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William S. Rosecrans
September 6, 1819(1819-09-06) – March 11, 1898 (aged 78)
General William S. Rosecrans
Nickname Old Rosy
Place of birth Delaware County, Ohio
Place of death Redondo Beach, California
Place of burial Arlington National Cemetery
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Army
Union Army
Years of service 1842–54, 1861–67
Rank Major General
Commands held Army of the Cumberland
Battles/wars American Civil War
Other work President, Preston Coal Oil Company
U.S. Minister to Mexico
Congressman from California
Register of the Treasury

William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 – March 11, 1898) was an inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and United States Army officer. He gained fame for his role as a Union general during the American Civil War. He was the victor at prominent Western Theater battles such as Second Corinth, Stones River, and the Tullahoma Campaign, but his military career was effectively ended following his disastrous defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga in 1863.


Early life and career

Rosecrans was born in Little Taylor Run in Kingston Township, Delaware County, Ohio, the second of five sons of Crandall Rosecrans and Jemima Hopkins. (The first child, Chauncey, died in infancy.) Crandall was a veteran of the War of 1812, in which he served as adjutant to General William Henry Harrison and then subsequently ran a tavern and store as well as a family farm. One of Crandall's heroes, General John Stark, was the inspiration for William's middle name.[1] Rosecrans descended from Harmon Henrik Rosenkrantz, who arrived in New Amsterdam in 1651, but the family name changed spelling during the American Revolutionary War.[2] His mother was the former widow of Timothy Hopkins, a relative of Stephen Hopkins, the Colonial Governor of Rhode Island and a signer of the Declaration of Independence.[3]

William had little formal education in his early years, relying heavily on reading books. At the age of 13 he left home to work as a store clerk in Utica, and later Mansfield, Ohio. Unable to afford college, Rosecrans decided to try for an appointment to the United States Military Academy. He interviewed with Congressman Alexander Harper, who had been reserving his appointment for his own son, but was so impressed by Rosecrans that he nominated him instead.[4]

Despite his lack of formal education, Rosecrans excelled academically at West Point, particularly in mathematics, but also in French, drawing, and English grammar. It was at the Academy that he received his nickname, "Rosy," or more often, "Old Rosy." He graduated from West Point in 1842, fifth in his class of 56 cadets, which included notable future generals, such as James Longstreet, D.H. Hill, Don Carlos Buell, and Earl Van Dorn. He was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the prestigious Corps of Engineers, reflecting his high academic achievement. At his graduation, he met Anna Elizabeth Hegeman of New York City and immediately fell in love. They were married on August 24, 1843.[5]

Rosecrans was assigned to duty at Fort Monroe, Virginia, engineering sea walls. After a year, he requested assignment as a professor at West Point, where he taught engineering and served as post commissary and quartermaster. Although West Point was a strong bastion of Episcopalianism, during this assignment he converted to Catholicism. He wrote about this decision to his family, who had raised him in the Methodist faith, which inspired the youngest of his brothers, Sylvester Horton Rosecrans, to convert as well. Sylvester would become the first bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Columbus.[6]

Although most of the officers in his graduating class fought in the Mexican-American War, the War Department retained Rosecrans at West Point. From 1847 through 1853 he served on engineering assignments in Newport, Rhode Island, Bedford, Massachusetts, and (on temporary assignment to the United States Navy) at the Washington Navy Yard. During this period, Rosecrans sought several civilian jobs as an alternative way to support his growing family, now with four children. He applied for a professorship at the Virginia Military Institute in 1851, losing the position to fellow West Pointer Thomas J. Jackson.[7]

Rosecrans suffered a period of failing health and resigned from the Army in 1854, moving into civil fields. He took over a mining business in Western Virginia (today West Virginia) and ran it extremely successfully. In Cincinnati, he and two partners built one of the first oil refineries west of the Allegheny Mountains. He obtaining patents for many inventions, including the first kerosene lamp successfully to burn a round wick, and a more effective method of manufacturing soap. While Rosecrans was president of the Preston Coal Oil Company, in 1859, he was burned severely when an experimental "safety" oil lamp exploded, setting the refinery on fire. It took him 18 months to recover, and the resulting facial scars gave him the appearance of having a perpetual smirk. As he concluded recovering from those burns, the Civil War began.[8]

