White supremacy: Wikis

  
  
  

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Example of opposing views of Hitler, and White supremacy. Stranger: nigger? Stranger two: No. Stranger: good. Stranger two: White supremacist as a matter of fact. Stranger two: I believe in the one and only deity: Adolf Hitler. Stranger: you're f**ked up Stranger: thats too far

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White supremacy is the belief and promotion of the belief that white people are superior to people of other racial backgrounds. The term is sometimes used specifically to describe a political ideology that advocates the social and political dominance by whites.[1] White supremacy, as with racial supremacism in general, is rooted in ethnocentrism and a desire for hegemony.[2] White supremacy has frequently resulted in anti-black and antisemitic violence. Different forms of white supremacy have different conceptions of who is considered white, and not all white supremacist organizations agree on who is their greatest enemy.[3]

White supremacist groups can be found in most countries and regions with a significant white population, including North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Latin America. The militant approach taken by white supremacist groups has caused them to be watched closely by law enforcement officials. Some European countries have laws forbidding hate speech, as well as other laws that ban or restrict some white supremacist organizations.

Contents

Systemic white supremacy

White supremacy was dominant in the United States before the American Civil War and for decades after Reconstruction.[4] In large areas of the United States, this included the holding of non-whites (specifically African Americans) in chattel slavery. The outbreak of the Civil War saw the desire to uphold white supremacy cited as a cause for state secession[5] and the formation of the Confederate States of America.[6]

In some parts of the United States, many people who were considered non-white were disenfranchised, barred from government office, and prevented from holding most government jobs well into the second half of the twentieth century. Many U.S. states banned interracial marriage through anti-miscegenation laws until 1967, when these laws were declared unconstitutional. White leaders often viewed Native Americans as obstacles to economic and political progress, rather than as settlers in their own right.

White supremacy was also dominant in South Africa under apartheid and in parts of Europe at various time periods; most notably under Nazi Germany's Third Reich. Governments of many European-settled countries bordering the Pacific Ocean limited immigration and naturalization from the Asian Pacific countries, usually on a cultural basis. South Africa maintained its white supremacist apartheid system until the early 1990s.[citation needed]

Ideologies and movements

Supporters of Nordicism and Germanism consider Nordic people (Scandinavians, Germans, British and Dutch) to be superior, shunning those of Southern and Eastern Europe (who may have darker features and different cultures), including mostly Spanish, Portuguese, white Latin Americans, Lusophone white Africans, and Russians, along with anyone whose ethnic heritage is not European. By the early-19th century White supremacy was attached to emerging theories of racial hierarchy. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer attributed civilisational primacy to the "white races":

The highest civilisation and culture, apart from the ancient Hindus and Egyptians, are found exclusively among the white races; and even with many dark peoples, the ruling caste or race is fairer in colour than the rest and has, therefore, evidently immigrated, for example, the Brahmans, the Incas, and the rulers of the South Sea Islands. All this is due to the fact that necessity is the mother of invention because those tribes that emigrated early to the north, and there gradually became white, had to develop all their intellectual powers and invent and perfect all the arts in their struggle with need, want and misery, which in their many forms were brought about by the climate.[7]

Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally in 1923.

The eugenicist Madison Grant argued the Nordic race had been responsible for most of humanity's great achievements, and that admixture was "race suicide".[citation needed] Calvin Coolidge (who later became president of the United States) agreed, stating "Biological laws tell us that certain divergent people will not mix or blend. The Nordics propagate themselves successfully. With other races, the outcome shows deterioration on both sides."[citation needed] In Grant's 1916 book, The Passing of the Great Race, Europeans who were not of Germanic origin, but who had Nordic characteristics such as blonde/red hair and blue/green/gray eyes were considered to be a Nordic admixture and suitable for Aryanization.[8]

In the United States, the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is the group most associated with the white supremacist movement. Many white supremacist groups are based on the concept of preserving genetic purity, and do not focus solely on discrimination by skin color.[9] The KKK's reasons for supporting racial segregation are not primarily based on religious ideals, but some Klan groups are openly Protestant. The KKK and other white supremacist groups like Aryan Nations, The Order and the White Patriot Party are considered Anti-Semitic.[9]

Christian Identity is another movement closely tied to white supremacy. Some white supremacists identify themselves as Odinists, although many Odinists reject white supremacy. Some white supremacist groups, such as the South African Boeremag, conflate elements of Christianity and Odinism. The World Church of the Creator (now called the Creativity Movement), believed that a person's race is his religion. Aside from this, its ideology is similar to many Christian Identity groups, in their belief that there is a Jewish conspiracy in control of governments, the banking industry and the media. Matthew F. Hale , founder of the World Church of the Creator has published articles claiming that all races other than white are "mud races".[9] His movement claims that a Racial Holy War is destined to happen, which would eliminate Jews and "mud races" from the planet.[citation needed]

