a cup (of tea)?" In the north this would typically be Dach chi isio panad? while in the south the question Ych chi moyn dishgled? would be more likely (though in the South one would not be surprised to hear Ych chi isie paned? among other possibilities permitted by Welsh as by most living languages). An example of a pronunciation difference between Northern and Southern Welsh is the tendency in southern dialects to palatalise the letter "s", e.g. mis (month), would tend to be pronounced [miːs] in the north, and [miːʃ] in the south. This normally occurs next to a high front vowel like /i/, although exceptions include the pronunciation of sut "how" as [ʃʊd] in the south (compared with northern [sɨt]).

Much more fine-grained classifications exist beyond north and south: the book Cymraeg, Cymrâg, Cymrêg: cyflwyno'r tafodieithoedd,[15] about Welsh dialects was accompanied by a cassette containing recordings of fourteen different speakers demonstrating aspects of different dialects. The book refers to the earlier Linguistic Geography of Wales[16] as describing six different regions which could be identified as having words specific to those regions. Another dialect is Patagonian Welsh, which has developed since the start of the Welsh settlement in Argentina in 1865; it includes Spanish loanwords and terms for local features, but a survey in the 1970s showed that the language in Patagonia is consistent throughout the lower Chubut valley and in the Andes.

Registers

Modern Welsh can be considered to fall broadly into two main styles—Colloquial Welsh (Cymraeg llafar) and Literary Welsh (Cymraeg llenyddol). The grammar described on this page is that of Colloquial Welsh, which is used in most speech and informal writing. Literary Welsh is closer to the form of Welsh standardised by the 1588 translation of the Bible and is found in official documents and other formal registers, including much literature. As a standardised form, literary Welsh shows little if any of the dialectal variation found in colloquial Welsh. Some differences include:

Literary Welsh Colloquial Welsh
Can omit subject pronouns (pro-drop) Subject pronouns rarely omitted
More extensive use of simple verb forms More extensive use of periphrastic verb forms
No distinction between simple present and future
(e.g. af "I go"/"I shall go")
Simple form most often expresses only future
(e.g. af i "I'll go")
Subjunctive verb forms Subjunctive in fixed idioms
3rd.pl ending and pronoun –nt hwy 3rd.pl ending and pronoun –n nhw

Amongst the characteristics of the literary, as against the spoken, language are a higher dependence on inflected verb forms, a shift in the usage of some of the tenses, a reduction in the explicit use of pronouns (since the information is usually conveyed in the verb/preposition inflections) and a greatly reduced tendency to substitute English loanwords for native Welsh words. In addition, more archaic pronouns and forms of mutation may be observed in Literary Welsh.

Examples of sentences in literary and colloquial Welsh

English Literary Welsh Colloquial Welsh
I get up early every day. Codaf yn gynnar bob dydd. Dwi'n codi'n gynnar bob dydd. (North) / Rwy'n codi'n gynnar bob dydd. (South)
I'll get up early tomorrow. Codaf yn gynnar yfory. Coda i'n gynnar fory/Na i godi'n gynnar fory
He had not stood there long. Ni safasai yno yn hir.[17] Doedd o ddim wedi sefyll yno'n hir.(North) (D)odd e ddim wedi sefyll yno'n hir. (South)
They'll sleep only when there's a need. Ni chysgant ond pan fo angen. Fyddan nhw ddim ond yn cysgu pan fydd angen.

In fact, the differences between dialects of modern spoken Welsh pale into insignificance compared to the difference between some forms of the spoken language and the most formal constructions of the literary. The latter is considerably more conservative and is the language used in Welsh translations of the Bible, amongst other things (although the Beibl Cymraeg Newydd – New Welsh Bible – is significantly less formal than the traditional 1588 Bible). Gareth King, author of a popular Welsh grammar, observes that "The difference between these two is much greater than between the virtually identical colloquial and literary forms of English".[18] A grammar of Literary Welsh can be found in A Grammar of Welsh (1980) by Stephen J. Williams, or more completely in Gramadeg y Gymraeg (1998) by Peter Wynn Thomas (no comprehensive grammar of Welsh exists in English).

