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William I "the Conqueror"
.King of England and Duke of Normandy (more...^ Titles: King of England, Duke of Normandy (until 1259) and Aquitaine.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Duke of Normandy from 1035 to 1087 and as King of England from 1066 to 1087.
  • T C Li Williams The Conqueror 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Robert became duke of Normandy and William II became king of England.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

)
The Duke of Normandy in the Bayeux Tapestry
King of the English
Reign 25 December 1066 – 9 September 1087
Coronation 25 December 1066
Predecessor Edgar Ætheling (uncrowned)
(otherwise) Harold II
Successor William II Rufus
Duke of the Normans
Reign 3 July 1035 – 9 September 1087
Predecessor Robert I the Magnificent
Successor Robert II Curthose
Consort Matilda of Flanders
Issue
Robert II Curthose, Duke of the Normans
Richard, Duke of Bernay
William II Rufus, King of the English
Adela, Countess of Blois
Henry I Beauclerc, King of the English
House Norman dynasty
Father Robert I, Duke of Normandy
Mother Herlette of Falaise
Born c. 1027[1]
Falaise, France
Died 9 September 1087 (aged c.58/59)
Convent of St. Gervais, Rouen
Burial Saint-Étienne de Caen, France
William the Conqueror (c. .1027 or 1028[1] – 9 September 1087), also known as William I of England, was the King of England from Christmas, 1066 until his death.^ William I King of England - 1243 results .
  • William I King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ William I (about 1027 or 1028[1] – 9 September 1087), better known as William the Conqueror (French: Guillaume le Conquérant), was Duke of Normandy from AD 1035 and King of England from late 1066 to his death.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ruled: December 1066-9 September 1087.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

.He was also William II, Duke of Normandy, from 3 July 1035 until his death.^ After his father's death William became the Duke of Normandy.
  • TimeRef - History Timelines - WILLIAM (I, the Conqueror, King of England 1066-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ William the Conqueror becomes Duke of Normandy .
  • TimeRef - History Timelines - WILLIAM (I, the Conqueror, King of England 1066-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He succeeded his father in 1035 as GUILLAUME II Duke of Normandy.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Before his conquest of England, he was known as "William the Bastard" (French: Guillaume le Bâtard) because of the illegitimacy of his birth.^ In particular, before his conquest of England, he was known as "William the Bastard" (French: Guillaume le Bâtard) because of the illegitimacy of his birth.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Duke of Normandy, he is known as William II. He was also, particularly before the conquest, known as William the Bastard.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because Robert and Herleva were not married, William was known to his contemporaries as William 'the Bastard'.
  • TimeRef - History Timelines - WILLIAM (I, the Conqueror, King of England 1066-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.William was already known as "the Conqueror" before 1066 due to his military success in Brittany.^ William the Conqueror kills his wife in 1066.
  • William the Conqueror, Part 1 - The Gold Scales 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC oaks.nvg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ William was already known as "the Conqueror" prior to 1066, due to his military successes in Brittany.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To us he is known as William the Conqueror.
  • TimeRef - History Timelines - WILLIAM (I, the Conqueror, King of England 1066-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To press his claim to the English crown, William invaded England in 1066, leading an army of Normans, Bretons, Flemish people, and Frenchmen (from Paris and Île-de-France) to victory over the English forces of King Harold Godwinson (who died in the conflict) at the Battle of Hastings, and suppressed subsequent English revolts in what has become known as the Norman Conquest.^ To press his claim to the English crown, William invaded England in 1066, leading an army of Normans, Bretons, Flemings, and Frenchmen to victory over the English forces of King Harold Godwinson (who died in the conflict) at the Battle of Hastings, and suppressed subsequent English revolts in what has become known as the Norman Conquest.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He fought in the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066 at Hastings, Sussex, England .
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10203 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But French as the Normans of William's day had become, their relation to the kings and people of France was not a friendly one.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror by E.A. Freeman - Readings on Pat Patterson's Pages 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC patp.us [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.His reign, which brought Norman-French culture to England, had an impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages.^ His reign brought Norman culture to England, which had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His reign brought Norman culture to England, which had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages .
  • William I, King of England (1027-1087)/biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His reign, which brought Norman-French culture to England, had an impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.The details of that impact and the extent of the changes have been debated by scholars for over a century.^ The details of that impact and the enormity of the changes have been debated by scholars for over a century.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The details of that impact and the extent of the changes have been debated by scholars for over a century.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition to the obvious change of ruler, his reign also saw a programme of building and fortification, changes to the English language, a shift in the upper levels of society and the church, and adoption of some aspects of continental church reform.^ In addition to political changes, his reign also saw changes to English law, a programme of building and fortification, changes to the vocabulary of the English language, and the introduction of continental European feudalism into England.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to the obvious change of ruler, his reign also saw a programme of building and fortification, changes to the English language, a shift in the upper levels of society and the church, and adoption of some aspects of continental church reform.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to political changes, his reign also saw changes to English law, a programme of building and fortification, changes in the English language and the introduction of continental European feudalism into England.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Duke of Normandy

The castle of William, Château Guillaume-Le-Conquérant, in Falaise, Calvados, France.
.By his father's will, William succeeded him as Duke of Normandy at age seven in 1035. Plots by rival Norman noblemen to usurp his place cost William three guardians, though not Count Alan III of Brittany, who was a later guardian.^ After his father's death William became the Duke of Normandy.
  • TimeRef - History Timelines - WILLIAM (I, the Conqueror, King of England 1066-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ William's father was Robert I, sixth Duke of Normandy.

^ When Robert of Normandy died in 1035 William inherited his father's title.

