William A. Spinks: Wikis


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William A. Spinks
Image: A black-and-white photo of a middle-aged Anglo man with pale receding hair and a somewhat serious expression, wearing a dark tie and sport coat.
Spinks in 1924
(US Passport photo from Dept. of State microfilm)
Born William Alexander Spinks, Jr.
July 11, 1865,
San Jose, California
Died January 15, 1933 (aged 67),
Monrovia, California
Residence Brooklyn, New York; Cincinnati, Ohio; Chicago, Illinois; and San Jose, San Francisco, Duarte and Monrovia, California
Other names W. A. Spinks, Billy Spinks
Ethnicity White
Citizenship  United States
Occupation Billiards player, inventor,
sporting goods manufacturer,
oil company investor/director,
Years active ca. 1892 – 1920s
Known for Co-invention of billiard chalk,
balkline billiards world record,
the Spinks avocado cultivar
Spouse(s) Klara A. (Karlson) Spinks
Awards Pacific Coast Billiard Champion

William Alexander Spinks, Jr. (1865–1933), known professionally as William A. Spinks or (in the initialing practice common in his era) W. A. Spinks, and occasionally also referred to as Billy Spinks[1]), was an American professional player of carom billiards in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In addition to being amateur Pacific Coast Billiards Champion several times,[2][3][4] a world champion contender in more than one cue sports discipline,[5] and an exhibition player in Europe,[6] he became the co-inventor (with William Hoskins) in 1897 of modern billiard chalk.[6][7] He was originally (and again in retirement from the billiards circuit) a Californian, but spent much of his professional career in Chicago, Illinois.[2][6] At his peak, the New York Times labeled Spinks "[one] of the most brilliant players among the veterans of the game",[8] and he still holds the world record for points scored in a row (1,010) using a particular shot type.[3][9]:289 Aside from his billiards playing career, he founded a lucrative sporting goods manufacturing business, and was both a petroleum company investor and director, and a flower and avocado farm operator and horticulturist, originator of the eponymous Spinks avocado cultivar.


As an inventor (1892–1897)

While Spinks was a world-class player, his lasting contribution to cue sports was the innovations he brought to the game and the industry resulting from his fascination with the abrasives used by players on the leather tips of their cue sticks.

Cue "chalk" (used since at least 1807) helps the tip better grip the cue ball (very briefly) on a stroke and prevent miscueing, as well as permitting the player to impart a great deal more spin to the ball, vital for position play and for spin-intensive shots such as massés. In the 1800s, actual chalk (generally calcium carbonate[9]:46 lumps, suspended from strings), and even plaster[9]:46 was often used, but players experimented with other powdery, abrasive substances,[2][9]:46 since true chalk had a deleterious effect on the game equipment,[9]:46 not only discoloring the billiard cloth but allegedly actually causing damage to the fabric.[10]

In 1892, Spinks was particularly impressed by a piece of natural chalk-like substance obtained in France, and presented it to chemist and electrical engineer William Hoskins (1862–1934)[11] of Chicago for analysis, who determined that it was porous volcanic rock (pumice) originally probably from Mount Etna, Sicily. Using the rock as a starting place, the two experimented together with different formulations of various materials to achieve the cue ball "action" that Spinks sought.[6]

Image: A faded white cardboard box, about 3 by 4 by 1 inches, with a red border and a lot of black text, reading "One dozen pieces SPINKS' BILLIARD CHALK" and various promotional slogans such as "BEST and CHEAPEST", and "USED BY ALL PROFESSIONAL PLAYERS", among other lines, some indistinct.
The top of a box of a dozen cubes of Spinks billiard chalk, ca. 1900–1910. Note the endorsement by World Champion Jacob Schaefer Sr., often Spinks's opponent as a touring pro.

They eventually narrowed their search to a mixture of Illinois-sourced[6] silica and the abrasive substance corundum or aloxite[7] (a form of aluminum oxide, Al2O3),[12][13][14] founding William A. Spinks & Company with a factory[2] in Chicago[6] after securing a patent on March 9, 1897.[7] Spinks himself later left the company as an active party, which retained his name and was subsequently run by Hoskins, and later by Hoskins's cousin[6] Edmund F. Hoskin,[15] after Hoskins moved on to other projects.

While regular calcium carbonate chalk had been packaged and marketed on a local scale by various parties (English player Jack Carr's "Twisting Powder" of the 1820s being the earliest recorded example, although considered dubious by some billiards researchers),[9]:46 the Spinks Company product (which is still emulated by modern manufacturers with differing, proprietary compounds)[9]:46 effectively revolutionized billiards.[10]:249 The modern product provided a cue tip friction enhancer that allowed the tip to better grip the cue ball briefly[7] and impart a previously unattainable amount of spin on the ball, which consequently allowed more precise and extreme cue ball control, made miscueing less likely, made curve and massé shots more plausible, and ultimately spawned the new cue sport of artistic billiards. Even the basic draw and follow shots of pool games (like eight-ball and nine-ball) depend heavily on the effects and properties of modern billiard "chalk".

