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Wikileaks
Graphic of hourglass, colored in blue and grey; a circular map of the western hemisphere of the world drips from the top to bottom chamber of the hourglass.
URL www.wikileaks.org
Type of site Whistleblower, wiki
Registration Private
Launched December 2006
Current status Suspended since 24 December 2009[1]

Wikileaks (officially WikiLeaks) is a website that published anonymous submissions and leaks of sensitive governmental, corporate, organizational, or religious documents, while attempting to preserve the anonymity and untraceability of its contributors. Within one year of its December 2006 launch, its database had grown to more than 1.2 million documents,[2].

Because of fundraising problems, Wikileaks temporarily[3] suspended all operations other than submission of material in December 2009.[4] Materials that were previously published are no longer available, although some can still be accessed on unofficial mirrors.[5][6] Wikileaks originally stated on its website that it would resume full operation once the operational costs were covered, and on 3 February Wikileaks announced that its minimum fundraising goal had been achieved.[7]

Contents

History

Wikileaks went public in January 2007, when it first appeared on the web.[8] The site states that it was "founded by Chinese dissidents, journalists, mathematicians and start-up company technologists, from the US, Taiwan, Europe, Australia and South Africa".[9] The creators of Wikileaks were unidentified as of January 2007,[10] although it has been represented in public since January 2007 by non-anonymous speakers such as Julian Assange, who had described himself as a member of Wikileaks' advisory board[11] and was later referred to as the "founder of Wikileaks".[12] As of June 2009, the site had over 1,200 registered volunteers[9] and the advisory board consisted of Assange, Phillip Adams, Wang Dan, CJ Hinke, Ben Laurie, Tashi Namgyal Khamsitsang, Xiao Qiang, Chico Whitaker, and Wang Youcai.[13]

Wikileaks states that its "primary interest is in exposing oppressive regimes in Asia, the former Soviet bloc, Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, but we also expect to be of assistance to people of all regions who wish to reveal unethical behavior in their governments and corporations."[9][14]

In January 2007, the website stated that it had over 1.2 million leaked documents that it was preparing to publish.[15] The group has subsequently released a number of other significant documents which have become front-page news items, ranging from documentation of equipment expenditures and holdings in the Afghanistan war to corruption in Kenya.[16]

Their stated goal is to ensure that whistle-blowers and journalists are not jailed for emailing sensitive or classified documents, as happened to Chinese journalist Shi Tao, who was sentenced to 10 years in 2005 after publicising an email from Chinese officials about the anniversary of the Tiananmen Square massacre.[17]

The project has drawn comparisons to Daniel Ellsberg's leaking of the Pentagon Papers in 1971.[18] In the United States, the leaking of some documents may be legally protected. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that the Constitution guarantees anonymity, at least in the area of political discourse.[18] Author and journalist Whitley Strieber has spoken about the benefits of the Wikileaks project, noting that "Leaking a government document can mean jail, but jail sentences for this can be fairly short. However, there are many places where it means long incarceration or even death, such as China and parts of Africa and the Middle East."[19]

The site has won a number of significant awards, including the 2008 Economist magazine New Media Award.[20]

In June 2009, Wikileaks and Julian Assange won Amnesty International UK's Media Award 2009 (in the category "New Media") for the 2008 publication of "Kenya: The Cry of Blood - Extra Judicial Killings and Disappearances",[21] a report by the Kenyan National Commission on Human Rights about police killings in Kenya.[22]

Suspension of activity

On 24 December 2009, Wikileaks announced that it was experiencing a shortage of funds[23] and suspended all access to its website except for a form to submit new material.[4] Wikileaks sees this is as a kind of strike "to ensure that everyone who is involved stops normal work and actually spends time raising revenue".[24] While it was initially hoped that funds could be secured by 6 January 2010,[25] it took until 3 February for Wikileaks to achieve their minimum fundraising goal.[26] Wikileaks originally stated on its website that it would resume full operation once the operational costs were covered. However, as of 13th March, the site remains suspended, with no indication of when it will return.[4][27]

On 22 January 2010, PayPal suspended Wikileaks' donation account and froze its assets. Wikileaks claimed that this had happened before, and was done for "no obvious reason".[28] The account was restored on 25 January 2010.[29]

Background

The Wikileaks team consists of five people who work full-time and about 800 people who work occasionally. None are paid.[24] Wikileaks has no official headquarters. The expenses per year are about $600,000 (approximately $200,000 if the staff is unpaid), mainly for servers and bureaucracy.[24] Wikileaks does not pay for lawyers, as hundreds of thousands of dollars in legal support have been donated by media organisations such as the Associated Press, The Los Angeles Times, and the National Newspaper Publishers Association.[24] Its only revenue stream is donations, but Wikileaks is planning to add an auction model.[24]