Civil War

Just days after Fort Sumter surrendered, Rosecrans began service as a volunteer aide-de-camp to Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, the general commanding all Ohio volunteer forces at the beginning of the war. Promoted to the rank of colonel, Rosecrans took up the command of the 23rd Ohio Infantry regiment, whose members included Rutherford B. Hayes and William McKinley, both future presidents. He was promoted to brigadier general in the regular army, ranking from May 16, 1861.[9]

[Robert E. Lee's Western Virginia campaign], after its plain failure, was virtually abandoned by the Government. Rosecrans was esteemed in the South as one of the best generals the North had in the field. He was declared by military critics, who could not be accused of partiality, to have clearly outgeneraled Lee, who made the entire object of his campaign to "surround the Dutch General."

Edward A. Pollard, Southern History of the War (1865)[10]

His plans and decisions proved extremely effective in the West Virginia Campaign against Confederate Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd and his superior, Gen. Robert E. Lee. His victories at Rich Mountain and Corrick's Ford in July 1861 were among the very first Union victories of the war, but his superior, Maj. Gen. McClellan, received the credit. When McClellan was summoned to Washington after the defeat suffered by Federal forces at the First Battle of Bull Run, General-in-Chief Winfield Scott suggested that McClellan turn over the West Virginia command to Rosecrans. McClellan agreed and Rosecrans assumed command of what was to become the Department of Western Virginia.[11]



In the spring of 1862, political pressures caused Rosecrans's department to be converted to the Mountain Department, which was given to political general John C. Frémont, leaving Rosecrans without a command. He served briefly in Washington, where his opinions clashed with newly appointed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton on tactics and Union command organization for the Shenandoah Valley campaign against Stonewall Jackson, and Stanton became one of Rosecrans's most vocal critics. Rosecrans was transferred to the Western Theater and received the command of two divisions (the Right Wing) of Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of the Mississippi in May. He took an active part in the siege of Corinth under Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck. He received command of the entire army on June 26, and in July added the responsibility of commanding the District of Corinth. In these roles, he was the subordinate of Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who commanded the District of Western Tennessee and the Army of the Tennessee, from whom he received direction in the Iuka-Corinth campaign in September and October 1862.[12]

Rosecrans suggested to Grant a dual-pronged offensive against the Confederate army of Maj. Gen. Sterling Price, dividing the Union force into two, which would block either of Price's two likely retreat routes. It was also a risky recommendation because Price could likely defeat either half of the Union force separately if the attacks were not well coordinated. Grant accepted Rosecrans's recommendation because of his familiarity with the area. Rosecrans's army was late in arriving at the Battle of Iuka on September 18, 1862, and Grant ordered his other commander, Maj. Gen. Edward Ord, to wait until he heard the sounds of Rosecrans in battle south of Iuka before he attacked from the north. The direction of the wind may have caused an acoustic shadow that prevented Ord and Grant from hearing the battle noise, and Rosecrans's army fought alone but successfully.[13]

The defeated Confederates retreated from Iuka and Grant criticized Rosecrans for failing to pursue Price aggressively. The Northern press chose to publicize Rosecrans's victory at Grant's expense, which caused friction between the two commanders. Grant initially praised Rosecrans: "I cannot speak too highly of the energy and skill displayed by General Rosecrans in the attack, and of the endurance of the troops under him." But by the time Grant wrote his official report about the campaign, the frequent attacks against him in the press caused his attitude to shift and he included no compliments for Rosecrans's performance at Iuka. In his memoirs, Grant wrote in 1885, "I was disappointed at the result of the battle of Iuka—but I had so high an opinion of General Rosecrans that I found no fault at the time."[14]

Rosecrans then faced Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn at the Battle of Corinth, a bloody two-day affair. On the first day, October 3, the Confederates drove the Union troops south all along the line; on the second, they broke through and portions of Rosecrans's army fled back into the town of Corinth, but he was personally able to rally them into an effective counterattack, and the Union field fortifications held. Rumors swirled that Rosecrans had been killed and when the firing stopped and the Confederates retreated, he toured his line on horseback to thank his men and assure them that he had survived. But once again, his pursuit of a defeated foe was lackluster, waiting until the following morning to begin, despite orders from Grant that he move immediately. Van Dorn was able to evade pursuit at the Battle of Hatchie's Bridge and an opportunity to complete the destruction of his army was lost.[15]

[The Confederates] have a wholesome regard for me, praise very highly the style of our troops and the tactics on the field of battle. They are more afraid of me than any other general in the service.