Spinks made a "fortune"[2][3][16] from his co-invention and the company that sold it to the world.

As a player

Spinks was a formidable specialist and professional competitor in straight rail billiards (early on), and balkline billiards (arguably the most difficult of all cue sports aside from artistic billiards), especially 14.2 and later 18.2 balkline, and skilled enough at the even more difficult 18.1 variant to hold his own against World Champions.


1890s: Rise as a professional contender

He began his competitive professional playing career in Brooklyn, New York,[17] ca. 1892,[18] at about 27 years of age.

Image: A black-on-white line drawing illustrating the shot, described in detail in the caption; text below the drawing reads: "Fig. 1—Spink's exhibition masse, four times on cushion and carom in corner on two balls."
An extreme massé shot by Spinks during an 1893 exhibition game against Jacob Schaefer Sr. Starting from bottom left, his cue ball swerves into and caroms off one object ball, then due to its extreme spin rebounds into the same cushion four times before finally rolling away for a perfect, scoring hit on the other ball. Spinks actually lost this game.

On December 19, 1893 in Brooklyn, Spinks played in an exhibition that also featured the great Maurice Daly and young champion Frank Ives, and gave demonstrations of fancy massé shots. He also played a 14.2 balkline match against World Champion Jacob Schaefer Sr.; Schaefer won, 250–162, with a high run and average of 88 and 20 (respectively) to Spinks's 33 and 13.[17]

In 1894, he was living in Cincinnati, Ohio, and in January of that year offered a convoluted challenge to veteran cueist Edward McLaughlin of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to play him either a single 14.2 match to 600 points for US$500 each (a substantial amount of money in that period for someone to put up personally on a bet – approximately $11,400 in 2007 dollars)[19] in New York, or one in New York and one in Philadelphia, or one in Cincinnati and one in Philadelphia, whatever McLaughlin preferred, and even offered to pay travel expenses to Cincinnati.[20]

Spinks issued an even more curious challenge in November 1894, to play 14.2 balkline against (almost) any challenger to 600 points for a $1,000 pot again, and while including French champion Edward Fournil, the bet specifically excluded the top-three names in that era of the sport, namely Shaefer, Ives and George Franklin Slosson.[21] The challenge was accepted by well-known Chicago pro Thomas Gallagher (in a match that future champion Ora Morningstar traveled all the way to Chicago to see).[22][23]

Spinks was apparently not a fan of upstart cueist Ives in particular. Days after issuing his caveat-laden challenge, Spinks was described by an onlooking journalist as "very uneasy until the seventeenth inning" as a spectator at the 14.2 balkline World Champion challenge match between Ives and incumbent Schaefer; the latter's point total had been trailing, sometimes badly, in all sixteen previous innings until he rallied in the final one of the game.[24] Spinks, along with Gallagher, even helped Schaefer train in 14.2 for another match against Ives, in October of that year; though Spinks lost this practice match 600–369 (averages 23 vs. 14), he had a high run of 109, to Schaefer's 102 (and Gallagher's 157 total).[25]

Spinks was reported in the press in 1895 to be specifically desired as a competitor in an upcoming seven-man invitational tournament for "second class" professional players (i.e., not the top 3), organized by Daly, and with as much as $1,200 (approx. $28,400 in 2007 dollars)[19] added. [26]

Spinks had moved to Chicago by 1896,[27] and was perfecting his billiard chalk with Hoskins. That year he was noted for besting McLaughlin at 14.2 by a comfortable 2500–2300 margin (with averages of 11 vs. 10) in a five-evening, $250 (approx. $6150, in 2007 dollars)[19] 14.2 match, December 8–12, in Slosson's New York City billiard hall. At one point he had trailed rather badly, 1500–1880, after McLaughlin pulled off a stunning run of 140 (Spinks's highest recorded run of the match was 69).[25][28][29][30][31][32]

By 1897, the year of the launch of Spinks & Company, he had evidently overcome his seeming reluctance to face World Champions again (perhaps from having several years' experience with his own product prototypes). Spinks competed in (but did not win) a December 3 open tournament.[33]

The next month in New York City, a January 15–21, 1898 double-elimination, five-man invitational 18.2 balkline tournament was arranged, again in Chicago. It was a handicapped event, featuring the five top players from the previous event – Schaefer and Ives, as World Champions, had to reach 600 points to Spinks's, William Catton's and George Sutton's 260.[34] Without having to rely on the 600-point handicap, Spinks beat Schaefer flat-out, 260–139 (with a high run of 48 vs. Schaefer's 38) in his January 18 second game.[35] Spinks (with a high run of "only" 44) was himself defeated in a very close 249–260 third game a day later by Catton (high run 56) – by way of comparison, the same night Ives trounced Sutton by a whopping 400–160.[36] By January 20, Spinks seemed to be running out of steam, as Sutton took him 260–118, (high runs 73 vs. 30), [37] and he lost again 154–400 (with another high run of 44) to Ives a day later. (In Spinks's defense, he not only did better against Ives than Catton had, but Ives also had a very impressive high run of 136, making it virtually impossible to catch up.) This loss put Spinks out of the tournament at 4th place.[38]

