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Whaling is the hunting of whales mainly for meat and oil. Its earliest forms dates to at least 3,000 BCE.[1] Various coastal communities have long histories of sustenance whaling and harvesting beached whales. Industrial whaling emerged with organized fleets in the 17th century; competitive national whaling industries in the 18th and 19th centuries; and the introduction of factory ships along with the concept of whale harvesting in the first half of the 20th century.

As technology increased and demand for the seemingly vast resources remained high, catches far exceeded the carrying capacity of whale stocks. In the late 1930s more than 50,000 whales were killed annually [2] and by the middle of the century whale stocks were not being replenished. In 1986 the International Whaling Commission (IWC) banned commercial whaling so that stocks might recover.

While the moratorium has been successful in averting the extinction of whale species due to overhunting, contemporary whaling is subject to intense debate. Pro-whaling countries wish to lift the ban on stocks that they believe have recovered sufficiently to sustain limited hunting. Anti-whaling countries and environmental groups contend that those stocks remain vulnerable and that whaling is immoral and should remain banned even if hunting is sustainable.

Contents

History of whaling

Eighteenth century engraving showing Dutch whalers hunting bowhead whales in the Arctic.

Whaling began in prehistoric times and was initially confined to (near) coastal waters. Early whaling affected the development of widely disparate cultures—for example, in Norway and Japan.[3] Although prehistoric hunting and gathering is generally considered to have had little ecological impact, early whaling in the Arctic may have altered freshwater ecology.[4] The development of modern whaling techniques was spurred in the 19th century by the increase in demand for whale oil,[5] sometimes known as "train oil" and in the 20th century by a demand for margarine and later meat.

Modern hunting

Whale oil is little used today[6] and modern commercial whaling is done for food. The primary species hunted are the common minke whale and Antarctic minke whale, two of the smallest species of baleen whales. Recent scientific surveys estimate a population of 103,000 in the northeast Atlantic. With respect to the populations of Antarctic minke whales, as of January, 2010, the IWC states that it is "unable to provide reliable estimates at the present time" and that a "major review is underway by the Scientific Committee."[7]

Dominoes made from whale bones

International cooperation on whaling regulation began in 1931 and culminated in the signing of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) in 1946. Its aim is to

"provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the commercial whaling and the orderly development of the whaling industry".[8]

The International Whaling Commission (IWC) was set up under the ICRW to decide hunting quotas and other relevant matters based on the findings of its Scientific Committee. Non-member countries are not bound by its regulations and conduct their own management programs.

The IWC voted on July 23, 1982 to establish a moratorium on commercial whaling beginning in the 1985-86 season. Since 1992, the IWC's Scientific Committee has requested that it be allowed to give quota proposals for some whale stocks, but this has so far been refused by the Plenary Committee.

Canada

Canadian whaling is carried out in small numbers by various Inuit groups around the country (Led by Pter Lynn) and is managed by Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Harvested meat is sold through shops and supermarkets in northern communities where whale meat is a component of the traditional diet[citation needed], but typically not in southern cities such as Vancouver, Toronto, or Montreal. The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society says

"Canada has pursued a policy of marine mammal management which appears to be more to do with political expediency rather than conservation."


Canada left the IWC in 1982.

Faroe Islands

Tvøst og spik. Black meat of the pilot whale and blubber (middle), together with dried fish (left) and potatoes.

Around 950 long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melaena, actually a species of dolphin) are caught annually, mainly during the summer. Occasionally, other species are hunted as well, such as the northern bottlenose whale and Atlantic white-sided dolphin. The hunt is known as the Grindadráp.

Faroese whaling is regulated by Faroese authorities but not by the IWC, which does not regulate the catching of small cetaceans.

Most Faroese consider the hunt an important part of their culture and history and arguments about the topic raise strong emotions. Animal-rights groups criticize the hunt as being cruel and unnecessary. Hunters claim that most journalists lack knowledge of the catch methods used to capture and kill the whales or of the hunt's economic significance.

Greenland

Greenland Inuit whalers catch around 175 whales per year, making them the third largest hunt in the world after Norway and Japan, though their take is small compared to Japan's or Norway's, who averaged around 590 and 730 whales in 1998-2007., March 2010  The IWC treats the west and east coasts of Greenland as two separate population areas and sets separate quotas for each coast. The far more densely populated west coast accounts for over 90 percent of the catch. In a typical year around 150 minke and 10 fin whales are taken from west coast waters and around 10 minkes are from east coast waters. In April 2009 Greenland landed its first bowhead whale in nearly forty years after being given a quota by the IWC in 2008 for two whales a year until 2012.

