Whiskies: Wikis


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A glass of whisky

Whisky or whiskey is a type of alcoholic beverage distilled from fermented grain mash. Different grains are used for different varieties, including barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, and maize (corn). Most whiskies are aged in wooden casks, made generally of oak, the exception being some corn liquors.

Whisky is a strictly regulated spirit worldwide with many competing denominations of origin and many classes and types. The unifying characteristics of the different classes and types are the fermentation of grains, and the practice of distilling the spirit down to a maximum of 80% alcohol for corn and 90% alcohol for other grains, prior to adding water, so as to retain some of the flavor of the grain used to make the spirit and prevent it from being classified as grain neutral spirits or vodka.[1] Whisky gains as much as 60% of its flavor from the type of cask used in its aging process.[citation needed] Therefore further classification takes place based upon the type of wood used and the amount of charring or toasting done to the wood.[2] Bourbon whiskey for example is legally required to be aged in charred new oak barrels, whereas quality Scotch whiskies often used the partially spent barrels from Bourbon production to induce slower maturation.[3]



Whisky is a shortened form of usquebaugh, which English borrowed from Gaelic (Irish uisce beatha and Scottish uisge beatha). This compound descends from Old Irish uisce, "water", and bethad, "of life" and meaning literally "water of life". It meant the same thing as the Latin aqua vītae which had been applied to distilled drinks since early 14th century. Other early spellings include usquebea (1706) and iskie bae (1583). In the Irish Annals of Clonmacnoise in 1405, the first written record of whiskey appears describing the death of a chieftain at Christmas from "taking a surfeit of aqua vitae". In Scotland, the first evidence of whisky production comes from an entry in the Exchequer Rolls for 1494 where malt is sent "To Friar John Cor, by order of the king, to make aquavitae".[4]


The art of distillation began with the Babylonians in Mesopotamia (in what is now Iraq) from at least the 2nd millennium BC[5], with perfumes and aromatics being distilled long before potable spirits. It is possible that the art of distillation was brought from the Mediterranean regions to Ireland by Irish missionaries between the 6th century and 7th century. Distillation was brought from Africa to Europe by the Moors,[6][7] and its use spread through the monasteries,[8] largely for medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of colic, palsy, and smallpox.[9]

Between 1100 and 1300, distillation spread to Ireland and Scotland,[10] with monastic distilleries existing in Ireland in the 12th century. Since Britain had few grapes with which to make wine, barley beer was used instead, resulting in the development of whisky.[9] In 1494, as noted above, Scotland’s Exchequer granted the malt to Friar John Cor; this was enough malt to make about 1500 bottles, so the business was apparently thriving by that time.

King James IV of Scotland (r. 1488-1513) reportedly had a great liking for Scotch whisky, and in 1506 the town of Dundee purchased a large amount of Scotch from the Guild of Surgeon Barbers, which held the monopoly on production at the time. Between 1536 and 1541, King Henry VIII of England dissolved the monasteries, sending their monks out into the general public. Whisky production moved out of a monastic setting and into personal homes and farms as newly-independent monks needed to find a way to earn money for themselves.[9]

The distillation process at the time was still in its infancy; whisky itself was imbibed at a very young age, and as a result tasted very raw and brutal compared to today’s versions. Renaissance-era whisky was also very potent and not diluted, and could even be dangerous at times. Over time, and with the happy accident of someone daring to drink from a cask which had been forgotten for several years, whisky evolved into a much smoother drink.[11]

In 1707, the Acts of Union merged England and Scotland, and thereafter taxes on it rose dramatically.[11]

After the English Malt Tax of 1725, most of Scotland’s distillation was either shut down or forced underground. Scotch whisky was hidden under altars, in coffins, and in any available space to avoid the governmental Excisemen.[9] Scottish distillers, operating out of homemade stills, took to distilling their whisky at night, where the darkness would hide the smoke rising from the stills. For this reason, the drink was known as moonshine.[10] At one point, it was estimated that over half of Scotland’s whisky output was illegal.[11]

In America, whisky was used as currency during the American Revolution. It also was a highly coveted sundry and when an additional excise tax was levied against it, the 1794 Whiskey Rebellion took place.[10]

In 1823, the UK passed the Excise Act, legalizing the distillation (for a fee), and this put a practical end to the large-scale production of Scottish moonshine.[9]

In 1831, Aeneas Coffey invented the Coffey still, allowing for cheaper and more efficient distillation of whisky. In 1850, Andrew Usher mixed traditional whisky with that from the new Coffey still, and in doing so created the first Scottish blended whisky. This new grain whisky was scoffed at by Irish distillers, who clung to their malt whisky. Many Irish contended that the new mixture was, in fact, not whisky at all.[6]

By the 1880s, the French brandy industry was devastated by the phylloxera pest that ruined much of the grape crop; as a result, whisky became the primary liquor in many markets.[9]


Whisky or whisky-like products are produced in most grain-growing areas. They differ in base product, alcoholic content, and quality.

