William Phelps (colonist): Wikis

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William Phelps
Born c1599
prb. Crewkerne, Somerset, England
Died 1672, age 72
Windsor, Connecticut, United States
Nationality English
Occupation landowner, magistrate
Known for Founder of Dorchester, Massachusetts and Windsor, Connecticut; first foreman of a Grand Jury in the New World; one of eight selected to lead first democratic town government in 1637
Religious beliefs Puritan
Spouse(s) 1) Mary 2) Ann Dover
Children William, Mary, Mary, Samuel, Nathanial, Joseph, Mary, Sarah, Timothy
Signature

William Phelps (c1599 - July 14, 1672) was an Puritan Englishman who emigrated in 1630 to the American Colonies. He was one of the founders of both Dorchester, Massachusetts and Windsor, Connecticut, foreman of the first grand jury in New England, served most of his life in early colonial government, and played a key role in establishing the first democratic town government in the American colonies.

Contents

Origin of William Phelps

Oliver Seymour Phelps and his son-in-law, Andrew T. Servin, authors of The Phelps Family in America, erred in concluding that William Phelps and a brother, George Phelps, both emigrated from Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England in 1630 to the New World.[1] Their identification of the origin of William Phelps of Dorchester, Massachusetts was based solely on an estimate of his birth date, derived from his known age of 72 at death on July 14, 1672. Oliver Phelps located a William Phelps who was baptized in Tewkesbury on August 19, 1599, and thus identified him as the original immigrant. He also believed that George Phelps of Windsor, Connecticut, was William’s brother, despite the fact that they could not locate any records for a George Phelps in Tewkesbury.[1] Recent genetic research has shown no biological relationship between the descendents of William and George Phelps.[2]

Additionally, the will of William Phelps’ mother Dorothy in Tewkesbury, probated on May 5, 1617, mentioned a brother-in-law, Edward Phelps. His will in turn, probated on July 1, 1637, named as overseer of his estate his nephew, William Phelps, likely placing William Phelps of Tewkesbury in England and not across the Atlantic in the Massachusetts Bay.

More recent expert research has identified William Phelps of Crewkerne, Somersetshire, England as the probable immigrant.[3] He had two wives: (1) Mary (surname unknown), buried in England in 1626, and (2) Anne Dover, who probably accompanied him and children from both marriages to Dorchester, Massaschusetts, a town later subsumed as a neighborhood of Boston. The names and birthdates of his children correspond to the records later found in the American colony.[1]

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Marriage to Mary

William Phelps of Crewkerne, England is estimated to have married his first wife Mary sometime between 1615-1618, as their first child William was baptized at Crewkerne on September 9, 1618. Mary and William had four children, all baptized before 1625 at Crewkerne: William, Samuel, an unnamed infant who died young, and Nathaniel.[4][5]:62 Mary was buried at Crewkerne on August 13, 1626.

Marriage to Ann Dover

Three months after Mary's death, William married Ann Dover at Crewkerne, on November 14, 1626. They had four children in Engalnd: Cornelius, Joseph and Mary (twins), and another child named Mary. Researchers can not find further records of Cornelius or either of the two girls named Mary, and presume they all died young. After arriving in the Colonies, Ann and William had three more children: Sarah, Timothy, and a third Mary. Records in the Colonies have been found for the children named Joseph, Sarah, Timothy and the last Mary,[6] corresponding to records from the International Genealogical Index in Somerset listing the names of William Phelps' children from both wives.[7]

Emigration to New England

King Charles I of England had succeeded his father King James I of England in 1625, and continued his father's strong opposition to the Puritan movement, who opposed many of the Anglican Church's doctrines as retaining too much of its Roman Catholic roots. After the Puritans assumed control of Parliament, they began to pose a serious threat to the King's authority. In January 1629, in a move to neutralize his opponents, Charles dissolved Parliament entirely. The religious and political climate became so difficult for Puritans that many began to make arrangements to leave the country.

William Phelps was among them. A member of Reverend John Warham's church, they were organized on March 19, 1630 as the West Country Company at Plymouth. England, the day before leaving England. Warham had been a minister since 1614, but was relieved of his ministerial duties in 1627 because of his “strong Puritan leanings.” [8]:66

Led by the Reverend John White, the group met on March 20, 1630 at New Hospital, Plymouth, England. White has been called “the father of the Massachusetts Colony,” despite remaining in England his entire life, because of his influence in establishing this settlement.[9] They fasted, prayed and prepared themselves for their perilous long voyage. White preached sermons in the morning and afternoon; then, with his blessing, the group departed for the New World aboard the Mary and John.