Rosecrans letter to his wife, October 22, 1862[16]

Rosecrans and Grant openly quarreled after the battle, with Rosecrans calling Grant a poor administrator and claiming complete credit for the victories at Iuka and Corinth. Grant increasingly viewed Rosecrans as arrogant and faulted him for not coming to his assistance in suppressing the gossip and negative press that Grant was receiving. Once again, Rosecrans was considered a hero in the Northern press. On October 24 he was given command of the XIV Corps (which, because he was also given command of the Department of the Cumberland, would soon be renamed the Army of the Cumberland), replacing the ineffectual Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, and was promoted to the rank of major general (of volunteers, as opposed to his brigadier rank in the regular army). The promotion was applied retroactively from March 21, 1862, so that he would outrank fellow Maj. Gen. Thomas; Thomas had earlier been offered Buell's command, but turned down the opportunity out of a sense of personal loyalty. Grant was not unhappy that Rosecrans was leaving his command.[17]

Stones River

A romantic image of Rosecrans at Murfreesboro, January 2, 1863

Rosecrans's predecessor, Buell, had been relieved because of his desultory pursuit of Confederate General Braxton Bragg following the Battle of Perryville. And yet Rosecrans displayed similar caution, remaining in Nashville while he reprovisioned his army and improved the training of his cavalry forces. By early December 1862, General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck had lost his patience. He wrote to Rosecrans, "If you remain one more week in Nashville, I cannot prevent your removal." Rosecrans replied, "I need no other stimulus to make me do my duty than the knowledge of what it is. To threats of removal or the like I must be permitted to say that I am insensible."[18]

The crisis seemed to rouse his every energy, and he appeared the embodiment of strength, courage, coolness, and determination as he directed the organization of his new line.

Sgt. Henry Freeman, Pioneer Brigade, Army of the Cumberland[19]

In late December, Rosecrans began his march against Bragg's Army of Tennessee, encamped outside Murfreesboro, Tennessee. The Battle of Stones River was the bloodiest battle of the war, in terms of percentages of casualties. Both Rosecrans and Bragg planned to attack the other's right flank, but Bragg moved first, early in the morning of December 31, driving the Union army back into a small defensive perimeter. As he realized the severity of the surprise attack, Rosecrans demonstrated the nervous hyperactivity for which he was known in battle. He personally rallied his men along the line, and gave direct orders to any brigades, regiments, or companies he encountered. Disregarding his own safety, he rode back and forth at the very front of his line and sometimes between his men and the enemy.[20] As Rosecrans raced across the battlefield directing units, seeming ubiquitous to his men, his uniform was covered with blood from his friend and chief of staff, Col. Julius Garesché, beheaded by a cannonball while riding alongside.[21]

The armies paused on January 1, but the following day Bragg attacked again, this time against a strong position on Rosecrans's left flank. The Union defense was formidable and the attack was repulsed with heavy losses. Bragg withdrew his army to Tullahoma, effectively ceding control of Middle Tennessee to the Union. The battle was important to Union morale following its defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg a few weeks earlier, and President Abraham Lincoln wrote to Rosecrans: "You gave us a hard-earned victory, which had there been a defeat instead, the nation could scarcely have lived over."[22]


Rosecrans's XIV Corps was soon redesignated the Army of the Cumberland, which he kept in place occupying Murfreesboro for almost six months, spending the time resupplying and training, but also because he was reluctant to advance on the muddy winter roads. He received numerous entreaties from President Lincoln, Secretary of War Stanton, and General-in-Chief Halleck to resume campaigning against Bragg, but rebuffed them through the winter and spring. A primary concern of the government was that if Rosecrans continued to sit idly, the Confederates might move units from Bragg's army in an attempt to relieve the pressure that Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was applying to Vicksburg, Mississippi. Lincoln wrote to Rosecrans, "I would not push you to any rashness, but I am very anxious that you do your utmost, short of rashness, to keep Bragg from getting lost to help Johnston against Grant."[23] Rosecrans offered an excuse that if he started to move against Bragg, Bragg would likely relocate his entire army to Mississippi and threaten Grant's Vicksburg Campaign even more; thus, by not attacking Bragg, he was helping Grant.[24] Frustration with Rosecrans's excuses led Halleck to threaten to relieve him if he did not move, but in the end he merely protested "against the expense to which [Rosecrans] put the government for telegrams."[25]