Technology

The "about" page originally read: "To the user, Wikileaks will look very much like Wikipedia. Anybody can post to it, anybody can edit it. No technical knowledge is required. Leakers can post documents anonymously and untraceably. Users can publicly discuss documents and analyze their credibility and veracity. Users can discuss interpretations and context and collaboratively formulate collective publications. Users can read and write explanatory articles on leaks along with background material and context. The political relevance of documents and their verisimilitude will be revealed by a cast of thousands."[30]

However, WikiLeaks established an editorial policy that accepted only documents that were "of political, diplomatic, historical or ethical interest".[31] This coincided with early criticism that no editorial policy would drive out good material with spam and promote "automated or indiscriminate publication of confidential records."[32] It is no longer possible for "anybody [to] post to it", as the original FAQ promised. Instead, submissions are regulated by an internal review process and some are published, while documents not fitting the editorial criteria are rejected by anonymous Wikileaks reviewers. The revised FAQ now states that "Anybody can post comments to it."[33]

Wikileaks is based on several software packages, including MediaWiki, Freenet, Tor, and PGP.[34]

Hosting, access, and security

Wikileaks describes itself as "an uncensorable system for untraceable mass document leaking". Wikileaks is hosted by PRQ, a Sweden-based company providing "highly secure, no-questions-asked hosting services". PRQ is said to have "almost no information about its clientele and maintains few if any of its own logs". PRQ is owned by Gottfrid Svartholm and Fredrik Neij who, through their involvement in The Pirate Bay, have significant experience in withstanding legal challenges from authorities. Being hosted by PRQ makes it difficult to take Wikileaks offline. Furthermore, "Wikileaks maintains its own servers at undisclosed locations, keeps no logs and uses military-grade encryption to protect sources and other confidential information." Such arrangements have been called "bulletproof hosting".[35]

Chinese censorship

The Chinese government currently attempts to censor every web site with "wikileaks" in the URL, including the primary .org site and the regional variations .cn and .uk. However, the site is still accessible from behind the Chinese firewall through one of the many alternative names used by the project, such as "secure.sunshinepress.org". The alternate sites change frequently, and Wikileaks encourages users to search "wikileaks cover names" outside mainland China for the latest alternative names. Mainland search engines, including Baidu and Yahoo, also censor references to "wikileaks".[36]

Potential future Australian censorship

On 16 March 2009, the Australian Communications and Media Authority added URLs to particular pages on Wikileaks to their blacklist, after blacklists from other countries were uploaded. These pages will be blocked for all Australians if the mandatory internet filtering censorship scheme is implemented as planned.[37][38]

Verification of submissions

WikiLeaks states that it has never released a misattributed document. Documents are assessed before release. In response to concerns about the possibility of misleading or fraudulent leaks, Wikileaks has stated that misleading leaks "are already well-placed in the mainstream media! [Wikileaks] is of no additional assistance."[39] The FAQ states that: "The simplest and most effective countermeasure is a worldwide community of informed users and editors who can scrutinize and discuss leaked documents."[40]

Notable leaks

Daniel arap Moi family corruption

On 31 August 2007, The Guardian (Britain) featured on its front page a story about corruption by the family of the former Kenyan leader Daniel arap Moi. The newspaper stated that their source of the information was Wikileaks.[41]

Bank Julius Baer lawsuit

In February 2008, the Wikileaks.org domain name was taken offline after the Swiss Bank Julius Baer sued Wikileaks and the wikileaks.org domain registrar, Dynadot, in a court in California, United States, and obtained a permanent injunction ordering the shutdown.[42][43] Wikileaks had hosted allegations of illegal activities at the bank's Cayman Island branch.[42] Wikileaks' U.S. ISP, Dynadot, complied with the order by removing its DNS entries. However, the website remained accessible via its numeric IP address, and online activists immediately mirrored Wikileaks at dozens of alternate websites worldwide.[44]

