From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For Wikipedia's non-encyclopedic visitor introduction, see Wikipedia:About.
Wikipedia's departure from the expert-driven style of the encyclopedia building mode and the large presence of unacademic content have been noted several times. When Time
magazine recognized You
as its Person of the Year
for 2006, acknowledging the accelerating success of online collaboration and interaction by millions of users around the world, it cited Wikipedia as one of several examples of Web 2.0
services, along with YouTube
, and Facebook
Some noted the importance of Wikipedia not only as an encyclopedic reference but also as a frequently updated news resource because of how quickly articles about recent events appear.
Wikipedia originally developed from another encyclopedia project, Nupedia
Main Page of English Wikipedia
Larry Sanger and Jimmy Wales founded Wikipedia.
While Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia,
Sanger is usually credited with the strategy
of using a wiki
to reach that goal.
On January 10, 2001, Larry Sanger
proposed on the Nupedia mailing list
to create a wiki as a "feeder" project for Nupedia.
Wikipedia was formally launched on January 15, 2001, as a single English-language edition at www.wikipedia.com,
and announced by Sanger on the Nupedia mailing list.
Wikipedia's policy of "neutral point-of-view"
was codified in its initial months, and was similar to Nupedia's earlier "nonbiased" policy. Otherwise, there were relatively few rules initially and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia.
Graph of the article count for the English Wikipedia
, from January 10, 2001, to September 9, 2007 (the date of the two-millionth article).
Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot
postings, and web search engine
indexing. It grew to approximately 20,000 articles and 18 language editions by the end of 2001. By late 2002, it had reached 26 language editions, 46 by the end of 2003, and 161 by the final days of 2004.
Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the former's servers were taken down permanently in 2003, and its text was incorporated into Wikipedia. English Wikipedia
passed the 2 million-article mark on September 9, 2007, making it the largest encyclopedia ever assembled, eclipsing even the Yongle Encyclopedia
(1407), which had held the record for exactly 600 years.
Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in a perceived English-centric Wikipedia, users of the Spanish Wikipedia forked
from Wikipedia to create the Enciclopedia Libre
in February 2002.
Later that year, Wales announced that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and its website was moved to wikipedia.org.
Various other projects have since forked from Wikipedia for editorial reasons. Wikinfo
does not require a neutral point of view and allows original research. New Wikipedia-inspired projects – such as Citizendium
, and Google's Knol
– have been started to address perceived limitations of Wikipedia, such as its policies on peer review
, original research
, and commercial advertising
Number of articles in the English Wikipedia plotted against logistic curves
for 3, 3.5 and 4 million articles.
Though the English Wikipedia reached 3 million articles in August 2009, the growth of the edition, in terms of the numbers of articles and of contributors, appeared to have flattened off around early 2007.
In July 2007, about 2,200 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia; as of August 2009, that average is 1,300. A team led by Ed H Chi at the Palo Alto Research Center
speculated that this is due to the increasing exclusiveness of the project.
New or occasional editors have significantly higher rates of their edits reverted (removed) than an elite group of regular editors, colloquially known as the "cabal
". This could make it more difficult for the project to recruit and retain new contributors, over the long term resulting in stagnation in article creation. Others simply point out that the low-hanging fruit, the obvious articles like China
, already exist, and believe that the growth is flattening naturally.
In November 2009, a Ph.D thesis written by Felipe Ortega, a researcher at the Universidad Rey Juan Carlos
in Madrid, found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, the project lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.
The finding was disputed by Jimmy Wales, who denied the decline and questioned the methodology of the study.
Nature of Wikipedia
In April 2009, the Wikimedia Foundation
conducted a Wikipedia usability study, questioning users about the editing mechanism.
In departure from the style of traditional encyclopedias, Wikipedia consistently employs the open editing model called "wiki". Except for a few vandalism-prone pages that can be edited only by established users, or in extreme cases only by administrators, every article may be edited anonymously or with a user account, while only registered users may create a new article (only in English edition). No article is owned by its creator or any other editor, or is vetted by any recognized authority; rather, the articles are collectively owned by a community of editors.
Most importantly, when changes to an article are made, they become available immediately before undergoing any review, no matter if they contain an error, are somehow misguided, or even patent nonsense. The German edition of Wikipedia is an exception to this rule: it has been testing a system of maintaining "stable versions" of articles,
to allow a reader to see versions of articles that have passed certain reviews. The English edition of Wikipedia plans to trial a related approach.
Another proposal is the use of software to create "trust ratings" for individual Wikipedia contributors and using those ratings to determine which changes will be made visible immediately.
keep track of changes to articles by checking the difference between two revisions of a page, displayed here in red.
Contributors, registered or not, can take advantage of features available in the software that powers Wikipedia. The "History" page attached to each article records every single past revision of the article, though a revision with libelous content, criminal threats or copyright infringements may be removed afterwards.
This feature makes it easy to compare old and new versions, undo changes that an editor considers undesirable, or restore lost content. The "Discussion" pages associated with each article are used to coordinate work among multiple editors.
Regular contributors often maintain a "watchlist" of articles of interest to them, so that they can easily keep tabs on all recent changes to those articles. Computer programs called Internet bots
have been used widely to remove vandalism as soon as it was made,
to correct common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.
The editing interface of Wikipedia.
Articles in Wikipedia are organized roughly in three ways according to: development status, subject matter and the access level required for editing. The most developed state of articles is called "featured article": they are precisely ones that someday get featured in the main page of Wikipedia.
Researcher Giacomo Poderi found that articles tend to reach the FA status via intensive works of few editors. In 2007, in preparation for producing a print version, the English-language Wikipedia introduced an assessment scale against which the quality of articles is judged;
other editions have also adopted this.
A WikiProject is a place for a group of editors to coordinate works on a specific topic. The discussion pages attached to a project are often used to coordinate changes that take place across articles. Wikipedia also maintains a style guide called the Manual of Style or MoS for short, which stipulates, for example, cases in which an article must start with the article title in bold in the first sentence.
In 2008, two researchers theorized that the growth of Wikipedia is sustainable.
Defenses against undesirable edits
The open nature of the editing model has been central to most criticism of Wikipedia. For example, a reader of an article cannot be certain that it has not been compromised by the insertion of false information or the removal of essential information. Former Encyclopædia Britannica
editor-in-chief Robert McHenry
once described this by saying:
The user who visits Wikipedia to learn about some subject, to confirm some matter of fact, is rather in the position of a visitor to a public restroom. It may be obviously dirty, so that he knows to exercise great care, or it may seem fairly clean, so that he may be lulled into a false sense of security. What he certainly does not know is who has used the facilities before him. Wikipedia [is a] faith-based encyclopedia.
In practice, obvious vandalism is fairly easy to remove from wikis, and the median time to detect and fix vandalisms is typically very low, usually a few minutes,
but in one particularly well-publicized incident
, false information was introduced into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler
and remained undetected for four months.