.William was supported by King Henry I of France, however.^ William was knighted by King Henry I of France at the age of 15.
  • William I, King of England (1027-1087)/biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King Henry of France dies.
  • William the Conqueror and the Battle of Hastings. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.abrahams-legacy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ William was supported by King Henry I of France, however.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was knighted by Henry at age 15. By the time William turned 19 he was successfully dealing with threats of rebellion and invasion.^ William was knighted by Henry at the age of 15.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time he turned 19 he was successfully dealing with threats of rebellion and invasion.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time William turned 19 he was successfully dealing with threats of rebellion and invasion.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the assistance of Henry, William finally secured control of Normandy by defeating rebel Norman barons at Caen in the Battle of Val-ès-Dunes in 1047, obtaining the Truce of God, which was backed by the Roman Catholic Church.^ William the Conqueror crossed over from Normandy, defeating Harold at the Battle of Hastings.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ With the assistance of Henry, William finally secured control of Normandy by defeating rebel Norman barons at Caen in the Battle of Val-ès-Dunes in 1047, obtaining the Truce of God, which was backed by the Roman Catholic Church.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the assistance of Henry, William finally secured control of Normandy by defeating rebel Norman barons at Caen in the Battle of Val-ès-Dunes in 1047, obtaining the Truce of God, which was backed by the church.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Against the wishes of Pope Leo IX, William married Matilda of Flanders in 1053 in the Notre-Dame chapel of Eu castle, Normandy (Seine-Maritime).^ William married Matilda , of Flanders 2 3 in 1053 in Cathedral de Notre Dame, Normandie, France.
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Against the wishes of Pope Leo IX, William married Matilda of Flanders in 1053 in the chapel at Eu, Normandy (Seine-Maritime).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Against the wishes of Pope Leo IX, William married Matilda of Flanders in 1053 in the Cathedral of Notre Dame at Eu, Normandy (Seine-Maritime).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the time, William was about 24 years old and Matilda was 22. William is said to have been a faithful and loving husband, and their marriage produced four sons and six daughters.^ William is said to have been a faithful and loving husband, and their marriage produced four sons and six daughters.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whereas William was a faithful husband who cherished his wife for life, their marriage produced four sons and six daughters.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William is said to have eliminated the native aristocracy in as little as four years.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.In repentance for what was a consanguine marriage (they were distant cousins), William donated St Stephen's Church (l'Abbaye-aux-Hommes) and Matilda donated Holy Trinity church (Abbaye aux Dames).^ The pope objected to William and Matilda's marriage because they were distant cousins.
  • William the Conqueror, Part 1 - The Gold Scales 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC oaks.nvg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ William was buried in the Abbaye-aux-Hommes, which he had erected, in Caen, Normandy.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Abbaye-auz-Hommes , dedicated to St. Stephan for men, and the Abbaye-aux-Dames for women.
  • de Normandie Family Genealogy 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.renderplus.com [Source type: General]

.Feeling threatened by the increase in Norman power resulting from William's noble marriage, Henry I attempted to invade Normandy twice (1054 and 1057), without success.^ Consequently, Henry attempted invading Normandy twice (1054 and 1057), to no avail though.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feeling threatened by the increase in Norman power resulting from William's noble marriage, Henry I attempted to invade Normandy twice (1054 and 1057), without success.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, King Henry became concerned because the noble marriage of William increased the power of the normans too much.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Already a charismatic leader, William attracted strong support within Normandy, including the loyalty of his half-brothers Odo of Bayeux and Robert, Count of Mortain, who played significant roles in his life.^ The Tapestry was almost certainly commissioned by William's half-brother, Odo.
  • 1066 Movie | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His half-brothers Odo of Bayeux and Robert played significant roles in his life.
  • William I, King of England (1027-1087)/biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Already a charismatic leader, William attracted strong support within Normandy, including the loyalty of his half-brothers Odo of Bayeux and Robert, Count of Mortain, who played significant roles in his life.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later, he benefited from the weakening of two competing power centers as a result of the deaths of Henry I and of Geoffrey II of Anjou, in 1060. In 1062 William invaded and took control of the county of Maine, which had been a fief of Anjou.^ Later, he benefited from the weakening of two competing power centers as a result of the deaths of Henry I and of Geoffrey II of Anjou, in 1060.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later, he benefitted from the weakening of two competing power centers as a result of the deaths of Henry I and of Geoffrey II of Anjou, in 1060.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1062 William invaded and took control of the county of Maine, which had been a fief of Anjou.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]

English succession

.Upon the death of the childless Edward the Confessor, the English throne was fiercely disputed by three claimants—William; Harold Godwinson, the powerful Earl of Wessex; and the Viking King Harald III of Norway, known as Harald Hardrada.^ He could have been on a mission from Edward to offer the English throne to William.

^ In this King William was imitating the earldom of his predecessor, Harold Godwinson.

^ In any case, the vacancy of the english crown, which was left after Edward the Confessor died, would be ferociously disputed by three European figures (William, Harold, and the Viking king Harald III of Norway).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.William had a tenuous blood claim through his great aunt Emma (wife of Ethelred and mother of Edward).^ William had his claim by right of bequest from Edward.
  • William I "The Conqueror" Conqueror, King of England b. 14 OCT 1024 Falaise, Normandy, France d. 9 SEP 1087 Priory of St. Gervais near Rouen: Genealogy 4U 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.genealogy4u.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William had a tenuous blood claim through his great aunt Emma (wife of Ethelred and mother of Edward).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William had a tenuous blood claim, through his great aunt Emma (wife of Ethelred and mother of Edward).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.William also contended that Edward, who had spent much of his life in exile in Normandy during the Danish occupation of England, had promised him the throne when he visited Edward in London in 1052. Further, William claimed that Harold had pledged allegiance to him in 1064: William had rescued the shipwrecked Harold from the count of Ponthieu, and together they had defeated Conan II, Count of Brittany.^ William claimed that this had occurred, visiting London in 1052.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Harold claimed that Edward promised him the throne just before he died on 5th January, 1066.

