Wheat: Wikis

  
  
  
  
















































Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wheat
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Tribe: Triticeae
Genus: Triticum
L.
Species
T. aestivum
Triticum aethiopicum
Triticum araraticum
Triticum boeoticum
Triticum carthlicum
Triticum compactum
T. dicoccoides
T. dicoccum
T. durum
Triticum ispahanicum
Triticum karamyschevii
Triticum macha
Triticum militinae
T. monococcum
T. polonicum
T. spelta
T. sphaerococcum
T. timopheevii
Triticum turanicum
Triticum turgidum
Triticum urartu
Triticum vavilovii
Triticum zhukovskyi
.References:
  Serial No.
^ In paragraph 35, which is the heart of the allegations concerning the conveying of the representations, we have just a series of very general allegations to which there is no reference of an advertisement actually made.
  • Cereal Case: False Advertising Regarding Cereal 19 November 2009 17:35 UTC banzhaf.net [Source type: Original source]

42236 ITIS 2002-09-22
.Wheat (Triticum spp.^ INFORMATION ON WHEAT: Wheat (Triticum spp.
  • Wheat on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)[1] is a .grass, originally from the Fertile Crescent region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide.^ Over 200 such varieties have been described, with near 100 now cultivated.
  • Wheat- Triticum species 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.hort.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wheat grain or kernel Common wheat, Triticum aestivum Linnaeus Wheat (various species of the genus Triticum ) is a grass with so many important uses that it is cultivated worldwide.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although a relatively new player in the Middle East, in recent years China has invested diplomatic efforts into cultivating relations with countries in the region.
  • China News: Oil | China Digital Times (CDT) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC chinadigitaltimes.net [Source type: News]

.In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize (784 million tons) and rice (651 million tons).^ As a result of aggressive promotional programs supported by Washington wheat producers, countries which have traditionally relied on a rice diet, such as Japan, Korea and Taiwan, are now consuming products made from soft white wheat.
  • 96 Washington Wheat Facts, Revised 1999, Washington Wheat Commision 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.bluefish.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But while most of the oil found in the Middle East can be extracted relatively easily through traditional production methods, the Orinoco’s oil sands are tougher to produce.

^ This product does NOT contain milk, egg, fish, gluten, corn, peanuts, crustacean shellfish, soybeans, tree nuts, wheat, yeast, or rice.
  • Calcium AEP - Nerves, Numbness, Repair | Wellness Resources, Inc. 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.wellnessresources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and steamed breads, biscuits, cookies, cakes, breakfast cereal, pasta, noodles, couscous [3] and for fermentation to make beer,[4] other alcoholic beverages,[5] or biofuel.^ OR cake flour (Don't use this in bread.
  • Cook's Thesaurus: Wheat Flours 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.foodsubs.com [Source type: General]

^ Most often whole grains are milled into flour and used to make breads, cereals, pasta, crackers, and other grain-based foods.
  • Whole grain Fact Sheet (EUFIC) 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.eufic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, iron is added to many food products, especially breakfast cereals, breads, and other grain products.

[6] .Wheat is planted to a limited extent as a forage crop for livestock, and its straw can be used as a construction material for roofing thatch.^ Some wheat is planted as a forage crop for livestock, straw made from stems and leaves can be used as bedding for livestock, or as a construction material for roofing thatch .
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ B. Installer Qualifications: Engage an experienced installer who has successfully completed work using products similar in material, design and extent to the ones specified for this project.
  • Lead Glass for Radation Shielding 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.drct.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The iron once cooled, is called pig iron , while the slag can be used as a material in road construction or to improve mineral-poor soils for agriculture .
  • Iron encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7][8]

Contents

History

.Wheat has been cultivated domestically at least since 9,000 B.C. and probably earlier.^ It was the cultivation of grains--members of the grass family--that made civilization possible.1 Since wheat is one of the oldest known grains, its cultivation is as old as civilization itself.
  • More Reasons to Avoid Wheat 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC articles.mercola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a round figure, it is correct to say that wheats have been domesticated for about 10,000 years.
  • Wheat on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, as mutant forms ('sports') of wheat were preferentially chosen by farmers.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Domesticated Einkorn wheat at Nevalı Çori—40 miles (64 km) northwest of Gobekli Tepe in Turkey—has been dated to 9,000 B.C.[9] However evidence for the exploitation of wild barley has been dated to 23,000 B.C. and some say this is also true of pre-domesticated wheat.^ Domesticated einkorn and emmer wheat has been identified at three PPNA sites in the northern Levant, Iraq ed-Dubb, Jericho and Tell Aswad, but both the dating and the domesticated status of these cereals is disputed.
  • Wheat on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Simkiss says the oldest evidence for life on earth is probably the algal limestones of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) which are dated as 2.7 billion years old.
  • 85.07.08: The Calcium Cycle 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The genetic relationships between wild and domesticated populations of both einkorn and emmer wheat indicate that the most likely site of domestication is near Diyarbakır in Turkey.
  • Wheat on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

Genetics

Spikelets of a hulled wheat, einkorn
.Wheat genetics is more complicated than that of most other domesticated species.^ FISHES: more than one species of fish .
  • FISH, a quick course on Ichthyology 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.marinebiology.org [Source type: Original source]

^ See also Wheat taxonomy , Plant breeding Wheat genetics is more complicated than that of most other domesticated species.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The more primitive morphology of hulled wheat consists of toughened glumes that tightly enclose the grains, and (in domesticated wheats) a semi-brittle rachis that breaks easily on threshing.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some wheat species are diploid, with two sets of chromosomes, but many are stable polyploids, with four sets of chromosomes (tetraploid) or six (hexaploid).^ Styles have lists of feats awarded at levels one, two, and six, plus a skill boost at first level and a special ability at sixth level.
  • Basalt Tides - Classes 1 February 2010 1:13 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every koi fish is unique and even if some of their colors and patterns may show similarities, no two of these species could ever be alike.

^ First 200 - The Traffic Tactics Workshop DVD Recordings -- This a six DVD set of a special workshop that was done earlier in the year and many considered it one of the best internet marketing events ever put on.
  • Lead Supreme 3.0 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC leadsupreme.com [Source type: General]

[11]
.
  • Einkorn wheat (T. monococcum) is diploid.^ Einkorn wheat ( T. monococcum ) is diploid (AA, two complements of seven chromosomes, 2n=14) Tetraploid wheats have four sets of chromosomes, twice the number of chromosomes as a diploid wheat (4n=28).
    • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    [1]
  • .
  • Most tetraploid wheats (e.g.^ Most tetraploid wheats (e.g.
    • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The only tetraploid (AABB) form of wheat in wide use today, and the second most widely cultivated wheat species.
    • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    .emmer and durum wheat) are derived from wild emmer, T. dicoccoides.^ RP-HPLC of the gliadin proteins of T. dicoccoides-derived high protein HRS wheat lines - characterization of fractions and relationship to breadmaking quality.
    • Cereal and Food Sciences 2 February 2010 13:57 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Right: Free-threshing wheat (common wheat) Several wild species of wheat, and the domesticated einkorn , emmer and spelt wheats, are hulled (in German Spelzweizen ).
    • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Inheritance of gluten protein components of T. dicoccoides-derived high protein HRS wheat lines.
    • Cereal and Food Sciences 2 February 2010 13:57 UTC www.ag.ndsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Wild emmer is the result of a hybridization between two diploid wild grasses, T. urartu and a wild goatgrass such as Aegilops searsii or Ae.^ The genetic relationships between wild and domesticated populations of both einkorn and emmer wheat indicate that the most likely site of domestication is near Diyarbakır in Turkey.
    • Wheat on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Wild emmer itself is the result of a hybridization between two diploid wild grasses, T. urartu (AA) and a wild goat-grass (BB), never identified among now surviving wild grasses, but whose closest living relative is Aegilops speltoides .
    • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Tetraploid wheats are hybrid species that arise by cross fertilizations between two different wild grasses.
    • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    speltoides
    ..December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The hybridization that formed wild emmer occurred in the wild, long before domestication.^ The hybridization that formed wild emmer (AABB) happened long before domestication, and was driven by natural selection.
    • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The genetic relationships between wild and domesticated populations of both einkorn and emmer wheat indicate that the most likely site of domestication is near Diyarbakır in Turkey.
    • Wheat on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The space between the surface of the earth and the ionosphere forms a resonance cavity for naturally occurring electromagnetic frequencies.
    • Alkalize For Health - The healing power of fresh fruit and vegetable juices. - Cancer Alternatives 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.alkalizeforhealth.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [11]
  • .
  • Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields.^ Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields.
    • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Farmers use options as insurance against price declines for wheat in the field or bin, or to benefit from price increases if the wheat has been sold.
    • Wheat Options - Kansas City Board of Trade 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.kcbt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Either domesticated emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass (Aegilops tauschii) to make the hexaploid wheats, spelt wheat and bread wheat.^ III. Spelt able one from another, wheat.