The white supremacist ideology has become associated with a racist faction of the skinhead subculture, despite the fact that when the skinhead culture first developed in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s, it was heavily influenced by black fashions and music, especially Jamaican reggae and ska, and African American soul music[10][11][12] By the 1980s, a sizeable and vocal white power skinhead faction had formed.[citation needed]

White supremacist recruitment tactics are primarily on a grassroots level and on the Internet. Widespread access to the Internet has led to a dramatic increase in white supremacist websites.[13] The Internet provides a venue to openly express white supremacist ideas at little social cost, because people who post the information are able to remain anonymous.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Wildman, Stephanie M. (1996). Privilege Revealed: How Invisible Preference Undermines America. NYU Press. p. 87. ISBN 0814793037. 
  2. ^ Mistry, Reena (1999). Can Gramsci's theory of hegemony help us to understand the representation of ethnic minorities in western television and cinema? Institute of Communications Studies, Leeds University
  3. ^ Flint, Colin (2004). Spaces of Hate: Geographies of Discrimination and Intolerance in the U.S.A.. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 0415935865. "Although white racist activists must adopt a political identity of whiteness, the flimsy definition of whiteness in modern culture poses special challenges for them. In both mainstream and white supremacist discourse, to be white is to be distinct from those marked as nonwhite, yet the placement of the distinguishing line has varied significantly in different times and places." 
  4. ^ Fredrickson, George (1981). White Supremacy. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. p. 162. ISBN 0195030427. 
  5. ^ A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union: "We hold as undeniable truths that the governments of the various States, and of the confederacy itself, were established exclusively by the white race, for themselves and their posterity; that the African race had no agency in their establishment; that they were rightfully held and regarded as an inferior and dependent race, and in that condition only could their existence in this country be rendered beneficial or tolerable. That in this free government all white men are and of right ought to be entitled to equal civil and political rights; that the servitude of the African race, as existing in these States, is mutually beneficial to both bond and free, and is abundantly authorized and justified by the experience of mankind, and the revealed will of the Almighty Creator, as recognized by all Christian nations; while the destruction of the existing relations between the two races, as advocated by our sectional enemies, would bring inevitable calamities upon both and desolation upon the fifteen slave-holding states."
  6. ^ The "Cornerstone Speech", Alexander H. Stephens (Vice President of the Confederate States), March 21, 1861, Savannah, Georgia: "Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery--subordination to the superior race--is his natural and normal condition."
  7. ^ Schopenhauer, Arthur (1851). Parerga and Paralipomena. Vol. 2, Section 92. 
  8. ^ Grant, Madison (1916). The Passing of the Great Race. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  9. ^ a b c http://law.jrank.org/pages/11302/White-Supremacy-Groups.html White Supremacy Groups
  10. ^ Smiling Smash: An Interview with Cathal Smyth, a.k.a Chas Smash, of Madness
  11. ^ Special Articles
  12. ^ Old Skool Jim. Trojan Skinhead Reggae Box Set liner notes. London: Trojan Records. TJETD169. 
  13. ^ Adams, Josh, and Vincent J. Roscigno "White Supremacists, Oppositional Culture and the World Wide Web." University on North Carolina Press 84 (2005): 759-788. JSTOR. Web. 20 Nov. 2009.<http://www.jstor.org/stable/3598477>.

Further reading

  • Dobratz, Betty A. and Shanks-Meile, Stephanie. "White power, white pride!": The white separatist movement in the United States (JHU Press, 2000) ISBN 978-0801865374
  • Lincoln Rockwell, George. White Power (John McLaughlin, 1996)
  • MacCann, Ronnarae. White Supremacy in Children's Literature (Routledge, 2000)

External links


Simple English

White supremacy is the belief that white people are better than other races. The words "white supremacy" are sometimes used to describe a political idea that shows the social and political dominance of whites.[1]

It is associated with racism. White supremacists also want racial separation, which means people of different races living apart. White supremacy has often resulted in anti-black racism and antisemitism (Anti-Jewish).[needs proof]

Different kinds of white supremacy have different ideas of whiteness, and not all white supremacist groups agree on which group is their greatest enemy.[2] White supremacists frequently consider Jews to be the biggest threat to their cause, because Jews are thought to be able to mix much more easily than other ethnic groups.[3]