The American Civil Liberties Union and the Electronic Frontier Foundation filed a motion protesting the censorship of Wikileaks. The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press assembled a coalition of media and press that filed an amicus curiae brief on Wikileaks' behalf. The coalition included major U.S. newspaper publishers and press organisations, such as: the American Society of Newspaper Editors, The Associated Press, the Citizen Media Law Project, The E.W. Scripps Company, the Gannett Company, The Hearst Corporation, the Los Angeles Times, the National Newspaper Publishers Association, the Newspaper Association of America, The Radio-Television News Directors Association, and The Society of Professional Journalists. The coalition requested to be heard as a friend of the court to call attention to relevant points of law that it believed the court had overlooked (on the grounds that Wikileaks had not appeared in court to defend itself, and that no First Amendment issues had yet been raised before the court). Amongst other things, the coalition argued that:[44]

"Wikileaks provides a forum for dissidents and whistleblowers across the globe to post documents, but the Dynadot injunction imposes a prior restraint that drastically curtails access to Wikileaks from the Internet based on a limited number of postings challenged by Plaintiffs. The Dynadot injunction therefore violates the bedrock principle that an injunction cannot enjoin all communication by a publisher or other speaker."[44]

The same judge, Judge Jeffrey White, who issued the injunction vacated it on 29 February 2008, citing First Amendment concerns and questions about legal jurisdiction.[45] Wikileaks was thus able to bring its site online again. The bank dropped the case on 5 March 2008.[46] The judge also denied the bank's request for an order prohibiting the website's publication.[44]

The Executive Director of the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press, Lucy Dalglish, commented:

"It's not very often a federal judge does a 180 degree turn in a case and dissolves an order. But we're very pleased the judge recognized the constitutional implications in this prior restraint."[44]

Guantánamo Bay procedures

A copy of Standard Operating Procedures for Camp Delta – the protocol of the U.S. Army at the Guantánamo Bay detention camp – dated March 2003 was released on the Wikileaks website on 7 November 2007.[47] The document, named "gitmo-sop.pdf", is also mirrored at The Guardian.[48] Its release revealed some of the restrictions placed over detainees at the camp, including the designation of some prisoners as off-limits to the International Committee of the Red Cross, something that the U.S. military had in the past repeatedly denied.[49]

On 3 December 2007, Wikileaks released a copy of the 2004 edition of the manual,[50] together with a detailed analysis of the changes.[51]

Scientology

On 7 April 2008, Wikileaks reported receiving a letter (dated 27 March) from the Religious Technology Centre claiming ownership of several recently leaked documents pertaining to OT Levels within the Church of Scientology. These same documents were at the centre of a 1994 scandal. The email stated:

The Advanced Technology materials are unpublished, copyrighted works. Please be advised that your customer's action in this regard violates United States copyright law. Accordingly, we ask for your help in removing these works immediately from your service.

-- Moxon and Kobrin[52]

The letter continued on to request the release of the logs of the uploader, which would remove their anonymity. Wikileaks responded with a statement released on Wikinews stating: "in response to the attempted suppression, Wikileaks will release several thousand additional pages of Scientology material next week",[53] and did so.

Hack of Sarah Palin's Yahoo account

In September 2008, during the 2008 United States presidential election campaigns, the contents of a Yahoo account belonging to Sarah Palin (the running mate of Republican presidential nominee John McCain) were posted on Wikileaks. The contents of the mailbox seemed to suggest that she used the private Yahoo account to send work-related messages in order to evade public record laws.[54] The hacking of the account was widely reported in mainstream news outlets.[55][56][57] Although Wikileaks was able to conceal the hacker's identity, the source of the Palin emails was eventually publicly identified in another way;[58] the hacker attempted to conceal his identity by using the anonymous proxy service ctunnel.com, but, because of the illegal nature of the access, ctunnel website administrator Gabriel Ramuglia assisted the FBI in tracking down the source of the hack.[59] The hacker was revealed to be David Kernell, a 20-year-old economics student at the University of Tennessee and the son of Democratic Tennessee State Representative Mike Kernell from Memphis.[60]

BNP membership list

After briefly appearing on a blog, the membership list of the far-right British National Party was posted to Wikileaks on 18 November 2008. The name, address, age and occupation of many of the 13,500 members were given, including several police officers, two solicitors, four ministers of religion, at least one doctor, and a number of primary and secondary school teachers. In Britain, police officers are banned from joining or promoting the BNP, and at least one officer was dismissed for being a member.[61] The BNP was known for going to considerable lengths to conceal the identities of members. On 19 November, BNP leader Nick Griffin stated that he knew the identity of the person who initially leaked the list on 17 November, describing him as a "hardliner" senior employee who left the party in 2007.[62][63][64] On 20 October 2009, a list of BNP members from April 2009 was leaked. This list contained 11,811 members.[65]

2009 leaks

In January 2009, over 600 internal United Nations reports (60 of them marked "strictly confidential") were leaked.[66]

On 7 February 2009, Wikileaks released 6,780 Congressional Research Service reports.[67]

In March 2009, Wikileaks published a list of contributors to the Norm Coleman senatorial campaign[68] and a set of documents belonging to Barclays Bank that had been ordered removed from the website of The Guardian.[69]

Climate Research Unit e-mails

In November 2009, controversial documents, including e-mail correspondence between climate scientists, were leaked from the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia to various sites; one prominent host of the full 120MB archive was Wikileaks.[70][71][72]

Internet censorship lists

Wikileaks has published the lists of forbidden or illegal web addresses for several countries.