1900s: World-class competitor

Spinks was still considered a newsworthy contender over a decade later, for the World 18.2 Balkline Championship of 1909, being enumerated in "a fine list of entries" anticipated for the March event.[39]

On January 11, Spinks (with a high run of 51) beat former amateur champion and then-pro Calvin Demarest, 250–199, in only 15 innings, despite scoring 0 points in 4 innings and only 1 point in another, by building several solid runs in the innings in which things went his way. For all intents and purposes it was a 10-inning win.[40] Demarest took his revenge only days later, defeating Spinks in a close 250–225, 23-inning game on January 13, despite Spinks's high run of 78 (his highest 18.2 run on record in publicly-available sources, and considerably higher than Demarest's 52 that night).[41] Spinks lost to him again the very next day, 175–250, in an exhibition game, despite Spinks's solid high run of 69, and also beat veteran pro Tom Gallagher.[8]

In January 1909, just prior to an 18.1 balkline championship at Madison Square Garden (in which Spinks was not competing), he and Mauricy Daly were observed playing practice games with Sutton for the latter's pre-event training, in Daly's billiard hall in New York City, on multiple occasions over a several-day stretch. While Spinks lost all but one of the recorded matches of this series, one loss was by a hair, at 400–399, another was 400–370, and his victory was a surprising 300–194 – and 18.1 was not his preferred game.[42][43][44][45][46]

Many articles of the era stress that Spinks was a Californian, because during this period American billiards was completely dominated by East-Coasters and a few Midwesterners.[5]

1910s: Setting a record and leveling the field

Spinks was noted in 1912 for a still-unbroken world record run of 1,010 continuous points at 18.2 balkline using the "chuck nurse" (a form of nurse shot), and could have made more, but stopped,[3][9]:52, 289 before anchor space rules were instituted especially to curtail the effectiveness of the chuck nurse.[9]:8[47] The use of such repetitive, predictable shots by Spinks, Schaefer Sr. and their contemporaries led to the development of the more advanced and restrictive 14.1 balkline rules (invented in 1907, but not played professionally until 1914), which further thwarted the ease of reliance on nurse shots than the older balkline games already did.[9]:15-16

In August 1915, Spinks was tapped to join a consultative panel of notable players and major billiard hall proprietors to help develop a new handicapping system for balkline billiards, organized by the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company, at that time the organizers of the World Championships. The inspiration for the new system was simply making it possible for the newly ascendant Willie Hoppe to be meaningfully challenged (his near-unassailability was hurting billiard tournament revenues, because the outcome was considered foreordained by many potential ticket-buyers), although the system was expected to level the playing field in other ways, especially making it easier for skilled amateurs to enter the professional ranks.[48]

As an oilman

Spinks described himself as a director of an oil company as of 1900.[2][49] He invested money from his billiard equipment corporation in the petroleum industry in California.[4]

As a farm operator

While Spinks was not operating a farm as of 1900,[49] the W. A. Spinks Ranch was a large enough operation by 1909 to employ a staff of farmhands, and included land in Bradbury Canyon, near Duarte, California, where Spinks resided at the time.[50] He described himself as a flower farmer (among other such specialists in the area) in 1910,[51] and later as an "avocado rancher".[2][52] As a pomology horticulturist,[4] he developed the Spinks avocado cultivar.[53] Spinks was active in the growers' community, and in 1922 hosted a large regional farm bureau meeting of avocado farmers at his ranchland "mountain estate".[54] As a floriculturist, Spinks made no known major contributions.

The Spinks avocado

In 1920, Spinks provided a supply of his avocados for a UC-Berkeley/California Avocado Association comparison of avocado strains. The Spinks avocado fruit was shown to be more resistant to freezing than other avocados. They also proved to be the second-longest lasting in storage of the ten varieties tested.[55]

Considered "famous"[56][54] by 1918, the Duarte-based Spinks avocado orchards were contracted to supply seedlings in 1919 for the palace of the pre-communist President of China Xu Shichang, and other prestigious Asian gardens.[56]

Private life

William A. Spinks, Jr., the youngest of five children, was born July 11, 1865 in the then-small township of San Jose, California, to struggling farmer William A. and wife Cynthia J. (Prather) Spinks. He had blue eyes, dark hair and a ruddy complexion, and was 5 feet 8 inches (1.73 m) tall by adulthood.[57][58][59][60] His education is obscure.[61]