^ He becomes the man of William, much as William had become the man of Edward.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.On that occasion, William had knighted Harold; he had also, however, deceived Harold by having him swear loyalty to William himself over the concealed bones of a saint.^ On that occasion, William had knighted Harold; he had also, however, deceived Harold by having him swear loyalty to William himself over the concealed bones of a saint.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On that occasion, William knighted Harold, and deceived him by having him swear loyalty to William over the concealed bones of a saint.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William's claim to the English throne was based on his assertion that, in 1051, Edward the Confessor had promised him the throne (he was a distant cousin) and that Harold II - having sworn in 1064 to uphold William's right to succeed to that throne - was therefore a usurper.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10203 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.In January 1066, however, in accordance with Edward's last will and by vote of the Witenagemot, Harold Godwinson was crowned King by Archbishop Aldred.^ He was crowned king on Christmas Day, 1066.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On January 5, 1066, Edward died.
  • William I "The Conqueror" Conqueror, King of England b. 14 OCT 1024 Falaise, Normandy, France d. 9 SEP 1087 Priory of St. Gervais near Rouen: Genealogy 4U 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.genealogy4u.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 6 January, Harold Godwinson, after having ridden all night, was crowned king in London.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

Norman invasion

.Meanwhile, William submitted his claim to the English throne to Pope Alexander II, who sent him a consecrated banner in support.^ Norman Invasion See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Conquest_of_England Meanwhile, William submitted his claim to the English throne to Pope Alexander II, who sent him a consecrated banner in support.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William's claims to the English throne.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, William submitted his claim to the English throne to Pope Alexander II, who sent him a consecrated banner in support.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Then, William organized a council of war at Lillebonne and in January openly began assembling an army in Normandy.^ Then, William organized a council of war at Lillebonne and openly began assembling an army in Normandy.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William began to govern Normandy in 1045.

^ Then, William organized a council of war, at Lillebonne and openly began assembling an army in Normandy, consisting of his own army, French mercenaries, and numerous foreign knights who expected plunder or English land.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Offering promises of English lands and titles, he amassed at Dives-sur-Mer a huge invasion fleet, supposedly of 696 ships.^ Offering promises of English lands and titles, he amassed at Dives-sur-Mer a huge invasion fleet, supposedly of 696 ships.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Offering promises of English lands and titles, he amassed at Dives-sur-Mer a considerable invasion force of 600 ships and 7,000 men, consisting of Normans, Bretons, French mercenaries, and numerous foreign knights.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Offering promises of English lands and titles, he amassed at Saint-Valery-sur-Somme a considerable invasion force of 600 ships and 7,000 men, consisting of Normans, French mercenaries, and numerous foreign knights.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.This carried an invasion force which included, in addition to troops from William's own territories of Normandy and Maine, large numbers of mercenaries, allies and volunteers from Brittany, north-eastern France and Flanders, together with smaller numbers from other parts of France and from the Norman colonies in southern Italy.^ This made Flanders an ally of Normandy and a number of Flemings fought at Hastings.
  • William the Conqueror and the Battle of Hastings. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.abrahams-legacy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This carried an invasion force which included, in addition to troops from William's own territories of Normandy and Maine, large numbers of mercenaries, allies and volunteers from Britanny, north-eastern France and Flanders, together with smaller numbers from other parts of France and from the Norman colonies in southern Italy.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From 1047 onwards, William successfully dealt with rebellion inside Normandy involving his kinsmen and threats from neighbouring nobles, including attempted invasions by his former ally King Henry I of France in 1054 (the French forces were defeated at the Battle of Mortemer).
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10203 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In England, Harold assembled a large army on the south coast and a fleet of ships to guard the English Channel.^ Initially, Harold opposed William with a large army on the south coast of England and a fleet of ships guarding the English Channel.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In England, Harold assembled a large army on the south coast and a fleet of ships to guard the English Channel.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Harold also consolidated his ships in London, leaving the English Channel unguarded.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.Fortuitously for William, his crossing was delayed by eight months of unfavourable winds.^ Fortuitously, however, William's crossing was delayed by weeks of unfavourable winds.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fortuitously for William, his crossing was delayed by eight months of unfavourable winds.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before Harold could return, the wind direction turned and William had crossed, landing his army at Pevensey Bay (Sussex) on September 28.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.William managed to keep his army together during the wait, but Harold's was diminished by dwindling supplies and falling morale with the arrival of the harvest season, he disbanded his army on 8 September.^ William managed to keep his army together during the wait, but Harold's was diminished by dwindling supplies and falling morale with the arrival of the harvest season, he disbanded his army on 8 September.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William managed to keep his army together during the wait, but Harold's was diminished by dwindling supplies and falling morale with the arrival of the harvest season.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 18 September, Harold Hardraada landed on the Humber River with a huge fleet and a large army, only ten days after Harold had been forced to disband the better part of his own forces.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

[5] .Harold also consolidated his ships in London, leaving the English Channel unguarded.^ Harold also consolidated his ships in London, leaving the English Channel unguarded.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also consolidated his ships in London, leaving the English Channel unguarded.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once the harvest season arrived, Harold ordered the militia home due to falling morale and dwindling supplies, and consolidated the ships in London, leaving the channel unguarded.
  • William I, King of England (1027-1087)/biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Then came the news that the other contender for the throne, Harald III of Norway, allied with Tostig Godwinson, had landed ten miles from York.^ Then came the news that the other contender for the throne, Harald III of Norway, allied with Tostig Godwinson, had landed ten miles from York.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then came the news that Harald III of Norway had landed ten miles from York with Tostig, which forced Harold and his army to head north.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William I, King of England (1027-1087)/biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then came the news that Harald III of Norway, allied with Tostig, had landed ten miles from York.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Harold again raised his army and after a four-day forced march defeated Harald and Tostig on 25 September.^ Harold again raised his army and after a four day forced march defeated Harald and Tostig on 25 September.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Harold immediately marched for London, where he raised another army.
  • William I "The Conqueror" Conqueror, King of England b. 14 OCT 1024 Falaise, Normandy, France d. 9 SEP 1087 Priory of St. Gervais near Rouen: Genealogy 4U 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.genealogy4u.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Having defeated an earlier invasion by the King of Norway at the Battle of Stamford Bridge near York in late September, Harold undertook a forced march south, covering 250 miles in some nine days to meet the new threat, gathering inexperienced reinforcements to replenish his exhausted veterans as he marched.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10203 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

