The Full Wiki

William Cullen: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

William Cullen

William Cullen
Born 15 April 1710
Hamilton, Lanarkshire
Died 5 February 1790
Nationality Scottish
Fields Medicine
Chemistry
Alma mater University of Edinburgh

William Cullen (15 April 1710 – 5 February 1790) was a Scottish physician and chemist.

Contents

Early life

Cullen was born in Hamilton, Lanarkshire. His father William was a lawyer retained by the Duke of Hamilton and his mother was Elizabeth Roberton of Whistlebury.[1][2] He studied at Hamilton Grammar School, then, in 1726, began a General Studies arts course at the University of Glasgow. He began his medical training as apprentice to John Paisley, a Glasgow apothecary surgeon, then spent 1729 as surgeon on a merchant vessel trading between London and the West Indies. After two years as assistant apothecary to Mr Murray of Henrietta Street, London, he returned to Scotland in 1732 to establish himself in general medical practice in the parish of Shotts, Lanarkshire. From 1734 to 1736 he studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, where he became interested in chemistry, and was one of the founders of the Royal Medical Society.

In 1736 he began medical practise in Hamilton, where he rapidly acquired a high reputation. He also continued his study of the natural sciences, especially of chemistry. From 1737 to 1740 William Hunter was his resident pupil, and at one time they proposed to enter into partnership. In 1740 Cullen was awarded the degree of M.D. from Glasgow University. In 1741, he married and started his family. He became ordinary medical attendant to James Douglas, 5th Duke of Hamilton (1703-43), his family, and his livestock. In 1744, following the Duke's death, the Cullens moved to Glasgow.

After university (in 1747), he was awarded Britain's first independent lectureship in Chemistry and was elected President of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow. In 1751 he was appointed Professor of the Practice of Medicine, but continued to also lecture on chemistry.

In Glasgow he gave extramural lectures, for the University, on physiology, botany, materia medica, and chemistry. His great abilities, enthusiasm, and use of practical demonstrations for instruction, made him a successful and highly popular teacher, attracting large classes. At the same time he also practised physic. In 1747 he was appointed to a lectureship in chemistry. Cullen was a diligent, but unoriginal, investigator and experimenter. However, he encouraged original research among his pupils, one of whom was Joseph Black.

Edinburgh

In 1755 he was enticed by Lord Kames to become Professor of Chemistry and Medicine at the University of Edinburgh. It was in Edinburgh, in 1756, that he gave the first documented public demonstration of artificial refrigeration[3]. Cullen used a pump to create a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl ether, which then boiled, absorbing heat from the surroundings. This created a small amount of ice, but the process found no commercial application.

From 1757 he delivered lectures on clinical medicine in the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary.

On the death of Charles Alston in 1760, Cullen at the request of the students undertook to finish his course of lectures on materia medica; he delivered an entirely new course, notes of which were published in an unauthorized edition in 1771, but which he re-wrote and issued as A Treatise on Materia Medica in 1789.

On the death of Robert Whytt, the professor of the institutes of medicine, Cullen accepted the chair, at the same time resigning that of chemistry. In the same year he had been an unsuccessful candidate for the professorship of the practice of physic (medicine), but subsequently an arrangement was made between him and John Gregory, the successful candidate, by which they both agreed to deliver alternate courses on the theory and practice of medicine. This arrangement continued until the sudden death of Gregory in 1773. Cullen was then appointed sole professor of the practice of physic, and he continued in this office until a few months before his death. He died on 5 February 1790.

Cullen's eldest son Robert became a Scottish judge in 1796 under the title of Lord Cullen later Baron Cullen[4], and was known for his powers of mimicry.

Publications

His chief works were First Lines of the Practice of Physic; Institutions of Medicine (1710) and Synopsis Nosologiae Methodicae (1785), which contained his classification of diseases into four great classes:

References

  1. ^ Navigational Aids for the History of Science,Technology & the Environment [1] last cited 28 May 2009
  2. ^ Family Search http://www.familysearch.org/eng/search/frameset_search.asp last cited 28 May 2009
  3. ^ William Cullen, Of the Cold Produced by Evaporating Fluids and of Some Other Means of Producing Cold, in Essays and Observations Physical and Literary Read Before a Society in Edinburgh and Published by Them, II, (Edinburgh 1756)
  4. ^ NPG D2239; Robert Cullen, Baron Cullen