Most Welsh writing, especially that found on the Internet or in magazines, is closer to colloquial usage, though it is often argued that this preference results in questionable orthographical and grammatical choices. This is also becoming more common in artistic literature, where the parallel with the well-known works of Irvine Welsh or Niall Griffiths may be helpful to understand the effect, and the controversy.

Ultimately, the labels Colloquial and Literary may be no more (or less) than convenient approximations: the spoken (i.e. colloquial) language naturally permits the use of formal as well as informal registers, and written (i.e. literary) conventions are likewise flexible in use of registers.

Welsh in education

The decade around 1840 was a period of great social upheaval in Wales, manifested in the Chartist movement, which culminated in 20,000 people marching on Newport in 1839 resulting in a riot when 20 people were killed by soldiers defending the Westgate Hotel, and the Rebecca Riots when tollbooths on turnpikes were systematically destroyed.

This unrest brought the state of education in Wales to the attention of the English establishment, as social reformers of the time considered education as a means of dealing with social ills. The Times newspaper was prominent among those who considered that the lack of education of the Welsh people was the root cause of most of the problems.

In July 1846, three commissioners, R. R. W. Lingen, Jellynger C. Symons and H. R. Vaughan Johnson, were appointed to inquire into the state of education in Wales; the Commissioners were all Anglicans, and presumed to be unsympathetic to the non-conformist majority in Wales.

The Commissioners presented their report to the Government on 1 July 1847 in three large blue-bound volumes. This report quickly became known as Brad y Llyfrau Gleision (The Treachery of the Blue Books)[1] as, apart from documenting the state of education in Wales, the Commissioners were also free with their comments disparaging the language, non-conformity, and the morals of the Welsh people in general. An immediate effect of the report was for a belief to take root in the minds of ordinary people that the only way for Welsh people to get on in the world was through the medium of English, and an inferiority complex developed about the Welsh language whose effects have not yet been completely eradicated. The historian Professor Kenneth O. Morgan referred to the significance of the report and its consequences as "the Glencoe and the Amritsar of Welsh history".[19]

In the later 19th century virtually all teaching in the schools of Wales was in English, even in areas where the pupils barely understood English. Some schools used the Welsh Not, a piece of wood, often bearing the letters "WN", which was hung around the neck of any pupil caught speaking Welsh. The pupil could pass it on to any schoolmate heard speaking Welsh, with the pupil wearing it at the end of the day being given a beating. Many tried in vain to get rid of this bigotry. One of the most famous Welsh born pioneers of higher education in Wales was Sir Hugh Owen. He made great progress in the cause of education, and more especially the University College of Wales (Aberystwyth), of which he was chief founder. He has been credited for with The Welsh Intermediate Education Act of 1889 after which several new Welsh Schools were built, the first of which was built in 1894 and named Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen.

Towards the beginning of the 20th century this policy slowly began to change, partly owing to the efforts of Owen Morgan Edwards when he became chief inspector of schools for Wales in 1907.

The Aberystwyth Welsh School (Ysgol Gymraeg Aberystwyth) was founded in 1939 by Sir Ifan ap Owen Edwards, the son of O.M. Edwards as the first Welsh Primary School. The headteacher was Norah Isaac. Ysgol Gymraeg is still a very successful school and now there are Welsh language primary schools all over the country. Ysgol Glan Clwyd was established in Rhyl in 1955 as the first Welsh language school to teach to a secondary level.