On 19 March 2009, Wikileaks published what was alleged to be the Australian Communications and Media Authority's blacklist of sites to be banned under Australia's proposed laws on Internet censorship.[73] Reactions to the publication of the list by the Australian media and politicians were varied. Particular note was made by journalistic outlets of the type of websites on the list; while the Internet censorship scheme submitted by the Australian Labor Party in 2008 was proposed with the stated intention of preventing access to child pornography and sites related to terrorism,[74] the list leaked on Wikileaks contains a number of sites unrelated to sex crimes involving minors.[75][76] When questioned about the leak, Stephen Conroy, the Minister for Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy in Australia's Rudd Labor Government, responded by claiming that the list was not the actual list, yet threatening to prosecute anyone involved in distributing it.[77] On 20 March 2009, Wikileaks published an updated list, dated 18 March 2009; it more closely matches the claimed size of the ACMA blacklist, and contains two pages which have been independently confirmed to be blacklisted by ACMA.[78]

Wikileaks also contains details of Internet censorship in Thailand, including lists of censored sites dating back to May 2006.[79]

Bilderberg Group meeting reports

Since May 2009, Wikileaks has made available reports of several meetings of the Bilderberg Group.[80] It includes the group's history[81] and meeting reports from the years 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1960, 1962, 1963, and 1980.

2008 Peru oil scandal

On January 28, 2009, Wikileaks released 86 telephone intercept recordings of Peruvian politicians and businessman involved in the "Petrogate" oil scandal. The release of the tapes lead the front pages of five Peruvian newspapers.[82]

Toxic dumping in Africa: The Minton report

In September 2006, commodities giant Trafigura commissioned an internal report about a toxic dumping incident in the Ivory Coast,[83] which (according to the United Nations) affected 108,000 people. The document, called the Minton Report, names various harmful chemicals "likely to be present" in the waste — sodium hydroxide, cobalt phthalocyanine sulfonate, coker naphtha, thiols, sodium alkanethiolate, sodium hydrosulfide, sodium sulfide, dialkyl disulfides, hydrogen sulfide — and notes that some of them "may cause harm at some distance". The report states that potential health effects include "burns to the skin, eyes and lungs, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of consciousness and death", and suggests that the high number of reported casualties is "consistent with there having been a significant release of hydrogen sulphide gas".

On September 11, 2009, Trafigura's lawyers, Carter-Ruck, obtained a secret "super-injunction"[84] against The Guardian, banning that newspaper from publishing the contents of the document. Trafigura also threatened a number of other media organizations with legal action if they published the report's contents, including the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation[83] and The Chemical Engineer magazine.[85] On September 14, 2009, Wikileaks posted the report.[86]

On October 12, Carter-Ruck warned The Guardian against mentioning the content of a parliamentary question that was due to be asked about the report. Instead, the paper published an article stating that they were unable to report on an unspecified question and claiming that the situation appeared to "call into question privileges guaranteeing free speech established under the 1689 Bill of Rights".[87] The suppressed details rapidly circulated via the internet and Twitter[88][89][90] and, amid uproar, Carter-Ruck agreed the next day to the modification of the injunction before it was challenged in court, permitting The Guardian to reveal the existence of the question and the injunction.[91] The injunction was lifted on October 16.[92]

Kaupthing Bank

Wikileaks has made available an internal document[93] from Kaupthing Bank from just prior to the collapse of Iceland's banking sector, which led to the 2008–2009 Icelandic financial crisis. The document shows that suspiciously large sums of money were loaned to various owners of the bank, and large debts written off. Kaupthing's lawyers have threatened Wikileaks with legal action, citing banking privacy laws. The leak has caused an uproar in Iceland and may result in criminal charges against the individuals involved.[94]

9/11 pager messages

On November 25, 2009, Wikileaks released 570,000 intercepts of pager messages from the day of the September 11 attacks. Among the released messages are communications between Pentagon officials and New York City Police Department.[95]