Malted barley is an ingredient of some whiskies.
  • Malt is whisky made entirely from malted barley and distilled in an onion-shaped pot still.
  • Grain is made from malted and unmalted barley along with other grains, usually in a continuous "patent" or "Coffey" still. Until recently it was only used in blends, but there are now some single grain scotches being marketed.

Malts and grains are combined in various ways

  • Vatted malt is blended from malt whiskies from different distilleries. If a whisky is labelled "pure malt" or just "malt" it is almost certain to be a vatted whisky. This is also sometimes labelled as "blended malt" whisky.
  • Single malt whisky is malt whisky from a single distillery. However, unless the whisky is described as "single-cask" it will contain whisky from many casks, and different years, so the blender can achieve a taste recognisable as typical of the distillery. In most cases, the name of a single malt will be that of the distillery (The Glenlivet, Bushmills, Yoichi), with an age statement and perhaps some indication of some special treatments such as maturation in a port wine cask.
  • Pure pot still whiskey refers to a whiskey distilled in a pot-still (like single malt) from a mash of mixed malted and unmalted barley. It is exclusive to Ireland.
  • Blended whiskies are made from a mixture of malt and grain whiskies. A whisky simply described as Scotch Whisky or Irish Whiskey is most likely to be a blend in this sense. A blend is usually from many distilleries so that the blender can produce a flavour consistent with the brand, and the brand name (e.g., Chivas Regal, Canadian Club) will usually not therefore contain the name of a distillery. Jameson Irish Whiskey is an exception and comes from only one distillery. However, "blend" can (less frequently) have other meanings. A mixture of malts (with no grain) from different distilleries (more usually called a vatted malt) may sometimes be referred to as a "blended malt", and a mixture of grain whiskies with no malts will sometimes carry the designation "blended grain".
  • Cask strength whiskies are rare and usually only the very best whiskies are bottled in this way. They are usually bottled from the cask undiluted. Rather than diluting, the distiller is inviting the drinker to dilute to the level of potency most palatable (often no dilution is necessary, such is the quality of single cask whiskies). Single cask whiskies are usually bottled by specialist independent bottlers, such as Duncan Taylor, Master of Malt, Gordon & MacPhail and Cadenhead amongst others.

Whiskies do not mature in the bottle, only in the cask, so the "age" of a whisky is the time between distillation and bottling. This reflects how much the cask has interacted with the whisky, changing its chemical makeup and taste. Whiskies which have been in bottle for many years may have a rarity value, but are not "older" and will not necessarily be "better" than a more recently made whisky matured in wood for a similar time. Most whiskies are sold at or near an alcoholic strength of 40% abv.


American whiskeys

American whiskey is distilled from a fermented mash of cereal grain. It must have the taste, aroma, and other characteristics commonly attributed to whiskey.

The most common types listed in the federal regulations[12] are:

  • Bourbon whiskey, which is made from mash that consists of at least 51% corn (maize).
  • Rye whiskey, which is made from mash that consists of at least 51% rye.
  • Corn whiskey, which is made from mash that consists of at least 80% corn (maize).
  • Straight whiskey, (without naming a grain) is a whiskey which has been aged in charred new oak containers for 2 years or more and distilled at not more than 80 percent alcohol by volume but is derived from less than 51% of any one grain.

The "named types" of American whiskey must be distilled to not more than 80 percent alcohol by volume. "Named types" must then be aged in charred new oak containers, excepting corn whiskey. Corn whiskey does not have to be aged but, if it is aged, it must be in new un-charred oak barrels or used barrels. The aging for corn whiskey usually is brief, e.g., six months.

If the aging for a "named type" reaches 2 years or beyond, the whiskey is then additionally designated "straight" e.g., "straight rye whiskey". "Straight whiskey" (without naming a grain) is a whiskey which has been aged in charred new oak containers for 2 years or more and distilled at not more than 80 percent alcohol by volume but is derived from less than 51% of any one grain.