Welsh is now widely used in education, with 20% of all pupils in Wales being taught at Welsh-medium schools.[2] All Welsh universities teach some courses in Welsh (most notably Bangor University and Aberystwyth University), but are primarily English language. Under the National Curriculum, schoolchildren in Wales must study Welsh up to the age of 16 and many choose to continue with it in their A levels and college years. All Local Education Authorities in Wales have schools providing bilingual or Welsh-medium education.[20] The remainder study Welsh as a second language in English-medium schools. Specialist teachers of Welsh called Athrawon Bro support the teaching of Welsh in the National Curriculum. Welsh is also taught in adult education classes. The Welsh Assembly Government has recently set up six centres of excellence in the teaching of Welsh for Adults, with centres in North Wales (learncymraeg.org), Mid Wales, South West, Glamorgan, Gwent and Cardiff. The ability to speak Welsh or to have Welsh as a qualification is essential or desirable for certain career choices in Wales, such as teaching or customer service. More information can be found at Welsh for Adults.org

Welsh in information technology

As with many of the worlds languages, the Welsh language has seen an increased use and presence on the internet, ranging from formal lists of terminology in a variety of fields[21] to Welsh language interfaces for Microsoft Windows XP, Vista, Microsoft Office, and OpenOffice, a variety of Linux distributions, and on-line services to blogs kept in Welsh.[22] Since 2009, the social networking site, Facebook, has been available in Welsh, including Wikipedia (since July 2003)[23].

Mobile phone technology

At the National Eisteddfod of Wales 2009, an announcement was published by the Welsh Language Board that the mobile phone company Samsung was to work with the network provider Orange to provide the first mobile phone in the Welsh language[24], with the interface and the T9 dictionary on the Samsung S5600 available in the Welsh language. The model, available with the Welsh language interface, has been available since 1 September 2009, with plans to introduce it on other networks.[25]

Welsh in warfare

Secure communications are often difficult to achieve in wartime. Cryptography can be used to protect messages, but codes can be broken. Therefore, little-known languages are sometimes encoded, so that even if the code is broken, the message is still in a language few people know. For example, Navajo code talkers were used by the United States military during World War II. Similarly, the Royal Welch Fusiliers, a Welsh regiment serving in Bosnia, used Welsh for emergency communications that needed to be secure.[26]

Use of Welsh at the European Union

In November 2008, the Welsh language was used at a meeting of the European Union’s Council of Ministers for the first time. The Heritage Minister Alun Ffred Jones addressed his audience in Welsh as his words were translated into the EU’s 23 official languages. The official use of the language followed years of campaigning. Jones said "In the UK we have one of the world’s major languages, English, as the mother tongue of many. But there is a diversity of languages within our islands. I am proud to be speaking to you in one of the oldest of these, Welsh, the language of Wales." He described the breakthrough as "more than [merely] symbolic" saying "Welsh might be one of the oldest languages to be used in the UK, but it remains one of the most vibrant. Our literature, our arts, our festivals, our great tradition of song all find expression through our language. And this is a powerful demonstration of how our culture, the very essence of who we are, is expressed through language." [27]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ 2004 Welsh Language Use Survey: the report - Welsh Language Board
  2. ^ UNHCR | Refworld | World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - United Kingdom : Welsh
  3. ^ Ethnologue: Welsh
  4. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A03E4D7153FF930A35757C0A9639C8B63&sec=travel&spon=&pagewanted=2
  5. ^ a b Main Statistics about Welsh from the Welsh Language Board
  6. ^ "Greetings to the Universe in 55 Different Languages". NASA. http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/languages/languages.html. Retrieved 2009-05-10. 
  7. ^ "Welsh greetings". NASA. http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/languages/welsh.html. Retrieved 2009-05-10. 
  8. ^ Summary of 1993 S4C survey
  9. ^ Davies, Janet, The Welsh Language, University of Wales Press, Bath, 1993, p. 34
  10. ^ Welsh language provision at S4C Analogue
  11. ^ At the BBC website (Real Media).
  12. ^ Daily Welsh newspaper abandoned, BBC News Online, 15 February 2008
  13. ^ Thomas, Peter Wynn (1996) Gramadeg y Gymraeg. Cardiff: University of Wales Press: 757.
  14. ^ English and Welsh, an essay by J. R. R. Tolkien
  15. ^ Thomas, B. and Thomas, P. W. Cymraeg, Cymrâg, Cymrêg: cyflwyno'r tafodieithoedd, published by Gwasg Taf, ISBN 0-948469-14-5. Out of print
  16. ^ Thomas, A. R. 1973 Linguistic Geography of Wales
  17. ^ Klingebiel, Kathryn. 234 Welsh Verbs: Standard Literary Forms. Belmont, Massachusetts: Ford & Bailie. p. 223. ISBN 0-926689-04-5. 
  18. ^ King, G. Modern Welsh: A Comprehensive Grammar, published by Routledge, ISBN 0-415-09269-8 p3
  19. ^ John Davies, Hanes Cymru (1993) (also in English translation as A History of Wales, Penguin, 1994, ISBN 0-14-014581-8)
  20. ^ Welsh medium or bilingual provision, Welsh Language Board
  21. ^ The Welsh National Database of Standardised Terminology was released in March 2006.
  22. ^ Selections of Welsh-language blogs are listed on the sites Y Rhithfro and Blogiadur.
  23. ^ Welsh Wikipedia on Wikipedia.org
  24. ^ [http://www.byig-wlb.org.uk/English/news/Pages/Lansio%27rff%C3%B4nsymudolCymraegcyntafybyd.aspx World's first Welsh language mobile phone launched (publish date: 25/08/2009)
  25. ^ BBC
  26. ^ Heath, Tony (1996-08-26). "Welsh speak up for their ancient tongue". The Independent: pp. 6. 
  27. ^ Walesonline.co.uk