William the Conqueror invades England
.On 12 September the wind direction turned and William's fleet sailed.^ September, William's fleet assembles in the Dives.
  • William the Conqueror and the Battle of Hastings. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.abrahams-legacy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On 12 September the wind direction turned and William's fleet sailed.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William the Conqueror invades England On 12 September the wind direction turned and William's fleet sailed.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.A storm blew up and the fleet was forced to take shelter at Saint-Valery-sur-Somme and again wait for the wind to change.^ A storm blew up and the fleet was forced to take shelter at Saint-Valery-sur-Somme and again wait for the wind to change.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the body of the fleet remained in the river, where it was sheltered from the winds, yet there were many cases of single ships that were from time to time exposed to them.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His great and motley army was kept during a great part of August and September, first at the Dive, then at Saint Valery, waiting for the wind that was to take it to England.
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.On 27 September the Norman fleet finally set sail, landing in England at Pevensey Bay (Sussex) on 28 September.^ Harold set sail, and, crossing the Channel in safety, he landed in England.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The fleet enters the Bay of Pevensey.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The duke and his army landed at Pevensey on September 28, 1066.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thence William moved to Hastings, a few miles to the east, where he built a prefabricated wooden castle for a base of operations.^ Warwick Castle built on William's orders .
  • TimeRef - History Timelines - WILLIAM (I, the Conqueror, King of England 1066-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thence William moved to Hastings, a few miles to the east, where he built a prefabricated wooden castle for a base of operations.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then he moved to Hastings, a few miles to the east, where he built a prefabricated wooden castle for a base of operations.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.From there, he ravaged the hinterland and waited for Harold's return from the north.^ From there, he ravaged the hinterland and waited for Harold's return from the north.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is generally believed he knew of Harald Hardrada's plans and waited for Harold Godwinson to be weakened or engaged with fighting in the north before proceeding with his own plans.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Harold arrived in London on 5th October and there he waited for the local fyrd to assemble and for the troops of the Earl of Mercia and the Earl of Northumbria to arrive from the north.

[5]
.William chose Hastings as it was at the end of a long peninsula flanked by impassable marshes.^ William chose Hastings as it was at the end of a long peninsula flanked by impassable marshes.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

The battle was on the isthmus. .William at once built a fort at Hastings to guard his rear against potential arrival of Harold's fleet from London.^ William at once built a fort at Hastings to guard his rear against potential arrival of Harold's fleet from London.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Harold's arrival at William's lines.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon hearing that Harold had been crowned (1066) king of England, William secured the sanction of the pope, raised an army and transport fleet, sailed for England, and defeated and slew Harold at the battle of Hastings (1066).
  • William I King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Having landed his army, William was less concerned about desertion and could have waited out the winter storms, raided the surrounding area for horses and started a campaign in the spring.^ Having landed his army, William was less concerned about desertion and could have waited out the winter storms, raided the surrounding area for horses and started a campaign in the spring.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The tale runs that the news from Mortemer, suddenly announced to the King's army in the dead of the night, struck them with panic, and led to a hasty retreat out of the land.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During a campaign against King Philip I of France, William fell from a horse and was fatally injured.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Harold had been reconnoitering the south of England for some time and well appreciated the need to occupy this isthmus at once.^ Harold had been reconnoitering the south of England for some time and well appreciated the need to occupy this isthmus at once.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was now for a time in England, having been called there by some pressing demands of public duty.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Initially, Harold opposed William with a large army on the south coast of England and a fleet of ships guarding the English Channel.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

[6]

March to London

English coin of William the Conqueror (1066–1087).
.For two weeks, William waited for a formal surrender of the English throne, but the Witenagemot proclaimed the quite young Edgar Ætheling King instead, though without coronation.^ For two weeks, William waited for a formal surrender of the English throne, but the Witenagemot proclaimed the quite young Edgar Ætheling King instead, though without coronation.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ March to London For two weeks, William waited for a formal surrender of the English throne, but the Witenagemot proclaimed the quite young Edgar Ætheling King instead, though without coronation.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ March to London For two weeks, William waited for a formal surrender of the English throne, but the Witenagemot proclaimed the quite young Edgar Ætheling instead, without coronation though.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, William's next target was London, approaching through the important territories of Kent, via Dover and Canterbury, inspiring fear in the English.^ Thus, William's next target was London, approaching proudly through the important territories of Kent, via Dover and Canterbury, inspiring fear in the English.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William's next target was London, which he approached via Dover and Canterbury .
  • William I, King of England (1027-1087)/biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, William's next target was London, approaching proudly through the important territories of Kent, via Dover and Canterbury, inspiring fear to the English.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, at London, William's advance was beaten back at London Bridge, and he decided to march westward and to storm London from the northwest.^ However, at London, William's advance was beaten back at London Bridge, deciding then to march westward and to storm London from the northwest.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, at London, William's advance was beaten back at London Bridge, and he decided to march westward and to storm London from the northwest.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite William's advance guard beating back a sortie on London Bridge , William marched westward, crossing the Thames at Wallingford and forced the surrender of Archbishop Stigand , one of Edgar's lead supporters.
  • William I, King of England (1027-1087)/biography - Familypedia 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After receiving continental reinforcements, William crossed the Thames at Wallingford, and there he forced the surrender of Archbishop Stigand (one of Edgar's lead supporters), in early December.^ There were revolts in William's continental dominions.
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After receiving continental reinforcements, William crossed the Thames at Wallingford, and there he forced the surrender of Archbishop Stigand (one of Edgar's lead supporters), in early December.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After receiving continental reinforcements, William crossed the Thames at the center-England town of Wallingford and there he forced the surrender of Archbishop Stigand (one of Edgar's lead supporters), in early December.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.William reached Berkhamsted a few days later where Ætheling relinquished the English crown personally and the exhausted Saxon noblemen of England surrendered definitively.^ William reached Berkhamsted a few days later where Ætheling relinquished the English crown personally and the exhausted Saxon noblemen of England surrendered definitively.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William was condemned and a few days later beheaded."
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 28 September 1066, with a favourable wind, William landed unopposed at Pevensey and, within a few days, raised fortifications at Hastings.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10203 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although William was acclaimed then as English King, he requested a coronation in London.^ Although William was acclaimed then as English King, he requested being crowned at London.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although William was acclaimed then as English King, he requested a coronation in London.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For two weeks, William waited for a formal surrender of the English throne, but the Witenagemot proclaimed the quite young Edgar Ætheling King instead, though without coronation.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.As William I, he was formally crowned on Christmas day 1066, in Westminster Abbey, by Archbishop Aldred[4].^ Crowned: Westminster Abbey, 25 December 1066.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As William I, he was formally crowned on Christmas day (December 25) 1066, in Westminster Abbey, by Archbishop Aldred.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was crowned king on Christmas Day, 1066.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