On June 2, Halleck telegraphed that if Rosecrans was unwilling to move, some of his troops would be sent to Mississippi to reinforce Grant. Rosecrans sent a questionnaire to his corps and division commanders in the hopes of documenting support for his position—that Bragg had so far detached no significant forces to Mississippi, that advancing the Army of the Cumberland would do nothing to prevent any such transfer, and that any immediate advance was not a good idea. Fifteen of the seventeen senior generals supported most of Rosecrans's positions and the counsel against advancing was unanimous. The only dissenter was the newly assigned chief of staff, Brig. Gen. James A. Garfield, who recommended an immediate advance, but historian Steven E. Woodworth opines that he may have been "most concerned with the [political] impression his statement would make in Washington."[26] On June 16, Halleck wired a blunt message: "Is it your intention to make an immediate movement forward? A definite answer, yes or no, is required." Rosecrans responded to this ultimatum: "If immediate means tonight or tomorrow, no. If it means as soon as all things are ready, say five days, yes." Seven days later, early in the morning of June 24, Rosecrans reported that the Army of the Cumberland began to move against Bragg.[27]

The Tullahoma Campaign (June 24 – July 3, 1863) was characterized by flawless maneuvers and very low casualties, as Rosecrans forced Bragg to retreat back to Chattanooga. Tullahoma is considered a "brilliant" campaign by many historians.[28] Abraham Lincoln wrote, "The flanking of Bragg at Shelbyville, Tullahoma and Chattanooga is the most splendid piece of strategy I know of." Union Cavalry Corps commander David S. Stanley wrote, "If any student of the military art desires to make a study of a model campaign, let him take his maps and General Rosecrans's orders for the daily movements of his campaign. No better example of successful strategy was carried out during the war than in the Tullahoma campaign."[29]

Rosecrans did not receive all of the public acclaim his campaign might have under different circumstances. The day it ended was the day Gen. Robert E. Lee launched the ill-fated Pickett's Charge and lost the Battle of Gettysburg. The following day, Vicksburg surrendered to Grant. Secretary Stanton telegraphed Rosecrans, "Lee's Army overthrown; Grant victorious. You and your noble army now have a chance to give the finishing blow to the rebellion. Will you neglect the chance?" Rosecrans was infuriated by this attitude and responded, "Just received your cheering telegram announcing the fall of Vicksburg and confirming the defeat of Lee. You do not appear to observe the fact that this noble army has driven the rebels from middle Tennessee. ... I beg in behalf of this army that the War Department may not overlook so great an event because it is not written in letters of blood."[30]


Rosecrans did not immediately pursue Bragg and "give the finishing blow to the rebellion" as Stanton had urged. He paused to regroup and study the logistically difficult choices of pursuit into the mountainous regions to the west and south of Chattanooga. When he was ready to move, he once again maneuvered in a way to disadvantage Bragg. The Confederates abandoned Chattanooga and withdrew into the mountains of northwestern Georgia. Rosecrans threw aside his previous caution under the assumption that Bragg would continue to retreat and began to pursue with his army over three routes that left his corps commanders dangerously far apart. At the Battle of Davis's Cross Roads on September 11, Bragg came close to ambushing and destroying one of Rosecrans's isolated corps. Realizing the threat at last, Rosecrans issued urgent orders to concentrate his army and the two opponents faced each other across West Chickamauga Creek.

The Battle of Chickamauga began on September 19 with Bragg attacking the not fully concentrated Union army, but he was unable to break through Rosecrans's defensive positions. On the second day of battle, however, disaster befell Rosecrans in the form of his poorly worded order in response to a poorly understood situation. The order was directed to Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood, "to close up and support [General Joseph J.] Reynolds's [division]," planning to fill an assumed gap in the line. However, Wood's subsequent movement actually opened up a new, division-sized gap in the line. By coincidence, a massive assault by Lt. Gen. James Longstreet had been planned to strike that very area and the Confederates exploited the gap to full effect, shattering Rosecrans's right flank.