Image: A middle-aged Anglo couple, from the chest up: William, seated, is white-haired, wearing glasses and a dark suit and tie, and looks serious; Clara, standing behind him, is dark-haired and pleasant-faced, wearing what appears to be a dark cardigan over a white blouse; something has marred the photograph, in such a way that it looks somewhat like William has a very large cigarette in the corner of his mouth, but it is not part of the original photograph.
William and Clara Spinks in 1922
(US Passport photo from Dept. of State microfilm)

On September 1, 1891 he married Clara Alexandria Karlson (b. December 12, 1871, Gothenburg, Sweden, immigrated 1872; d. October 4, 1949, Los Angeles); they were to remain together for over 40 years. They returned to California from Chicago before the turn of the century. After a period in a San Francisco apartment (ca. 1900), they lived in the (then-rural) L.A. suburbs of Duarte (ca. 1910) where their farm was, and later (by 1920) Monrovia, where they maintained a modest house in addition to the farm. After William's business success, the couple became extensive world travelers.[49][51][52][58][62][63]

William Spinks died January 15, 1933, aged 67, in Monrovia.[2][3]

In Los Angeles County's San Gabriel Valley, Spinks Canyon, its stream Spinks Canyon Creek, and the local major residential thoroughfare Spinks Canyon Road (running through Duarte's northernmost residential area, called "Duarte Mesa"), are all named after William Spinks.[64] He would probably be surprised that homes in the area today can fetch over $1mil; his house in nearby Monrovia was valued at only $6,000 ($72,000 in 2007 dollars)[19] in 1930.[62]