.According to some sources, the ceremony was not a peaceful one.^ According to some sources, the ceremony was not a peaceful one.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The new king ordered a survey of his kingdom known as the Doomsday Book (judgment book), and with rigidity and some benevolence was able to maintain a surprisingly peaceable kingdom for twenty-one years.

^ According to some sources, the commotion so alarmed the Norman guards stationed outside that they set fire to the neighbouring houses.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Alarmed by some noises coming from the Abbey, the Norman guards stationed outside set fire to the neighbouring houses.^ Alarmed by some noises coming from the Abbey, the Norman guards stationed outside that they set fire to the neighbouring houses.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to some sources, the commotion so alarmed the Norman guards stationed outside that they set fire to the neighbouring houses.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Norman soldiers, who were placed without in order to guard the church, hearing the shouts within, fancied that the English were offering violence to their duke; and they immediately assaulted the populace, and set fire to the neighbouring houses.
  • Online Library of Liberty - IV: WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR - The History of England, vol. 1 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.A Norman monk later wrote "As the fire spread rapidly, the people in the church were thrown into confusion and crowds of them rushed outside, some to fight the flames, others to take the chance to go looting."^ A Norman monk later wrote "As the fire spread rapidly, the people in the church were thrown into confusion and crowds of them rushed outside, some to fight the flames, others to take the chance to go looting."
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The efforts of the Normans were now directed to the north, where affairs had fallen into the utmost confusion.
  • Online Library of Liberty - IV: WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR - The History of England, vol. 1 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Subsequently, the executioner slit open his abdomen, and slowly pulled out, and cut out, his entrails and, finally, his heart, which were likewise thrown into the fire.
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

English resistance

.Although the south of England submitted quickly to Norman rule, resistance in the north continued for six more years until 1072. During the first two years, King William I suffered many revolts throughout England (Dover, western Mercia, Exeter).^ Two other sons, William and Henry, Succeeded William as kings of England.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ William I King of England - 1243 results .
  • William I King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ William I King of England - 3774 results .
  • William I King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Also, in 1068, Harold's illegitimate sons attempted an invasion of the south-western peninsula, but William defeated them.^ Also, in 1068, Harold's illegitimate sons attempted an invasion of the southwestern peninsula, but William defeated them.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, in 1068, Harold's illegitimate sons attempted an invasion of the south-western peninsula, but William defeated them.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two years later, the lords of the western region of the duchy rebelled, but William successfully defeated them at Val-es-dunes.

.For William I, the worst crisis came from Northumbria, which had still not submitted to his realm.^ For William I, the worst crisis came from Northumbria, which had still not submitted to his realm.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Still much change did follow on the Norman Conquest, and the Norman Conquest was so completely William's own act that all that came of it was in some sort his act also.
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1068, with Edgar Ætheling, both Mercia and Northumbria revolted.^ In 1068, with Edgar Ætheling, both Mercia and Northumbria revolted.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.William could suppress these, but Edgar fled to Scotland where Malcolm III of Scotland protected him.^ William could suppress these, but Edgar fled to Scotland where Malcolm protected him.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William could suppress these, but Edgar fled to Scotland where Malcolm III of Scotland protected him.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The problems that William had in knowing who owned what land and what its value was, so that he could levy the taxes, led to him ordering a major survey of England.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

.Furthermore, Malcolm married Edgar's sister Margaret, with much éclat, stressing the English balance of power against William.^ Margaret married William Deincourt .
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, Malcolm married Edgar's sister Margaret, with much éclat, stressing the English balance of power against William.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1049, William married Matilda, daughter of Count Baldwin V of Flanders, forging an alliance between two of the most powerful northern territories.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

.Under such circumstances, Northumbria rebelled, besieging York.^ Under such circumstances, Northumbria rebelled, besieging York.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To leave Normandy under such circumstances would be ruin to it.
  • William the Conqueror, King Harold and Bosham 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.bosham.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Her arrival, of course, under such circumstances, produced universal excitement and enthusiasm.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Then, Edgar resorted also to the Danes, who disembarked with a large fleet at Northumbria, claiming the English crown for their King Sweyn II.^ Then, Edgar resorted also to the Danes, who disembarked with a large fleet at Northumbria, claiming the English crown for their King Sweyn II. Scotland joined the rebellion as well.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Danes were bribed to leave the north, King Sweyn of Denmark and his ships threatened the east coast (in alliance with various English, including Hereward the Wake) until a treaty of peace was concluded in June 1070.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10203 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He obtained, he said, a promise from Edward that Edward would sanction and confirm his claim to the English crown, in the event of his decease, by bequeathing it to William in his will.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Scotland joined the rebellion as well.^ Then, Edgar resorted also to the Danes, who disembarked with a large fleet at Northumbria, claiming the English crown for their King Sweyn II. Scotland joined the rebellion as well.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