    ^ Either emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass ( Aegilops tauschii , DD) to make the hexaploid (six chromosome complements, AABBDD, 6n=42) wheats, spelt and bread wheat .
    • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the domestication of wheat through selection of mutant forms with tough ears that remained intact during harvesting, larger grains, and a tendency for the spikelets to stay on the stalk until harvested.
    • Wheat on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [11]

Plant breeding

Wheat
Wheat
Wheat
.In traditional agricultural systems wheat populations often consist of landraces, informal farmer-maintained populations that often maintain high levels of morphological diversity.^ This is known because high blood pressure is often associated with abnormally high calcium levels in the urine, which indicates that too much calcium is being lost from the blood, and from other data.
  • Sloan-Kettering - Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mskcc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Maintaining proper levels of Vitamin D in children is important to maintain bone health and support their immune systems.
  • Calcium Supplements 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC blog.wellesse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some population studies, high iron levels have been associated with an increased risk of throat and gastrointestinal cancers while others have not shown links.

.Although landraces of wheat are no longer grown in Europe and North America, they continue to be important elsewhere.^ Although virtually eliminated in North America and Western Europe because milk is fortified with vitamin D, it still occurs in many parts of the world.

^ Although the forum is no longer being actively maintained, all of the earlier questions and responses are still available for examination.

^ Today, due to modern technology , wine is no longer necessary to keep us health y, however, its use and production continues.
  • Wine@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The origins of formal wheat breeding lie in the nineteenth century, when single line varieties were created through selection of seed from a single plant noted to have desired properties.^ Cattle: Encyclopedia - Chaff Chaff is the seed casings and other inedible to humans plant matter harvested with cereal grains such as wheat.

^ F1 hybrid wheat cultivars should not be confused with the standard method of breeding inbred wheat cultivars by crossing two lines using hand emasculation, then selfing or inbreeding the progeny many (ten or more) generations before release selections are identified to be released as a variety or cultivar.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Foundation seed is controlled by the originating plant owner or licensee.
  • Buy Vermont Grown Organic Wheat Seed at Dirt Works Today 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.dirtworks.net [Source type: General]

.Modern wheat breeding developed in the first years of the twentieth century and was closely linked to the development of Mendelian genetics.^ Wheat science has undergone countless new developments since the previous edition was published more than 20 years...
  • Discount Cereal - Shop Smarter.com 19 November 2009 17:35 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ The study of wheat proteins has been done for over 200 years; however, the first comprehensive study was undertaken by Osborne over 90 years (1907) ago.
  • Learning, Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 19 November 2009 17:35 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cultivators in medieval and early modern Europe developed the roots for animal feed, and since the eighteenth century, the capacity of Beta vulgaris to store sucrose in its roots has been the focus of breeding.
  • The Cambridge World History of Food - Sugar 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The standard method of breeding inbred wheat cultivars is by crossing two lines using hand emasculation, then selfing or inbreeding the progeny.^ The two-error regression method is used to plot lines in Figures 5 and 6.
  • DISCORDANT POTASSIUM-ARGON MODEL AND ISOCHRON 1 February 2010 1:13 UTC www.icr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The two-error regression method of York [19] was used to fit the line to the data.
  • DISCORDANT POTASSIUM-ARGON MODEL AND ISOCHRON 1 February 2010 1:13 UTC www.icr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are two main methods used to test for radon gas and radon daughter products.
  • Radon FAQ 15 January 2010 23:47 UTC radon-faq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Selections are identified (shown to have the genes responsible for the varietal differences) ten or more generations before release as a variety or cultivar.^ He needs impeached for about ten different reasons, and every one of them more important than the trumped-up media circus that hounded Clinton.
  • Keeping Iraq's Oil In the Ground | World | AlterNet 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ These will be a mix of released and never to be released bits of code, software that I use to generate more leads FAST, and includes: .

^ Generally, a minimal isolation distance of 250 feet between those varieties or types is recommended; 700 feet is preferred for more complete isolation.
  • Sweet Corn:Organic Production 19 September 2009 11:49 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

[12]
.F1 hybrid wheat cultivars should not be confused with wheat cultivars deriving from standard plant breeding.^ Standard and sugary-enhanced corn seeds should be planted about 1 inch deep in moist, heavy soil; 1 to 2 inches deep in very light, sandy soils.
  • Organic Sweet Corn Production 19 September 2009 11:49 UTC www.ces.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extra-sweet and standard cultivars also should not be planted near each other or at the same time.
  • Organic Sweet Corn Production 19 September 2009 11:49 UTC www.ces.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yields depend on climatic conditions, variety or cultivar of wheat planted, size of kernel, and number of kernels per head.

.Heterosis or hybrid vigor (as in the familiar F1 hybrids of maize) occurs in common (hexaploid) wheat, but it is difficult to produce seed of hybrid cultivars on a commercial scale as is done with maize because wheat flowers are complete and normally self-pollinate.^ Supplies are low because some growers who normally grow seed wheat sold their crop as prices rose, said Louise Gartner, owner of Spectrum Commodities in Beavercreek, Ohio.

^ Only seed of the usual commercial varieties produced under organic management is available.
  • Sweet Corn:Organic Production 19 September 2009 11:49 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A slightly more interesting common titanium ring I got because I realized that my only commercially produced titanium ring was really quite dull.
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Commercial hybrid wheat seed has been produced using chemical hybridizing agents, plant growth regulators that selectively interfere with pollen development, or naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility systems.^ Sugar is the chemical sucrose that occurs naturally in plants.
  • The Cambridge World History of Food - Sugar 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Producer How are wheat futures used?
  • Wheat Futures Introduction - Kansas City Board of Trade 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.kcbt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sounds strange, but farmers apply hormone-like substances or "plant growth regulators" that affect wheat characteristics, such as time of germination and strength of stalk.11 These hormones are either "natural," that is, extracted from other plants, or synthetic.
  • More Reasons to Avoid Wheat 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC articles.mercola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hybrid wheat has been a limited commercial success in Europe (particularly France), the United States and South Africa.^ What are the prospects of wheat production in the United States?

^ Many tropical fish sold in the United States are harvested from the wild in Africa, Asia, and Central and South America.
  • Interesting Facts About Fish 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Who Should Attend Wheat and related small grains scientists and workers who are interested in the current state of wheat research and genomics in the United States.
  • UNL | Academic Conferences | Joint Congress of Hard Winter Wheat Workers Workshop National Wheat Genomics Workshop 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC conferences.unl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.The major breeding objectives include high grain yield, good quality, disease and insect resistance and tolerance to abiotic stresses include mineral, moisture and heat tolerance.^ Good sources of Magnesium include whole grains, nuts, peanut butter, cottonseed, peanut and soybean flours, green leafy vegetables and spices.

^ Other good sources include blackstrap molasses, brewer's yeast (not to be confused with nutritional yeast), buckwheat, nuts, and whole grains.

^ Foods high in magnesium include green vegetables, unmilled grains, legumes, and nuts, while processed food items are usually completely absent of magnesium (1).
  • Bulk Nutrition - Magnesium Function by David Tolson 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bulknutrition.com [Source type: Academic]

.The major diseases in temperate environments include the following, arranged in a rough order of their significance from cooler to warmer climates: eyespot, Stagonospora nodorum blotch (also known as glume blotch), yellow or stripe rust, powdery mildew, Septoria tritici blotch (sometimes known as leaf blotch), brown or leaf rust, Fusarium head blight, tan spot and stem rust.^ The three most common and economically damaging diseases of small grains in North Carolina are leaf rust, powdery mildew, and septoria leaf and glume blotch.

^ Harvard is resistant to mildew and leaf rust and has good resistance to Septoria and Fusarium Head Blight.
  • Buy Vermont Grown Organic Wheat Seed at Dirt Works Today 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.dirtworks.net [Source type: General]

^ Septoria leaf and glume blotch can be a serious disease of wheat.