John Seigenthaler, the founding editorial director of USA Today
and founder of the Freedom Forum First Amendment Center at Vanderbilt University
, called Jimmy Wales and asked if Wales had any way of knowing who contributed the misinformation. Wales replied that he did not.
This incident led to policy changes on the site, specifically targeted at tightening up the verifiability of all biographical articles of living people.
For example, in August 2007, the website WikiScanner
began to trace the sources of changes made to Wikipedia by anonymous editors without Wikipedia accounts. The program revealed that many such edits were made by corporations or government agencies changing the content of articles related to them, their personnel or their work.
In practice, the Wikipedia is defended from attack by multiple systems and techniques. These include users checking pages and edits, computer programs ('bots') that are carefully designed to try to detect attacks and fix them automatically (or semi-automatically), blocks on the creation of links to particular websites, blocks on edits from particular accounts, IP addresses or address ranges.
For heavily attacked pages, particular articles can be semi-protected
so that only well established accounts can edit them,
or for particularly contentious cases, locked so that only administrators are able to make changes.
Coverage of topics
As an encyclopedia building project, Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge: all of the topics covered by a conventional print encyclopedia plus any other "notable" (therefore verifiable by published sources) topics, which are permitted by unlimited disk space.
In particular, it contains materials that some people, including Wikipedia editors,
may find objectionable, offensive, or pornographic.
It was made clear that this policy is not up for debate, and the policy has sometimes proved controversial. For instance, in 2008, Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of Muhammad's depictions
in its English edition
, citing this policy. The presence of politically sensitive materials in Wikipedia had also led the People's Republic of China to block access
to parts of the site.
(See also: IWF block of Wikipedia
Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws (in particular copyright law
) in Florida
, where Wikipedia servers are hosted, and several editorial policies and guidelines that are intended to reinforce the notion that Wikipedia is an encyclopedia. Each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and thus is worthy of inclusion. A topic is deemed encyclopedic if it is "notable
in the Wikipedia jargon; i.e., if it has received significant coverage in secondary reliable sources (i.e., mainstream media or major academic journals) that are independent of the subject of the topic. Second, Wikipedia must expose knowledge that is already established and recognized.
In other words, it must not present, for instance, new information or original works. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to reliable sources. Within the Wikipedia community, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers are left themselves to check the truthfulness of what appears in the articles and to make their own interpretations.
Finally, Wikipedia does not take a side.
All opinions and viewpoints, if attributable to external sources, must enjoy appropriate share of coverage within an article.
Wikipedia editors as a community write and revise those policies and guidelines
and enforce them by deleting, annotating with tags, or modifying article materials failing to meet them. (See also deletionism and inclusionism
As of September 2009, Wikipedia articles cover about half a million places on Earth. However, research conducted by the Oxford Internet Institute has shown that the geographic distribution of articles is highly uneven. Most articles are written about North America, Europe, and East Asia, with very little coverage of large parts of the developing world, including most of Africa.
Pie chart of Wikipedia content by subject as of January 2008.
A 2008 study conducted by researchers at Carnegie-Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth (from July 2006 to Jan 2008) in each field:
- Culture and Arts 30% (210%)
- Biographies and persons: 15% (97%)
- Geography and places: 14% (52%)
- Society and social sciences: 12% (83%)
- History and events: 11% (143%)
- Natural and Physical Sciences: 9% (213%)
- Technology and Applied Science: 4% (−6%)
- Religions and belief systems: 2% (38%)
- Health: 2% (42%)
- Mathematics and logic: 1% (146%)
- Thought and Philosophy: 1% (160%)
Because contributors usually rewrite small portions of an entry rather than making full-length revisions, high- and low-quality content may be intermingled within an entry. Critics sometimes argue that non-expert editing undermines quality, for example historian Roy Rosenzweig
claimed that: "Overall, writing is the Achilles' heel
of Wikipedia. Committees rarely write well, and Wikipedia entries often have a choppy quality that results from the stringing together of sentences or paragraphs written by different people."
As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.
Concerns have been raised regarding the lack of accountability
that results from users' anonymity,
the insertion of spurious information
, and similar problems.
Wikipedia has been accused of exhibiting systemic bias
additionally, critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for much of the information makes it unreliable.
Some commentators suggest that Wikipedia is generally reliable, but that the reliability of any given article is not always clear.
Editors of traditional reference works
such as the Encyclopædia Britannica
have questioned the project's utility and status as an encyclopedia.
Many university lecturers
discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work
, preferring primary sources
some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations.
Co-founder Jimmy Wales
stresses that encyclopedias of any type are not usually appropriate as primary sources, and should not be relied upon as authoritative.
However, an investigation reported in the journal Nature
in 2005 suggested that for scientific articles Wikipedia came close to the level of accuracy of Encyclopædia Britannica
and had a similar rate of "serious errors."
These claims have been disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica
Economist Tyler Cowen
writes, "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true, after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia." He comments that many traditional sources of non-fiction suffer from systemic biases. Novel results are over-reported in journal articles, and relevant information is omitted from news reports. However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites, and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.
In February 2007, an article in The Harvard Crimson
newspaper reported that some of the professors at Harvard University
include Wikipedia in their syllabi
, but that there is a split in their perception of using Wikipedia.
In June 2007, former president of the American Library Association Michael Gorman
condemned Wikipedia, along with Google
stating that academics who endorse the use of Wikipedia are "the intellectual equivalent of a dietitian
who recommends a steady diet of Big Macs
with everything". He also said that "a generation of intellectual sluggards incapable of moving beyond the Internet" was being produced at universities. He complains that the web-based sources are discouraging students from learning from the more rare texts which are either found only on paper or are on subscription-only web sites. In the same article Jenny Fry (a research fellow at the Oxford Internet Institute
) commented on academics who cite Wikipedia, saying that: "You cannot say children are intellectually lazy because they are using the Internet when academics are using search engines in their research. The difference is that they have more experience of being critical about what is retrieved and whether it is authoritative. Children need to be told how to use the Internet in a critical and appropriate way."
The Wikipedia community has established "a bureaucracy of sorts", including "a clear power structure that gives volunteer administrators the authority to exercise editorial control."
Wikipedia's community has also been described as "cult-like
although not always with entirely negative connotations,
and criticized for failing to accommodate inexperienced users.
Editors in good standing in the community can run for one of many levels of volunteer stewardship; this begins with "administrator",
a group of privileged users who have the ability to delete pages, lock articles from being changed in case of vandalism or editorial disputes, and block users from editing. Despite the name, administrators do not enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead they are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to block users making disruptive edits (such as vandalism).
, an annual conference for users of Wikipedia and other projects operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.