The rebels easily captured York and its castle. .However, William could contain them at Lincoln.^ However, William could contain them at Lincoln.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.After dealing with a new wave of revolts at western Mercia, Exeter, Dorset, and Somerset, William defeated his northern foes decisively at the River Aire, retrieving York, while the Danish army swore to depart.^ After dealing with a new wave of revolts at western Mercia, Exeter, Dorset, and Somerset, William defeated his northern foes decisively at the River Aire, retrieving York, while the Danish army swore to depart.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William's growing power brought him into conflict with King Henry of France, whose invading armies he defeated in 1054 and 1058.
  • William I King of England: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Meanwhile, back home, William Zouche , the Archbishop of York mobilized an army to oppose David II, who had returned, defeating and capturing him at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October.
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.William then devastated Northumbria between the Humber and Tees rivers, with what was described as the Harrying of the North.^ William then devastated Northumbria between the Humber and Tees rivers, with his Harrying of the North.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William then devastated Northumbria between the Humber and Tees rivers, with what was described as the Harrying of the North.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This harrying of the north was the most extreme example of despoiling and genocide that England has ever seen, and for which William was never forgiven by the English.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

.This devastation included setting fire to the vegetation, houses and even tools to work the fields.^ This devastation included setting fire to the vegetation, houses and even tools to work the fields.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cries of support from the Normans present were interpreted as an English rebellion and the guards promptly attacked the Saxons and set fire to nearby houses.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But instead of going to his help, they began, in true Norman fashion, to set fire to the neighbouring houses.
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.He also burnt crops, killed livestock and sowed the fields and land with salt, to stunt growth.^ He also burnt crops, killed livestock and sowed the fields and land with salt, to stunt growth.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] After this cruel treatment the land did not recover for more than 100 years.^ He was more than a man, when He did that.
  • The Mighty Conqueror -- 58-0610 -- Sermon preached by William Branham 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC nathan.co.za [Source type: Original source]

^ After this cruel treatment the land did not recover for more than 100 years.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was more than thirty years since the time of his landing.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The region ended up absolutely deprived, losing its traditional autonomy towards England.^ The region ended up absolutely deprived, losing its traditional autonomy towards England.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Toward the end of his reign, William ordered a great census to be taken of all the lands and people of England.
  • de Normandie Family Genealogy 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.renderplus.com [Source type: General]

^ The advancing fleet soon came up with the Mira, when the latter spread her sails again, and all moved slowly on together toward the coast of England.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.It may, however, have stopped future rebellions, frightening the English into obedience.^ However it may have stopped future rebellions, scaring the English people in obedience.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However it may have stopped future rebellions, frightening the English into obedience.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many English aristocrats fled to Flanders and Scotland; others may have been sold into slavery overseas.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Then the Danish king disembarked in person, readying his army to restart the war, but William suppressed this threat with a payment of gold.^ Then the Danish king disembarked in person, readying his army to restart the war, but William suppressed this threat with a payment of gold.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, the Danish king disembarked in person, readying his army to restart the war, but William suppressed such threat with a payment of gold.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Against the King William made ready to act himself; eastern Normandy was left to its own loyal nobles.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1071, William defeated the last rebellion of the north through an improvised pontoon, subduing the Isle of Ely, where the Danes had gathered.^ Subsequently in 1071, William defeated the last rebel focus of the north through an improvised pontoon, subduing the Ely island at which the Danes had gathered.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1071, William defeated the last rebellion of the north through an improvised pontoon, subduing the Isle of Ely, where the Danes had gathered.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1070 there was a rebellion in the Fen Country and, under the leadership of Hereward the Wake, the rebels held out for some time in the Isle of Ely.
  • William I "The Conqueror" Conqueror, King of England b. 14 OCT 1024 Falaise, Normandy, France d. 9 SEP 1087 Priory of St. Gervais near Rouen: Genealogy 4U 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.genealogy4u.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1072, he invaded Scotland, defeating Malcolm, who had recently invaded the north of England.^ In 1072, he invaded Scotland, defeating Malcolm, who had recently invaded the north of England.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1072, he invaded Scotland, defeating Malcolm and gaining a temporary peace.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the course of 1072 we see William in England, in Normandy, again in England, and in Scotland.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.William and Malcolm agreed to a peace by signing the Treaty of Abernethy and Malcolm gave up his son Duncan as a hostage for the peace.^ William and Malcolm agreed to a peace by signing the Treaty of Abernethy and Malcolm gave up his son Duncan as a hostage for the peace.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Malcolm agreed and, with the Peace of Abernethy, recognized William as his overlord.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He was forced to agree a peace treaty with France.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

[7] .In 1074, Edgar Ætheling submitted definitively to William.^ In 1074, Edgar Ætheling submitted definitively to William.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edgar, however, did not submit to William until 1074.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ William reached Berkhamsted a few days later where Ætheling relinquished the English crown personally and the exhausted Saxon noblemen of England surrendered definitively.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1075, during William's absence, the Revolt of the Earls was confronted successfully by Odo.^ In 1075, during William's absence, the Revolt of the Earls was confronted successfully by Odo.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During his absence in Normandy, where William displayed the spoils of his conquest and made most of his fame, his half-brother Bishop Odo endeavoured to impose Norman rule in England, but with minimal success.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The two earls, disgusted by the denial of their request, and dreading William’s resentment for their disobedience, here prepared measures for a revolt; and during the gaiety of the festival, while the company was heated with wine, they opened the design to their guests.
  • Online Library of Liberty - IV: WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR - The History of England, vol. 1 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1080, William dispatched his half brothers Odo and Robert to storm Northumbria and Scotland, respectively.^ The Tapestry was almost certainly commissioned by William's half-brother, Odo.
  • 1066 Movie | Pajiba - Scathing Reviews for Bitchy People 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.pajiba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1080, William dispatched his half brothers Odo and Robert to storm Northumbria and Scotland, respectively.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1080, William sent his half brothers Odo and Robert, who stormed Northumbria and Scotland, respectively.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Eventually, the Pope protested that the Normans were mistreating the English people.^ Eventually, the Pope protested against the excessive mistreatment which had been exerted by the Normans against the English people.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eventually, the Pope protested that the Normans were mistreating the English people.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the despotism of the crown called forth the national spirit in a conscious and antagonistic shape; it called forth that spirit in men of both races alike, and made Normans and English one people.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Before quelling the rebellions, William had conciliated with the English church; however, he persecuted it ferociously afterwards.^ Before quelling the rebellions, William had conciliated with the English church; however, he persecuted it ferociously afterwards.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, until overcoming all rebellions, William had conciliated with the English church although he persecuted it ferociously afterward.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout his life William tackled rebellion and conflict on his own doorstep, establishing himself as a cunning and ruthless leader, before turning his intentions overseas.
  • William I | UK Holidays | Britain + UK Vacation Packages - England, Scotland and Wales Travel Tours 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.myguidebritain.com [Source type: News]