Unlike many who fled England for Canada, Ireland, and the Caribbean during this time, the Puritans who migrated to the New World were on the whole better educated and tended to leave relatively prosperous lives to establish a new society of pious family values. Unlike the Pilgrims who were non-conformists or separatists, the Puritans were reformers. They were not leaving England for religious freedom, per se, for they believed their faith to be the only true religion. They disrespected all other faiths, especially Quakers.

From their first arrival aboard the Mayflower in 1620, until 1629, only about 300 Puritans had survived in New England,[10] scattered in small and isolated settlements. In 1630, their population was significantly increased when the ship Mary and John arrived in New England carrying 140 passengers from the English West Country counties of Dorset, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall. These included William Phelps along with Roger Ludlowe, John Mason, Samuel Maverick, Nicholas Upsall, Henry Wolcott and other men who would become prominent in the founding of a new nation.

It was the first of the ships later called the Winthrop Fleet to land in Massachusetts. While the passenger lists for this voyage are not well documented, researchers from the Mary and John Clearing House concluded that it is highly likely that William Phelps, his wife Ann Dover, and their sons William, Samuel, Nathanial and Joseph were aboard ship.[11] These names support the conclusion that William Phelps was from Crewkerne and not Tewkesbury.

Early colonial life

The emigrants founded the town of Dorchester in 1630,[12 ] at what is now the intersection of Columbia Road and Massachusetts Avenue in South Boston. The Puritan settlers landed at Columbia Point, which the Native Americans called "Mattaponnock".[13]

The emigrants founded the First Parish Church of Dorchester in 1631, which exists today as the Unitarian-Universalist church on Meetinghouse Hill, being the oldest religious organization in present-day Boston. The first church building was a simple log cabin with a thatched roof.[14] The settlers held their first town meeting at the church, and they set their laws in open and frequent discussion. In all of this they were inspired by the ideal of the Kingdom of God on earth and the attempt to realize this in England in the time of the Rev. John White. The church is referred to as a 'Foundation Stone of the Nation".[15]

Photo of the The Mather School built in 1694 as of 1913. This school was replaced in 1798 when the town voted to sell the old school and build a new one of brick on Meeting House Hill.

The new settlers also founded in 1639 the first elementary school in the New World supported by public money, the Mather School.[12 ] The school is the oldest elementary school in America.[16] (Dorchester was annexed by the City of Boston in 1970.)

Foreman of first grand jury

Phelps served continually in varying governing capacities for many years. He was a member of the first General Court held in the colony in 1636, a member of the Court of Magistrates from 1637 to 1643, and was foreman of the first Grand Jury in 1643.[5]

Early service in government

Phelps name was spelled in the Massachusetts Colonial Records variously as Felps, Phelips and Phelps. He was made constable, assigned to serve on committees given authority to settle land and boundary disputes, and given other key responsibilities in administering the affairs of the new town, including serving on the “General Court,” or general meeting, at which individuals were tried for offenses including absence from church, forgery, fornication, and “bastardy.”

Oct. 19th, 1630, William Phelps applied to be made freeman. Nov. 9th, 1630, he was one of a jury of twelve, empanneled for the trial of Walter Palmer, concerning the death of Austin Brotcher, found not guilty of manslaughter. Sept. 27th, 1631, he was chosen constable of Dorchester. May 9th, 1632, He was one of a committee of sixteen, chosen by the colony to see about the raising of a public stock.[17]

Phelps remained in Dorchester until 1635 when he and a large number of other families relocated to a new site inland which they named Windsor.

Founding of Windsor

Plan of Ancient Windsor, Connecticut circa 1640-1654, showing the names and locations of settlers' homes, the Palisade, and various geographic features.