.In tropical areas, spot blotch (also known as Helminthosporium leaf blight) is also important.^ Leaf and glume blotch Tan spot .

^ Septoria leaf and glume blotch and tan spot may also be more problematic in no-till small grains.

^ Rust and leaf blights can be a problem in extended periods of warm, moist weather or areas of heavy dew.
  • Organic Sweet Corn Production 19 September 2009 11:49 UTC www.ces.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hulled versus free-threshing wheat

A mature wheat field
.The four wild species of wheat, along with the domesticated varieties einkorn,[14] emmer[15] and spelt,[16] have hulls.^ Right: Free-threshing wheat (common wheat) Several wild species of wheat, and the domesticated einkorn , emmer and spelt wheats, are hulled (in German Spelzweizen ).
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The more primitive morphology of hulled wheat consists of toughened glumes that tightly enclose the grains, and (in domesticated wheats) a semi-brittle rachis that breaks easily on threshing.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Domesticated einkorn and emmer wheat has been identified at three PPNA sites in the northern Levant, Iraq ed-Dubb, Jericho and Tell Aswad, but both the dating and the domesticated status of these cereals is disputed.
  • Wheat on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This more primitive morphology (in evolutionary terms) consists of toughened glumes that tightly enclose the grains, and (in domesticated wheats) a semi-brittle rachis that breaks easily on threshing.^ Bread made from whole grain wheat flour provides more magnesium than bread made from white refined flour.
  • Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC ods.od.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • CalAbsorb™ Quick-Absorbing Calcium/ Magnesium Powdered Drink! 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.calabsorb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conceivably, the scenario where wheat has been monocultured as a cover crop or for grain for a decade or more should favor the occurrence of take-all decline in no-till fields.
  • Wheat diseases watched closely 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC southeastfarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Refer to the small grains chapter in the Alabama Pesticide Handbook for more information on wheat seed dressings.
  • Wheat diseases watched closely 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC southeastfarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The result is that when threshed, the wheat ear breaks up into spikelets.^ For that reason I’ve decided to break this article up into a series of three, maybe four articles.
  • CodeProject: Calcium: A modular application toolset leveraging PRISM – Part 1. Free source code and programming help 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This reaction will cause more H20 to break up into H+ and OH- ions.
  • Calcium, KH, GH, pH, Electrolytes & Magnesium in Aquariums; Mineral Ions, Cations 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.americanaquariumproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is taken up by cancer cells and breaks down into 5-fluorouracil, a substance that kills tumor cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.To obtain the grain, further processing, such as milling or pounding, is needed to remove the hulls or husks.^ To obtain the grain, further processing such as milling or pounding is needed to remove the hulls or husks.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Plausible new ideas are needed to justify additional research to f ind feasible extraction processes for such ores.
  • Titanium: Past, Present, and Future 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The decreased levels of magnesium found in food crops is typically then lowered further by destructive processing methods used, for example, to “refine” grains.

.In contrast, in free-threshing (or naked) forms such as durum wheat and common wheat, the glumes are fragile and the rachis tough.^ By contrast, in free-threshing (or naked) forms of wheat, such as durum wheat and common wheat, the glumes are fragile and the rachises are tough.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The more primitive morphology of hulled wheat consists of toughened glumes that tightly enclose the grains, and (in domesticated wheats) a semi-brittle rachis that breaks easily on threshing.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ See also Bread Hulled versus free-threshing wheat .
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.On threshing, the chaff breaks up, releasing the grains.^ On threshing, the chaff breaks up, releasing the grains.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The more primitive morphology of hulled wheat consists of toughened glumes that tightly enclose the grains, and (in domesticated wheats) a semi-brittle rachis that breaks easily on threshing.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result, when threshed, this type of wheat ear breaks up into spikelets.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Hulled wheats are often stored as spikelets because the toughened glumes give good protection against pests of stored grain.^ Hulled wheats are often stored as spikelets because the toughened glumes give good protection against pests.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The more primitive morphology of hulled wheat consists of toughened glumes that tightly enclose the grains, and (in domesticated wheats) a semi-brittle rachis that breaks easily on threshing.
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Probiotic protection: Good bacteria especially formulated to help strengthen your baby's digestive system which can protect against the development of allergies.
  • HAPPYBELLIES Brown Rice Cereal Contains DHA and Probiotics, Organic, 7-Ounce Canisters (Pack of 6): Amazon.com: Grocery 2 February 2010 13:57 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[14]

Naming

Sack of wheat
.There are many botanical classification systems used for wheat species, discussed in a separate article on Wheat taxonomy.^ There is also discussion as to the places of origin of the species.
  • The Cambridge World History of Food - Sugar 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many taxonomic classification systems are used for wheat species, as discussed in a separate article on Wheat taxonomy .
  • Wheat - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is an excellent product, although today all cows are hybrids and this is another issue that is discussed in separate articles.
  • THE MYSTERIES OF CALCIUM 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.drlwilson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name of a wheat species from one information source may not be the name of a wheat species in another.^ III. Spelt able one from another, wheat.

^ This information is important because these sites may be sources of exposure and exposure to this substance may harm you.
  • Public Health Statement for Lead - Encyclopedia of Earth 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other species of Castilla may also be used, among which are C. ulei of the Amazon, the source of caucho rubber.
  • Fibers & Fiber Plants 30 January 2010 3:18 UTC www.faculty.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Within a species, wheat cultivars are further classified by wheat breeders and farmers in terms of growing season, such as winter wheat vs. spring wheat,[8] by gluten content, such as hard wheat (high protein content) vs. soft wheat (high starch content), or by grain color (red, white or amber).

Major cultivated species of wheat

.
  • Common wheat or Bread wheat — (T. aestivum) A hexaploid species that is the most widely cultivated in the world.
  • Durum — (T. durum) The only tetraploid form of wheat widely used today, and the second most widely cultivated wheat.
  • Einkorn — (T. monococcum) A diploid species with wild and cultivated variants.^ Penncozeb is only registered for use on wheat.

    ^ Today is the world-wide observance of Human Trafficking day, an attempt to draw attention to the increasing problem of slavery, sexual trafficking and child labor.

    ^ The world continues to be surprised by the significance of Australia's parched wheat fields that will yield only a fraction of last year's production.

    Domesticated at the same time as emmer wheat, but never reached the same importance.
  • Emmer — (T. dicoccum) A tetraploid species, cultivated in ancient times but no longer in widespread use.
  • Spelt — (T. spelta) Another hexaploid species cultivated in limited quantities.
Classes used in the United States are
.
  • Durum — Very hard, translucent, light colored grain used to make semolina flour for pasta.
  • Hard Red Spring — Hard, brownish, high protein wheat used for bread and hard baked goods.^ It makes a very hard bar that is snow white in color.
    • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Whole wheat flour is made from hard red wheat berries.
    • Thin Crust Whole Wheat Pizza Dough | GreenLiteBites 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC greenlitebites.com [Source type: General]

    ^ When making pancakes or waffles, I use wheat flour.
    • Whole Grain Breads, and Proven Whole Grain Recipes 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.giveshare.org [Source type: General]

    .Bread Flour and high gluten flours are commonly made from hard red spring wheat.^ Whole wheat flour is made from hard red wheat berries.
    • Thin Crust Whole Wheat Pizza Dough | GreenLiteBites 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC greenlitebites.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Made with wheat flour.
    • Wheat free glossary of foods from wheat-free.org +++ all 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.wheat-free.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Usually made with wheat flour.
    • Wheat free glossary of foods from wheat-free.org +++ all 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.wheat-free.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is primarily traded at the Minneapolis Grain Exchange.
  • Hard Red Winter — Hard, brownish, mellow high protein wheat used for bread, hard baked goods and as an adjunct in other flours to increase protein in pastry flour for pie crusts.^ Whole wheat flour is made from hard red wheat berries.
    • Thin Crust Whole Wheat Pizza Dough | GreenLiteBites 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC greenlitebites.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A. WW pastry flour is also called “soft wheat” as opposed to bread wheat which is “hard wheat”, either red or white.