American blended whiskeys combine straight whiskey with un-aged whiskey, grain neutral spirits, flavorings and colorings.

Important in the marketplace is Tennessee whiskey, of which Jack Daniel's is the leading example. During distillation, it is identical to bourbon whiskey in almost every important respect including the sour mash process, which is generally unique to North America, but Tennessee whiskey is charcoal filtered prior to barrel aging. The most recognizable differences are that Tennessee whiskey is filtered through sugar maple charcoal, giving it a unique flavor and aroma. The other major difference is the reuse of barrels which is not allowed in bourbon whiskey production. Though not defined by regulations, the Government of the United States of America officially recognized Tennessee whiskey as a separate style in 1941.

Canadian whiskies

Various Canadian whiskies

Canadian whiskies are usually lighter and smoother than other whisky styles. Another common characteristic of many Canadian whiskies is their use of rye that has been malted, which provides a fuller flavour and smoothness. By Canadian law,[13] Canadian whiskies must be produced in Canada, be distilled from a fermented mash of cereal grain, "be aged in small wood for not less than 3 years", and "possess the aroma, taste and character generally attributed to Canadian whisky". The terms "Canadian Whisky", "Canadian Rye Whisky" and "Rye Whisky" are legally indistinguishable in Canada and do not denote any particular proportion of rye or other grain used in production.

Finnish whiskies

In the last few years Finnish whisky culture has developed strongly and it is still in progress of evolving. Finnish whisky culture now lives a very strong growth through the rising standard of living and general culinary trend. The sales figures and the quantity of devotees of whisky have risen very powerfully. Currently, there are two working distilleries in Finland and a third one is under construction. Whisky retail sales in Finland are controlled solely by the state alcohol monopoly Alko and advertisement of strong alcoholic beverages is banned. However, the monopoly status of Alko and the advertising prohibition do not stop people from taking interest in whiskies, even though they can make it more difficult.[14]

German whiskies

German whisky is made from grains traditionally associated with the production of whisky. The distillation of German-made whisky is a relatively recent phenomenon having only started in the last 30 years. The styles produced resemble those made in Ireland, Scotland and the United States: single malts, blends, and bourbon styles. There is no standard spelling of German whiskies with distilleries using both "whisky" and "whiskey" and one even using "whessky", a play on the word whisky and Hessen, the state in which it is produced. There are currently ten distilleries in Germany producing whisky.[15]

Indian whiskies

Indian whisky is an alcoholic beverage that is labelled as "whisky" in India. Much Indian whisky is distilled from fermented molasses, and as such would be considered a sort of rum outside of the Indian subcontinent.[16] 90% of the "whisky" consumed in India is molasses based, although India has begun to distill whisky from malt and other grains.[17]

Kasauli Distillery is set in the Himalaya mountains and opened in the late 1820s. The main whisky brand is a single malt named "Solan No. 1". This was named after the town nearby called Solan. It was the best selling Indian whisky till recently, but has declined since the early 1980s because of the stiff competition from the larger distilleries. Other whiskies this distillery produces are Diplomat Deluxe, Colonel's Special, Black Knight and Summer Hall.[18]

Irish whiskeys

Various Irish whiskeys

Most Irish whiskeys are distilled three times,[19] although there are exceptions. Though traditionally distilled using the pot still method, in modern times a column still is used to produce the grain whiskey used in blends. By law, Irish whiskey must be produced in Ireland and aged in wooden casks for a period of no less than three years, although in practice it is usually three or four times that period.[20] Unpeated malt is almost always used, the main exception being Connemara Peated Malt whiskey.

There are several types of whiskey common to Ireland: single malt, single grain, blended whiskey and uniquely to Ireland, pure pot still whiskey. The designation "pure pot still" as used in Ireland generally refers to whiskey made of 100% barley, mixed malted and unmalted, and distilled in a pot still made of copper. The "green" unmalted barley gives the traditional pure pot still whiskey a spicy, uniquely Irish quality. Like single malt, pure pot still is sold as such or blended with grain whiskey. Usually no real distinction is made between whether a blended whiskey was made from single malt or pure pot still.