Iceland

Icelandic whaling vessels
Minke whale meat kebabs, Reykjavik

Iceland did not object to the 1982 IWC moratorium. Between 1986 and 1989 around 60 animals per year were taken under a scientific permit. However, under strong pressure from anti-whaling countries, who viewed scientific whaling as a circumvention of the moratorium,[citation needed] Iceland ceased whaling in 1989. Following the IWC's 1991 refusal to accept its Scientific Committee's recommendation to allow sustainable commercial whaling, Iceland left the IWC in 1992.

Iceland rejoined the IWC in 2002 with a reservation to the moratorium. Iceland presented a feasibility study to the 2003 IWC meeting for catches in 2003 and 2004. The primary aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of fish–whale interactions. Amid disagreement within the IWC Scientific Committee about the value of the research and its relevance to IWC objectives,[9] no decision on the proposal was reached. However, under the terms of the convention the Icelandic government issued permits for a scientific catch. In 2003 Iceland resumed scientific whaling which continued in 2004 and 2005.

Iceland resumed commercial whaling in 2006. Its annual quota is 30 minke whales (out of an estimated 174,000 animals in the central and north-eastern North Atlantic[10]) and nine fin whales (out of an estimated 30,000 animals in the central and north-eastern North Atlantic[10][11]).

Indonesia

Lamalera, on the south coast of the island of Lembata, and Lamakera on neighbouring Solor are the two remaining Indonesian whaling communities. The hunters obey religious taboos that ensure that they use every part of the animal. About half of the catch is kept in the village; the rest is bartered in local markets. In 1973, the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) sent a whaling ship and a Norwegian whaler to modernize their hunt. This effort lasted three years, and was not successful. According to the FAO report, the Lamalerans "have evolved a method of whaling which suits their natural resources, cultural tenets and style."[12]

Japan

Japanese narrative screen showing a whale hunt off Wakayama.

When the commercial whaling moratorium was introduced by the IWC in 1982, Japan lodged an official objection. However, in response to US threats to cut Japan's fishing quota in US territorial waters under the terms of the Packwood-Magnuson Amendment, Japan withdrew its objection in 1987. However, according to the BBC, America went back on this promise, effectively destroying the deal.[13] Since Japan could not resume commercial whaling, it began whaling on a supposedly scientific-research basis. Australia, Greenpeace, the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society and other groups dispute the Japanese claim of research "as a disguise for commercial whaling, which is banned."[14][15]

The stated purpose of the research program is to establish the size and dynamics of whale populations. The Japanese government wishes to resume whaling in a sustainable manner under the oversight of the IWC, both for whale products (meat etc.) and to help preserve fishing resources by culling whales. Anti-whaling organizations claim that the research program is a front for commercial whaling, that the sample size is needlessly large and that equivalent information can be obtained by non-lethal means, for example by studying samples of whale tissue (such as skin) or faeces.[citation needed] The Japanese government sponsored Institute of Cetacean Research (ICR), which conducts the research, disagrees, stating that the information obtainable from tissue and/or feces samples is insufficient and that the sample size is necessary in order to be representative.[citation needed]

Japan's scientific whaling program is controversial in anti-whaling countries. Countries opposed to whaling have passed non-binding resolutions in the IWC urging Japan to stop the program. Japan claims that whale stocks for some species are sufficiently large to sustain commercial hunting and blame filibustering by the anti-whaling side for the continuation of scientific whaling. Deputy whaling commissioner, Joji Morishita, told BBC News:

"The reason for the moratorium [on commercial whaling] was scientific uncertainty about the number of whales. ... It was a moratorium for the sake of collecting data and that is why we started scientific whaling. We were asked to collect more data."[16]

Norway

Norway registered an objection to the International Whaling Commission moratorium and is thus not bound by it. Commercial whaling ceased for a five year period to allow a small scientific catch for gauging the stock's sustainability and resumed 1993. Minke whales are the only legally hunted species. Catches have fluctuated between 487 animals in 2000 to 592 in 2007. The catch is made solely from the Northeast Atlantic minke whale population, which is estimated at 102,000.[17]

Russia

Russians in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in the Russian Far East are permitted under IWC regulation to take up to 140 gray whales from the North-East Pacific population each year.

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Boy in Bequia carrying meat of a humpback whale caught in 2007

Natives of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines on the island of Bequia have a quota from the International Whaling Commission of up to four humpback whales per year using traditional hunting methods and equipment.

United States

Season Catch[18]
2003 48
2004 43
2005 6
2006 39
2007 63
All catches in 2003-2007 were Bowhead whales.
A traditional whaling crew in Alaska.