    ^ We use Walton’s hard high protein red winter wheat.
    • Whole Grain Breads, and Proven Whole Grain Recipes 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.giveshare.org [Source type: General]

    .Some brands of unbleached all-purpose flours are commonly made from hard red winter wheat alone.^ Whole wheat flour is made from hard red wheat berries.
    • Thin Crust Whole Wheat Pizza Dough | GreenLiteBites 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC greenlitebites.com [Source type: General]

    ^ What is hard red winter wheat?
    • Wheat Futures Introduction - Kansas City Board of Trade 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.kcbt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We use Walton’s hard high protein red winter wheat.
    • Whole Grain Breads, and Proven Whole Grain Recipes 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.giveshare.org [Source type: General]

    .It is primarily traded by the Kansas City Board of Trade.^ The Kansas City Board of Trade, established near one of the world's most fertile growing regions, is the largest free market for hard red winter wheat.
    • Wheat Futures Introduction - Kansas City Board of Trade 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.kcbt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Kansas City Board of Trade disclaims liability for errors or omissions in information on this Web site.
    • Wheat Futures Introduction - Kansas City Board of Trade 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.kcbt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Since 1982, the Kansas City Board of Trade has been licensed to use the Value Line® mark in connection with its efforts to establish futures markets tied to the Value Line® index.
    • Wheat Futures Introduction - Kansas City Board of Trade 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.kcbt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .One variety is known as "turkey red wheat", and was brought to Kansas by Mennonite immigrants from Russia.^ It was the cultivation of grains--members of the grass family--that made civilization possible.1 Since wheat is one of the oldest known grains, its cultivation is as old as civilization itself.
    • More Reasons to Avoid Wheat 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC articles.mercola.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Kansas City Board of Trade, established near one of the world's most fertile growing regions, is the largest free market for hard red winter wheat.
    • Wheat Futures Introduction - Kansas City Board of Trade 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.kcbt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ That is to fundamentally replace the worlds wheat with resistant varieties, preferably those not vulnerable to one race of rust that can wipe out the worlds wheat crop.
    • Ug99 � threat to world�s wheat 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [17]
  • .
  • Soft Red Winter — Soft, low protein wheat used for cakes, pie crusts, biscuits, and muffins.^ But I use soft white berries for muffins, quick breads and biscuits.
    • Thin Crust Whole Wheat Pizza Dough | GreenLiteBites 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC greenlitebites.com [Source type: General]

    ^ What is hard red winter wheat?
    • Wheat Futures Introduction - Kansas City Board of Trade 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.kcbt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We use Walton’s hard high protein red winter wheat.
    • Whole Grain Breads, and Proven Whole Grain Recipes 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.giveshare.org [Source type: General]

    .Cake flour, pastry flour, and some self-rising flours with baking powder and salt added for example, are made from soft red winter wheat.^ It can also be made in the laboratory, and is added to some soft drinks, foods, and medicines.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Added to baking mixtures to make them rise.
    • Wheat free glossary of foods from wheat-free.org +++ all 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.wheat-free.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Made with wheat flour.
    • Wheat free glossary of foods from wheat-free.org +++ all 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.wheat-free.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is primarily traded by the Chicago Board of Trade.
  • Hard White — Hard, light colored, opaque, chalky, medium protein wheat planted in dry, temperate areas.^ Some speculation has surfaced that hard white wheat seed might be in short supply for the 2008 season.
    • California farmers expand wheat acreage to �cash in� on historic wheat prices 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC westernfarmpress.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Kansas City Board of Trade, established near one of the world's most fertile growing regions, is the largest free market for hard red winter wheat.
    • Wheat Futures Introduction - Kansas City Board of Trade 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.kcbt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Jan 27 2010 2:28PM Futures trading on the Chicago Board of Trade Wed.: ..
    • Oil News | KXNet.com Bismarck Mandan North Dakota 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.kxnet.com [Source type: News]
    • Oil News | KXNet.com Bismarck Mandan North Dakota 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.kxnet.com [Source type: News]

    .Used for bread and brewing.
  • Soft White — Soft, light colored, very low protein wheat grown in temperate moist areas.^ But I use soft white berries for muffins, quick breads and biscuits.
    • Thin Crust Whole Wheat Pizza Dough | GreenLiteBites 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC greenlitebites.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Hence the cell keeps cytoplasmic concentration very low, and when it wants to activate these calcium-associated enzymes, it allows calcium to enter and uses calcium in a regulatory manner.

    ^ Other types of wheat and their uses: Soft red winter, around 20 percent of U.S. production, used for cookies crackers and pastries; Hard red spring, around 20 percent of production, a higher-protein bread wheat; White wheat, around 10 percent of production, used for noodles and bakery products including flat breads; Durum, around 5 percent of production, used for pasta.
    • Wheat Futures Introduction - Kansas City Board of Trade 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.kcbt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Used for pie crusts and pastry.^ So far I have not been able to make a decent pie crust and I usually make it with white flour, but there are a lot of compromises on pie crusts that you can use.
    • Whole Grain Breads, and Proven Whole Grain Recipes 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.giveshare.org [Source type: General]

    Pastry flour, for example, is sometimes made from soft white winter wheat.
.Red wheats may need bleaching, therefore white wheats usually command higher prices than red wheats on the commodities market.^ Call and get prices on hard red, hard white, or soft white wheat berries.

^ If prices increase, the exporter's profit from its futures hedge offsets the higher prices paid to obtain the wheat.
  • Wheat Futures Introduction - Kansas City Board of Trade 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.kcbt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iron levels tend to be lower in people with chronic disease as the body's needs are higher and normal dietary intake may not be sufficient to meet the body's needs.

As a food

Cracked wheat.
Wheat germ crude (not whole grain)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,506 kJ (360 kcal)
Carbohydrates 51.8 g
Dietary fiber 13.2 g
Fat 9.72 g
Protein 23.15 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 1.882 mg (145%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.499 mg (33%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 6.813 mg (45%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.05 mg (1%)
Vitamin B6 1.3 mg (100%)
Folate (Vit. B9) 281 μg (70%)
Calcium 39 mg (4%)
Iron 6.26 mg (50%)
Magnesium 239 mg (65%)
Phosphorus 842 mg (120%)
Potassium 892 mg (19%)
Zinc 12.29 mg (123%)
Manganese 13.301 mg
.Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.^ The US recommended intake for calcium is 1,000 mg for most adults.
  • Bones, Vitamin D, and Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.veganhealth.org [Source type: Academic]


Source: USDA Nutrient database
.Raw wheat can be powdered into flour; germinated and dried creating malt; crushed or cut into cracked wheat; parboiled (or steamed), dried, crushed and de-branned into bulgur; or processed into semolina, pasta, or roux.^ The whole grains, particularly wheat (especially the bran and germ), millet, and brown rice, and fruits such as avocado and dried apricot are other sources.

^ What has happened in milling wheat flour to make white flour, by removing the bran and germ, is a good example of how we have been robbed of important nutrients that God created for our benefit.” — Sue Gregg .

^ The Reese River or pan-amalgamation process consists in drystamping crushed dried ore and dried salt (separately or together), charging them into a roasting furnace , and amalgamating the chloridized ore in an iron pan.

.Wheat is a major ingredient in such foods as bread, porridge, crackers, biscuits, Muesli, pancakes, pies, pastries, cakes, cookies, muffins, rolls, doughnuts, gravy, boza (a fermented beverage), and breakfast cereals (e.g., Wheatena, Cream of Wheat, Shredded Wheat, and Wheaties).^ This study supports the dietary recommendation to increase consumption of major food sources of magnesium, such as whole grains, nuts, and green leafy vegetables [ 43 ].
  • Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC ods.od.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Starch Digestion, Cereal, Diastase, Maltose, Yellow Corn Meal, White Corn Meal, Rolled Oat, Whole Wheat, Farina, Barley, Grain, Endosperm .
  • Cereal References - Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 2 February 2010 13:57 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Blueberry Muffins Whole Grain Zucchini-Pineapple Bread 100% Whole Wheat Lemon Poppy Muffins – Take 1 Pumpkin Yogurt Mini Apple Pies .
  • Thin Crust Whole Wheat Pizza Dough | GreenLiteBites 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC greenlitebites.com [Source type: General]

Nutrition

.100 grams of hard red winter wheat contain about 12.6 grams of protein, 1.5 grams of total fat, 71 grams of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 grams of dietary fiber, and 3.2 mg of iron (17% of the daily requirement); the same weight of hard red spring wheat contains about 15.4 grams of protein, 1.9 grams of total fat, 68 grams of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 grams of dietary fiber, and 3.6 mg of iron (20% of the daily requirement).^ The total daily iron loss of an adult is probably 1 mg and about 2 mg in menstruating women.

^ A 75-kg adult man contains about 4 grams of iron (50 mg/kg) while a .
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What is the difference between “hard wheat” and “soft wheat”?