U.S. Intelligence report on Wikileaks

On March 15, 2010, Wikileaks released a secret 32 page U.S. Department of Defense Counterintelligence Analysis Report from March 2008. The document described some prominent reports leaked on the website which related to the security interests of the USA, and described potential methods of marginalizing the organization. Wikileaks editor Julian Assange said that some details in the Army report were inaccurate and its recommendations flawed. [96] The report recommended deterring potential whistleblowers via termination of employment and criminal prosecution of any existing or former insiders, leakers or whistleblowers. Reasons for the attack include notable leaks such as U.S. equipment expenditure, human rights violations in Guantanamo Bay and the battle over the Iraqi town of Fallujah. As to date no Wikileak source has been able to be discovered or prosecuted, the plan is assumed to have been ineffectual or not to have been implemented.[97]

Police raid on German Wikileaks domain owner's home

The home of Theodor Reppe, owner of the German Wikileaks domain name, Wikileaks.de, was raided on 24 March 2009 after WikiLeaks released the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) censorship blacklist.[98] The site was not affected.[99][100][101]

See also

References

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  58. ^ "Palin Email Hacker Found". Slashdot. http://news.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=08/09/21/160222. Retrieved 21 September 2008. 
  59. ^ "Memo to US Secret Service: Net proxy may pinpoint Palin email hackers". TheRegister. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/09/18/palin_email_investigation/. Retrieved 21 September 2008. 
  60. ^ "Federal Bureau of Investigation - Knoxville Division - Press Releases - Department of Justice". Knoxville.fbi.gov. http://knoxville.fbi.gov/dojpressrel/2008/kxhacking100808.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
  61. ^ "'BNP membership' officer sacked". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/merseyside/7956824.stm. Retrieved 23 March 2009. 
  62. ^ "BNP membership list posted online by former 'hardliner'". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2008/nov/19/bnp-list. Retrieved 19 November 2008. 
  63. ^ "BNP Membership List Exposed". Infoshop News. http://news.infoshop.org/article.php?story=20081118214827111. Retrieved 19 November 2008. 
  64. ^ "Police officer faces investigation after being 'outed' as BNP supporter in membership leak". DailyMail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1087101/Police-officer-faces-investigation-outed-BNP-supporter-membership-leak.html. Retrieved 19 November 2008. 
  65. ^ "BNP membership list leaked". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2009/oct/20/bnp-membership-list-wikileaks. Retrieved 20 October 2009. 
  66. ^ Radio, Britannia (15 January 2009). "Britannia Radio". Britanniaradio.blogspot.com. http://britanniaradio.blogspot.com/2009/01/wikileaks-releases-un-bombshell_15.html. Retrieved 13 March 2009. 
  67. ^ "Change you can download: a billion in secret Congressional reports". Wikileaks.org. http://wikileaks.org/wiki/Change_you_can_download:_a_billion_in_secret_Congressional_reports. Retrieved 13 March 2009. 
  68. ^ Wikileaks.org
  69. ^ Wikileaks.org
  70. ^ http://tech.mit.edu/V129/N57/davidson.html
  71. ^ "WikiLeaks.org aims to expose lies, topple governments". New York Post. November 29, 2009. http://www.nypost.com/p/news/opinion/opedcolumnists/wikileaks_org_aims_to_expose_lies_flsLqNMO3B0LEtxL5bNaKL. 
  72. ^ Wikileaks shuts down, unable to plug funding gap (Sydney Morning Herald)
  73. ^ Colin Jacobs (19 March 2009). "Leaked Government blacklist confirms worst fears". Electronic Frontiers Australia. http://www.efa.org.au/2009/03/19/leaked-government-blacklist-confirms-worst-fears/. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  74. ^ Vivian Wai-yin Kwok (19 March 2009). "Aussie Internet Blacklist Has Gray Areas". Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/2009/03/19/australia-internet-censorship-markets-economy-wikileaks.html. Retrieved 2009-03-19. 
