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This article is about the historical subregion in Eurasia. See Armenian Highland for the geographical region.

Western Armenia (Western Armenian: Արեւմտեան Հայաստան Arevmdjan Hayasdan), also referred to as Byzantine Armenia, later Turkish Armenia, or Ottoman Armenia is a term coined following the division of Greater Armenia between Byzantine Empire (Western Armenia) and Persia (Eastern Armenia) in 387 AD.[1][2]

Contents

History

The Byzantine-Persian frontier as established after the division of Armenia in 384 AD. It would remain essentially unchanged until 591.

After the death of Armenian king Arshak III in 390 AD, Western Armenia was governed by Byzantine generals.[2][3] In the 7th century Western Armenia was one of the centers of the Paulicians, a Christian popular sect.[4] Since 9th century the larger part of Western Armenia, as well as Vaspurakan and Taron, were under the rule of Bagratid dynasty of Armenia. Then the Zakarid Armenia of 13-14th centuries included some parts of Western Armenia.

After Turkish-Persian wars of 1602-1639 Western Armenia became part of Ottoman Empire.[1] Since Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 that term is referred to the Armenian-populated historical regions of the Ottoman Empire that remained under Ottoman rule after the eastern part was ceded to the Russian Empire.

Flag of the Administration for Western Armenia (1915–1918).

Western (Ottoman) Armenia was composed of six vilayets (vilâyat-ı sitte), the vilayets of Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Diyarbekir, Kharput, and Sivas.[5] During the collapse of Ottoman Empire Western Armenia remained under Turkish rule, and in 1894–96 and 1915 the Ottoman Empire perpetrated systematic massacres and forced deportations of Armenians[6] resulting in the Armenian Genocide. The Administration for Western Armenia (Free Vaspurakan) was a provisional Armenian government in areas of Western Armenia under Russian occupation from 1915–1918.

After the Armenian genocide the distinct Western Armenian[7] dialect of the Armenian language (recognized as one of the major dialects of Armenian[8]) is spoken primarily in Istanbul, Lebanon, Egypt, other parts of Armenian diaspora, and formerly in eastern Turkey.[9] It differs orthographically from Eastern Armenian, there are also phonological differences. In some parts of the diaspora, the Armenian schools, such as L'École Arménienne Sourp Hagop and the Armenian Sisters Academy instruct Western Armenian to the students, instead of Eastern Armenian, the official dialect of the Republic of Armenia.

Modern period

{{seealso|Armenian Question|Wilsonian Armenia|Six Armenian vilayets| The fate of Western Armenia — commonly referred to as "The Armenian Question" — is considered as a key issue in the modern history of the Armenian people.[10] The first and second congresses of Western Armenians took place in Yerevan in 1917 and 1919. Since 2000, an organizing committee of congress of heirs of Western Armenians who survived the Armenian Genocide is active in diasporan communities.[11]

Demographics

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Ethnic groups

Ethncic groups in the Six Vilayets (Erzerum, Van, Bitlis, Mamuret-ül Aziz, Diyarbekir and Sivas vilayets) of Ottoman Empire. [12]

Ethnic groups Erzurum Van Bitlis Mamuret-ül Aziz Diyarbekir Sivas Total  %
Armenians 215,000 185,000 180,000 168,000 105,000 165,000 1,018,000 38.93
Turks 240,000 47,000 40,000 102,00 45,000 192,000 666.000 25.47
Sedentary Kurds 35,000 32,000 35,000 75,000 30,000 35,000 242,000 9.25
Nomadic Kurds 40,000 40,000 42,000 20,000 25,000 15,000 182,000 6.96
Qizilbash 25,000 8,000 80,00 27,000 140,000 5.35
Nestorians, Jacobites, Chaldeans 18,000 15,000 5,000 60,000 25,000 123,000 4.7
Zaza, Tambli, Tohariklis 30,000 47,000 77,000 2.94
Circassians 7,000 10,000 45,000 62,000 2.37
Greeks and other Christians 12,000 30,000 42,000 1.61
Yazidis 3,000 25,000 5,000 4,000 37,000 1.41
Persians 13,000 13,000 0.5
Lazs 10,000 10,000 0.38
Gipsies 3,000 3,000 0.11
TOTAL 630,000 350,000 382,000 450,000 296,000 507,000 2,615,000 100