  1. ^ "Are Brought Together at Last: Gallagher and Spinks Will Meet Monday and Sign Articles". Chicago Daily Tribune (Chicago, IL: Tribune Company): p. 7. February 2, 1896. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/428304661.html?dids=428304661:428304661&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI. Retrieved August 18, 2009.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Billiard Cue Chalk Inventor Dead". Associated Press Newswire (New York City, NY: Associated Press). January 16, 1933. http://search.ancestry.com/. Retrieved 2006-11-25.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database. Appeared in the San Antonio, Texas Express, Helena, Montana Daily Independent, New York Times, Huron, South Dakota Evening Huronite, Hagerstown, Maryland Daily Mail, and many other newspapers. The exact title and text varies from publication to publication – from 2 sentences to five paragraphs – due to editorial alterations to the newswire. The full version can be found in the Express and Daily Independent. Provides specific mention of Chicago factory; confirms involvement in oil industry, avocado growing, as well as birthplace and that he made a "fortune" on the chalk; also provides info on use of pre-Spinks chalk.
  3. ^ a b c d e "W. A. Spinks Dies". International News Service (New York, NY: Hearst Corporation). January 16, 1933. http://search.ancestry.com. Retrieved 2008-08-21.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database. Provides more specific death place; confirms Pacific Coast Champion titles; implies incorrectly that he died on January 16; mentions his world record, but off by 10 points.
  4. ^ a b c "W. A. Spinks, Oil Developer, Dies: Duarte Man Former Coast Billiard Champion". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, CA: Tribune Company): p. 6. January 16, 1933. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/388573551.html?dids=388573551:388573551&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&type=historic&date=Jan+16%2C+1933&author=&pub=Los+Angeles+Times+%281886-Current+File%29&edition=&startpage=6&desc=W.+A.+SPINKS%2C+OIL+DEVELOPER%2C+DIES. Retrieved August 19, 2009.   [Online access to full article is not free of charge.] A substantial obituary, significantly different from the one published by Associated Press.
  5. ^ a b Cf. the New York Times pieces cited in more detail elsewhere in this article.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Clark, Neil M. (May 1927). "The World's Most Tragic Man Is the One Who Never Starts". The American. http://www.toaster.org/hoskins_tragic.html. Retrieved 2007-02-24.  ; republished in Hotwire: The Newsletter of the Toaster Museum Foundation, vol. 3, no. 3, online edition. The piece is largely an interview of Hoskins. (And there actually is a Toaster Museum, backed by a related foundation. They take the history of toast, and electrical heating in general, quite seriously.)
  7. ^ a b c d U.S. Patent 0,578,514, March 9, 1897
  8. ^ a b "Demarest Beats Veterans". New York Times (New York, NY: New York Times Company): p. 7 (below Syracuse & Sutton articles). January 14, 1909. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9903E1D7143DE733A25756C1A9679C946897D6CF. Retrieved 2008-08-18.   Short sports column.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Shamos, Mike (1999). The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Billiards. New York: Lyons Press. ISBN 1-55821-797-5.  
  10. ^ a b Stein, Victor; Rubino, Paul (2008) [1st ed. 1994]. The Billiard Encyclopedia (3rd ed.). New York: Balkline Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-615-17092-3.   Reproduction of ca. 1930 Spinks chalk advertisement claiming savings in cloth lifetime. Also quotes world champion Jake Schaefer, Jr.: "I believe that Spinks' chalk has done more to improve the game of billiards than any thing [sic] else in my time."
  11. ^ "C.H.i.C. Timeline 1843–1880". A Guide to the Chemical History of Chicago. Chemical History in Chicago Project. date unspecified. http://chemhistory-chicago.org/1843.html. Retrieved 2007-02-24.  
  12. ^ "Substance Summary: Aluminum Oxide". PubChem Database. National Library of Medicine, US National Institutes of Health. 2008. pp. "aloxite" and "corundum" search results. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pccompound&term=Aluminum%20oxide. Retrieved 2008-08-16.  
  13. ^ "Aloxite". ChemIndustry.com. 1999-2008. pp. Chemical Info database. http://www.chemindustry.com/chemicals/14835.html. Retrieved 2008-08-16.  
  14. ^ Russell, Michael (December 23, 2005). "Billiards — The Transformation Years: 1845-1897". Leisure and Sport Review. http://www.traveltotourism.com/recreationarticles.php?ID=5419. Retrieved 2008-08-19.   (Also appears on several other sites.) This questionable article was obviously used as the source for the CSI season 6 episode "Time of Your Death", in which pool chalk plays a small but crucial role; the show perpetuated the "axolite" for "aloxite" error in that article, to millions of viewers. It is retained as a (red-flagged) source here specifically to document this fact, as the term "axolite" cannot be found anywhere else.
  15. ^ U.S. Patent 1,524,132, January 27, 1925
  16. ^ "Ten Years Ago". Evening Times (Cumberland, MD): p. 4. January 15, 1943. http://search.ancestry.com. Retrieved 2008-08-21.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database. Confirms "fortune".
  17. ^ a b "Saw Good Billiards: Union Leaguers Entertained by Four Star Cue-wielders". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY): p. 8. December 20, 1893. http://eagle.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/Default/Scripting/ArchiveView.asp?BaseHref=BEG/1893/12/20&Page=8&SelectedEntity=Ar00807&skin=BEagle&GZ=T. Retrieved 2008-08-19.   The piece (as several others did) misspelled his surname as "Spink". Note: Each section of the newspaper page scans on this site can be clicked for a readable closeup.