References

  • J.W. Aitchison and H. Carter. Language,Economy and Society. The changing fortunes of the Welsh Language in the Twentieth Century. Cardiff. University of Wales Press. 2000.
  • J.W. Aitchison and H. Carter. Spreading the Word. The Welsh Language 2001. Y Lolfa. 2004

External links

Welsh language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Statistical data

Dictionaries

Welsh Language Courses


Simple English

The Welsh language is the ancient Celtic languages of Wales. Around 20% of the people of Wales (approximately 500,000 people), as well as some people outside Wales, can speak Welsh. Many people in Wales say they can understand some form of Welsh, such as spoken, written, or can read Welsh, even if they do not speak it all the time. Almost all Welsh people understand and can use the English language. Welsh is a compulsory subject for children in all schools in Wales, and it taught as a second language in non-Welsh language schools. In Welsh, it is known as Cymraeg, or yr iaith Gymraeg, which means "the Welsh language" in Welsh.

Contents

Language Mutations

Welsh has mutations. Mutations are when a sound (in speech) or a letter (in writing) changes at the start of a word. An example is the Welsh word "gwneud", which in English it means "to do", and "dod", which means "to come". Sometimes the word changes from "gwneud" to "wneud", and from "dod" to "ddod". These sounds (in speech) or letters (in writing) changes also occur within, and at the end, of words, although the simplified classification found in ordinary books does not mention this.

Formal and Informal Welsh

In Welsh, there is formal and informal Welsh. Formal Welsh is used when writing, in formal documents, and when speaking to a group (because it also includes the plural), when speaking to someone older than yourself, speaking to someone you have just met, or someone you would like to show respect towards. Formal words and phrases use variations of "chi", meaning "you." Sometimes, people will ask you to call them "chi."

Informal Welsh is used when sending e-mails or sending text messages to your friends or family, and when talking with people you have known for a long time. Informal words and phrases use variations of "ti", meaning "you." Sometimes, people will ask you to call them "ti."

How to say things in Welsh

There are some sounds and letters that exist in Welsh but not in English, such as the letters (and sounds) ch and ll. The first sound is pronounced like the Scottish Loch Ness, and an example Welsh word that uses the 'ch' is "bach", which means "small." Ll is a voiceless 'l,' and is made by placing the tongue on the top of the top gum, and blowing. A Welsh word that uses the 'll' is "llan", which means "church." Both 'ch' and 'll' are single letters in the Welsh alphabet, along with 'dd,' 'ff,' 'ng,' 'ph,' 'rh,' and 'th.'