As Wikipedia grows with an unconventional model of encyclopedia building, "Who writes Wikipedia?" has become one of the questions frequently asked on the project, often with a reference to other Web 2.0 projects such as Digg
Jimmy Wales once argued that only "a community ... a dedicated group of a few hundred volunteers" makes the bulk of contributions to Wikipedia and that the project is therefore "much like any traditional organization". Wales performed a study finding that over 50% of all the edits are done by just .7% of the users (at the time: 524 people). This method of evaluating contributions was later disputed by Aaron Swartz
, who noted that several articles he sampled had large portions of their content (measured by number of characters) contributed by users with low edit counts.
A 2007 study by researchers from Dartmouth College
found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia ... are as reliable a source of knowledge as those contributors who register with the site."
Although some contributors are authorities in their field, Wikipedia requires that even their contributions be supported by published and verifiable sources. The project's preference for consensus
has been labeled "anti-elitism
In a 2003 study of Wikipedia as a community, economics Ph.D.
student Andrea Ciffolilli argued that the low transaction costs
of participating in wiki
software create a catalyst for collaborative development, and that a "creative construction" approach encourages participation.
In his 2008 book, The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It
, Jonathan Zittrain
of the Oxford Internet Institute
and Harvard Law School’s Berkman Center for Internet & Society
cites Wikipedia's success as a case study in how open collaboration has fostered innovation on the web.
A 2008 study found that Wikipedia users were less agreeable and open, though more conscientious, than non-Wikipedia users.
A 2009 study suggested there was "evidence of growing resistance from the Wikipedia community to new content."
CTO and Senior Software Architect gave a presentation entitled "Community Performance Optimization: Making Your People Run as Smoothly as Your Site"
in which he discussed the challenges of handling the contributions from a large community and compared the process to that of software development.
Notable users of Wikipedia include film critic Roger Ebert
and University of Maryland physicist Robert L. Park
In 2009, the Wall Street Journal reported that "unprecedented numbers of the millions of online volunteers who write, edit and police [Wikipedia] are quitting." The array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content are among the reasons for this trend that are cited in the article.
Wikimedia Foundation and the Wikimedia chapters
Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation
, a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary
. The Wikimedia chapters, local associations of users and supporters of the Wikimedia projects, also participate in the promotion, the development, and the funding of the project.
Software and hardware
The operation of Wikipedia depends on MediaWiki
, a custom-made, free
and open source wiki software
platform written in PHP
and built upon the MySQL
The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language
, a transclusion
system for templates
, and URL redirection
. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License
and used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki
written in Perl
by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase
for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki
engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing
demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker
. Several MediaWiki extensions are installed
to extend the functionality of MediaWiki software. In April 2005 a Lucene
was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL
to Lucene for searching. Currently Lucene Search 2.1,
which is written in Java
and based on Lucene library 2.3,
Wikipedia receives between 25,000 and 60,000 page requests per second, depending on time of day.
Page requests are first passed to a front-end layer of Squid caching
Further statistics are available based on a publicly-available 3-months Wikipedia access trace.
Requests that cannot be served from the Squid cache are sent to load-balancing servers running the Linux Virtual Server
software, which in turn pass the request to one of the Apache web servers for page rendering from the database. The web servers deliver pages as requested, performing page rendering for all the language editions of Wikipedia. To increase speed further, rendered pages are cached in a distributed memory cache until invalidated, allowing page rendering to be skipped entirely for most common page accesses. Two larger clusters in the Netherlands and Korea now handle much of Wikipedia's traffic load.
Wikipedia's original medium was for users to read and edit content using any standard web browser
through a fixed internet connection
. However, Wikipedia content is now also accessible through offline media, and through the mobile web
On mobile devices
access to Wikipedia from mobile phones
was possible as early as 2004, through the Wireless Application Protocol
(WAP), through the Wapedia
service. In June 2007, Wikipedia launched en.mobile.wikipedia.org
, an official website for wireless devices. In 2009 a newer mobile service was officially released,
located at en.m.wikipedia.org
, which caters to more advanced mobile devices such as the iPhone
-based devices, or the Palm Pre
. Several other methods of mobile access to Wikipedia have emerged (See Help:Mobile device). Several devices and applications optimise or enhance the display of Wikipedia content for mobile devices, while some also incorporate additional features such as use of Wikipedia metadata
(See Wikipedia:Metadata), such as geoinformation
License and language editions
All text in Wikipedia was covered by GNU Free Documentation License
(GFDL), a copyleft
license permitting the redistribution, creation of derivative works, and commercial use of content while authors retain copyright of their work,
up until June 2009, when the site switched to Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike (CC-by-SA) 3.0.
Wikipedia had been working on the switch to Creative Commons licenses
because the GFDL, initially designed for software manuals, is not suitable for online reference works and because the two licenses were incompatible.
In response to the Wikimedia Foundation's request, in November 2008, the Free Software Foundation
(FSF) released a new version of GFDL designed specifically to allow Wikipedia to relicense its content to CC-BY-SA by August 1, 2009. Wikipedia and its sister projects held a community-wide referendum to decide whether or not to make the license switch.
The referendum took place from April 9 to 30.
The results were 75.8% "Yes", 10.5% "No", and 13.7% "No opinion".
In consequence of the referendum, the Wikimedia Board of Trustees voted to change to the Creative Commons license, effective June 15, 2009.
The position that Wikipedia is merely a hosting service has been successfully used as a defense in court.
Percentage of all Wikipedia articles in English (red) and top ten largest language editions (blue). As of July 2007, less than 23% of Wikipedia articles are in English.
The handling of media files (e.g., image files) varies across language editions. Some language editions, such as the English Wikipedia, include non-free image files under fair use
doctrine, while the others have opted not to. This is in part because of the difference in copyright laws between countries; for example, the notion of fair use does not exist in Japanese copyright law
. Media files covered by free content
licenses (e.g., Creative Commons' cc-by-sa) are shared across language editions via Wikimedia Commons
repository, a project operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.
There are currently 262 language editions of Wikipedia
; of these, 24 have over 100,000 articles and 81 have over 1,000 articles.
According to Alexa, the English subdomain
(en.wikipedia.org; English Wikipedia
) receives approximately 54% of Wikipedia's cumulative traffic, with the remaining split among the other languages (Japanese: 10%, German: 8%, Spanish: 5%, Russian: 4%, French: 4%, Italian: 3%).
As of July 2008, the five largest language editions are (in order of article count) English
, and Japanese Wikipedias
Since Wikipedia is web-based and therefore worldwide, contributors of a same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries (as is the case for the English edition
). These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences
, (e.g. color
or points of view.
Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view," they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely
may be used under a claim of fair use
Contributors for English Wikipedia by country as of September 2006.
Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".
Though each language edition functions more or less independently, some efforts are made to supervise them all. They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all of its projects (Wikipedia and others).
For instance, Meta-Wiki provides important statistics on all language editions of Wikipedia,
and it maintains a list of articles every Wikipedia should have.
The list concerns basic content by subject: biography, history, geography, society, culture, science, technology, foodstuffs, and mathematics. As for the rest, it is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might only be available in English.
Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because automated translation of articles is disallowed.