  75. ^ Asher Moses (19 March 2009). "Leaked Australian blacklist reveals banned sites". Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2009/03/19/1237054961100.html. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  76. ^ Liam Tung (19 March 2009). "Wikileaks spills ACMA blacklist". ZD Net Australia. http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/security/soa/Wikileaks-spills-ACMA-blacklist/0,130061744,339295538,00.htm. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  77. ^ Nic MacBean (19 March 2009). "Leaked blacklist irresponsible, inaccurate: Conroy". ABC News. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/03/19/2520929.htm?section=australia. Retrieved 19 March 2009. ""I am aware of reports that a list of URLs has been placed on a website. This is not the ACMA blacklist." He says that the published list purports to be current on August 6, 2008, and contains approximately 2,400 URLs, whereas the ACMA blacklist for the same date contained 1,061 URLs. "There are some common URLs to those on the ACMA blacklist. However, ACMA advises that there are URLs on the published list that have never been the subject of a complaint or ACMA investigation, and have never been included on the ACMA blacklist," he said. "ACMA is investigating this matter and is considering a range of possible actions it may take including referral to the Australian Federal Police. Any Australian involved in making this content publicly available would be at serious risk of criminal prosecution."" 
  78. ^ "Australian government secret ACMA internet censorship blacklist, 18 Mar 2009". Wikileaks. 20 March 2009. http://wikileaks.org/wiki/Australian_government_secret_ACMA_internet_censorship_blacklist%2C_18_Mar_2009. Retrieved 23 March 2009. 
  79. ^ Internet censorship in Thailand
  80. ^ ""Bildeberg Group Documents"". Wikileaks.org. http://wikileaks.org/wiki/Category:Series/Bilderberg_reports. Retrieved 11 May 2009. 
  81. ^ ""Bilderberg Group History, 1956"". Wikileaks.org. http://wikileaks.org/wiki/Bilderberg_Group_History%2C_1956. Retrieved 11 May 2009. 
  82. ^ "86 interceptaciones telefonicas a politicos y autoridades peruanos, más del caso Petrogate, 2008". Wikileaks. http://wikileaks.org/wiki/86_interceptaciones_telefonicas_a_politicos_y_autoridades_peruanos,_m%C3%A1s_del_caso_Petrogate,_2008. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
  83. ^ a b "A gag too far". Index On Censorship. October 2009. http://www.indexoncensorship.org/2009/10/a-gag-too-far/. Retrieved 2009-10-14. 
  84. ^ "Minton report secret injunction gagging The Guardian on Trafigura", Wikileaks, https://secure.wikileaks.org/wiki/Minton_report_secret_injunction_gagging_The_Guardian_on_Trafigura,_11_Sep_2009, retrieved 2009-10-15 
  85. ^ Duckett, Adam (2009-10-13). "Trafigura story breaks". The Chemical Engineer. http://www.tcetoday.com/tcetoday/NewsDetail.aspx?nid=12188. Retrieved 2009-10-14. 
  86. ^ "RE: Caustic Tank Washings, Abidjan, Ivory Coast". http://wikileaks.org/leak/waterson-toxicwaste-ivorycoast-%C3%A92009.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  87. ^ Leigh, David (October 12, 2009). Guardian gagged from reporting parliament. The Guardian.
  88. ^ Rusbridger, Alan (October 14, 2009). The Trafigura fiasco tears up the textbook. The Guardian.
  89. ^ Higham, Nick (October 13, 2009). When is a secret not a secret? BBC News.
  90. ^ The mysterious British House of Commons. Wikipedia Reference Desk
  91. ^ Leigh, David (October 13, 2009). "Gag on Guardian reporting MP's Trafigura question lifted". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/oct/13/guardian-gagged-parliamentary-question. Retrieved 2009-10-14. 
  92. ^ Beckford, Martin (October 16, 2009). "Secret Trafigura report said ‘likely cause’ of illness was release of toxic gas from dumped waste". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/6350262/Secret-Trafigura-report-said-likely-cause-of-illness-was-release-of-toxic-gas-from-dumped-waste.html. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  93. ^ "Financial collapse: Confidential exposure analysis of 205 companies each owing above €45M to Icelandic bank Kaupthing, 26 September 2008". Wikileaks. 29 July 2009. http://wikileaks.org/wiki/Financial_collapse:_Confidential_exposure_analysis_of_205_companies_each_owing_above_€45M_to_Icelandic_bank_Kaupthing%2C_26_Sep_2008. Retrieved 22 September 2009. 
  94. ^ "Miklar hreyfingar rétt fyrir hrun". RÚV. 31 July 2009. http://www.ruv.is/heim/frettir/frett/store64/item292385/. Retrieved 22 September 2009. 
  95. ^ 570,000 pager messages from 9/11 released MSNBC November 25, 2009
  96. ^ Mccullagh, Declan (2010-03-15). "U.S. Army worried about Wikileaks in secret report". CNET News, CBS Interactive. http://news.cnet.com/8301-13578_3-20000469-38.html. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  97. ^ "U.S. Intelligence planned to destroy WikiLeaks" (PDF). http://wikileaks.org/file/us-intel-wikileaks.pdf. 
  98. ^ "Hausdurchsuchung bei Inhaber der Domain wikileaks.de [Search of owner of the domain wikileaks.de]" (in English, translated from German). Archived from the original on 2009-09-21. http://www.translate.google.com/translate?js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=http://www.heise.de/newsticker/Hausdurchsuchung-bei-Inhaber-der-Domain-wikileaks-de-Update--/meldung/135147&sl=auto&tl=en&history_state0=auto. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  99. ^ Wikileaks raided by German police
  100. ^ Police raid home of Wikileaks.de domain owner over censorship lists
  101. ^ Police raid Wikileaks owner