[18]
Much of the carbohydrate fraction of wheat is starch. .Wheat starch is an important commercial product of wheat, but second in economic value to wheat gluten.^ The presence of more than a small percentage of resin in the latex leads to the production of rubber containing much resin, which seriously depreciates its commercial value for most purposes.

^ Thanksgiving Side Dish Gluten/Wheat Free Tricks Using Corn Based Products A guide for using common corn based products to enhance a gluten/wheat free diet.

^ The requirements of the consumer have also to be considered: for some purposes the soft floury wheats, with their large relative proportion of starch, are the best, for others the harder wheats, with their larger quantity of gluten.

[19] .The principal parts of wheat flour are gluten and starch.^ But you can always add some gluten to a 100% whole wheat bread to get the result of half white and half WW. That’s what those “Better for Bread” flours have in them.
  • Moist Whole Wheat Banana Bread 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.breadtopia.com [Source type: General]

^ The requirements of the consumer have also to be considered: for some purposes the soft floury wheats, with their large relative proportion of starch, are the best, for others the harder wheats, with their larger quantity of gluten.

^ Whole wheat flour hasn’t got enough gluten to allow breads to rise properly.
  • Moist Whole Wheat Banana Bread 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.breadtopia.com [Source type: General]

.These can be separated in a kind of home experiment, by mixing flour and water to form a small ball of dough, and kneading it gently while rinsing it in a bowl of water.^ Then I mixed a small amount of flour with a tsp.
  • Moist Whole Wheat Banana Bread 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.breadtopia.com [Source type: General]

^ Place flour in a small bowl.
  • Calcium Rich Recipes 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cereusmed.com [Source type: General]

^ In a large bowl mix hot water and four cups of flour.

.The starch falls out of the dough and sinks to the bottom of the bowl, leaving behind a ball of gluten.^ After a few days it bores itself out of the fish and falls to the bottom of the aquarium.
  • Fish Disease and Treatment 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC animal-world.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pumping the oil out through the dipstick hole is a terrible way to get the old oil out because it leaves a lot of junk in the bottom of the oil pan.
  • Motor Oil Myths and Facts 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.nordicgroup.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shape dough into a bowl, place in a lightly oiled bowl and leave to prove in a warm, draft-less place for 2 hours (or until dough has doubled in size).
  • Moist Whole Wheat Banana Bread 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.breadtopia.com [Source type: General]

Health concerns

.Roughly 1% of Indo-European populations[20][21] has coeliac (also written as celiac) disease—a condition that is caused by an adverse immune system reaction to gliadin, a gluten protein found in wheat (and similar proteins of the tribe Triticeae which includes other species such as barley and rye).^ Foods that may include wheat proteins include: .
  • Wheat allergy 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ A digestive disease that is caused by an immune response to a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Celiac disease is an immune system reaction to gluten that causes inflammation in the small intestines.
  • Wheat allergy 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Upon exposure to gliadin, the enzyme tissue transglutaminase modifies the protein, and the immune system cross-reacts with the bowel tissue, causing an inflammatory reaction.^ If we ignore our immune system and do nothing to strengthen it, then it is effectively being weakened just by dealing with our daily exposure to contaminants in food, water, and the air.

^ "Through the combined effects of mineral imbalance, allergic reaction, and phagocytic suppression, sugar can destroy the immune system and slowly but surely lead to degenerative disease."
  • Sugar’s Health Effects & Risks: Is Sugar Sweet Poison? Sugar-a Silent Killer: an Extensive Discussion of the Sugars: Sucrose, Fructose, Honey, Xylitol, Sorbitol, Mannitol, Malt Syrup 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.healingcancernaturally.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Iron functions as a component of a number of proteins, including enzymes and hemoglobin, the latter being important for the transport of oxygen to tissues throughout the body for metabolism.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.That leads to flattening of the lining of the small intestine, which interferes with the absorption of nutrients.^ Lead absorption is blocked by calcium in the intestines.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC jctonic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most absorption occurs in the small intestine.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC jctonic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Celiac disease damages the lining of the small intestine and interferes with the absorption of nutrients from food.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The only effective treatment is a lifelong gluten-free diet.^ Thanksgiving Side Dish Gluten/Wheat Free Tricks Using Corn Based Products A guide for using common corn based products to enhance a gluten/wheat free diet.

^ A gluten-free diet improves bowel function in many such patients, with secondary correction of the anemia.

^ Celiac disease frequently improves dramatically with a gluten-free diet.

.The estimate for people in the United States is between 0.5 and 1.0 percent of the population.^ However, most people in the United States probably do not get as much magnesium as they should from their diet.
  • Magnesium 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Active Liquid Calcium Homepage - Calcium, Magnesium, Vitamin D 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.4alw.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Estimated amount the United States spends each year safeguarding oil supplies in the Persian Gulf: $50,000,000,000 .
  • Oil (Harper's Magazine) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ It is probable that the United States will by 1933 have a population of 133,000,000.

[22][23][24]
.While the disease is caused by a reaction to wheat proteins, it is not the same as wheat allergy.^ A digestive disease that is caused by an immune response to a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Wheat, like other cereals, is liable to epidemic diseases caused by parasitic organisms which prey on the plant tissues.

^ I believe that mental disease is for the most part caused by abnormal reaction rates, as determined by genetic constitution and diet, and by abnormal molecular concentrations of essential substances.

Commercial use

Wheat output in 2005
.Harvested wheat grain that enters trade is classified according to grain properties for the purposes of the commodities market.^ Home Cotton Peanuts Grains Soybeans Veg/Tobacco Legislation Markets Biofuels Equipment Marketplace Wheat diseases watched closely .
  • Wheat diseases watched closely 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC southeastfarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The production of wheat, with the use of wheat bread , has increased enormously since the extension of railways has made possible the transportation of grain for great distances (see Grain Trade ).

^ When the cereal grain such as rye, wheat or oats is harvested the following spring, the clover is already well established.
  • Sweet Corn:Organic Production 19 September 2009 11:49 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Wheat buyers use the classifications to help determine which wheat to purchase as each class has special uses.^ Special Ability: When unarmed and fighting defensively, using Combat Expertise or using the total defense action, increase the dodge bonus to Armor class that you gain from using that tactic by 1.
  • Basalt Tides - Classes 1 February 2010 1:13 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’m trying to concoct a world-class bread that uses half whole wheat, and a whole big BUNCH of different seeds, grains, nuts, etc.
  • Moist Whole Wheat Banana Bread 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.breadtopia.com [Source type: General]

.Wheat producers determine which classes of wheat are the most profitable to cultivate with this system.^ This is one of the most exciting and profit-producing features of Lead Supreme 3.0...
  • Lead Supreme 3.0 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC leadsupreme.com [Source type: General]

^ Through years of cultivation, varieties of wheat have been produced which are particularly well adapted to the soil and climate of this region.

^ Most classes derived from Wizards of the Coast's Dungeons and Dragons System Reference Document under the Open Game License.
  • Basalt Tides - Classes 1 February 2010 1:13 UTC www.ccs.neu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wheat is widely cultivated as a cash crop because it produces a good yield per unit area, grows well in a temperate climate even with a moderately short growing season, and yields a versatile, high-quality flour that is widely used in baking.^ Fortification of high-extraction wheat flours.
  • Cereal References - Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 2 February 2010 13:57 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The iron skillet is not only a highly versatile and useful kitchen implement, it can also double as a quality heirloom.
  • Skillet, cast iron skillets, large cast iron skillet, cooking skillet, enamelware 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.castirondepot.com [Source type: General]

^ Life without oil with the population we now have, and cold climates, would be almost impossible, even if we walked everywhere and/or used donkeys to save driving or flying.
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most breads are made with wheat flour, including many breads named for the other grains they contain like most rye and oat breads.^ Every grain is like every other.
  • The Sweetest Poison Of All 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.karlloren.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The whole grains, particularly wheat (especially the bran and germ), millet, and brown rice, and fruits such as avocado and dried apricot are other sources.

^ For example, iron is added to many food products, especially breakfast cereals, breads, and other grain products.