Articles available in more than one language may offer "InterWiki
" links, which link to the counterpart articles in other editions.
Graph showing the number of days between every 10,000,000th edit.
In addition to logistic growth
in the number of its articles,
Wikipedia has steadily gained status as a general reference website since its inception in 2001.
According to Alexa
, Wikipedia is among the ten most visited websites worldwide.
Of the top ten, Wikipedia is the only non-profit website. The growth of Wikipedia has been fueled by its dominant position in Google search results;
about 50% of search engine traffic to Wikipedia comes from Google,
a good portion of which is related to academic research.
In April 2007 the Pew
Internet and American Life project found that one third of US Internet users consulted Wikipedia.
In October 2006, the site was estimated to have a hypothetical market value of $580 million if it ran advertisements.
Wikipedia's content has also been used in academic studies, books, conferences, and court cases.
The Parliament of Canada
's website refers to Wikipedia's article on same-sex marriage
in the "related links" section of its "further reading" list for the Civil Marriage Act
The encyclopedia's assertions are increasingly used as a source by organizations such as the U.S. Federal Courts and the World Intellectual Property Organization
– though mainly for supporting information
rather than information decisive to a case.
Content appearing on Wikipedia has also been cited as a source and referenced in some U.S. intelligence agency
In December 2008, the scientific journal RNA Biology
launched a new section for descriptions of families of RNA molecules and requires authors who contribute to the section to also submit a draft article on the RNA family
for publication in Wikipedia.
satirical newspaper headline "Wikipedia Celebrates 750 Years Of American Independence."
Wikipedia has also been used as a source in journalism
often without attribution, and several reporters have been dismissed for plagiarizing from Wikipedia.
In July 2007, Wikipedia was the focus of a 30-minute documentary on BBC Radio 4
which argued that, with increased usage and awareness, the number of references to Wikipedia in popular culture is such that the term is one of a select band of 21st-century nouns that are so familiar (Google
) that they no longer need explanation and are on a par with such 20th-century terms as Hoovering
. Many parody Wikipedia's openness, with characters vandalizing or modifying the online encyclopedia project's articles. Notably, comedian Stephen Colbert
has parodied or referenced Wikipedia on numerous episodes of his show The Colbert Report
and coined the related term "wikiality
Some media sources satirize Wikipedia's susceptibility to inserted inaccuracies. An example can be found in a front-page article in The Onion
in July 2006, with the title "Wikipedia Celebrates 750 Years of American Independence".
Others draw upon Wikipedia's motto, such as in "The Negotiation
," an episode of The Office
, where character Michael Scott
says "Wikipedia is the best thing ever. Anyone in the world can write anything they want about any subject, so you know you are getting the best possible information". More rarely, Wikipedia's internal policies are parodied, such as in the xkcd
strip "Wikipedian Protester."
strip titled "Wikipedian Protester".
On September 28, 2007, Italian politician Franco Grillini
raised a parliamentary question with the Minister of Cultural Resources and Activities about the necessity of freedom of panorama
. He said that the lack of such freedom forced Wikipedia, "the seventh most consulted website" to forbid all images of modern Italian buildings and art, and claimed this was hugely damaging to tourist revenues.
On September 16, 2007, The Washington Post
reported that Wikipedia had become a focal point in the 2008 U.S. election campaign
, saying, "Type a candidate's name into Google, and among the first results is a Wikipedia page, making those entries arguably as important as any ad in defining a candidate. Already, the presidential entries are being edited, dissected and debated countless times each day."
An October 2007 Reuters
article, titled "Wikipedia page the latest status symbol", reported the recent phenomenon of how having a Wikipedia article vindicates one's notability.
Wikipedia won two major awards in May 2004.
The first was a Golden Nica for Digital Communities of the annual Prix Ars Electronica
contest; this came with a €10,000 (£6,588; $12,700) grant and an invitation to present at the PAE Cyberarts Festival in Austria
later that year. The second was a Judges' Webby Award
for the "community" category.
Wikipedia was also nominated for a "Best Practices" Webby. On January 26, 2007, Wikipedia was also awarded the fourth highest brand ranking by the readers of brandchannel.com, receiving 15% of the votes in answer to the question "Which brand had the most impact on our lives in 2006?"
In July 2009, BBC Radio 4
broadcast a comedy series called Bigipedia
, which was set on a website which was a parody
of Wikipedia. Some of the sketches were directly inspired by Wikipedia and its articles.
A number of interactive multimedia encyclopedias incorporating entries written by the public existed long before Wikipedia was founded. The first of these was the 1986 BBC Domesday Project
, which included text (entered on BBC Micro
computers) and photographs from over 1 million contributors in the UK
, and covering the geography, art, and culture of the UK. This was the first interactive multimedia encyclopedia (and was also the first major multimedia document connected through internal links), with the majority of articles being accessible through an interactive map of the UK. The user-interface and part of the content of the Domesday Project were emulated on a website until 2008.
One of the most successful early online encyclopedias incorporating entries by the public was h2g2
, which was created by Douglas Adams
and is run by the BBC
. The h2g2 encyclopedia was relatively light-hearted, focusing on articles which were both witty and informative. Both of these projects had similarities with Wikipedia, but neither gave full editorial freedom to public users. A similar non-wiki project, the GNUPedia
project, co-existed with Nupedia early in its history; however, it has been retired and its creator, free software
figure Richard Stallman
, has lent his support to Wikipedia.
Wikipedia has also spawned several sister projects, which are also run by the Wikimedia Foundation
. The first, "In Memoriam: September 11 Wiki",
created in October 2002,
detailed the September 11 attacks
; this project was closed in October 2006. Wiktionary
, a dictionary project, was launched in December 2002; Wikiquote
, a collection of quotations, a week after Wikimedia launched, and Wikibooks
, a collection of collaboratively written free textbooks and annotated texts. Wikimedia has since started a number of other projects, including Wikiversity
, a project for the creation of free learning materials and the provision of online learning activities.
None of these sister projects, however, has come to meet the success of Wikipedia.
Some subsets of Wikipedia's information have been developed, often with additional review for specific purposes. For example, Wikipedia for Schools, the Wikipedia series of CDs/DVDs, produced by Wikipedians and SOS Children
, is a free, hand-checked, non-commercial selection from Wikipedia targeted around the UK National Curriculum
and intended to be useful for much of the English speaking world.
The project is available online; an equivalent print encyclopedia would require roughly 20 volumes. There has also been an attempt to put a select subset of Wikipedia's articles into printed book form.
Other websites centered on collaborative knowledge base
development have drawn inspiration from or inspired Wikipedia. Some, such as Susning.nu
, Enciclopedia Libre
, Baidu Baike
, and WikiZnanie likewise employ no formal review process, whereas others use more traditional peer review
, such as Encyclopedia of Life
, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
, and Everything2
. The online wiki-based encyclopedia Citizendium
was started by Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger in an attempt to create an "expert-friendly" Wikipedia.