Whether he did or did not know that Thomas still held the field, it was a catastrophe that Rosecrans did not himself ride to Thomas, and send Garfield to Chattanooga. Had he gone to the front in person and shown himself to his men, as at Stone River, he might by his personal presence have plucked victory from disaster, although it is doubtful whether he could have done more than Thomas did. Rosecrans, however, rode to Chattanooga instead.

The Edge of Glory, Rosecrans biographer William M. Lamers[31]

The majority of units on the Union right fell back in disorder toward Chattanooga and Rosecrans, Garfield, and two of the corps commanders, although attempting to rally retreating units, soon joined them in the rush to safety. Rosecrans decided to proceed in haste to Chattanooga in order to organize his returning men and the city defenses. He sent Garfield to Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas with orders to take command of the forces remaining at Chickamauga and withdraw.[32]

The Union army managed to escape complete disaster because of the stout defense organized by Thomas on Horseshoe Ridge, heroism that earned him the nickname "Rock of Chickamauga." The army withdrew that night to fortified positions in Chattanooga. Bragg had not succeeded in his objective to destroy the Army of the Cumberland, but the Battle of Chickamauga was nonetheless the worst Union defeat in the Western Theater. Thomas urged Rosecrans to rejoin the army and lead it, but Rosecrans, physically exhausted and psychologically a beaten man, remained in Chattanooga. President Lincoln attempted to prop up the morale of his general, telegraphing "Be of good cheer. ... We have unabated confidence in you and your soldiers and officers. In the main, you must be the judge as to what is to be done. If I was to suggest, I would say save your army by taking strong positions until Burnside joins you." Privately, Lincoln told John Hay that Rosecrans seemed "confused and stunned like a duck hit on the head."[33]

On the morning of the 21st we took the train for the front, reaching Stevenson Alabama, after dark. Rosecrans was there on his way north. He came into my car and we held a brief interview, in which he described very clearly the situation at Chattanooga, and made some excellent suggestions as to what should be done. My only wonder was that he had not carried them out.

Ulysses S. Grant, Memoirs[34]

Although Rosecrans's men were protected by strong defensive positions, the supply lines into Chattanooga were tenuous and subject to Confederate cavalry raids. Bragg's army occupied the heights surrounding the city and laid siege upon the Union forces. Rosecrans, demoralized by his defeat, proved unable to break the siege without reinforcements. Only hours after the defeat at Chickamauga, Secretary Stanton ordered Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker to travel to Chattanooga with 15,000 men in two corps from the Army of the Potomac in Virginia. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was ordered to send 20,000 men under his chief subordinate Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, from Vicksburg, Mississippi. On September 29, Stanton ordered Grant to go to Chattanooga himself,[35] as commander of the newly created Military Division of the Mississippi. Grant was given the option of replacing the demoralized Rosecrans with Thomas. Although Grant did not have good personal relations with either general, he selected Thomas to command the Army of the Cumberland. Grant traveled over the treacherous mountain supply line roads and arrived in Chattanooga on October 23. On his journey he encountered Rosecrans in Stevenson, Alabama, and received a briefing on the state of the Chattanooga forces, but gave no hint to Rosecrans that he had made the decision to relieve him. Grant executed a plan originally devised by Rosecrans to open the "Cracker Line" and resupply the army and, in a series of battles for Chattanooga (November 23–25, 1863), routed Bragg's army and sent it retreating into Georgia.[36]

Missouri and resignation

Rosecrans went to Cincinnati to await further orders, but ultimately he would play no further large part in the fighting. He was given command of the Department of Missouri from January to December 1864, where he was active in opposing Sterling Price's Missouri raid. During the 1864 Republican National Convention, his former chief of staff, James Garfield, head of the Ohio delegation, telegraphed Rosecrans to ask if he would consider running to be Abraham Lincoln's vice president. The Republicans that year were seeking a War Democrat to run with Lincoln under the temporary name of "National Union Party." Rosecrans replied in a cryptically positive manner, but Garfield never received the return telegram. Friends of Rosecrans speculated that Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, intercepted and suppressed it.[37]

On March 13, 1865, Rosecrans was given a brevet promotion to major general in the regular army in gratitude for his actions at Stones River. He was mustered out of the U.S. volunteer service on January 15, 1866, and resigned from the regular army on March 28, 1867. On February 27, 1889, by act of Congress he was re-appointed a brigadier general in the regular army and was placed on the retired list on March 1, 1889.[38]