Japanese whiskies

The model for Japanese whiskies is the single malt Scotch, although there are also examples of Japanese blended whiskies. The base is a mash of malted barley, dried in kilns fired with a little peat (although considerably less than is the case in Scotland), and distilled using the pot still method. For some time exports of Japanese whisky suffered from the belief in the West that whisky made in the Scotch style, but not produced in Scotland, was inferior, and until fairly recently, the market for Japanese whiskies was almost entirely domestic. In recent years, Japanese whiskies have won prestigious international awards and now enjoys a deserved reputation for a quality product.[21][22]

Scotch whiskies

Various Scotch whiskies

Scotch whiskies are generally distilled twice, though some are distilled a third time.[23] International laws require anything bearing the label "Scotch" to be distilled in Scotland and matured for a minimum of three years and one day in oak casks, among other, more specific criteria.[24] If Scotch whisky is from more than one cask, and if it includes an age statement on the bottle, it must reflect the age of the youngest whisky in the blend. Many cask-strength single malts omit the age as they use younger elements in minute amounts for flavouring and mellowing. The basic types of Scotch are malt and grain, which are combined to create blends. Many, though not all, Scotch whiskies use peat smoke to treat their malt, giving Scotch its distinctive smoky flavour. While the market is dominated by blends, the most highly prized of Scotch whiskies are the single malts. Scotch whiskies are divided into five main regions: Highland, Lowland, Islay, Speyside and Campbeltown.

Welsh whiskies

In 2000, Penderyn Distillery started production of the Penderyn single malt Welsh whisky in Wales, the first Welsh whisky since all production ended in 1894. The first bottles went on sale on 1 March 2004, Saint David's Day, and the whisky is now sold throughout the world. Penderyn Distillery is situated in the Brecon Beacons National Park and is considered the smallest distillery in the world.[25]

Other whiskies

In Brittany, France, five distilleries (Distillerie des Menhirs[26], Guillon[27], Glann ar Mor[28], Kaerilis[29] and Warenghem[30]) produce whisky using techniques similar to those in Scotland.

One whisky is produced on the French island of Corsica: Pietra & Mavella (P&M) is a coproduction of the brewery Pietra and the distillery Mavella. The mash is enriched with chestnut flour. P&M is matured in muscat casks (Domaine Gentile).[31]

Manx Spirit from the Isle of Man is, like some Virginia whiskeys in the USA, actually distilled elsewhere and re-distilled in the country of its nominal "origin".

In Spain there is a distillery named DYC, started at 1948. It makes 3 type of whiskys, 2 blended, and one pure malt. A limited edition is also, called 50 aniversary, it's a pure malt.

In Sweden a new distillery (Mackmyra[32]), started selling its products in 2006.

Recently at least two distilleries in the traditionally brandy-producing Caucasus region announced their plans to enter the Russian domestic market with whiskies. The Stavropol-based Praskoveysky distillery bases its product on Irish technology, while in Kizlyar, Dagestan's "Russian Whisky" announced a Scotch-inspired drink in single malt, blended and wheat varieties.[33]

In Taiwan, the King Car company built a whisky distillery in the city of Yilan, and has recently begun marketing Kavalan Single Malt Whisky.[34]

Australia produces single malt whiskey at Australian Spirit distilling Company in Gerringong, New South Wales. It is aged in new American oak barrels. Production started in 2004. New distillery equipment have recently increased production of Australian style "Stockmans Whiskey" and "Gun Alley" sour mash whiskey.[35]

Production of whisky started in Norfolk, England in late 2006 and the first whisky (as opposed to malt spirit) was made available to the public in November 2009. This is the first English single malt in over 100 years. It was produced at St George's Distillery by the English Whisky Company.[36] Previously Bristol and Liverpool were centres of English whisky production. East Anglia is a source of much of the grain used in Scotch whisky.

Names and spellings

The word "whisky" is believed to have been coined by soldiers of King Henry II who invaded Ireland in the 12th century as they struggled to pronounce the native Irish words uisce beatha [ɪʃkʲə bʲahə], meaning "water of life". Over time, the pronunciation changed from "whishkeyba" (an approximation of how the Irish term sounds) to "whisky". The name itself is a Gaelic calque of the Latin phrase aqua vitae, meaning "water of life".[37]

At one time, all whisky was spelled without the "e", as "whisky". In around 1870, the reputation of Scottish whisky was very poor as Scottish distilleries flooded the market with cheaper spirits produced using the Coffey still. The Irish and American distilleries adopted the spelling "whiskey", with the extra "e", to distinguish their higher quality product. Today, the spelling whisky (plural whiskies) is generally used for whiskies distilled in Scotland, Wales, Canada, and Japan, while whiskey is used for the spirits distilled in Ireland and America. Even though a 1968 directive of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms specifies "whisky" as the official US spelling, it allows labeling as "whiskey" in deference to tradition and most U.S. producers still use the historical spelling. Exceptions such as Early Times, Maker's Mark, and George Dickel are usually indicative of a Scottish heritage.[6]