Reign in England

English Royalty
House of Normandy
William I
   Robert II Curthose, Duke of Normandy
   Richard, Duke of Bernay
   William II Rufus
   Adela, Countess of Blois
   Henry I Beauclerc

Events

.As would be habit for his descendants, William spent much of his time (11 years, since 1072) in Normandy, ruling the islands through his writs.^ Events As would be habit for his descendants, William spent much of his time (11 years, since 1072) in Normandy, ruling the islands through his writs.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ English Royalty House of Normandy William I Robert II Curthose, Duke of Normandy Richard, Duke of Bernay William II Rufus Adela, Countess of Blois Henry I Beauclerc [edit]Events As would be habit for his descendants, William spent much of his time (11 years, since 1072) in Normandy, ruling the islands through his writs.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From that time on, William ruled Normandy with an iron hand.
  • William I "The Conqueror" Conqueror, King of England b. 14 OCT 1024 Falaise, Normandy, France d. 9 SEP 1087 Priory of St. Gervais near Rouen: Genealogy 4U 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.genealogy4u.com [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nominally still a vassal state, owing its entire loyalty to the French king, Normandy arose suddenly as a powerful region, alarming the other French dukes who reacted by persistently attacking the duchy.^ Nominally still a vassal state, owing its entire loyalty to the French king, Normandy arose suddenly as a powerful region, alarming the other French dukes who reacted by persistently attacking the duchy.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nominally still a vassal state, owing its entire loyalty to the French king, Normandy arose suddenly as a powerful region, alarming the other French Dukes which reacted by attacking it persistently.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Duke of Aquitaine , Edward was a vassal to the French king.
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.William became focused on conquering Brittany, and the French King Philip I admonished him.^ As Duke of Normandy, William was obsessed with conquering Brittany, and the French King Philip I admonished him.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Particularly, as Duke of Normandy, William was obsessed to conquer Brittany and the French King Philip I admonished him, against such ambition.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William became focused on conquering Brittany, and the French King Philip I admonished him.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.A treaty was concluded after his aborted invasion of Brittany in 1076, and William betrothed Constance to the Breton Duke Hoel's son, the future Alan IV of Brittany.^ A treaty was concluded after his aborted invasion of Brittany in 1076, and William betrothed Constance to the Breton Duke Hoel's son, the future Alan IV of Brittany.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nonetheless, in 1086, William invaded Brittany, forcing the flight of the Duke Alan IV, nevertheless they inked peace and William betrothed Constance (who ended poisoned few years later), to Alan.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nonetheless, in 1086, William invaded Brittany, forcing the flight of the Duke Alan IV. A peace treaty was signed, and William betrothed Constance (who was poisoned a few years later) to Alan.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.The wedding occurred only in 1086, after Alan's accession to the throne, and Constance died childless a few years later.^ The wedding occurred only in 1086, after Alan's accession to the throne, and Constance died childless a few years later.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward died 8 years later.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Elizabeth's", and additional land, and he automaticaly became the owner of the handsome brick "manor house" at "Cross Manor" built by Corwalleys in 1642 and upon seating himself in MD lived in the house and a few years later, died there.
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.William's elder son Robert, enraged by a prank of his brothers William and Henry, who had doused him with filthy water, undertook what became a large scale rebellion against his father's rule.^ His eldest son, Robert, rebelled against him in 1078, in Normandy.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The mischief of his elder son Robert arose after a prank of his brothers William and Henry, who wetted him with filthy water.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William's conflicts with his son Robert.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Only with King Philip's additional military support was William able to confront Robert, who was then based in Flanders.^ Only with King Philip's additional military support William was able to confront Robert, who had based at Flanders.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The situation became a large scale Norman rebellion and, only with King Philip's additional military support, William was able to confront Robert, who had based at Flanders.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only with King Philip's additional military support was William able to confront Robert, who was then based in Flanders.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the battle of 1079, William was unhorsed and wounded by Robert, who lowered his sword only after recognising him.^ During the battle (1079), William ended unhorsed and wounded by Robert, who lowered his sword only after recognizing him.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the battle of 1079, William was unhorsed and wounded by Robert, who lowered his sword only after recognizing him.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the battle in 1079, William was unhorsed and wounded by Robert, who lowered his sword only after recognizing him.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.The embarrassed William returned to Rouen, abandoning the expedition.^ The embarrassed William returned to Rouen, abandoning the expedition.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If William would abandon his invasion and return to Normandy, giving up his claims to the English crown, he would pay him, he said, any sum of money that he would name.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under this arrangement William would himself return to Normandy, making the city of Rouen, which was his capital there, the capital of the whole united realm.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1080, Matilda reconciled both, and William restored Robert's inheritance.^ In 1080, Matilda reconciled both, and William revoked Robert's inheritance.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although, in 1080, Matilda reconciled both, William ended skimping Robert's inheritance.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1080, Matilda reconciled both, and William restored Robert's inheritance.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Odo caused trouble for William, too, and was imprisoned in 1082, losing his English estate and all his royal functions, but retaining his religious duties.^ Odo caused trouble for William, too, and was imprisoned in 1082, losing his English estate and all his royal functions, but retaining his religious duties.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Odo caused many troubles to William, and he was imprisoned in 1082, losing his English estate and all royal functions, except the religious ones.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, with his usual misbehavior, the unreliable Odo caused many troubles to William and he ended jailed in 1082, losing his English estate and all royal functions, except the religious ones.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1083, Matilda died, and William became more tyrannical over his realm.^ In 1083, Matilda died and the now bittersweet William became more tyrannical than ever, over his realm.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1083, Matilda died, and William became more tyrannical over his realm.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Her brother died young in the White ship disaster , leaving Matilda as the last heir from the paternal line of her grandfather William the Conqueror .
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Reforms