In 1633 the Plymouth Trading Company established the first Connecticut settlement, a trading post at what would become Windsor, Connecticut, in territory the Dutch claimed and in which they maintained a fort and trading post, about seven miles downriver in what was later Hartford, Connecticut. In 1635, Puritan and Congregationalist members of Reverend Warham’s and Reverend Maverick's congregation, including William Phelps, John Mason, Roger Ludlow, Henry Wolcott, and others, all prominent settlers, were dissatisfied with the rate of Anglican reforms. They sought permission from the Massachusetts General Court to establish a new ecclesiastical society subject to their own rules and regulations. About 60 individuals, totaling 23 heads of households, undertook a two-week's journey about 100 miles to the east.[8]:66 They founded a new town they initially also named Dorchester. Two years later in 1637, the colony's General Court changed the name of the settlement from Dorchester to Windsor[18], believed to be named after the city of Windsor, England on the River Thames. The new town was the first English settlement in the state.[5]:11 Under pressure from continued English settlement, the Dutch abandoned their post in 1654.

First town government in colonies

Windsor was supposed to be under the control of the Massachusetts Company, and William Phelps was one of eight commissioners appointed by the Colony of Massachusetts Bay to govern the Colony of Connecticut. The terms of their government was spelled out in a commission recorded on March 3, 1636, setting out how differences were to be resolved, fines and imprisonment imposed, trading, planting, building, lots, military discipline, defense in war, and the people to be self-governed in their new town. All meetings were to meet in a legal and open manner. Eight men were given "full power and authority" to lead the new colony: "Roger Ludlowe, Esqr., William Pinchon, Esq., John Steele, William Swaine, Henry Smythe, William Phelpes, William Westwood & Andrew Warde."

A Commission granted to seuall Persons to govern the people att Conecticott, for the space of a year, now next coming, an Exemplificacon whereof ensueth:

...wee, in this present Court assembled, on the behalfe of o' said Members & John Winthrop, Jun', Esq. Goner appoynted by certain noble personages & men of qualitie, interested in the said ryvr web... wee therefore thinke mee[te] & soe order that Roger Ludlowe, Esqr., William Pinchon, Esq., John Steele, William Swaine, Henry Smythe, William Phelpes, William Westwood & Andrew Warde, or the greater pte of them, shall have full power and aucthoritie to hear and determine in a judicial way, ... to make & decree such orders, for the present, that may be for the peaceable & quiett ordering the affaires of the said plantacon, bothe in tradeing, planting, building, lotts, militarie dissipline, defensiue in warr [if neede so require], as shall best conduce to the publique good of the same, & that the said Rodger Ludlow, William Pinchon, John Steele, Will- Swaine, Henry Smyth, Will- Phelpes, William Westwood, and Andrew Warner, or the greatr pte of them shall have power ... in a leagall and open manner, by way of Court to pleede in execute[ing] the power and authoritu ... and if soe be ther may be a mutuall, and settled govunt- condecended unto, by and with the good likeing and consent of the said noble psonages, or their agent, the inhabitants and the commomwealth...[1]:75-76 Original spelling and punctuation preserved.

Roger Ludlow later wrote a book on the democratic procedures of Connecticut which furnished the outline of the Constitution of the United States.

Pequot war service

The Mashantucket Pequot had lived in Southeastern Connecticut for over 10,000 years.[19] When the colonists occupied Windsor, Connecticut, they came into contact and later conflict with the Pequot who inhabited the area. The Pequot had recently conquered the area from another tribe. In 1637, the Pequot killed two British slave raiders who had been capturing Native Americans for the slave trade. The colonists demanded that the Indians who killed the slavers be turned over for punishment. The Pequot refused.[10] Other skirmishes and confrontations ensued, including an attack on settlers working in fields near Wethersfield. This was retribution for the confiscation of land belonging to sachem Sowheag. The English, unlike the French, considered land more important than fur trade, and they enslaved or killed most of those who survived the periodic epidemics, like the Smallpox epidemic among the Pequot during 1630-32. The new comers wanted the land for themselves,[20] and they believed God afflicted the Pequot with Smallbox as a blessing to the settlers.

"At a General Court held May 1, 1637 in Hartford, Connecticut,[21] William Phelps presiding, it was ordered that there shall be an offensive war against the Pequot Indians, in which war he served.” On May 26, 1637, about 90 English militia combined forces with Indians who were also enemies of the Pequot, the Narragansetts and Mohegan. They attacked the Pequot palisade or fort at Mystic. Many of the Pequot men from that village, led by their sachem Sassacus, were largely absent from the village as they prepared another raid on Hartford, Connecticut.[21]:11

The militia, commanded by Captain John Mason, surrounded the palisaded village at dawn and set it to fire, striving to kill any who escaped the flames.[21] By their own estimate they killed 600 to 700 individuals, captured seven, and saw seven escape.[21]:11[22] most of whom where women and children. This was later referred to as the Mystic massacre. In the ensuring weeks the Pequot, already decimated by Smallpox, were virtually eliminated as a tribe. The remaining individuals were enslaved by neighboring enemy tribes, sold into slavery to other colonies, or enslaved by the white settlers themselves.