.The popularity of foods made from wheat flour creates a large demand for the grain, even in economies with significant food surpluses.^ Made from a grain that is an ancient form of wheat.
  • Wheat free glossary of foods from wheat-free.org +++ all 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.wheat-free.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Made with wheat flour.
  • Wheat free glossary of foods from wheat-free.org +++ all 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.wheat-free.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually made with wheat flour.
  • Wheat free glossary of foods from wheat-free.org +++ all 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.wheat-free.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Utensil made of dry wheat branches for loaves of bread
.In 2007 there was a dramatic rise in the price of wheat due to freezes and flooding in the northern hemisphere and a drought in Australia.^ If Indias government is facing dramatic civil unrest because of escalating wheat prices or they dont have the wheat it is unlikely U.S. or Australian wheat will simply be airlifted over.
  • Ug99 � threat to world�s wheat 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rising price does not "produce" more oil the way a rising price produces more wheat.
  • OIL! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Northern Iraq appears to suffer from low formation pressures; there is no indication if this is natural or due to mismanagement.
  • OIL! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wheat futures in September, 2007 for December and March delivery had risen above $9.00 a bushel, prices never seen before.^ This assumes a wheat price of at least $3.00 per bushel.

^ The entire work of unloading, storing and reloading adds only one cent to the price of a bushel of wheat.

^ Indeed the high price of oil has begun to speed up the search for fuel alternatives like never before.
  • Keeping Iraq's Oil In the Ground | World | AlterNet 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[25] .There were complaints in Italy about the high price of pasta.^ You all just complain about HIGH Gas prices and refuse to look at one of the solutions.
  • The U.S. Is Poised to Hit a New Oil Gusher - Kiplinger.com 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.kiplinger.com [Source type: General]

^ I don't complain about the seemingly high gas prices.
  • The U.S. Is Poised to Hit a New Oil Gusher - Kiplinger.com 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.kiplinger.com [Source type: General]

^ But by the time the public is up in arms about high gas prices, it is too late, the inflationary damage is done.

[26] .This followed a wider trend of escalating food prices around the globe, driven in part by climatic conditions such as drought in Australia, the diversion of arable land to other uses (such as producing government-subsidised bio-oil crops), and later by some food-producing nations placing bans or restrictions on exports in order to satisfy their own consumers.^ Will that cause others around the globe to limit their exports to us?
  • The U.S. Is Poised to Hit a New Oil Gusher - Kiplinger.com 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.kiplinger.com [Source type: General]

^ Lead-soldered cans are still used in some other nations.
  • Public Health Statement for Lead - Encyclopedia of Earth 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Indias government is facing dramatic civil unrest because of escalating wheat prices or they dont have the wheat it is unlikely U.S. or Australian wheat will simply be airlifted over.
  • Ug99 � threat to world�s wheat 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other drivers affecting wheat prices include the movement to bio fuels (in 2008, a third of corn crops in the US are expected to be devoted to ethanol production)[citation needed] and rising incomes in developing countries, which is causing a shift in eating patterns from predominantly rice to more meat based diets (a rise in meat production equals a rise in grain consumption - seven kilograms of grain is required to produce one kilogram of beef.^ Other sources include dairy products, meats, chocolate, and coffee.
  • MAGNESIUM: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rising price does not "produce" more oil the way a rising price produces more wheat.
  • OIL! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The whole grains, particularly wheat (especially the bran and germ), millet, and brown rice, and fruits such as avocado and dried apricot are other sources.

[27]

Production and consumption statistics

.In 2003, global per capita wheat consumption was 67 kg, with the highest per capita consumption (239 kg) found in Kyrgyzstan.^ The next it could be the Olduvai theory of per capita energy consumption.

^ The cheapest transportation in the world is found upon these lakes, the rate being only three-fourths of a mill per ton of wheat per mile.

^ Consumption in Cuba has been exceptionally high, exceeding 80 kg per capita around the beginning of the 1990s.
  • The Cambridge World History of Food - Sugar 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]
.Unlike rice, wheat production is more widespread globally though China's share is almost one-sixth of the world.^ Roughly, five countries now accounted for slightly more than half the world production.
  • [Ganoksin] Jewelry Making - Metalsmith - The Price of Gold 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.ganoksin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Davos - Global Energy Outlook-Davos 2010: a new peak in oil production is needed, energy leaders argue-Conflicting views over 'peak oil' read more .
  • Alltop - Top Oil News 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC oil.alltop.com [Source type: News]

^ Sweet Wheat is one of the newest products available at ShopToEarth.net.

Top Ten Wheat Producers — 2007 (million metric ton)
 China 109
 India 75.8
 United States 56
 Russia 49
 France 33
 Pakistan 23
 Germany 21
 Canada 20
 Turkey 17
 Argentina 16
World Total 725
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[29]

Agronomy

Wheat spikelet with the three anthers sticking out
.While winter wheat lies dormant during a winter freeze, wheat normally requires between 110 and 130 days between planting and harvest, depending upon climate, seed type, and soil conditions.^ As in other markets, coin or bullion prices can be extremely volatile and will rise and fall depending upon market conditions.
  • GOLD, PLATINUM, PALLADIUM AND SILVER BULLION COINS FOR SALE 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.tulving.com [Source type: General]

^ Do not apply to wheat after Feekes stage 10.5, or within 14 days of harvest.

^ Not enough cyanocobalamin can cause certain types of anemia (a condition in which the number of red blood cells is below normal) and neurologic disorders.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Crop management decisions require the knowledge of stage of development of the crop.^ The development of the rubber industry has now reached a stage at which more exact methods of determining the chemical composition and physical properties (strength and elasticity) of rubber are required.

.In particular, spring fertilizer applications, herbicides, fungicides, growth regulators are typically applied at specific stages of plant development.^ Daily Values (DV) were developed to help consumers determine if a typical serving of a food contains a lot or a little of a specific nutrient.
  • CalAbsorb™ Quick-Absorbing Calcium/ Magnesium Powdered Drink! 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.calabsorb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, there are more than 120 coal-fueled power plants currently under or near construction, permitted or in the early stages of development.

^ The endocrine system and its own signal proteins are instrumental in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism, and reproductive functions.
  • Calcium, Pearlcium, Pearl, Sea Calcium, EZorb, Coral Calcium, Deficiency 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.reallywell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wheat ear
For example, current recommendations often indicate the second application of nitrogen be done when the ear (not visible at this stage) is about 1 cm in size (Z31 on Zadoks scale). .Knowledge of stages is also interesting to identify periods of higher risk, in terms of climate.^ Given the long latency period for colon cancer development, long-term studies are needed to understand whether calcium intakes affect colorectal cancer risk.
  • Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ods.od.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.For example, the meiosis stage is extremely susceptible to low temperatures (under 4 °C) or high temperatures (over 25 °C).^ In a later example at the Bargold pit of the Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Company a mixed arrangement is adopted with horizontal high-pressure and vertical low-pressure cylinders.

^ A high carbon price under a cap and trade system will have a more significant effect with low oil prices,” she said.
  • ODAC Newsletter - 09 January 2009 | ODAC - The Oil Depletion Analysis Centre 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.odac-info.org [Source type: News]

^ For example, trace metals collected on filter paper by a high volume air sampler for 25 h were analysed by Dittrich & Cothern (1971) using the XRF technique.
  • Titanium (EHC 24, 1982) 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Farmers also benefit from knowing when the flag leaf (last leaf) appears as this leaf represents about 75% of photosynthesis reactions during the grain-filling period and as such should be preserved from disease or insect attacks to ensure a good yield.^ At fall seeding time, Southwest winter wheat farmers have no way of knowing how much nitrogen the crop will need to meet yield goals....

^ For the sake of marketability should investors common coins such as the Kruger Rand (South Africa), Maple Leaf (Canada) or American Eagle (USA) choose.
  • Gold Price Gold Prices Current Price of Gold Investment Advice 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.goldpriceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the tree is sensitive to such conditions, it appears to possess a certain capacity of adaptation which should be borne in mind.

.Several systems exist to identify crop stages, with the Feekes and Zadoks scales being the most widely used.^ In most cases, a system with a vent pipe(s) and fan(s) is used to reduce radon.
  • Radon, radon testing, radon mitigation, radon measurement, radon information, New Jersey radon, what is radon, what if I have radon, information, Causes lung cancer, NJ radon 15 January 2010 23:47 UTC accurateinspections.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • National Safety Products | 877-412-3600 | TestProducts.com | Radon test kits, radon gas testing and radon facts 15 January 2010 23:47 UTC www.testproducts.com [Source type: General]

^ Conventional Interpretation: The swing index is most often used to identify bars where the market is likely to change direction.
  • Light Crude Oil (CL, NYMEX): Weekly Price Chart 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC futures.tradingcharts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The former plan, being the older, has been most largely used, but is becoming replaced by some form of machine.