In the United States, whaling is carried out by nine different indigenous Alaskan communities. The whaling program is managed by the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission which reports to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The hunt takes around 50 bowhead whales a year from a population of about 10,500 in Alaskan waters. Conservationists fear this hunt is not sustainable, though the IWC Scientific Committee, the same group that provided the above population estimate, projects a population growth of 3.2% per year. The hunt also took an average of one or two gray whales each year until 1996. The quota was reduced to zero in that year due to sustainability concerns. A future review may result in the gray whale hunt being resumed. Bowhead whales weigh approximately 5-10 times as much as minke whales [19].

The Makah tribe in Washington State also reinstated whaling in 1999, despite protests from animal rights groups. They are currently seeking to resume whaling of the gray whale [20], a right recognized in the Treaty of Neah Bay.

Threats

The World Wide Fund for Nature says that 90% of all northern right whales killed are from ship collision, calling for restrictions on the movement of shipping in certain areas. By-catch also kills more animals than hunting.[21]. Some scientists believe pollution to be a factor.[22] Moreover, since the IWC moratorium, there have been several instances of illegal whale hunting by IWC nations. In 1994, the IWC reported evidence from genetic testing[23] of whale meat and blubber for sale on the open market in Japan in 1993.[24] In addition to the legally-permitted minke whale, the analyses showed that the 10-25% tissues sample came from non minke, baleen whales, neither of which were then allowed under IWC rules. Further research in 1995 and 1996 shows significant drop of non-minke baleen whales sample to 2.5%.[25] In a separate paper, Baker stated that "many of these animals certainly represent a bycatch (incidental entrapment in fishing gear)" and stated that DNA monitoring of whale meat is required to adequately track whale products.[26]

It was revealed in 1994 that the Soviet Union had been systematically undercounting its catch. For example, from 1948 to 1973, the Soviet Union caught 48,477 humpback whales rather than the 2,710 it officially reported to the IWC.[27] On the basis of this new information, the IWC stated that it would have to rewrite its catch figures for the last forty years.[28] According to Ray Gambell, then Secretary of the IWC, the organization had raised its suspicions with the former Soviet Union, but it did not take further action because it could not interfere with national sovereignty.[29]

The arguments for and against whaling

Key elements of the debate over whaling include sustainability, ownership, national sovereignty, cetacean intelligence, suffering during hunting, the value of lethal sampling to establish catch quotas, and the value of controlling whales' impact on fish stocks.

References

  1. ^ The history of whaling. Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  2. ^ http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0008542 Whaling The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  3. ^ Matera, Anthony. "Whale quotas: A market-based solution to the whaling controversy," Georgetown International Environmental Law Review. Fall 2000.
  4. ^ Douglas, M. S. V.; Smol, J. P., Savelle, J. M. & Blais, J. M. (2004). "Prehistoric Inuit Whalers affected Arctic Freshwater Ecosystems". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 (6): 1613–1617. doi:10.1073/pnas.0307570100. PMID 14745043. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=341790. 
  5. ^ "From Old Dartmouth to New Bedford, Whaling Metropolis of the World Whaling should be stopped!". Old Dartmouth Historical Society. http://www.whalingmuseum.org/library/old_nb/old_nb_index.html. Retrieved 2008-12-14. 
  6. ^ http://www.petroleumhistory.org/OilHistory/pages/Whale/whale.html
  7. ^ http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/estimate.htm
  8. ^ http://www.iwcoffice.org/commission/convention.htm The Convention
  9. ^ "Recent Icelandic Proposal on scientific permits". IWC. http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/permits.htm#iceland. Retrieved 2007-03-19. 
  10. ^ a b "Whale Population Estimates". International Whaling Commission. http://www.iwcoffice.org/conservation/estimate.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-03. 
  11. ^ "Iceland to resume commercial whaling hunts". Reuters. 2006-10-17. http://today.reuters.com/news/articlenews.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-10-17T142254Z_01_L17824455_RTRUKOC_0_US-ENVIRONMENT-WHALING.xml. Retrieved 2006-12-03. 
  12. ^ Bruemmer, Fred (2001). "Sea hunters of Lamalera". Natural History (Natural History) 110 (8): 54–59. ISSN 0028-0712
  13. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6659401.stm BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Did Greens help kill the whale?
  14. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article3325580.ece | date = 8 February 2008
  15. ^ http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601101&sid=aPhG1CfyPue0 | date = 30 May 2007
  16. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7153594.stm
  17. ^ 2008 IWC
  18. ^ 2007 Chair's report
  19. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/guides/456900/456973/html/nn6page1.stm BBC NEWS | In Depth
  20. ^ http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/Marine-Mammals/Whales-Dolphins-Porpoise/Gray-Whales/Makah-Whale-Hunt.cfm Makah Whale Hunt
  21. ^ http://www.panda.org/what_we_do/endangered_species/cetaceans/threats/shipping/
  22. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/806343.stm] BBC News
  23. ^ Baker, Scott. Report to the International Whaling Commission (1994)
  24. ^ Baker, C. S.; Palumbi, S. R. (1994). "Which Whales are Hunted? A Molecular Genetic Approach to Monitoring Whaling" (–Scholar search). Science 265 (5178): 1538–1539. doi:10.1126/science.265.5178.1538. PMID 17801528. http://www.jstor.org/view/00368075/di002281/00p0269z/0?frame=noframe&userID=822135176@man.ac.uk/01cce4401e16e710d8ad0a8b2&dpi=3&config=jstor. Retrieved 2006-12-03. 
  25. ^ Palumbi, S. R.; Cipriano, F. (1998). "Species identification using genetic tools: The value of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences in whale conservation" (PDF). The Journal of Heredity 89 (5): 459–464. doi:10.1093/jhered/89.5.459. PMID 9768497. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/oceanography/courses_html/OCN331/Palumbi&Cipriano.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-03. 
  26. ^ "Modern Whaling" (PDF). 2002. http://whale.wheelock.edu/archives/ask03/att-0087/01-whalingemm.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-03. 
  27. ^ Angier, Natalie (1994-09-13). "DNA Tests Find Meat of Endangered Whales for Sale in Japan". New York Times. 
  28. ^ Hearst, David (1994-02-12). "Soviet Files Hid Systematic Slaughter of World Whale Herds". Gazette (Montreal). 
  29. ^ Williams, David (1994-02-23). "We Didn't Know About the Whale Slaughter". Agence Fr. Presse. 