- ^ Jonathan Sidener. "Everyone's Encyclopedia". The San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20041206/news_mz1b6encyclo.html. Retrieved 2006-10-15.
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- ^ "Wikipedia:Wikipedia is a work in progress". Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia_is_a_work_in_progress. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
- ^ Some versions, such as the English language version, contain non-free content.
- ^ In some parts of the world, the access to Wikipedia had been blocked.
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- ^ Bill Tancer (2007-05-01). "Look Who's Using Wikipedia". Time. http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1595184,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-01. "The sheer volume of content [...] is partly responsible for the site's dominance as an online reference. When compared to the top 3,200 educational reference sites in the U.S., Wikipedia is #1, capturing 24.3% of all visits to the category" Cf. Bill Tancer (Global Manager, Hitwise), "Wikipedia, Search and School Homework", Hitwise: An Experian Company (Blog), March 1, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
- ^ Alex Woodson (2007-07-08). "Wikipedia remains go-to site for online news". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/internetNews/idUSN0819429120070708. Retrieved 2007-12-16. "Online encyclopedia Wikipedia has added about 20 million unique monthly visitors in the past year, making it the top online news and information destination, according to Nielsen//NetRatings."
- ^ a b "Top 500". Alexa. http://www.alexa.com/site/ds/top_sites?ts_mode=global&lang=none. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
- ^ a b Larry Sanger, Why Wikipedia Must Jettison Its Anti-Elitism, Kuro5hin, December 31, 2004.
- ^ a b Danah Boyd (2005-01-04). "Academia and Wikipedia". Many 2 Many: A Group Weblog on Social Software. Corante. http://many.corante.com/archives/2005/01/04/academia_and_wikipedia.php. Retrieved 2008-12-18. "[The author, Danah Boyd, describes herself as] an expert on social media[,] ... a doctoral student in the School of Information at the University of California, Berkeley [,] and a fellow at the Harvard University Berkman Center for Internet & Society [at Harvard Law School.]"
- ^ a b Simon Waldman (2004-10-26). "Who knows?". Guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2004/oct/26/g2.onlinesupplement. Retrieved 2007-02-11.
- ^ a b Ahrens, Frank (2006-07-09). "Death by Wikipedia: The Kenneth Lay Chronicles". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/08/AR2006070800135.html. Retrieved 2006-11-01.
- ^ a b Fernanda B. Viégas, Martin Wattenberg, and Kushal Dave (2004). "Studying Cooperation and Conflict between Authors with History Flow Visualizations" (PDF). Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) (Vienna, Austria: ACM SIGCHI): 575–582. doi:10.1145/985921.985953. ISBN 1-58113-702-8. http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~fviegas/papers/history_flow.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-24.
- ^ a b c Reid Priedhorsky, Jilin Chen, Shyong (Tony) K. Lam, Katherine Panciera, Loren Terveen, and John Riedl (GroupLens Research, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota) (2007-11-04). "Creating, Destroying, and Restoring Value in Wikipedia" (PDF). Association for Computing Machinery GROUP '07 conference proceedings (Sanibel Island, Florida). http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~reid/papers/group282-priedhorsky.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-13.
- ^ a b Jim Giles (December 2005). "Internet encyclopedias go head to head". Nature 438: 900–901. doi:10.1038/438900a. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v438/n7070/full/438900a.html. The study (that was not in itself peer reviewed) was cited in several news articles, e.g.,
- ^ "Time's Person of the Year: You". TIME (Time, Inc). 2006-12-13. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1569514,00.html. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ Jonathan Dee (2007-07-01). "All the News That's Fit to Print Out". The New York Times Magazine. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/01/magazine/01WIKIPEDIA-t.html. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
- ^ Andrew Lih (2004-04-16). "Wikipedia as Participatory Journalism: Reliable Sources? Metrics for Evaluating Collaborative Media as a News Resource" (PDF). 5th International Symposium on Online Journalism (University of Texas at Austin). http://jmsc.hku.hk/faculty/alih/publications/utaustin-2004-wikipedia-rc2.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-13.
- ^ a b Richard M. Stallman (2007-06-20). "The Free Encyclopedia Project". Free Software Foundation. http://www.gnu.org/encyclopedia/encyclopedia.html. Retrieved 2008-01-04.
- ^ Jonathan Sidener (2004-12-06). "Everyone's Encyclopedia". The San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20041206/news_mz1b6encyclo.html. Retrieved 2006-10-15.
- ^ Meyers, Peter (2001-09-20). "Fact-Driven? Collegial? This Site Wants You". New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800E5D6123BF933A1575AC0A9679C8B63&n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fC%2fComputer%20Software. Retrieved 2007-11-22. " 'I can start an article that will consist of one paragraph, and then a real expert will come along and add three paragraphs and clean up my one paragraph,' said Larry Sanger of Las Vegas, who founded Wikipedia with Mr. Wales."
- ^ a b c Sanger, Larry (April 18, 2005). "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir". Slashdot. http://features.slashdot.org/features/05/04/18/164213.shtml. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ Sanger, Larry (January 17, 2001). "Wikipedia Is Up!". Internet Archive. http://web.archive.org/web/20010506042824/www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2001-January/000684.html. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ "Wikipedia-l: LinkBacks?". http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikipedia-l/2001-October/000671.html. Retrieved 2007-02-20.
- ^ Sanger, Larry (2001-01-10). "Let's Make a Wiki". Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 2003-04-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20030414014355/http://www.nupedia.com/pipermail/nupedia-l/2001-January/000676.html. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ "Wikipedia: HomePage". Archived from the original on 2001-03-31. http://web.archive.org/web/20010331173908/http://www.wikipedia.com/. Retrieved 2001-03-31.
- ^ "Wikipedia:Neutral point of view, Wikipedia (January 21, 2007)
- ^ "statistics "Multilingual statistics". Wikipedia. March 30, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Multilingual statistics. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ "Encyclopedias and Dictionaries". Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th ed.. 18. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. pp. 257–286.
- ^ "[long] Enciclopedia Libre: msg#00008". Osdir. http://osdir.com/ml/science.linguistics.wikipedia.international/2003-03/msg00008.html. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ Clay Shirky (February 28, 2008). Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. The Penguin Press via Amazon Online Reader. p. 273. ISBN 1-594201-53-6. http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/1594201536/ref=sib_dp_srch_pop?v=search-inside&keywords=spanish&go.x=0&go.y=0&go=Go%21. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ BBC News
- ^ Bobbie Johnson. "Wikipedia approaches its limits". http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2009/aug/12/wikipedia-deletionist-inclusionist.
- ^ "The Singularity is Not Near: Slowing Growth of Wikipedia". the International Symposium on Wikis. Orlando, Florida. 2009. http://www.wikisym.org/ws2009/procfiles/p108-suh.pdf.
- ^ Evgeny Morozov. "Edit This Page; Is it the end of Wikipedia". Boston review. http://www.bostonreview.net/BR34.6/morozov.php.