  18. ^ Two Chicago Daily Tribune articles in 1892 cover Spinks prominently: "Gallagher and Spinks Matched" (May 22), and "Tom Gallagher Beats Spinks" (May 27); no billiards-related coverage of Spinks has been discovered so far that pre-dates 1892.
  19. ^ a b c d Friedman, S. Morgan (2007). "The Inflation Calculator". WestEgg.com. http://www.westegg.com/inflation/. Retrieved 2008-08-21.  
  20. ^ "Spinks Will Meet McLaughlin". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (ibid.): p. 8. January 6, 1894. http://eagle.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/Default/Scripting/ArchiveView.asp?BaseHref=BEG/1894/01/06&Page=8&SelectedEntity=Ar00812&skin=BEagle&GZ=T. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  
  21. ^ "Spinks's Billiard Challenge". New York Times (ibid.): p. 6. November 5, 1894. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50B1EF63A5515738DDDAC0894D9415B8485F0D3. Retrieved 2007-02-25.   A very short sports column note. NB: Though the article called the game "fourteen-inch balkline" it meant 14.2 balkline more specifically, because 14.1 was not introduced into tournaments until 1914.
  22. ^ "Billiard Notes". New York Times (ibid.): p. 7 (below Navy article). November 18, 1894. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9E00E0D61131E033A2575AC1A9679D94659ED7CF. Retrieved 2008-08-18.   Sports column entry.
  23. ^ McGrew, Clarence Alan (1922). City of San Diego and San Diego County: The Birthplace of California. Vol. 1. Chicago, IL & New York, NY: American Historical Society. pp. p. 364. http://books.google.com/books?id=G8cUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA364&dq=%22William+A.+Spinks%22.  
  24. ^ "Schaefer Is in the Lead – The "Wizard" 32 Points Ahead of Ives, the Young Expert: Both Men Played Good, Strong Billiards and Ives Led Up to the Last Inning — Pretty Nursing by the Youthful Aspirant for Championship Honors — Ives Had the Best Average and the Highest Run in the Opening Night's Play". New York Times (ibid.): p. 2. February 25, 1894. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F4071EFE395515738DDDAA0994D9415B8485F0D3. Retrieved 2007-02-25.   An eyewitness summary of the first day of the match. The piece amply demonstrates the popularity of the sport at the time, as the in-depth article made the second page of the newspaper as a whole.
  25. ^ a b "Billiards by the Experts". New York Times (ibid.): p. 12 (below real estate article). October 29, 1894. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9B0CE7D61531E033A2575AC2A9669D94659ED7CF. Retrieved 2008-08-18.   Sports column entry.
  26. ^ "Crack Billiards Players in Tournament". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (ibid.): p. 4. February 22, 1895. http://eagle.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/Default/Scripting/ArchiveView.asp?BaseHref=BEG/1895/02/22&Page=4&SelectedEntity=Ar00431&skin=BEagle&GZ=T. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  
  27. ^ "Good Billiards Ahead: Maurice Daly Promises Great Things for This City". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (ibid.): p. 12. September 24, 1896. http://eagle.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/Default/Scripting/ArchiveView.asp?BaseHref=BEG/1896/09/24&Page=12&SelectedEntity=Ar01201&skin=BEagle&GZ=T. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  
  28. ^ "To Play 14-inch Balk Line". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (ibid.): p. 10. November 24, 1896. http://eagle.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/Default/Scripting/ArchiveView.asp?BaseHref=BEG/1896/11/24&Page=10&SelectedEntity=Ar01031&skin=BEagle&GZ=T. Retrieved 2008-08-19.   The event was originally slated to begin December 7.
  29. ^ "McLaughlin's Brilliant Run". New York Times (ibid.): p. 2 (below cricket article). December 10, 1896. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9801E3DF1038E233A25753C1A9649D94679ED7CF. Retrieved 2008-08-15.   A short sports column note.
  30. ^ "Spinks Still Ahead". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (ibid.): p. 10. December 11, 1896. http://eagle.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/Default/Scripting/ArchiveView.asp?BaseHref=BEG/1896/12/11&Page=10&SelectedEntity=Ar01039&skin=BEagle&GZ=T. Retrieved 2008-08-19.   Sports column note.
  31. ^ "Spinks Wins at Billiards". New York Times (ibid.): p. 3 (below Platt article). December 12, 1896. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9D03E4D8103BEE33A25751C1A9649D94679ED7CF. Retrieved 2008-08-15.   Another very short sports column note.
  32. ^ "Spinks Wins the Match". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (ibid.): p. 9. December 12, 1896. http://eagle.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/Default/Scripting/ArchiveView.asp?BaseHref=BEG/1896/12/12&Page=9&SelectedEntity=Ar00932&skin=BEagle&GZ=T. Retrieved 2008-08-19.   Sports column note.
  33. ^ Colby, Frank Moore; Peck, Harry Thurston; Engle, Edward Lathrop (eds.) (1899). The International Year Book: A Compendium of the World's Progress in Every Department of Human Knowledge During the Year 1898. New York, NY: Dodd, Mead & Co.. pp. p. 99. http://books.google.com/books?id=2VwMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA99&dq=Spinks+billiards&lr=#PPA99,M1. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  
  34. ^ "Chicago Billiards Tourney". New York Times (ibid.): p. 4. January 15, 1898. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9F03E2DC1638E433A25755C1A9679C94699ED7CF. Retrieved 2008-08-15.   Another short sports column piece.
  35. ^ "Spinks Defeats Schaeffer [sic]". New York Times (ibid.): p. 5. January 18, 1898. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F1071FF8395811738DDDA00994D9405B8885F0D3. Retrieved 2008-08-16.   Another short sport column piece.
  36. ^ "Chicago Billiard Tournament: Catton Defeats Spinks and Ives Defeats Sutton by 400 to 160". New York Times (ibid.): p. 5. January 19, 1898. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9A0CE6D8123CE433A25753C2A9679C94699ED7CF. Retrieved 2008-08-16.   More summary sports coverage.