.Each scale is a standard system which describes successive stages reached by the crop during the agricultural season.^ USDA/ARS Research Project: Sustainable Agricultural Systems Based on Ecological Principles of Crop, Weed, and Insect Pest Management.
  • Sweet Corn:Organic Production 19 September 2009 11:49 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

Face view
Side view

Diseases

.Estimates of the amount of wheat production lost owing to plant diseases vary between 10-25% in Missouri.^ Not everyone exposed to elevated levels of radon will develop lung cancer, and the amount of time between exposure and the onset of the disease may be many years.
  • Affordable Radon Solutions - Central Indiana Radon Solution Provider 15 January 2010 23:47 UTC affordableradon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the color and therefore amount of molasses varies, I find that the resulting product has a flavor ranging from merely more pure to slightly more flavorful.

^ Wheat, like other cereals, is liable to epidemic diseases caused by parasitic organisms which prey on the plant tissues.

[30] .A wide range of organisms infect wheat, of which the most important are viruses and fungi.^ Most of the examples on which the thesis of this paper is based will come from the North Sea and the wide range of reservoirs on the United Kingdom, Norwegian and Danish portions (Glennie 1998).
  • The Origin of Oil—A Creationist Answer - Answers in Genesis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although anemia is most prominently linked to iron deficiency, the condition produces a wide range of abnormalities, depending on its severity and duration.

^ Olive leaf extract has shown clinical evidence of effectiveness against a wide range of viruses, including AIDS [Bihari], herpes, and cold viruses.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis (maybe gout also) as a Potassium Deficiency 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC members.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

Pests

.Wheat is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species including The Flame, Rustic Shoulder-knot, Setaceous Hebrew Character and Turnip Moth.^ A component of certain plants, including cayenne and red pepper, used topically for peripheral nerve pain.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ GENERAL USES OF SUGAR Sugar has a wide range of applications in and beyond food preparation including cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

^ In contrast, 2% to 20% of nonheme iron in plant foods such as rice, maize, black beans, soybeans and wheat is absorbed [ 16 ].
  • Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC ods.od.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Futures contracts

.Wheat futures are traded on the Chicago Board of Trade, Kansas City Board of Trade, and Minneapolis Grain Exchange, and have delivery dates in March (H), May (K), July (N), September (U), and December (Z).^ April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 January 2009 December 2008 November 2008 October 2008 September 2008 August 2008 Search for: Watch videos at Vodpod and other videos from this collection.

^ February 2006 January 2006 December 2005 November 2005 October 2005 September 2005 August 2005 July 2005 June 2005 May 2005 .
  • The Oil Drum: Europe | Why Dick changed his mind 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC europe.theoildrum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ARCHIVES • January 2006 • February 2006 • March 2006 • April 2006 • May 2006 • June 2006 • July 2006 • August 2006 • September 2006 • October 2006 • November 2006 • December 2006 • January 2007 • February 2007 • March 2007 • April 2007 • May 2007 • June 2007 • July 2007 • August 2007 • September 2007 • October 2007 • November 2007 • December 2007 • January 2008 SUBSCRIBE What's this?
  • CNN.com - Anderson Cooper 360° Blog 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

[31]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Belderok, Bob & Hans Mesdag & Dingena A. Donner. (2000) Bread-Making Quality of Wheat. Springer. p.3. ISBN 0-7923-6383-3.
  2. ^ FAO (2007). "FAOSTAT". http://faostat.fao.org/site/526/default.aspx. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  3. ^ Cauvain, Stanley P. & Cauvain P. Cauvain. (2003) Bread Making. CRC Press. p. 540. ISBN 1-85573-553-9.
  4. ^ Palmer, John J. (2001) How to Brew. Defenestrative Pub Co. p. 233. ISBN 0-9710579-0-7.
  5. ^ Neill, Richard. (2002) Booze: The Drinks Bible for the 21st Century. Octopus Publishing Group - Cassell Illustrated. p. 112. ISBN 1-84188-196-1.
  6. ^ Department of Agriculture Appropriations for 1957: Hearings ... 84th Congress. 2d Session. United States House Committee on Appropriations. 1956. p. 242.
  7. ^ Smith, Albert E. (1995) Handbook of Weed Management Systems. Marcel Dekker. p. 411. ISBN 0-8247-9547-4.
  8. ^ a b Bridgwater, W. & Beatrice Aldrich. (1966) The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia. Columbia University. p. 1959.
  9. ^ "Which came first, monumental building projects or farming?". Archaeo News. 2008-12-14. http://www.stonepages.com/news/archives/003061.html. 
  10. ^ [|Piperno, Dolores]; et al. (2004-06-04). "Processing of wild cereal grains in the Upper Palaeolithic revealed by starch grain analysis". Nature (430): 670–673. doi:10.1038/nature02734. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v430/n7000/abs/nature02734.html. 
  11. ^ a b c Hancock, James F. (2004) Plant Evolution and the Origin of Crop Species. CABI Publishing. ISBN 0-85199-685-X.
  12. ^ a b Bajaj, Y. P. S. (1990) Wheat. Springer. pp. 161-63. ISBN 3-540-51809-6.
  13. ^ Basra, Amarjit S. (1999) Heterosis and Hybrid Seed Production in Agronomic Crops. Haworth Press. pp. 81-82. ISBN 1-56022-876-8.
  14. ^ a b Potts, D. T. (1996) Mesopotamia Civilization: The Material Foundations Cornell University Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-8014-3339-8.
  15. ^ Nevo, Eviatar & A. B. Korol & A. Beiles & T. Fahima. (2002) Evolution of Wild Emmer and Wheat Improvement: Population Genetics, Genetic Resources, and Genome.... Springer. p. 8. ISBN 3-540-41750-8.
  16. ^ Vaughan, J. G. & P. A. Judd. (2003) The Oxford Book of Health Foods. Oxford University Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-19-850459-4.
  17. ^ Moon, David, "In the Russian Steppes: the Introduction of Russian Wheat on the Great Plains of the UNited States," Journal of Global History 3 (2008), 203-225
  18. ^ USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 19 (2006)
  19. ^ International Starch Institute, TM 33-1www - ISI Technical Memorandum on Production of Wheat Starch. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  20. ^ van Heel D, West J (2006). "Recent advances in coeliac disease". Gut 55 (7): 1037–46. doi:10.1136/gut.2005.075119. PMID 16766754. http://gut.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/55/7/1037. 
  21. ^ "Coeliac UK - The charity for people with coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis". Coeliac.co.uk. http://www.coeliac.co.uk/other/TextOnly/?ContentID=252&FontSize=9. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 
  22. ^ Fasano, A; Berti I, Gerarduzzi T, et al.. "Prevalence of celiac disease in at-risk and not-at-risk groups in the United States: a large multicenter study". Arch Intern Med. 163 (3): 286–292. doi:10.1001/archinte.163.3.286. PMID 12578508. http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/163/3/286?view=abstract. 
  23. ^ Presutti, John; et al. (2007-12-27). "Celiac Disease". American Family Physician 76 (12): 196–1802. http://www.aafp.org/afp/20071215/1795.html. 
  24. ^ Hill, I. D., Horvath, K., and Fasano, A., Epidemiology of celiac disease. 1: Am J Gastroenterol. 1995 Jan;90(1):163-4
  25. ^ "Wheat futures again hit new highs" article by Victoria Sizemore Long in The Kansas City Star September 28, 2007
  26. ^ "Wheat Prices Send Italian Pasta Costs Up" Associated Press story by Colleen Barry, September 13, 2007 By COLLEEN BARRY – Sep 13, 2007
  27. ^ "Broker picks in the soft commodities sector" in CompareShares April 2, 2008
  28. ^ http://faostat.fao.org/ FAOSTAT
  29. ^ "Major Food And Agricultural Commodities And Producers - Countries By Commodity". Fao.org. http://www.fao.org/es/ess/top/commodity.html?lang=en&item=15&year=2005. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 
  30. ^ "G4319 Wheat Diseases in Missouri, MU Extension". Muextension.missouri.edu. http://muextension.missouri.edu/explore/agguides/crops/g04319.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 
  31. ^ List of Commodity Delivery Dates on Wikinvest