- ^ New York Times
- ^ Jenny Kleeman. "Wikipedia falling victim to a war of words". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2009/nov/26/wikipedia-losing-disgruntled-editors.
- ^ (PDF) Wikipedia: A quantitative analysis. http://libresoft.es/Members/jfelipe/thesis-wkp-quantanalysis.
- ^ "Wikipedia's Jimmy Wales denies site is 'losing' thousands of volunteer editors". Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/wikipedia/6660646/Wikipedias-Jimmy-Wales-denies-site-is-losing-thousands-of-volunteer-editors.html.
- ^ UX and Usability Study
- ^ Wikipedia:Ownership of articles
- ^ Birken, P. (2008-12-14). "Bericht Gesichtete Versionen" (in German). Wikide-l mailing list. Wikimedia Foundation. http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikide-l/2008-December/021594.html. Retrieved 2009-02-15.
- ^ "Wikimedia blog » Blog Archive » A quick update on Flagged Revisions". http://blog.wikimedia.org/2009/08/26/a-quick-update-on-flagged-revisions/. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
- ^ "Wikipedia:Flagged protection and patrolled revisions – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Flagged_protection_and_patrolled_revisions#cite_ref-7. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- ^ Giles, Jim (2007-09-20). "Wikipedia 2.0 – now with added trust". NewScientist.com news service. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19526226.200-wikipedia-20--now-with-added-trust.html. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ a b Kleinz, Torsten (February, 2005). "World of Knowledge" (PDF). The Wikipedia Project (Linux Magazine). http://w3.linux-magazine.com/issue/51/Wikipedia_Encyclopedia.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-13. "The Wikipedia's open structure makes it a target for trolls and vandals who malevolently add incorrect information to articles, get other people tied up in endless discussions, and generally do everything to draw attention to themselves."
- ^ The Japanese Wikipedia, for example, is known for deleting every mention of real names of victims of certain high-profile crimes, even though they may still be noted in other language editions.
- ^ Fernanda B. Viégas, Martin Wattenberg, Jesse Kriss, Frank van Ham (2007-01-03) (PDF). Talk Before You Type: Coordination in Wikipedia. Visual Communication Lab, IBM Research. http://www.research.ibm.com/visual/papers/wikipedia_coordination_final.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-27.
- ^ First Monday
- ^ Fernanda B. Viégas, Martin Wattenberg, and Matthew M. McKeon (2007-07-22) (PDF). The Hidden Order of Wikipedia. Visual Communication Lab, IBM Research. http://www.research.ibm.com/visual/papers/hidden_order_wikipedia.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
- ^ "Wikipedia:Version 1.0 Editorial Team/Assessment". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Version_1.0_Editorial_Team/Assessment. Retrieved 2007-10-28.
- ^ Diomidis Spinellis and Panagiotis Louridas (2008): The collaborative organization of knowledge. In Communications of the ACM, August 2008, Vol 51, No 8, Pages 68–73. DOI:10.1145/1378704.1378720. Quote: "Most new articles are created shortly after a corresponding reference to them is entered into the system". See also: Inflationary hypothesis of Wikipedia growth
- ^ Caslon.com
- ^ Robert McHenry (2004-11-15). "The Faith-Based Encyclopedia". TCS Daily. http://www.tcsdaily.com/article.aspx?id=111504A. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
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- ^ Thomas L. Friedman The World is Flat, p. 124, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2007 ISBN 978-0374292782
- ^ "Toward a New Compendium of Knowledge (longer version)". Citizendium.org. http://www.citizendium.org/essay.html. Retrieved 2006-10-10.
- ^ Kane, Margaret (2006-01-30). "Politicians notice Wikipedia". CNET. http://news.cnet.com/8301-10784_3-6032713-7.html. Retrieved 2007-01-28.
- ^ Bergstein, Brian (2007-01-23). "Microsoft offers cash for Wikipedia edit". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16775981/. Retrieved 2007-02-01.
- ^ a b Stephen Colbert (2006-07-30). "Wikiality". Comedycentral.com. http://www.colbertnation.com/the-colbert-report-videos/72347/july-31-2006/the-word---wikiality. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ Hafner, Katie (2007-08-19). "Seeing Corporate Fingerprints From the Editing of Wikipedia". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/19/technology/19wikipedia.html. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ English Wikipedia's semi-protection policy
- ^ English Wikipedia's full protection policy
- ^ "The 50 most-viewed Wikipedia articles in 2009 and 2008". The Daily Telegraph. 2009-08-17. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/wikipedia/6043534/The-50-most-viewed-Wikipedia-articles-in-2009-and-2008.html.
- ^ Wikipedia:PAPER
- ^ Schliebs, Mark (2008-09-09). "Wikipedia users divided over sexual material". news.com.au. http://www.news.com.au/technology/story/0,25642,24318423-5014239,00.html. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ "Wikipedia is not censored". Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia_is_not#Wikipedia_is_not_censored. Retrieved 2008-04-30.
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- ^ "Wikipedia:Notability". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Notability. Retrieved 2008-02-13. "A topic is presumed to be notable if it has received significant coverage in reliable secondary sources that are independent of the subject."
- ^ "Wikipedia:No original research". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:No_original_research. Retrieved 2008-02-13. "Wikipedia does not publish original thought"
- ^ "Wikipedia:Verifiability". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability. Retrieved 2008-02-13. "Material challenged or likely to be challenged, and all quotations, must be attributed to a reliable, published source."
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- ^ "Mapping the Geographies of Wikipedia Content". Mark Graham Oxford Internet Institute. ZeroGeography. http://zerogeography.blogspot.com/2009/11/mapping-geographies-of-wikipedia.html. Retrieved 2009-11-16.
- ^ Kittur, A., Chi, E. H., and Suh, B. 2009. What’s in Wikipedia? Mapping Topics and Conflict Using Socially Annotated Category Structure In Proceedings of the 27th international Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Boston, MA, USA, April 04 – 09, 2009). CHI '09. ACM, New York, NY, 1509–1512.
- ^ Roy Rosenzweig. "Can History be Open Source? Wikipedia and the Future of the Past". The Journal of American History Volume 93, Number 1 (June, 2006): 117–46. http://chnm.gmu.edu/resources/essays/d/42. Retrieved 2007-10-29.
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- ^ Child, Maxwell L.,"Professors Split on Wiki Debate", The Harvard Crimson, Monday, February 26, 2007.
- ^ a b Chloe Stothart, Web threatens learning ethos, The Times Higher Education Supplement, 2007, 1799 (June 22), page 2
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- ^ Wikipedia:Administrators
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- ^ Andrea Ciffolilli, "Phantom authority, self-selective recruitment and retention of members in virtual communities: The case of Wikipedia", First Monday December 2003.