In the late Victorian era, Irish whiskey was the world's most popular whisky. Of the Irish whiskeys, Dublin whiskeys were regarded as the grands crus of whiskeys. In order to differentiate Dublin whiskey from other whiskies, the Dublin distilleries adopted the spelling "whiskey". The other Irish distilleries eventually followed suit. The last Irish "whisky" was Paddy, which adopted the "e" in 1966.[6]

"Scotch" is the internationally recognized term for "Scotch whisky" however it is rarely used in Scotland, where blended whisky is generally referred to as "whisky" and single or vatted malt whisky as "malt".[38]

In many Latin-American countries, whisky (wee-skee) is used as a photographer's cue to smile, supplanting English "cheese". The Uruguayan film Whisky got its name because of this.


Whiskies and other distilled beverages such as cognac and rum are complex beverages containing a vast range of flavouring compounds, of which some 200 to 300 can be easily detected by chemical analysis. The flavouring chemicals include "carbonyl compounds, alcohols, carboxylic acids and their esters, nitrogen- and sulphur-containing compounds, tannins and other polyphenolic compounds, terpenes, and oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds" and esters of fatty acids.[39] The nitrogen compounds include pyridines, picolines and pyrazines.[40]

Flavours from distillation

The flavouring of whisky is partially determined by the presence of congeners and fusel oils. Fusel oils are higher alcohols than ethanol, are mildly toxic, and have a strong, disagreeable smell and taste. An excess of fusel oils in whisky is considered a defect. A variety of methods are employed in the distillation process to remove unwanted fusel oils. Traditionally, American distillers focused on secondary filtration using charcoal, gravel, sand, or linen to subtract undesired distillates. Canadian distillers have traditionally employed column stills which can be controlled to produce an almost pure (and less flavourful) ethanol known as neutral grain spirit or grain neutral spirit (GNS).[41] Flavour is restored by blending the neutral grain spirits with flavouring whiskies.[42]

Acetals are rapidly formed in distillates and a great many are found in distilled beverages, the most prominent being acetaldehyde diethyl acetal (1,1-diethoxyethane). Among whiskies the highest levels are associated with malt whisky.[43] This acetal is a principal flavour compound in sherry, and contributes fruitiness to the aroma.[44]

The diketone diacetyl (2,3-Butanedione) has a buttery aroma and is present in almost all distilled beverages. Whiskies and cognacs typically contain more than vodkas, but significantly less than rums or brandies.[45]

Flavours from oak

Whisky lactone (3-methyl-4-octanolide) is found in all types of oak. This lactone has a strong coconut aroma.[46] Whisky lactone is also known as quercus lactone.[47]

Commercially charred oaks are rich in phenolic compounds. One study discriminated 40 different phenolic compounds. The coumarin scopoletin is present in whisky, with the highest level reported in Bourbon whiskey.[48]