Here are some things to say in Welsh. How to say it is in brackets ().

  • "Croeso i Gymru" (Kroy-sore ee Gum-ree) - Welcome to Wales
  • "Dewch i mewn" (Dew-ch ee mewn) - Come in (formal Welsh)
  • "Bore da" (Bor-eh dah) - Good morning
  • "Nia dw i" (Nee-ah do ee) - I am Nia (i.e.,My name is Nia)
  • "Pwy ydych chi?" (Poi Ud-ych ee) - Who are you?, or What is your name? (formal Welsh)
  • "Sut ydych chi heddiw?" (Sit yd-ych ee heth-ew) - How are you today? (formal Welsh)
  • "Sut wyt ti heddiw?" (Sit oy-tea heth-ew) - How are you today? (informal Welsh)
  • "Da iawn diolch" (Dah yoww-n dee-olch) - Very well thank you.

Here are a few other words;

  • "Trwyn" (Troin) - Nose
  • "Hapus" (Hap-is) - Happy
  • "Trist" (Tree-st) - Sad
  • "Rwy'n caru ti" (Roin carry tea) - I love you (informal Welsh)
  • "Heulog" (Hey-log) - Sunny
  • "Eira" (Ey-ra) - Snow
  • "Ci" (Key) - Dog

The Media

Welsh books a newspapers have been printed for hundreds of years. Some of these books have been translated into English, and some books in other languages have been translated into Welsh. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone was translated into Welsh, with the translation of "Harri Potter a Maen yr Athronydd", which means the same as the English title.

BBC Radio Cymru is a Welsh-language radio station that is available throughout Wales. Some local radio stations have some Welsh and English programs during the day.

The Welsh television channel, S4C, has been on air since 1982. It broadcasts shows such as the soap opera Pobol y Cwm, and children's programs such as Superted and Sam Tân (known as Fireman Sam in English).

In August 2009, the mobile phone maker Samsung (with provider Orange) unveiled a new Welsh language mobile phone would be available from September 2009. It includes Welsh language predictive text and menus.[1] [2]

The Welsh Alphabet

The Welsh Alphabet has some extra letters that are not used in English, and does not have some others. Although certain letters do not exist in Welsh, they are used sometimes to make sounds that could not possibly be made otherwise. A good example is the word "garej" (meaning garage). The letter "j" does not exist in the Welsh language, and is a lend-word from English. The traditional word for "garage" in Welsh is modurdy, which means, "motor house". Another lend-word is "toiled," which means "toilet" in English. There are now many lend-words in spoken Welsh. Here is the Welsh alphabet;

A1, B, C, CH2, D, DD2, E1, F2, FF2, G, NG2, H, I1, J, L, LL2, M, N, O1, P, PH2, R, RH2, S, T, TH2, U1, W1 2, Y1.

1 These letters are vowels. The letter 'W' can be used either as a vowel (when it is said 'oo' like in the Welsh word 'cwm' (coom) meaning 'valley') or as a consonant (when it is said like it is in English, for example in the Welsh word 'gwyn' (gwin) meaning 'white'). This is the same with letter 'I' which can also be used as a consonant (when it is said like an English Y like in 'iogwrt' (yog-oort) meaning yoghurt.
2 Letters that are not in the English alphabet, or have different sounds. CH sounds like the 'KH' in Ayatollah KHoumeini. DD is said like the TH in 'THere'. F is said like the English 'V'. FF is said like the English 'F'. NG sounds like it would in English but it is tricky because it comes at the beginnings of words (for example 'fy ngardd' - my garden). One trick is to blend it in with the word before it. LL sounds like a cat hissing. PH sounds like the English 'F' too, but it is only used in mutations. RH sounds like an 'R' said very quickly before a 'H'. TH sounds like the 'TH' in 'THin'. W has been explained in the sentences before about vowels.

References

frr:Waliisisch








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