- ^ Zittrain, Jonathan (2008). The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It — Chapter 6: The Lessons of Wikipedia. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300124873. http://yupnet.org/zittrain/archives/16. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ Yair Amichai–Hamburger, Naama Lamdan, Rinat Madiel, Tsahi Hayat Personality Characteristics of Wikipedia Members CyberPsychology & Behavior December 1, 2008, 11(6): 679–681. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.0225
- ^ Wikipedians are 'closed' and 'disagreeable'
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- ^ Ebert, Roger. Roger Ebert's Movie Yearbook 2009 Page 529
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- ^ Volunteers Log Off as Wikipedia Ages, The Wall Street Journal, November 27, 2009.
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- ^ "Statistics". English Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Statistics. Retrieved 2008-06-21.
- ^ "Wikipedia:Multilingual statistics". English Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Multilingual_statistics. Retrieved 2007-12-23.
- ^ "spelling". Manual of Style. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Spelling. Retrieved 2007-05-19.
- ^ "Countering systemic bias". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Countering_systemic_bias. Retrieved 2007-05-19.
- ^ "Fair use". Meta wiki. http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fair_use. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
- ^ "Images on Wikipedia". http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Images_on_Wikipedia. Retrieved 2007-07-14.
- ^ Fernanda B. Viégas (2007-01-03) (PDF). The Visual Side of Wikipedia. Visual Communication Lab, IBM Research. http://www.research.ibm.com/visual/papers/viegas_hicss_visual_wikipedia.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
- ^ "Edits by project and country of origin". 2006-09-04. http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Edits_by_project_and_country_of_origin. Retrieved 2007-10-25.
- ^ Jimmy Wales, "Wikipedia is an encyclopedia", March 8, 2005, <Wikipediafirstname.lastname@example.org>
- ^ "Meta-Wiki". Wikimedia Foundation. http://meta.wikimedia.org/. Retrieved 2009-03-24.
- ^ "Meta-Wiki Statistics". Wikimedia Foundation. http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Statistics. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- ^ "List of articles every Wikipedia should have". Wikimedia Foundation. http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/List_of_articles_every_Wikipedia_should_have. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- ^ "Wikipedia: Translation". English Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Translations. Retrieved 2007-02-03.
- ^ "Wikipedia:Modelling Wikipedia's growth". http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Modelling_Wikipedia%27s_growth. Retrieved 2007-12-22.
- ^ "694 Million People Currently Use the Internet Worldwide According To comScore Networks". comScore. 2006-05-04. http://www.comscore.com/press/release.asp?press=849. Retrieved 2007-12-16. "Wikipedia has emerged as a site that continues to increase in popularity, both globally and in the U.S."
- ^ "comScore Data Center". October 2007. http://www.comscore.com/press/data.asp. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
- ^ Petrilli, Michael J. "Wikipedia or Wickedpedia?". Hoover Institution 8 (2). http://www.hoover.org/publications/ednext/16111162.html. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- ^ "Google Traffic To Wikipedia up 166% Year over Year". Hitwise. 2007-02-16. http://weblogs.hitwise.com/leeann-prescott/2007/02/wikipedia_traffic_sources.html. Retrieved 2007-12-22.
- ^ "Wikipedia and Academic Research". Hitwise. 2006-10-17. http://weblogs.hitwise.com/leeann-prescott/2006/10/wikipedia_and_academic_researc.html. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- ^ Rainie, Lee (2007-12-15). "Wikipedia users" (PDF). Pew Internet & American Life Project. Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 2008-03-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20080306031354/http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Wikipedia07.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-15. "36% of online American adults consult Wikipedia. It is particularly popular with the well-educated and current college-age students."
- ^ Karbasfrooshan, Ashkan (2006-10-26). "What is Wikipedia.org's Valuation?". http://www.watchmojo.com/web/blog/?p=626. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
- ^ in the media "Wikipedia:Wikipedia in the media". Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia in the media. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ "Bourgeois et al. v. Peters et al." (PDF). http://www.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/ops/200216886.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-06.
- ^ "Wikipedian Justice" (PDF). http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Delivery.cfm/SSRN_ID1346311_code835394.pdf?abstractid=1346311. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- ^ C-38 Government of Canada Site | Site du gouvernement du Canada, LEGISINFO (March 28, 2005)
- ^ Arias, Martha L. (2007-01-29). "Wikipedia: The Free Online Encyclopedia and its Use as Court Source". Internet Business Law Services. http://www.ibls.com/internet_law_news_portal_view.aspx?s=latestnews&id=1668. Retrieved 2008-12-26. (the name "World Intellectual Property Office" should however read "World Intellectual Property Organization" in this source)
- ^ Cohen, Noam (2007-01-29). "Courts Turn to Wikipedia, but Selectively". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/29/technology/29wikipedia.html. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ Aftergood, Steven (2007-03-21). "The Wikipedia Factor in U.S. Intelligence". Federation of American Scientists Project on Government Secrecy. http://www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2007/03/the_wikipedia_factor_in_us_int.html. Retrieved 2007-04-14.
- ^ Butler, Declan (December 16, 2008). "Publish in Wikipedia or perish". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2008.1312.
- ^ Shaw, Donna (February/March 2008). "Wikipedia in the Newsroom". American Journalism Review. http://www.ajr.org/Article.asp?id=4461. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
- ^ Shizuoka newspaper plagiarized Wikipedia article, Japan News Review, July 5, 2007
- ^ "Express-News staffer resigns after plagiarism in column is discovered", San Antonio Express-News, January 9, 2007.
- ^ "Inquiry prompts reporter's dismissal", Honolulu Star-Bulletin, January 13, 2007.
- ^ "Radio 4 Documentary". http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/factual/pip/efv21/. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ "Wikipedia Celebrates 750 Years Of American Independence". The Onion. 2006. http://www.theonion.com/content/node/50902. Retrieved October 15, 2006.
- ^ "Comunicato stampa. On. Franco Grillini. Wikipedia. Interrogazione a Rutelli. Con "diritto di panorama" promuovere arte e architettura contemporanea italiana. Rivedere con urgenza legge copyright". October 12, 2007. http://www.grillini.it/show.php?4885. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ Jose Antonio Vargas (2007-09-17). "On Wikipedia, Debating 2008 Hopefuls' Every Facet". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/16/AR2007091601699_pf.html. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ Jennifer Ablan (2007-10-22). "Wikipedia page the latest status symbol". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idUSN2232893820071022?sp=true. Retrieved 2007-10-24.
- ^ "Trophy Box", Meta-Wiki (March 28, 2005).
- ^ "Webby Awards 2004". The International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences. 2004. http://www.webbyawards.com/webbys/winners-2004.php. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
- ^ Zumpano, Anthony (2007-01-29). "Similar Search Results: Google Wins". Interbrand. http://www.brandchannel.com/features_effect.asp?pf_id=352. Retrieved 2007-01-28.