  37. ^ "Chicago Billiard Tournament: Sutton Defeats Spinks, and Is Beaten by Schaefer". New York Times (ibid.): p. 4. January 20, 1898. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9405E7DE1030E333A25752C2A9679C94699ED7CF. Retrieved 2007-02-25.   More summary sports coverage.
  38. ^ "Chicago Billiard Tournament: Schaefer and Ives Win Games – The Former Breaks a Record". New York Times (ibid.): p. 10. January 21, 1898. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9A06E3DB1638E433A25751C2A9679C94699ED7CF&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2008-08-17.   More summary sports coverage.
  39. ^ "Billiard Titles in New Contests: Clearance of Clouds and Quibbles Promised in Winter Series of Games – Championships Are Lure – Challenge Match Between Sutton and Slosson Will Open Tilts and Lead to Open Tournament". New York Times (ibid.): p. S3. January 24, 1909. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F70816F83C5C15738DDDAD0A94D9405B898CF1D3. Retrieved 2007-02-25.   Another in-depth piece that further demonstrates the popularity of carom billiards in its heyday and the seriousness with which it was treated by the media. It is notable that Spinks, Sutton, Slosson, Morningstar and Albert Cutler were simply given by name, while all others on the list were given by name and city (e.g. "Calvin Demarest of Chicago"), indicating that Spinks was a well-known cue sports figure at this time.
  40. ^ "Surprise in Billiards: Spinks Scores Well-earned Victory Over Demarest in Final Inning". New York Times (ibid.): p. 10 (below NYAC article). January 12, 1909. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C04E6DE1031E733A25751C1A9679C946897D6CF. Retrieved 2008-08-18.   A sports column piece.
  41. ^ "Two Games for Demarest". New York Times (ibid.): p. 8 (below New Orleans article). January 13, 1909. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9F06E2DE1031E733A25757C1A9679C946897D6CF. Retrieved 2008-08-18.   A very short sports column piece.
  42. ^ "Sutton to Practice at Daly's". New York Times (ibid.): p. 7 (below Syracuse article). January 14, 1909. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9903E1D7143DE733A25756C1A9679C946897D6CF. Retrieved 2008-08-18.   Short sports column.
  43. ^ "Sutton Wins and Loses". New York Times (ibid.): p. 9 (below McGann article). January 18, 1909. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9802EFDE1031E733A2575AC1A9679C946897D6CF. Retrieved 2008-08-18.   Short sports column.
  44. ^ "Two Billiard Victories for Sutton". New York Times (ibid.): p. 7 (below Dartmouth article). January 21, 1909. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9B03E4DD1031E733A25752C2A9679C946897D6CF. Retrieved 2008-08-18.   Short sports column.
  45. ^ "Sutton Scores a Double: Billiard Champ Beats Morningstar and Spinks in His Practice". New York Times (ibid.): p. 7 (below the Dartmouth article). January 23, 1909. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9D0DE2DD1031E733A25750C2A9679C946897D6CF. Retrieved 2008-08-18.   Short sports column.
  46. ^ "Sutton Wins Two Balkline Games". New York Times (ibid.): p. S1 (below the ice skating article). January 24, 1909. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9806E7D91738E033A25757C2A9679C946897D6CF. Retrieved 2008-08-18.   Short sports page note.
  47. ^ Loy, Jim (2000). "The Chuck Nurse". Jim Loy's Billiards/Pool Page. http://www.jimloy.com/billiard/chuck.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-24.   The Shamos source is the authoritative one, but this site provides an animated illustration of precisely how the chuck nurse works.
  48. ^ "New Billiard Plan of Rating Players: Hoppe Will Lead the List—Handicaps for All of the Others[sic]". New York Times (ibid.): p. 9. August 5, 1915. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9806E7DE103CE333A25756C0A96E9C946496D6CF. Retrieved 2008-08-19.   The article refers to him as "W.M. Spinks of Los Angeles", a typo for "W.A." or "Wm.", and could not plausibly refer to anyone else, as there was no other notable W. Spinks in the billiards world of the period (or since), only two amateurs, C.A. and John Spinks, meanwhile William was the only Californian among them.
  49. ^ a b c 1900 United States Federal Census. US Census Bureau, ibid.. 1900. http://search.ancestry.com/. Retrieved 2008-08-19.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database. Provides San Francisco residence, marital status, marriage year 1890–91, William's occupation as "oil company director"; confirms ages, birth places, no children; does not mention farm, or Clara's immigration year.
  50. ^ "Find Body in Canyon: Ranch Workers Discover Former Comrade Committed Suicide Near Duarte Two Months Ago". Los Angeles Times (ibid.): p. II10. March 17, 1909. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/350390312.html?dids=350390312:350390312&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&type=historic&date=Mar+17%2C+1909&author=&pub=Los+Angeles+Times+%281886-Current+File%29&edition=&startpage=II10&desc=FIND+BODY+IN+CANYON.. Retrieved Aug. 20, 2009.   [Online access to full article is not free of charge.]
  51. ^ a b 1910 United States Federal Census. US Census Bureau, ibid.. 1910. http://search.ancestry.com/. Retrieved 2008-08-19.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database. Provides Duarte residence/farm, marriage year 1891–1892 (off by 1 compared to multiple other sources), Clara's immigration year, William's occupation as flower farmer (employer), land owned free and clear, neighbors engaged in flower farming; confirms marital status, no children, ages, birth places, parents' birth places. Copy is poor; data columns verified by comparison to legible blank 1910 census form.
  52. ^ a b 1920 United States Federal Census. US Census Bureau, ibid.. 1920. http://search.ancestry.com/search/default.aspx?cat=35. Retrieved 2008-08-19.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database. Provides Monrovia residence, William's occupation as avocado farmer, Clara's immigration date; confirms ages, marital status, birth places, no children, parents' birth places, free-owned home, Clara's immigration year. Copy is poor; data columns verified by comparison to legible blank 1920 census form.