Simple English

Whaling is the practice of hunting whales. This is done to get meat and oil, called blubber. Whaling has been done at least since 3000 BC.[1]

Many communities on the coast have done whaling for food for a long time. They have also killed stranded whales.

Industrialisation started in the 17th century and also affected whaling. Special ships were built for whaling, and whales were hunted until they were almost extinct.

As technology increased and demand for the seemingly vast resources remained high, catches far exceeded the carrying capacity of whale stocks. In the late 1930s more than 50,000 whales were killed each year. [2] By the middle of the 20th century, whale stocks could not recover. In 1986, the International Whaling Commission introduced a moratorium on commercial whaling so that stocks might recover.

This moratorium was successful, and permits whale stocks to recover. There is a debate about whaling in general. Countries which are in favor of whaling want to do away with the moratorium, so they can again hunt whales as they did before. Countries and environmental groups say that whaling is immoral, and that stocks have not yet recovered sufficiently. As whaling is immoral it should be banned.

The History of Hunting

Whales have a thick layer of fat under their skin called blubber. For many years, the Eskimos of Alaska depended on these whales to live. Every part of a whale was used: the bones, the blubber, and the skin - every bit of it. In this way, one whale could feed an Eskimo community for a long time. They were important to the Eskimos. However, sometimes a good thing can get out of control and become a bad thing. This was what happened in whale hunting.

Whale blubber was not used only by Eskimos. Soon it became a product everybody wanted. This was because before electricity was invented, blubber was used as oil for lamps. They also used whale blubber to oil machines and make lots of expensive makeup. Because of this, people hunted and killed whales to make money.

The whalers found out the paths whales liked to take in the ocean, and killed them mercilessly. It was a dangerous and frightening job.Whalers would jump into a small boat and follow the whale. Once they were close to it, they would throw a harpoon that was attached to a very long rope into the whale. The end of this harpoon was not at all like a spear. It had a switch blade on the end that would stay in the whale's skin. Once the harpoon was in the whale, the whale would start swimming as fast as it could. The whale might swim day and night with no stop for several days. Eventually, the tired and hurt whale would stop. The whalers would then kill the whale with one last harpoon. When the animal died, the whalers would haul the whale onto the ship, skin it, then boil the blubber for the oil.[3]

File:Whaling
A whale's greatest fear

Soon, boats began getting bigger. Whalers began using a harpoon like before, but the harpoon has a grenade inside. This was very cruel way of killing whales as it hurt them a lot. The whale would then have blood coming out of its blowhole. This meant the poor whale would die soon.
Sometimes entire whale families were found, and as many were killed as possible. Because of whaling, lots of whales became almost extinct. [4]

More happily, whales are protected by conservation laws that stop people from killing too many of them. Also, chemists invented many products thta take the place of whale blubber, and electricity, too, was invented. Now, many countries have agreed not to hunt whales, because otherwise all the whales might die. They signed a treaty a piece agreeing on this though Norway and Japan still hunt whales. Russia is also practising whaling but not in such a huge way (Japan still does hunt often, however).

References

  1. The history of whaling. Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  2. Whaling. The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  3. Exploring Creation with Zoology 2 by Jeannie K. Fulbright
  4. Exploring Creation with Zoology 2 by Jeannie K. Fulbright
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