- ^ "Die Quadriga — Award 2008". http://loomarea.com/die_quadriga/e/index.php?title=Award_2008. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ "Interview With Nick Doody and Matt Kirshen". British Comedy Guide. http://www.comedy.org.uk/guide/radio/bigipedia/interview/. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
- ^ Website discussing the emulator of the Domesday Project User Interface for the data from the Community Disc (contributions from the general public); the site is currently out of action following the death of its creator
- ^ "In Memoriam: September 11, 2001". http://www.sep11memories.org/wiki/In_Memoriam. Retrieved 2007-02-06.
- ^ First edit to the wiki In Memoriam: September 11 wiki (October 28, 2002),
- ^ "Announcement of Wiktionary's creation", December 12, 2002. Retrieved on 2007-02-02.
- ^ "Our projects", Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-01-24
- ^ Wikipedia CD Selection. Accessed 2009 September 8
- ^ "Wikipedia turned into book". Telegraph.co.uk. Telegraph Media Group. 2009-06-16. Archived from the original on 2009-09-08. http://www.webcitation.org/5jeCgQjpj. Retrieved 2009-09-08.
- ^ Wikipedia Selection for Schools. Accessed 2009 September 8.
- ^ Frith, Holden (March 26, 2007,). "Wikipedia founder launches rival online encyclopedia". London: The Times. http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/tech_and_web/the_web/article1571519.ece. Retrieved 2007-06-27. "Wikipedia's de facto leader, Jimmy Wales, stood by the site's format. – Holden Frith."
- ^ Orlowski, Andrew (September 18, 2006). "Wikipedia founder forks Wikipedia, More experts, less fiddling?". The Register. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/09/18/sanger_forks_wikipedia/. Retrieved 2007-06-27. "Larry Sanger describes the Citizendium project as a "progressive or gradual fork", with the major difference that experts have the final say over edits." – Andrew Orlowski.
- ^ Lyman, Jay (September 20, 2006). "Wikipedia Co-Founder Planning New Expert-Authored Site". LinuxInsider. http://www.crmbuyer.com/story/53137.html. Retrieved 2007-06-27.
- Academic studies
- Nielsen, Finn (August 2007). "Scientific Citations in Wikipedia". First Monday 12 (8). http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue12_8/nielsen/index.html. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
- Pfeil, Ulrike; Panayiotis Zaphiris and Chee Siang Ang (2006). "Cultural Differences in Collaborative Authoring of Wikipedia". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12 (1): 88. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2006.00316.x. http://jcmc.indiana.edu./vol12/issue1/pfeil.html. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- Priedhorsky, Reid, Jilin Chen, Shyong (Tony) K. Lam, Katherine Panciera, Loren Terveen, and John Riedl. "Creating, Destroying, and Restoring Value in Wikipedia". Proc. GROUP 2007, doi: 1316624.131663.
- Reagle, Joseph (2007). "Do as I Do: Authorial Leadership in Wikipedia". WikiSym '07: Proceedings of the 2007 International Symposium on Wikis. Montreal, Canada: ACM. http://reagle.org/joseph/2007/10/Wikipedia-Authorial-Leadership.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- Wilkinson, Dennis M.; Bernardo A. Huberman (April 2007). "Assessing the Value of Cooperation in Wikipedia". First Monday 12 (4). http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue12_4/wilkinson/index.html. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
- Goldman, Eric (2010). "Wikipedia’s Labor Squeeze and its Consequences". Journal of Telecommunications and High Technology Law 8. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1458162##. (a blog post by the autor)
- Phoebe Ayers, Charles Matthews, and Ben Yates (September 2008). How Wikipedia Works: And How You Can Be a Part of It. San Francisco: No Starch Press. ISBN 978-1-59327-176-3.
- Broughton, John (2008). Wikipedia - The Missing Manual. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 0-596-51516-2. (See book rev. by Baker, as listed below.)
- Broughton, John (2008). Wikipedia Reader's Guide. Sebastopol: Pogue Press. ISBN 059652174X.
- Lih, Andrew (2009). The Wikipedia Revolution. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 1401303714.
- Dalby, Andrew (2009). The World and Wikipedia: How We are Editing Reality. Siduri. ISBN 978-0956205209.
- Book reviews and other articles
- Crovitz, L. Gordon. "Wikipedia's Old-Fashioned Revolution: The online encyclopedia is fast becoming the best." (Originally published in Wall Street Journal online – April 6, 2009, 8:34 A.M. ET)
- Baker, Nicholson. "The Charms of Wikipedia". The New York Review of Books, March 20, 2008. Accessed December 17, 2008. (Book rev. of The Missing Manual, by John Broughton, as listed above.)
- Rosenzweig, Roy. Can History be Open Source? Wikipedia and the Future of the Past. (Originally published in Journal of American History 93.1 (June 2006): 117–46.)
- Learning resources
- Other media coverage
- Dee, Jonathan (2007-07-01). "All the News That's Fit to Print Out". The New York Times Magazine (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/01/magazine/01WIKIPEDIA-t.html?_r=1&ref=magazine&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
- "For Music Fans: Wikipedia; MySpace". Houston Chronicle (Blog). March 2008. http://blogs.chron.com/brokenrecord/2008/03/for_music_fans_wikipedia_myspa.html. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
- Freeman, Sarah (2007-08-16). "Can We Really Trust Wikipedia?". Yorkshire Post (yorkshirepost.co.uk). http://www.yorkshirepost.co.uk/highlights?articleid=3115718. Retrieved 2008-09-20.
- Giles, Jim (2007-09-20). "Wikipedia 2.0 – Now with Added Trust". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19526226.200. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
- Miliard, Mike (2007-12-02). "Wikipedia Rules". The Phoenix. http://thephoenix.com/Boston/Life/52864-Wikipedia-rules/. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
- Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200609/wikipedia. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
- Taylor, Chris (2005-05-29). "It's a Wiki, Wiki World". Time (Time, Inc). http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1066904-1,00.html. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
- "Technological Quarterly: Brain Scan: The Free-knowledge Fundamentalist". The Economist Web and Print. 2008-06-05. http://www.economist.com/science/tq/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11484062. Retrieved 2008-06-05. "Jimmy Wales changed the world with Wikipedia, the hugely popular online encyclopedia that anyone can edit. What will he do next? [leader]."
- "Hoaxers force Wiki to weigh pre-checks Wikipedia". Metro Boston edition. 2009-01-28. http://www.metrobostonnews.com/us/article/2009/01/28/03/4644-72/index.xml.
- Is Wikipedia Cracking Up?, The Independent, February 3, 2009
- The Wiki-snobs Are Taking Over, The Sunday Times, timesonline.co.uk, February 8, 2009
- Runciman, David (2009-05-28). "Like Boiling a Frog". London Review of Books. http://www.lrb.co.uk/v31/n10/runc01_.html. Retrieved 2009-06-03.
- Rosenwald, Michael S. (2009-10-23). "Gatekeeper of D.C.'s entry: Road to city's Wikipedia page goes through a DuPont Circle bedroom". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/10/22/AR2009102204715.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
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