See also


  1. ^ http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr;sid=33fc0c0194b58b6fe95208945b5c637a;rgn=div5;view=text;node=27%3A1.;idno=27;cc=ecfr#27:
  2. ^ http://www.scotlandwhisky.com/about/how
  3. ^ http://www.whiskeywise.com/whiskey-barrels.html
  4. ^ Ross, James. Whisky. Routledge. pp. 158. ISBN 0710066856. 
  5. ^ Martin Levey (1956). "Babylonian Chemistry: A Study of Arabic and Second Millennium B.C. Perfumery", Osiris 12, p. 376-389.
  6. ^ a b c d Magee, Malachy (1980). Irish Whiskey - A 1000 year tradition. O'Brien press. pp. 144. ISBN 0862782287. 
  7. ^ Russell, Inge (2003). Whisky: technology, production and marketing. Academic Press. p. 14. ISBN 9780126692020. 
  8. ^ www.thewhiskyguide.com/Facts/History.html
  9. ^ a b c d e f "History of Scotch Whisky". http://whisky.com/history.html. Retrieved 6 Jan 2010. 
  10. ^ a b c homecooking.about.com/od/foodhistory/a/whiskeyhistory.htm
  11. ^ a b c "The History of Whisky". http://www.thewhiskyguide.com/Facts/History.html. 
  12. ^ "Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, Title 27 Code of Federal Regulations, Pt. 5.22". http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2008/aprqtr/pdf/27cfr5.22.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  13. ^ "Food and Drugs Act, Food and Drug Regulations (C.R.C., c. 870)". http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/F-27/C.R.C.-c.870/236939.html#Section-B.02.020. Retrieved 2007-01-23. 
  14. ^ ""WITH A DASH OF WATER" Finnish Whisky Culture and its Future". http://batman.jamk.fi/~voyager/opin/index.php?show=3995. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  15. ^ MaClean, Charles (2008). Whiskey. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 254–265. ISBN 978-0-7566-3349-3. 
  16. ^ Paul Peachey (2006-03-03). "Battle for the world's largest whisky market -- India". South Africa Mail & Guardian. http://www.mg.co.za/articlePage.aspx?articleid=265802&area=/breaking_news/breaking_news__business/. Retrieved 2007-06-25. 
  17. ^ "Amrut Distilleries". http://www.amrutdistilleries.com/. Retrieved 2007-06-25. 
  18. ^ "Planet Whiskies Lists of Indian Whisky Distilleries". http://www.planetwhiskies.com/distilleries/indian.html. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  19. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-12549581.html Differences between Scotch and Irish whiskey
  20. ^ Government of Ireland. "Irish Whiskey Act, 1980". http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/1980_33.html. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  21. ^ Nikka Yoichi 10 Single Cask scores highest
  22. ^ 2008 World Whisky Awards
  23. ^ Jackson, Michael (1994). Michael Jackson's Malt Whisky Companion. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 12. ISBN 0-7513-0146-9. 
  24. ^ "ASIL Insight: WTO Protections for Food Geographic Indications". http://www.asil.org/insights/insigh43.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-25. 
  25. ^ "Planet Whiskies Welsh Distillery Section". http://www.planetwhiskies.com/distilleries/welsh.html. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  26. ^ (French)Distillerie des Menhirs
  27. ^ (French)Guillon
  28. ^ (French)Glann ar Mor
  29. ^ (French)Kaerilis
  30. ^ (French)Warenghem
  31. ^ http://www.corsica-isula.com/gastronomy.htm
  32. ^ Mackmyra
  33. ^ "Lenta.ru report (in Russian)". http://lenta.ru/news/2008/04/17/whiskey/. 
  34. ^ King Car Whisky Distillery
  35. ^ [1]
  36. ^ St Geroge's distillery
  37. ^ Lloyd, J & Mitchinson, J: "The Book of General Ignorance". Faber & Faber, 2006.
  38. ^ "Scotch: Definition, Synonyms and Much More from Answers.com". www.answers.com. http://www.answers.com/topic/scotch-1. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  39. ^ Maarse, H. (1991). Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages. CRC Press. pp. 548. ISBN 0824783905. http://books.google.com/books?id=_OvXjhLUz-oC. 
  40. ^ Belitz, Hans-Dieter; Peter Schieberle & Werner Grosch (2004). Food Chemistry. Springer. pp. 936. ISBN 3540408185. http://books.google.com/books?id=_QWbLTSL6HoC. 
  41. ^ "Pure Alcohol (Ethanol)" (pdf). http://www.pharmco-prod.com/pages/ep1.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  42. ^ Robert Hess (2007-08-25). "Canadian Whiskey". The Spirit World. http://thespiritworld.net/2007/08/25/canadian-whisky/. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  43. ^ Maarse, H. (1991). Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages. CRC Press. pp. 553. ISBN 0824783905. http://books.google.com/books?id=_OvXjhLUz-oC. 
  44. ^ "June 2007". The Beer Brewer. http://www.beerbrewer.co.uk/2007/06/. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  45. ^ Maarse, H. (1991). Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages. CRC Press. pp. 554. ISBN 0824783905. http://books.google.com/books?id=_OvXjhLUz-oC. 
  46. ^ "Aromas and Flavours". Wine-Pages.com. http://www.wine-pages.com/guests/tom/taste5.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  47. ^ Belitz, Hans-Dieter; Peter Schieberle & Werner Grosch (2004). Food Chemistry. Springer. pp. 383. ISBN 3540408185. http://books.google.com/books?id=_QWbLTSL6HoC. 
  48. ^ Maarse, H. (1991). Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages. CRC Press. pp. 574. ISBN 0824783905. http://books.google.com/books?id=_OvXjhLUz-oC. 

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