Later public service

William Phelps was a member of the General Court for 23 years from 1636 to 1662. He was a member of Council in 1637. In 1641, he and later Governor Thomas Welles, of Hartford, were a committee on lying, “considered a grievous fault.” That same year he served as Governor of the Windsor Colony. He was also one of the earliest Governor's Assistants and Representative from 1645 to 1657. Phelps participated in enacting laws which with others were later called the Blue Laws of Connecticut."[1]

The law of the day was specific regarding crimes and punishment, and Phelps was cited on numerous occasions for his responsibility in administering the law.

Lying in those days was deemed a peculiarly heinous offence. In 1641 the General Court stigmatized it as a fowl and gross sin, and Mr. Webster of Hartford and Mr. Phelps of Windsor are requested to consult with the elders of both churches, to prepare instructions against the next Court, for the punishment of the sin of lying….

In a case of bastardy tried in the colony in 1639, the Court ordered as follows: "John Edwards, Aaron Stark, and John Williams were censured for unclean practices as follows:

John Edwards and John Williams to stand upon the pillory from the ringing of the first bell to the end of the lecture—then to be whipped at the cart's tail, and to be whipped in a like manner in Windsor in eight days following.

Aaron Starks, to stand upon the pillory and be whipped as Williams, and to have the letter R burnt upon his cheek, and in regard to the wrong done to Mary Holt, to pay her parents £10 and in defect of such to the commonwealth; and it is the will of the Court that Mr. Ludlow, and Mr. Phelps see some punishment inflicted upon the girl for concealing it so long. (She was afterward whipped, and Starks was ordered to marry her.)[5]:75[17]

Land purchases

Close-up image of map of central area of Windsor, Connecticut circa 1640-1654, showing homes of William Phelps Sr., at top, after his move away from the river, and his son William Phelps Jr. immediately next to his.

His home in Windsor was “a short distance north of the Mill River Valley,” and after the Connecticut River flooded during the breaking up of ice in the spring of 1639, he moved his home further south, “about three-quarters of a mile northwest of Broad Street on the road to Poquonock, the place owned, in 1859, by Deacon Roger Phelps.” [23]

Phelps purchased land from the Indians on more than one occasion. Eighteenth century historian Henry Reed Stiles recorded him on March 31, 1665 as paying “four trucking coats” and wampum to “Nassahegan, an Indian sachem” and his kinsmen for land he had already occupied for some time. He was unable to provide title and prove his previous payment, forcing him to buy the land again.[17]:105

The Massachusetts Colonial Records contain a report from February, 1666, which reported that "whereas there are several men that have land within the limits of it (the purchase aforesaid) both meadow and up-land, besides Mr. Phelps and his sons, it was therefore concluded that each man according to his proportion of land, capable of plowing or mowing, shall pay 12 pence per acre to Mr. Phelps; and each man paying to Mr. Phelps should afterwards have a clear title to their several shares of land." Stiles reported that "In these early days the title of Mister or Mr. was only given to elderly persons of distinction, while all military titles were always used. William Phelps received this distinguished title of Mr."[23]

Stiles further noted that William Phelps "was one of the most prominent and highly respected men in the colony. An excellent, pious, and upright man in his public and private life, and was truly a pillar in Church and State."[23] The family historian Oliver Phelps cited William Phelps as "one of the fathers and founders of this now ocean-bound Republic."[1]