  53. ^ "History of City of Duarte Goes Back For 128 Years". Pasadena Star-News (Pasadena, CA: San Gabriel Valley Newspaper Group). April 28, 1969. http://search.ancestry.com/. Retrieved August 18, 2009.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database.
  54. ^ a b "Avocado Growers Meet at Famous Mountain Estate". Los Angeles Times (ibid.): p. IX10. February 12, 1922. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/330942382.html?dids=330942382:330942382&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&type=historic&date=Feb+12%2C+1922&author=&pub=Los+Angeles+Times+%281886-Current+File%29&edition=&startpage=IX10&desc=Avocado+Growers+Meet+at+Famous+Mountain+Estate.. Retrieved Aug. 20, 2009.   [Online access to full article is not free of charge.]
  55. ^ Overholser, E. L. (1924–25). "Cold Storage Behavior of Avocados". California Avocado Association Annual Report (San Diego, CA: California Avocado Association) 10: 32–40. http://www.avocadosource.com/CAS_Yearbooks/CAS_10_1924-25/CAS_1924-25_PG_32-40.pdf. Retrieved August 19, 2009.  
  56. ^ a b "Avocados for Orient". Los Angeles Times (ibid.): p. I5. December 28, 1918. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/335216912.html?dids=335216912:335216912&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&type=historic&date=Dec+28%2C+1918&author=LOCAL+CORRESPONDENCE.&pub=Los+Angeles+Times+%281886-Current+File%29&edition=&startpage=I5&desc=AVOCADOS+FOR+ORIENT.. Retrieved Aug. 20, 2009.   [Online access to full article is not free of charge.]
  57. ^ 1870 United States Federal Census. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau. 1870. http://search.ancestry.com/. Retrieved August 19, 2008.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database.
  58. ^ a b Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at San Francisco, 1893-1953 (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1410). Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Record Group 85, National Archives, Washington, DC: US Immigration and Naturalization Service. 1954. http://search.ancestry.com/. Retrieved 2008-08-21.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database. Provides William's middle name, marriage date, Duarte residence overlapping with Monrovia (cf. 1920 Census); confirms Clara's middle name, William's birth place, birth dates of both. Cf. 1922 passport applications. Another ship manifest shows them returning from a trip to Italy in 1909, amusingly listing William's occupation simply as "capitalist". Another shows Clara returning from a visit to her native country of Sweden in 1937 (necessarily alone). Neither provide additional details, so are not cited here in full. Another, with both returning from England in 1925, again confirms that they retained the property in Duarte after getting the Monrovia house. All of the above are available as scans from Ancestry.com.
  59. ^ Braddock, Bruce. "Braddock Family Tree". Ancestry.com. The Generations Network. http://search.ancestry.com/. Retrieved 2008-08-20.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database. Provides mother's maiden name. While a tertiary source, it agrees in every respect with vital records data. Note: The full details of the search results from the URL provided for this and various other public records here are only available with a paid subscription to the search service.
  60. ^ Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 – March 31, 1925; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M1490). General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59, National Archives, Washington, DC: US Department of State. 1926. http://search.ancestry.com/. Retrieved 2008-08-21.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database. 1924: Provides full birth dates and places for both, photos of them, their height and appearance, William's occupation as "fruit grower", plans for whirlwind world tour including the British Isles, France, Italy, Japan, China, Hong Kong, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Egypt, India, Palestine, the Holy Land, Switzerland, Austria and Germany, for the purpose of "travel" (and "visit relatives" in the case of Clara), summer of 1924; confirms residence in Duarte (overlapping Monrovia), William's father's name and birthplace. 1922: Same confirmations, for William; photo of the couple together, travel plans for Japan, China, Hong Kong.
  61. ^ Exhaustive newspaper searches, as well as billiards references, provide no information whatsoever to date regarding Spink's educational background.
  62. ^ a b 1930 United States Federal Census. US Census Bureau, ibid.. 1930. http://search.ancestry.com/. Retrieved 2008-08-19.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database. Provides home value of $6,000 in Monrovia, non-veteran; confirms Monrovia residence, owned home, living on farm, William's occupation as avocado "rancher" (employer, active), marriage year 1880–1, ages, marital status, birth places, no children, parents' birth places. Copy is poor; data columns verified by comparison to legible blank 1930 census form.
  63. ^ California Death Index, 1940–1997. Sacramento, CA: Center for Health Statistics, Department of Health Services, State of California. 1998. http://search.ancestry.com/. Retrieved 2008-08-20.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database. Provides Clara's maiden name, death date and place; confirms her birth date. Curiously, William does not appear in the index, despite have been reported to have died in Monrovia, L.A. County. It is therefore possible that he actually died in an out-of-state hospital.
  64. ^ Beardshear, Laurie (December 13, 1973). "Area Street Names Traced to Pioneers". Star-News (Pasadena, CA): p. C3. http://search.ancestry.com. Retrieved 2008-08-21.   Accessed through Ancestry.com database.


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