Rosecrans had been one of the most well-liked generals in the Union Army. He was known to his men as "Old Rosy", not only because of his last name, but because of his large red nose, which was described as "intensified Roman", likely colored because of his heavy drinking habits. He was a devout Catholic who carried a crucifix on his watch chain and a rosary in his pocket, and he delighted in keeping his staff up half the night debating religious doctrine. He could swing swiftly from bristling anger (such as in his reply to Halleck in Nashville) to good-natured amusement, which endeared him to his men.[39]

Diplomacy, politics, and legacy

From 1868 to 1869, Rosecrans served as U.S. Minister to Mexico, but was replaced when his old nemesis, Ulysses Grant, became president. He turned down the Democratic nomination for Governor of Ohio in 1869.[40] He returned to private mining business in Mexico and California for ten years. He was elected as a congressman from California, serving from 1881 to 1885, and was appointed as the Register of the Treasury, serving from 1885 to 1893.

In 1869, General Rosecrans bought 16,000 acres of Rancho San Pedro in the Los Angeles basin for $2.50 an acre, a low price possibly because the land was deemed worthless for lack of a spring for water. The ranch, dubbed "Rosecrans Rancho", was bordered by what later was Florence Avenue on the north, Redondo Beach Boulevard on the south, Central Avenue on the east, and Arlington Avenue on the west.

Rosecrans died at Rancho Sausal Redondo, Redondo Beach, California.[41] His body lay in state in Los Angeles City Hall. In 1908 his remains were interred in Arlington National Cemetery.[42] Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery, in San Diego, California, is named in his honor, as is Rosecrans Avenue, a major east-west street that runs through the southern part of Los Angeles County.

A simple memorial was constructed on the site of his birthplace and childhood home. Just north of Sunbury, Ohio, a large boulder surrounded by a wrought iron fence holds a plaque in memoriam and rests beside a rural road that bears his name.

See also


  1. ^ Lamers, p. 9.
  2. ^ Gordon, p. 110; Lamers, pp. 8-9, 11.
  3. ^ Lamers, p. 9. A biography at the Civil War Home website claims that Rosecrans was the great-grandson of Stephen Hopkins.
  4. ^ Lamers, pp. 11-12.
  5. ^ Lamers, pp. 11-14; Eicher, p. 461.
  6. ^ Lamers, p. 15; Meehan, The Catholic Encyclopedia.
  7. ^ Lamers, pp. 15-17; Gordon, p. 111; Warner, p. 410.
  8. ^ Lamers, pp. 17-19; Gordon, p. 111; Eicher, p. 461.
  9. ^ Lamers, pp. 20-26; Gordon, pp. 111-12; Eicher, p. 461.
  10. ^ Lamers, pp. 61-62.
  11. ^ Lamers, pp. 27-39; Gordon, pp. 113-14; Eicher, p. 461.
  12. ^ Lamers, pp. 70-82; Gordon, pp. 114-15; Warner, p. 410; Eicher, p. 461.
  13. ^ Gordon, pp. 115-17; Lamers, pp. 103-15.
  14. ^ Gordon, pp. 117-18; Lamers, pp. 122-30.
  15. ^ Gordon, pp. 118-19; Lamers, pp. 131-70.
  16. ^ Gordon, p. 122.
  17. ^ Lamers, pp. 171-80; Gordon, pp. 119-22.
  18. ^ Cozzens, No Better Place to Die, p. 26; Lamers, pp. 195-96.
  19. ^ Cozzens, No Better Place to Die, p. 129.
  20. ^ Cozzens, No Better Place to Die, p. 129; Lamers, pp. 202-34.
  21. ^ Cozzens, No Better Place to Die, p. 166.
  22. ^ Cozzens, No Better Place to Die, p. 207; Lamers, pp. 234-43.
  23. ^ Woodworth, p. 17.
  24. ^ Woodworth, p. 6.
  25. ^ Esposito, text for map 108.
  26. ^ Woodworth, p. 17; Lamers, pp. 269-71.
  27. ^ Woodworth, p. 18.
  28. ^ For example: Lamers, p. 290; Woodworth, p. 42; Korn, p. 30, "a model of planning and execution".
  29. ^ Lamers, p. 290.
  30. ^ Lamers, p. 291; Korn, p. 30.
  31. ^ Lamers, p. 355.
  32. ^ Woodworth, p. 134; Cozzens, This Terrible Sound, pp. 402-05; Robertson, pp. 42-43. Robertson stated that Rosecrans, witnessing the destruction of Lytle's brigade, turned toward the rear "in apparent despair," the army commander's "spirit broken."
  33. ^ Cozzens, This Terrible Sound, pp. 520-21; Esposito, map 114; Woodworth, pp. 129-31; Lamers, p. 361.
  34. ^ Grant, vol. 2, p. 28.
  35. ^ Cozzens, Shipwreck, pp. 2-3.
  36. ^ Woodworth, Six Armies, p. 151; Lamers, pp. 393-400; Cozzens, Shipwreck, pp. 18, 2-6; Esposito, map 115.
  37. ^ Lamers, p. 424.
  38. ^ The Union Army, vol. 8, pp. 216-17; Eicher, p. 462; Lamers, p. 447.
  39. ^ Foote, p. 80.
  40. ^ Lamers, p. 440.
  41. ^ "Rosecrans is Dead". Chicago Tribune: p. 13. March 12, 1898. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  42. ^ Lamers, p. 449; Eicher, p. 462