Contents

History

Politically, socially and economically, white supremacy was common in the United States before the American Civil War and for decades after.[4] The same is true of apartheid in South Africa and of parts of Europe at different time periods; importantly under Nazi Germany's Third Reich. The amount and nature of white supremacy's influence in western culture is a subject of ongoing debate. In some parts of the United States, many people who were considered non-white could not vote and were barred from government office, and prevented from holding most government jobs — well into the second half of the twentieth century. White leaders often viewed Native Americans and Australian Aborigines as obstacles to progress, rather than as settlers in their own right. Many European-settled countries at the Pacific Ocean limited immigration from the Asian Pacific countries. Many U.S. states banned marriage between races, through "anti-miscegenation laws" until 1967, when these laws were changed. South Africa maintained its white supremacist-like Apartheid system until the early 1990s.

White supremacists have become linked with a racist part of the skinhead subculture, despite the fact that when the skinhead scene first developed in the United Kingdom in the late 1960s, it was heavily influenced by Jamaican rude boys and British mods.[5][6][7] By the 1980s, a large white power skinhead faction had formed.[needs proof]

White supremacist movements and ideas

White supremacist groups can be found in most countries and regions with a large white population, including North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Latin America. In all of these locations, their views represent a small amount of the population, and active membership of the groups is quite small. However, a backlash to the non-white immigrants into various European nations has caused a rise in membership in such organizations,Template:When? as well as an increase in militant white supremacist demonstrations. The militant approach taken by white supremacist groups has caused them to be watched closely by law enforcement officials. Some European countries have laws stopping hate speech, as well as other laws that ban or restrict some white supremacist organizations but not all.

Religious movements

at a rally in 1923.]]

The Christian Identity movement, which is regarded by other branches of Christianity as heretical, is closely tied to white supremacy.[needs proof] Although the Ku Klux Klan's reasons for supporting racial segregation are not primarily based on religious ideals, some Klan groups are openly Christian Protestant because of their northern European/Germanic roots. Some white supremacists identify themselves as Odinists, although most Odinists reject white supremacy, and white supremacists make up only a small fraction of those who support Odinism (belief in the gods of Norse mythology). Some white supremacist groups, such as the South African Boeremag, conflate elements of Christianity and Odinism.

The World Church of the Creator, now called the Creativity Movement, believed that a person's race is his religion. Aside from this central belief, its ideology is similar to many Christian Identity groups, in the conviction that there is a Jewish conspiracy in control of the United States government, international banking, and the media. They claim that a Racial Holy War (RAHOWA), is destined to happen, which would eliminate Jews and "mud races" from the planet. In the early 1990s, there was a dramatic increase in membership, due to the growing belief in the apocalypse.

Other pages

  • Apartheid, a system of rule by white people in South Africa
  • Master race, the belief that one race is or ought to be dominant

Footnotes

  1. Wildman, Stephanie M. (1996). Privilege Revealed: How Invisible Preference. NYU Press. pp. p. 87. ISBN 0814793037. 
  2. Flint, Colin (2004). Spaces of Hate: Geographies of Discrimination and Intolerance in the U.S.A.. Routledge. pp. 53. ISBN 0415935865. "Although white racist activists must adopt a political identity of whiteness, the flimsy definition of whiteness in modern culture poses special challenges for them. In both mainstream and white supremacist discourse, to be white is to be distinct from those marked as nonwhite, yet the placement of the distinguishing line has varied significantly in different times and places." 
  3. Gerstenfeld, Phyllis B. (2003). Hate Crimes: Causes, Controls, and Controversies. Sage Publications Inc.. pp. 155. ISBN 0761928146. "The third reason that Jews may be so vilified is that, compared with people of color, they can much more easily assimilate; they can easily "pass." This represents a particular threat to white supremacy because Jews can infiltrate the white power structure in a way that people of color cannot." 
  4. Fredrickson, George (1981). White Supremacy. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press. pp. p.162. ISBN 0195030427. 
  5. Smiling Smash: An Interview with Cathal Smyth, a.k.a Chas Smash, of Madness
  6. Special Articles
  7. Old Skool Jim. Trojan Skinhead Reggae Box Set liner notes. London: Trojan Records. TJETD169. 

Further reading

  • Dobratz, Betty A. and Shanks-Meile, Stephanie. "White power, white pride!": The white separatist movement in the United States (Twayne Publishers, NY, 1997).
  • Lincoln Rockwell, George. White Power (John McLaughlin, 1996).

Other websites








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