Regions

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Феодальный строй, Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian)
  2. ^ a b Рыжов К. В. Все монархи мира: Древний Восток: (Справочник). - М.: Вече, 2006 (Russian)
  3. ^ s:Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Mesrob
  4. ^ Византия, Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian)
  5. ^ Armenia
  6. ^ Britannica Online: Armenia
  7. ^ АРМЯНСКИЙ ЯЗЫК, «Литературная энциклопедия» (М., 1929-1939. Т. 1-11) (Russian)
  8. ^ http://www.umd.umich.edu/dept/armenian/search/collections.html
  9. ^ UCLA Language materials Project page: Armenian
  10. ^ Arman J. Kirakossian, British Diplomacy and the Armenian Question, from the 1830s to 1914
  11. ^ WESTERN ARMENIANS ARE PREPARING, A1plus, 16 November, 2007
  12. ^ "The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire 1915-1916" by JAMES VISCOUNT BRYCE, London, T. Fisher Unwin Ltd., 1916

Further reading

  • Arman J. Kirakosian, "English Policy towards Western Armenia and Public Opinion in Great Britain (1890-1900)", Yerevan, 1981, 26 p. (in Armenian and Russian).

External links


Simple English

Western Armenia (Armenian: Արևմտյան Հայաստան), also referred to as Byzantine Armenia, later Turkish Armenia, or Ottoman Armenia is a term coined following the division of Greater Armenia between Byzantine Empire (Western Armenia) and Persia (Eastern Armenia) in 387 AC [1][2].

Contents

History

After the death of Armenian king Arshak III, in 390 AC, the Western Armenia was governed by Greek generals[3][4]. In the 7th century Western Armenia was one of the centers of Pavlikian Christian popular sect [5]. Since 9th century the most part of Western Armenia included Vaspurakan and Taron was under the rule of Bagratid dynasty of Armenia. Then the Zakarid Armenia of 13-14th centuries included some parts of Western Armenia.

After Turkish-Persian wars of 1602-1639 Western Armenia became part of Ottoman Empire [6]. Since Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 that term is referred to the Armenian-populated historical regions of the Ottoman Empire that remained under Ottoman rule after the eastern part was ceded to the Russian Empire.

Western (Ottoman) Armenia was composed of six vilayets (vilâyat-ı sitte), the vilayets of Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Diyarbekir, Kharput, and Sivas.[7]After the collapse of Ottoman Empire Western Armenia remained under Turkish rule, and in 1894–96 and 1915 Turkey perpetrated systematic massacres and forced deportations of Armenians[8].

After the Armenian genocide the distinct Western Armenian[9] dialect of the Armenian language (recognized as one of the major dialects of Armenian[1]) is spoken primarily in Istanbul, Lebanon, Egypt, other parts of Armenian diaspora, and formerly in eastern Turkey [10]. It differs orthographically from Eastern Armenian, there are also phonological differences. In some parts of the diaspora, the Armenian schools, such as L'École Arménienne Sourp Hagop and the Armenian Sisters Academy instruct Western Armenian to the students, instead of Eastern Armenian, the official dialect of the Republic of Armenia.

Modern period

The fate of Western Armenia — commonly referred to as "The Armenian Question" — is considered as a key issue in the modern history of the Armenian people[11]. The first and second congresses of Western Armenians took place in Yerevan in 1917 and 1919. Since 2000, an organizing committee of congress of heirs of Western Armenians who survived the Armenian Genocide is active in diasporan communities [12].

Publications

  • Dr Arman Kirakosian, English Policy towards Western Armenia and Public Opinion in Great Britain (1890-1900), Yerevan, 1981, 26 p. (in Armenian and Russian).

Other pages

Other websites

References


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