  • Cozzens, Peter, No Better Place to Die: The Battle of Stones River, University of Illinois Press, 1990, ISBN 0-252-01652-1.
  • Cozzens, Peter, The Shipwreck of Their Hopes: The Battles for Chattanooga, University of Illinois Press, 1994, ISBN 0-252-01922-9.
  • Cozzens, Peter, This Terrible Sound: The Battle of Chickamauga, University of Illinois Press, 1992, ISBN 0-252-02236-X.
  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars, Frederick A. Praeger, 1959. Reprinted by Henry Holt & Co., 1995, ISBN 0-8050-3391-2.
  • Foote, Shelby, The Civil War, A Narrative: Fredericksburg to Meridian, Random House, 1958, ISBN 0-394-49517-9.
  • Gordon, Leslie J., "The Failed Relationship of William S. Rosecrans and Grant", Grant's Lieutenants: From Cairo to Vicksburg, Steven E. Woodworth, ed., University Press of Kansas, 2001, ISBN 0-7006-1127-4.
  • Grant, Ulysses S., Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Charles L. Webster & Company, 1885–86, ISBN 0-914427-67-9.
  • Korn, Jerry, and the Editors of Time-Life Books, The Fight for Chattanooga: Chickamauga to Missionary Ridge, Time-Life Books, 1985, ISBN 0-8094-4816-5.
  • Lamers, William M., The Edge of Glory: A Biography of General William S. Rosecrans, U.S.A, Louisiana State University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8071-2396-X.
  • Meehan, Thomas, "William and Sylvester Rosecrans", The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 13, Robert Appleton Company, 1912.
  • Robertson, William G., "The Chickamauga Campaign: The Battle of Chickamauga, Day 2", Blue & Gray Magazine, Summer 2008.
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, Louisiana State University Press, 1964, ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
  • Woodworth, Steven E., Six Armies in Tennessee: The Chickamauga and Chattanooga Campaigns, University of Nebraska Press, 1998, ISBN 0-8032-9813-7.
  • The Union Army; A History of Military Affairs in the Loyal States, 1861–65 — Records of the Regiments in the Union Army — Cyclopedia of Battles — Memoirs of Commanders and Soldiers, Federal Publishing Company (Madison, Wisconsin), 1908 (reprinted by Broadfoot Publishing, 1997), Volume 8.
  • Los Angeles County Public Library - Who was William Starke Rosecrans and how was he involved in Gardena's founding?
  • William Starke Rosecrans biography at Civil War Home website

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
John Pope
Commander of the Army of the Mississippi
June 26, 1862–October 24, 1862
Succeeded by
John Alexander McClernand
Preceded by
Commander of the Army of the Cumberland
October 24, 1862 - October 19, 1863
Succeeded by
George H. Thomas
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Horace Davis
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from California's 1st congressional district

Succeeded by
Barclay Henley
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Marcus Otterbourg
United States Envoy to Mexico
Succeeded by
John W. Foster


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