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William Fenwick Williams: Wikis

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Sir William Williams
4 December 1800 – 26 July 1883
William Fenwick Williams .jpg
William Fenwick Williams
Allegiance United Kingdom United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Rank General
Battles/wars Crimean War
Awards Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath

General Sir William Fenwick Williams, 1st Baronet GCB (4 December 1800 – 26 July 1883) was a British military leader of the Victorian era.

Contents

Early life

He was born in Annapolis, Nova Scotia, the second son of Commissary-General Thomas Williams, barrack-master at Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Career

He entered the Royal Artillery as second lieutenant in 1825. His services were lent to Turkey in 1841, and he was employed as a captain in the arsenal at Constantinople. He was British commissioner in the conferences preceding the treaty of Erzerum in 1847, and again in the settlement of the Turko-Persian boundary in 1848 (brevet majority and lieutenant-colonelcy and CB).

Promoted colonel, he was British commissioner with the Turkish army in Anatolia in the Russian War of 1854–56, and, having been made a pasha (general/governor/lord) with the degree of ferik (major-general), he practically commanded the Turks during the heroic defence of Kars, repulsing several Russian attacks and severely defeating the Russian general Muraviev in the siege of Kars (not to be confused with the Battle of Kars) on 29 September 1855. Cold, cholera, famine and hopelessness of succour from without, however, compelled Williams to make an honourable capitulation on 28 November following.

A baronetcy with pension for life, the KCB, the grand cross of the Legion of Honour and of the Turkish Medjidie, the freedom of the City of London with a sword of honour, and the honorary degree of DCL of Oxford University, were the distinctions conferred upon him for his valour.

Promoted major-general in November 1855 on his return from captivity in Russia, he held the Woolwich command, and represented the borough of Calne in parliament from 1856 to 1859.

From 1859 to 1864 he held the position of Commander in Chief, North America, and was responsible for preparations for war with the United States in the case that relations broke down. The most severe strain in relations occurring during the Trent Affair.

He became lieutenant-general and colonel-commandant Royal Artillery in 1864, general in 1868, commanded the forces in Canada from 1859 to 1865, held the governorship of Nova Scotia 1865–1867, and the governorship of Gibraltar 1870–1876. He was made GCB in 1871, and Constable of the Tower of London in 1881.

Later life

He died in London on 26 July, 1883 and is buried in Brompton Cemetery.

Plaque honoring Sir William Fenwick Williams

External links

References

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Earl of Shelburne
Member of Parliament for Calne
1856–1859
Succeeded by
Robert Lowe
Military offices
Preceded by
Sir William Rowan
Commander-in-Chief, North America
1859
Succeeded by
passed over to the
Governor General of the Province of Canada
Sir Edmund Walker Head
Government offices
Preceded by
Lord Airey
Governor of Gibraltar
1870–1876
Succeeded by
Lord Napier
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Sir Charles Yorke
Constable of the Tower
Lord Lieutenant of the Tower Hamlets

1881
Succeeded by
Sir Richard James Dacres
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baronet
(of Kars)
1856–1883
Extinct
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