External links

Interviews


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Wikileaks is a website that publishes anonymous submissions and leaks of sensitive governmental, corporate, or religious documents, while attempting to preserve the anonymity and untraceability of its contributors. Within one year of its December 2006 launch, its database had grown to more than 1.2 million documents. Wikileaks runs on modified MediaWiki software.

Sourced

  • A brown paper envelope for the digital age, Wikileaks.org is now home to more than 1m documents that governments and big business would rather the public did not see. The site – similar to Wikipedia in style, but otherwise independent of it – serves as an uncensorable and untraceable depository for the truth, able to publish documents that the courts may prevent newspapers and broadcasters from being able to touch.
  • Anonymous leaking is an ancient art and many websites publish documents from sources they cannot identify. What Wikileaks has done is to professionalise the operation. They have created a standard procedure for receiving, processing and publishing leaks.
    • Steven Aftergood of the Federation of American Scientists' (FAS) Project on Government Secrecy — reported in Marks, Paul, "A fail-safe way to embarrass people in high places: Whistle-blowers can tell all without being traced, thanks to websites that anonymise their details", New Scientist, Reed Business Information, May 10, 2008, p. 28, Volume 198; Issue 2655.
  • It is unlawful to reproduce or distribute someone else's copyrighted work without that person's authorization. Indeed, courts have entered numerous permanent injunctions and awarded statutory damages and attorneys' fees regarding infringement of these and similar works. ... preserve any and all documents pertaining to this matter...including, but not limited to, logs, data entry sheets, applications - electronic or otherwise, registrations forms, billings statements or invoices, computer print-outs, disks, hard drives, etc.
  • Wikileaks' silencing was sought by antidemocratic governments worldwide - including China, whose censors work mightily to block all access to the site. Wikileaks' plug was pulled, ironically, (not in China) but by a federal judge in San Francisco.
  • [It] is not and has never been Julius Baer's intention to stifle anyone's right to free speech. Julius Baer's sole objective has always been limited to the removal of these private and legally protected documents from the website," the company said in its statement. However, Julius Baer denies the authenticity of this material and wholly rejects the serious and defamatory allegations which it contains.
  • We're very pleased that Judge White recognized the serious constitutional concerns raised by his earlier orders. Attempting to interfere with the operation of an entire website because you have a dispute over some of its content is never the right approach. Disabling access to an Internet domain in an effort to prevent the world from accessing a handful of widely-discussed documents is not only unconstitutional it simply won't work.
  • If Wikileaks were a print publication, the injunction would be unthinkable. ... What distinguishes this case is that the allegedly intolerable materials were published on the Internet instead of on paper. But that's a poor reason to abandon the principles that protect those who want to publish -- as well as those who want to read. Censorship is censorship, no matter the medium.
    • Editorial. "Electronic censorship", Chicago Tribune, Chicago Tribune Company, February 26, 2008, p. 14.
  • I'm really quite surprised at Wikileaks' success. They've done a lot of interesting stuff. It seems people are prepared to take the risk.
    • Ben Laurie, member of Wikileaks advisory board — reported in David Leigh and Jonathan Franklin. "Whistle while you work: From government to big business, if you have a dirty secret, Wikileaks is your worst nightmare. David Leigh and Jonathan Franklin on the site a US court has tried to muzzle", The Guardian, Guardian Newspapers Ltd, February 23, 2008.
  • Federal District Court Judge Jeffrey White ordered Wikileaks's domain name registrar to disable its Web address. That was akin to shutting down a newspaper because of objections to one article. The First Amendment requires the government to act only in the most dire circumstances when it regulates free expression.
  • We live in a world of secrecy by government, corporations and other institutions which don't want the accountability that comes from transparency. The minute you shine a bright light on their activities, the ethical standards by which they act will rise."
    • Sue Dreyfus, Wikileaks advisory board member — reported in Carr, Rebecca, "Leak Game Hits Net", Atlanta Journal-Constitution, January 22, 2007, p. A3.
  • Wikileaks is becoming, as planned, although unexpectedly early, an international movement of people who facilitate ethical leaking and open government.
    • James Chen, Wikileaks organizer — reported in Williamson, Elizabeth, "Freedom of Information, the Wiki Way - Site to Allow Anonymous Posts of Government Documents", The Washington Post, The Washington Post Company, January 15, 2007, p. A13.