Death and burial

Phelps died at age 73 on July 14, 1672, and was buried the next day. His wife died three years later on November 27, 1675. A Settlement Deed for his son Timothy's marriage to Mary, daughter of Edward Griswold another pioneer founder of Windsor, was dated April 22, 1660. Phelps’ last will and testament was entered on the Windsor, Connecticut register, July 26, 1672, and signed by Matthew Grant, Register.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Phelps, Oliver Seymour; Andrew T. Servin (1899). The Phelps Family of America and Their English Ancestors. 1. Pittsfield, Massachusetts: Eagle Publishing Company. pp. 77–89. http://family.phelpsinc.com/phelps-servin/order_phelps_servin.asp.  
  2. ^ David Phelps. "New England Phelps". http://pages.suddenlink.net/phelpsdna/DNA_Project/new_england_phelps.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-30.  
  3. ^ "Phelps Family History From England to America". http://phelpsfamilyhistory.com/history/america/windsor-first-generation-new-england.asp. Retrieved 2009-09-29.  
  4. ^ Swanson, Margaret P. (Winter 1997). Phelps Connections Newsletter. 6. pp. 409.  
  5. ^ a b c d Hinman, Royal Ralph (1846). A Catalogue of the Names of the First Puritan Settlers of the Colony of Connecticut: With the Time of Their Arrival in the Colony, and Their Standing in Society, Together with Their Place of Residence, as Far as Can be Discovered by the Records. Collected from the State and Town Records. http://books.google.com/books?id=dlcBAAAAQAAJ. Retrieved 2008-12-30.  
  6. ^ "Phelps Entries in The Great Migration Begins". http://family.phelpsinc.com/research/william/swanson_phelps_great_migration_entries.asp. Retrieved 2008-12-30.  
  7. ^ "The Origins of William Phelps". http://family.phelpsinc.com/research/william/index.asp. Retrieved 2008-12-30.  
  8. ^ a b Radical Origins: Early Mormon Converts and Their Colonial Ancestors. 2004. ISBN 0252029100. http://books.google.com/books?id=t9x-gtmX1uMC.  
  9. ^ Young, Alexander (1846). Chronicles of the First Planters of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, 1623-1636. Boston: C. C. Little and J. Brown. p. 26. http://books.google.com/books?id=9HEFAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA26&lpg=PA26. Retrieved 2008-12-23.  
  10. ^ a b "Native Blood: The Myth of Thanksgiving". November 24, 1996. http://rwor.org/a/firstvol/883/thank.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-31.  
  11. ^ "Mary and John 1630 Passenger “A List”". http://www.maryandjohn1630.com/passengerlist_a.html. Retrieved 2008-12-30.  
  12. ^ a b Notable Events in Massachusetts
  13. ^ "Calf Pasture Pumping Station", Dorchester Atheneum
  14. ^ See Historical Sketch
  15. ^ Revd. John White - First Parish Church of Dorchester, Mass.
  16. ^ Mather Elementary School
  17. ^ a b c Henry Reed Stiles, A.M., M.D. (1859). The History of Ancient Windsor, Connecticut: Including East Windsor, South Windsor, and Ellington, Prior to 1768, the Date of Their Separation from the Old Town; and Windsor, Bloomfield and Windsor Locks, to the Present Time.. New York: Charles B. Norton. http://books.google.com/books?id=Qg0WAAAAYAAJ.   Two volumes.
  18. ^ Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, Volume 1, Page 7
  19. ^ "Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation History". http://www.pequotmuseum.org/TribalHistory/TribalHistoryOverview/TribalHistoryOverview.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-30.  
  20. ^ Jack Campisi. "John Simon's Engravings of the Four Kings: More Than Meets the Eye". http://www.pequotmuseum.org/Home/CrossPaths/CrossPathsFall2002/JohnSimonsEngravingsoftheFourKingsMoreThanMeetstheEye.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-30.  
  21. ^ a b c d Mason, John; Paul Royster, editor (1736). "A Brief History of the Pequot War". University of Nebraska-Lincoln. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/etas/42/. Retrieved 2009-01-01.  
  22. ^ "Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation Timeline". http://www.pequotmuseum.org/TribalHistory/TribalHistoryOverview/TimelineofEvents.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-30.  
  23. ^ a b c d Trumbull, Benjamin (1898). A Complete History of Connecticut: Civil and Ecclesiastical, from the Emigration of Its First Planters, from England, in the Year 1630, to the Year 1764; and to the Close of the Indian Wars. New London: Maltby, Goldsmith and Co. and Samuel Wadsworth. http://books.google.com/books?id=I2Z4ACHdrIoC.   Two volumes

Additional reading

  • Trumbull, B. Complete History of Connecticut, Civil and Ecclesiastical. 2 vols. New London, 1898.

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