Further reading

External links

Advertisements

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

WILLIAM CULLEN (1710-1790), Scottish physician and medical teacher, was born at Hamilton, Lanarkshire, on the 1 5th of April 1710. He received his early education at the grammar-school of Hamilton, and he appears to have subsequently attended some classes at the university of Glasgow. He began his medical career as apprentice to John Paisley, a Glasgow surgeon, and after completing his apprenticeship he became surgeon to a merchant vessel trading between London and the West Indies. On his return to Scotland in 1732 he settled as a practitioner in the parish of Shotts, Lanarkshire, and in1734-1736studied medicine at Edinburgh, where he was one of the founders of the Royal Medical Society. In 1736 he began to practise in Hamilton, where he rapidly acquired a high reputation. From 1737 to 1740 William Hunter was his resident pupil, and at one time they proposed to enter into partnership. In 1740 Cullen took the degree of M.D. at Glasgow, whither he removed in 1744. During his residence at Hamilton, besides the arduous duties of medical practice, he found time to devote to the study of the natural sciences, and especially of chemistry. On coming to Glasgow he appears to have begun to lecture in connexion with the university, the medical school of which was as yet imperfectly organized. Besides the subjects of theory and practice of medicine, he lectured systematically on botany, materia medica and chemistry. His great abilities, enthusiasm and power of conveying instruction made him a successful and highly popular teacher, and his classes increased largely in numbers. At the same time he diligently pursued the practice of his profession. Chemistry was the subject which at this time seems to have engaged the greatest share of his attention. He was himself a diligent investigator and experimenter, and he did much to encourage original research among his pupils, one of whom was Dr Joseph Black. In 1751 he was appointed professor of medicine, but continued to lecture on chemistry, and in 1756 he was elected joint professor of chemistry at Edinburgh along with Andrew Plummer, on whose death in the following year the sole appointment was conferred on Cullen. This chair he held for ten years - his classes always increasing in numbers. He also practised his profession as a physician with eminent success. From 1757 he delivered lectures on clinical medicine in the Royal Infirmary. This was a work for which his experience, habits of observation, and scientific training peculiarly fitted him, and in which his popularity as a teacher, no less than his power as a practical physician, became more than ever conspicuous. On the death of Charles Alston in 1760, Cullen at the request of the students undertook to finish his course of lectures on materia medica; he delivered an entirely new course, which were published in an unauthorized edition in 1771, but which he re-wrote and issued as A Treatise on Materia Medica in 1789.

On the death of Robert Whytt (1714-1766), the professor of the institutes of medicine, Cullen accepted the chair, at the same time resigning that of chemistry. In the same year he had been an unsuccessful candidate for the professorship of the practice of physic, but subsequently an arrangement was made between him and John Gregory, who had gained the appointment, by which they agreed to deliver alternate courses on the theory and practice of physic. This arrangement proved eminently satisfactory, but it was brought to a close by the sudden death of Gregory in 1773. Cullen was then appointed sole professor of the practice of physic, and he continued in this office till a few months before his death, which took place on the 5th of February 1790.

As a lecturer Cullen appears to have stood unrivalled in his day. His clearness of statement and power of imparting interest to the most abstruse topics were the conspicuous features of his teaching, and in his various capacities as a scientific lecturer, a physiologist, and a practical physician, he was ever surrounded with large and increasing classes of intelligent pupils, to whom his eminently suggestive mode of instruction was specially attractive. Living at the time he did, when the doctrines of the humoral pathologists were carried to an extreme extent, and witnessing the ravages which disease made on the solid structures of the body, it was not surprising that he should oppose a doctrine which appeared to him to lead to a false practice and to fatal results, and adopt one which attributed more to the agency of the solids and very little to that of the fluids of the body. His chief works were First Lines of the Practice of Physic (1774); Institutions of Medicine (1770); and Synopsis Nosologicae Medicae (1785), which contained his classification of diseases into four great classes - (t) Pyrexiae, or febrile diseases, as typhus fever; (2) Neuroses, or nervous diseases, as epilepsy; (3) Cachexiae, or diseases resulting from bad habit of body, as scurvy; L and (4) Locales, or local diseases, as cancer.

Cullen's eldest son Robert became a Scottish judge in 1796 under the title of Lord Cullen, and was known for his powers of mimicry.

The first volume of an account of Cullen's Life, Lectures and Writings was published by Dr John Thomson in 1832, and was reissued with the second volume (completing the work) by Drs W. Thomson and D. Craigie in 1859.


<< Paul Cullen

Cullen >>


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message