See also

External links


Simple English

WikiLeaks is a non-profit organization which uses its website to publish governmental, corporate or religious documents that had previously been secret. The website was started in 2006, and had over 1.2 million documents in its database by the time one year had passed. Usually, it does not give out the names and addresses of people who post documents. The site is based in Sweden. Though its name is similar to Wikipedia, it is not related to Wikipedia or the Wikimedia Foundation. The name was chosen because WikiLeaks used a wiki model at first, where people could edit the site, but it has since changed and is no longer open for editing.

In July 2010, WikiLeaks was in the news for publishing over 76,900 documents related to the War in Afghanistan. In October that same year, WikiLeaks posted almost 400,000 documents that were about the War in Iraq.

This was the largest ever leak of documents about the US Army. It reported mainly on deaths of civilians, soldiers, and sightings of homemade bombs or armed civilians.[1]

On 28 November WikiLeaks and five major newspapers - from Spain (El País), France (Le Monde), Germany (Der Spiegel), the United Kingdom (The Guardian), and the United States (The New York Times) - all began to publish the first 291 of 251,287 confidential diplomatic cables from 274 embassies dated from 1966–2010.[2] WikiLeaks plans to release all of the cables in phases over several months.[2]

This leak was widely covered by the international media, as many of the leaks contained information that affected countries other than the United States.[3][4][5][6][7] Some leaks were published by other news organizations like Fairfax Media.[8] Some commentators[who?] think that WikiLeaks is causing trouble for international relations and safety, but others[who?] have said that it is encouraging transparency in government and freedom of speech.[9] White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs said that an "open and transparent government is something that the President believes is truly important. But the stealing of classified information and its dissemination is a crime".[10]

References

  1. David Icke. "WikiLeaks to release 400,000 Iraq war files". http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showthread.php?t=139838. Retrieved 7 December 2010. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Danielle, Kris (25 November 2010). "1,796 Memos from US Embassy in Manila in WikiLeaks 'Cablegate'". ABS-CBN News. http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/nation/11/29/10/1796-memos-us-embassy-manila-wikileaks-cablegate. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  3. "NZ govt silent on Wikileaks cables". 12 December 2010. http://tvnz.co.nz/politics-news/nz-govt-silent-wikileaks-cables-3963509. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  4. Jill Dougherty and Elise Labott (15 December 2010). "The Sweep: WikiLeaks stirs anarchy online". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/POLITICS/12/15/sweep.wikileaks/?hpt=C1. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  5. "Bollywood critics may have to think again". 16 December 2010. http://www.dnaindia.com/opinion/report_bollywood-critics-may-have-to-think-again_1481725. Retrieved 16 December 2010. 
  6. "Zanu PF to rethink participation in inclusive govt: Mugabe". 15 December 2010. http://www.newsday.co.zw/article/2010-12-15-zanu-pf-to-rethink-participation-in-inclusive-govt-mugabe. Retrieved 16 December 2010. 
  7. "WikiLeaks on Junta Leaders: 'Like Talking to Dead People'". 15 December 2010. http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=20323. Retrieved 16 December 2010. 
  8. Dorling, Philip (11 December 2010). "How I Met Julian Assange and Secured the American Embassy Cables". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 13 December 2010.
  9. Simon Jenkins (28 November 2010). "US Embassy Cables: The Job of the Media Is Not To Protect the Powerful from Embarrassment — It Is for Governments — Not Journalists — To Guard Public Secrets, and There Is No National Jeopardy in WikiLeaks' Revelations". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/nov/28/us-embassy-cables-wikileaks. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
  10. Gibbs, Robert (29 November 2010). "Press Briefing by Press Secretary Robert Gibbs, 11/29/2010". White House Office of the Press Secretary. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2010/11/29/press-briefing-press-secretary-robert-gibbs-11292010. "I think it is safe to say that the President was – it’s an understatement – not pleased with this information becoming public. As you saw during the presidential campaign and during his time in the White House, open and transparent government is something that the President believes is truly important. But the stealing of classified information and its dissemination is a crime."  Secondary source coverage is extensive, i.e., Time, USA Today, etc.

Other websites

See also








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