Further reading

  • Bonjean, A.P., and W.J. Angus (editors). The World Wheat Book: a history of wheat breeding. Lavoisier Publ., Paris. 1131 pp. (2001). ISBN 2-7430-0402-9
  • Christen, Olaf (Ed.): Winterweizen. .Das Handbuch für Profis. DLG-Verlags-GmbH, 16 March 2010, ISBN 978-3-7690-0719-0.
  • Garnsey Peter, Grain for Rome, in Garnsey P., Hopkins K., Whittaker C. R. (editors), Trade in the Ancient Economy, Chatto & Windus, London 1983
  • Jasny Naum, The daily bread of ancient Greeks and Romans, Ex Officina Templi, Brugis 1950
  • Jasny Naum, The Wheats of Classical Antiquity, J.^ January 28, 2010 11:16 AM ET The March NYMEX crude and February RBOB gasoline and heating oil contracts are all in negative territory in volatile trade.
    • Alltop - Top Oil News 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC oil.alltop.com [Source type: News]

    Hopkins Press, Baltimore 1944
  • Heiser Charles B., Seed to civilisation. .The story of food, Harvard University Press, Harvard Mass.^ Harvard University Press Cereal, Europe .
    • Cereal References - Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 2 February 2010 13:57 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.
    • The Teagle Foundation - Resources - Additional Resources 10 February 2010 11:30 UTC www.teaglefoundation.org [Source type: Academic]

    .1990
  • Harlan Jack R., Crops and man, American Society of Agronomy, Madison 1975
  • S. Padulosi, K. Hammer, J. Heller, editors (1996).^ Bethesda, MD: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Inc., 1990 (Plus Supplements 1990).

    Hulled wheats. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 4. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy. .http://www.bioversityinternational.org/Publications/pubfile.asp?ID_PUB=54. 
  • Saltini Antonio, I semi della civiltà.^ Retrieved April 29, 2008, from http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0012brain.html .
    • ESOL ESOL TAPESTRY 11 September 2009 9:53 UTC tapestry.usf.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Retrieved from " http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Rubber " Categories : ROY-RZH .

    ^ Asperger's Syndrome Education Network (732) 321-0880 http://www.aspennj.org .

    .Grano, riso e mais nella storia delle società umane
    , Prefazione di Luigi Bernabò Brea, Avenue Media, Bologna 1996
  • Sauer Jonathan D., Geography of Crop Plants.^ Destruction of European corn borer overwintering sites, or all crop residues and plant refuse in which the borers may spend the winter, is another control option.
    • Sweet Corn:Organic Production 19 September 2009 11:49 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

    A Select Roster
    , CRC Press, Boca Raton

External links

.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

one of the earliest cultivated grains. It bore the Hebrew name hittah, and was extensively cultivated in Palestine. .There are various species of wheat.^ Driving around various communities the wheat stands are starting to fill and theres still quite a bit of wheat being planted.
  • California farmers expand wheat acreage to �cash in� on historic wheat prices 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC westernfarmpress.com [Source type: General]

^ This species is the source of most US wheat cvs, there being > 200 named cvs cultivated in the United States.

^ There are some 65 different species of birds that occupy the islands at various times throughout the year.
  • Oil Production and Environmental Damage 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That which Pharaoh saw in his dream was the Triticum compositum, which bears several ears upon one stalk (Gen 41:5).^ Severe stress after physiological maturity has little effect on grain yield, unless the integrity of the stalk or ear is compromised (e.g., damage from European corn borer or stalk rots).
  • Grain Fill Stages in Corn - Corny News Network (Purdue University) 23 September 2009 6:06 UTC www.agry.purdue.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of abortive or sterile spikelets at the top of the ear also varies: in some cases nearly all the spikelets are fertile, while in others several of the uppermost ones are barren.

^ Compute the number of stalks and ears of corn in one square kilometer of corn.
  • USGS Education: Corn Maze Geography 12 September 2009 7:37 UTC education.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "fat of the kidneys of wheat" (Deut 32:14), and the "finest of the wheat" (Ps 8116; 147:14), denote the best of the kind.^ This is the kind of wheat that grows best in our climate and in states like Kansas, Colorado and Texas.

.It was exported from Palestine in great quantities (1 Kg 5:11; Ezek 27:17; Acts 12:20).^ Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 /27 next > last > > .

^ Dessert (13 collections) Soup (20 collections) Chicken (17 collections) Appetizer (27 collections) Comfort Food (6 collections) Pasta (4 collections) Chili (15 collections) Breakfast (11 collections) Pie (14 collections) Beef All 59 Recipe Collections .
  • Sugar Cookies Recipe : Alton Brown : Food Network 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.foodnetwork.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Source: Theodore Gray Contributor: Theodore Gray Acquired: 11 March, 2009 Text Updated: 12 March, 2009 Price: $20 Size: 0.25" Composition: Sr Ti O 3 .
  • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Parched grains of wheat were used for food in Palestine (Ruth 2:14; 1Sam 17:17; 2 Sam 17:28).^ This is how you distinguish them from "whole grain" labels used as a marketing ploy to convince you than Cheerios is health food; you cannot plant Cheerios and get a grass to grow, so it's NOT a whole grain.
  • Whole grain vs. whole wheat: What's the difference? | NutritionData.com Blog by Monica Reinagel, L.D.N., C.N.S. 20 September 2009 10:010 UTC blog.nutritiondata.com [Source type: General]

^ Folate-rich foods are liver, wheat germ, legumes, green leafy vegetables, beets, citrus fruits, most fish, pork, and whole grains.

^ If you cannot tolerate wheat and other grains, using apple bran as a source of fiber is a good choice.

.The disciples, under the sanction of the Mosaic law (Deut 23:25), plucked ears of corn, and rubbing them in their hands, ate the grain unroasted (Mt 12:1; Mk 2:23; Lk 6:1).^ Petrographically marbles are massive rather than thin-layered and consist of a mosaic of calcite grains that rarely show any traces of crystalline form under the microscope.
  • marble (rock) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 2 February 2010 15:40 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is about 17,500 pounds to 25,000 pounds, or 8.75 tons to 12.5 tons per acre (UC Davis figures for conventional sweet corn production) 1,000 dozen ears average (Oklahoma Extension figures for conventional sweet corn production) .
  • Sweet Corn:Organic Production 19 September 2009 11:49 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Similar FOR SALE: WHEAT and YELLOW CORN Following are prices based on a minimum order of 25,000 MT Depending on the destination an...
  • Wheat - Wheat and more 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

.Before any of the wheat-harvest, however, could be eaten, the first-fruits had to be presented before the Lord (Lev 23:14).^ Since wheatgrass absorbs all its minerals from the soil in which it grows, unless the soil is specially prepared, the right combination and quantity of minerals will not be present, and the harvested wheat grass will be deficient.
  • Frequently Asked Questions | Sweet Wheat 9 January 2010 21:43 UTC www.sweetwheat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [First published in the Encyclopedia of Earth October 1, 2007; Last revised April 23, 2008; Retrieved January 14, 2010].
  • Public Health Statement for Lead - Encyclopedia of Earth 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, once a cereal is selected, few are eaten whole as harvested from the field.
  • Learning, Food Resource [http://food.oregonstate.edu/], Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 19 November 2009 17:35 UTC food.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)
This article needs to be merged with WHEAT (Jewish Encyclopedia).
Facts about WheatRDF feed

Simple English

Wheat
File:Wheat
Einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Triticum

Wheat is a kind of plant. Its seeds are a type of cereal grain that people can eat. It is used to make many things, like bread and pasta, by first turning it into flour. It can also be fermented to make beer,[1] alcohol, vodka,[2] or biofuel.[3] The grass plant comes from the Middle East.

An allergy to wheat can cause coeliac disease, which makes the sufferer have diarrhoea if they eat any food containing wheat.

Description

The wheat plant has long, slender leaves, stems that are hollow in most types of wheat plants, and heads that have many kinds of flowers, from 20 to 100. The flowers are grouped together in spikelets. Each spikelet has two to six flowers. In most spikelets, two or three of the flowers become fertilized, and this makes them produce the grains used for food.[4]

References

  1. Palmer, John J. (2001) How to Brew
  2. Neill, Richard. (2002) Booze: The Drinks Bible for the 21st Century. Octopus Publishing Group - Cassell Illustrated. p. 112. ISBN 1-84188-196-1.
  3. Department of Agriculture Appropriations for 1957: Hearings ... 84th Congress. 2d Session. United States. Congress. House. Appropriations. 1956. p. 242.
  4. "wheat (plant) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia". britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/641558/wheat. Retrieved 29 April 2010. 

pcd:Blèi


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Wheat, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message