The signatures of William I and Matilda are the first two large crosses on the Accord of Winchester from 1072.
.William initiated many major changes.^ William initiated many major changes.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reforms William initiated many major changes.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.He increased the function of the traditional English shires (autonomous administrative regions), which he brought under central control; he decreased the power of the earls by restricting them to one shire apiece.^ He increased the function of the traditional English shires (autonomous administrative regions), which he brought under central control; he decreased the power of the earls by restricting them to one shire apiece.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He accented the function of the traditional English shires (autonomous administrative regions), which were centralized under his rule.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry's son, Edward I, a fine soldier, brought Wales under the English crown.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

.All administrative functions of his government remained fixed at specific English towns, except the court itself; they would progressively strengthen, and the English institutions became amongst the most sophisticated in Europe.^ Besides, all administrative divisions of his government remained immobile at determined English towns, so these strengthened progressively, along the years, and the English institutions ended amongst the most sophisticated in Europe.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All administrative functions of his government remained fixed at specific English towns, except the court itself; they would progressively strengthen, and the English institutions became amongst the most sophisticated in Europe.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church would not allow the Jews to become an integral part of the English nation, and they therefore had to leave the country.

.In 1085, in order to ascertain the extent of his new dominions and to improve taxation, William commissioned all his counselors for the compilation of the Domesday Book, which was published in 1086. The book was a survey of England's productive capacity similar to a modern census.^ The Domesday Book In December, 1085, William decided to commision an enquiry into the extent of his dominions to maximise taxation.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The book was a survey of England's productive capacity similar to a modern census.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1085 started Domesday Book.
  • William I "The Conqueror" Conqueror, King of England b. 14 OCT 1024 Falaise, Normandy, France d. 9 SEP 1087 Priory of St. Gervais near Rouen: Genealogy 4U 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.genealogy4u.com [Source type: Original source]

.William also ordered many castles, keeps, and mottes, among them the Tower of London's foundation (the White Tower), to be built throughout England.^ William also ordered many castles, keeps, and mottes, among them the Tower of London's foundation (the White Tower), which were built throughout England.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since early, William also ordered many castles, keeps, and mottes, among them the Tower of London's foundation (the White Tower), which were built throughout England.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William also ordered many castles, keeps, and mottes, among them the Tower of London's foundation (the White Tower), to be built throughout England.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.These ensured effectively that the many rebellions by the English people or his own followers did not succeed.^ These ensured effectively that the many rebellions by the English people or his own followers did not succeed.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However it may have stopped future rebellions, scaring the English people in obedience.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only did Bishop Wulfstan march along with his fierce Norman brethren Ode and Geoffrey; the English people everywhere were against the rebels.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

William I built the central White Tower in the Tower of London.
.His conquest also led to French (especially, but not only, the Norman French) replacing English as the language of the ruling classes for nearly 300 years.^ His conquest also led to French (especially, but not only, the Norman French) replacing English as the language of the ruling classes for nearly 300 years.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His conquest also led to Norman (and French) replacing English as the language of the ruling classes for nearly 300 years.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Anglo-Saxon language was replaced by Norman French as the language of the upper classes, modern English is the natural outgrowth of both.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

[8][9] .Furthermore, the original Anglo-Saxon culture of England became mingled with the Norman one; thus the Anglo-Norman culture came into being.^ Furthermore, the original Anglo-Saxon cultural influence of England became mingled with the Norman one; thus the Anglo-Norman culture came into being.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, the original Scandinavian cultural influence of England became mingled with the Norman one thus, beside the Anglo-Saxon culture, now the Anglo-Norman one came into being.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Saxon swine became Norman gammon.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

The chapel in the White Tower was built in the Norman style by William, using Caen stone imported from France.
.William is said to have eliminated the native aristocracy in as little as four years.^ William is said to have eliminated the native aristocracy in as little as four years.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William was, of course, now about four years old.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [K] He little thinks that he is obeying a behest of William the Conqueror, issued eight hundred years ago, ordaining that his native tongue should be employed in the courts of England.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Systematically, he despoiled those English aristocrats who either opposed the Normans or who died without issue.^ She died without issue.
  • Online Library of Liberty - IV: WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR - The History of England, vol. 1 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Systematically, he despoiled those English aristocrats who either opposed the Normans or who died without issue.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Systematically, he despoiled those English aristocrats, either who opposed the Normans or who died without issue.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, most English estates and titles of nobility were handed to the Norman noblemen.^ Thus, most English estates and titles of nobility were handed to the Norman noblemen.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The men of Romney had before the battle cut in pieces a party of Normans who had fallen into their hands, most likely by sea.
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, to the new Norman noblemen, William handed the English parcels of land piecemeal, dispersing these wide.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many English aristocrats fled to Flanders and Scotland; others may have been sold into slavery overseas.^ Many English aristocrats fled to Flanders and Scotland; others may have been sold into slavery overseas.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many English aristocrats fled to Flanders and Scotland, others may have been sold into slavery overseas.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Abe and other conservatives have repeatedly said there was no evidence that Japans military had a direct hand in forcing women into sexual slavery.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

.Some escaped to join the Byzantine Empire's Varangian Guard, and went on to fight the Normans in Sicily.^ Some escaped to join the Byzantine Empire's Varangian Guard, and went on to fight the Normans in Sicily.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to some sources, the commotion so alarmed the Norman guards stationed outside that they set fire to the neighbouring houses.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alarmed by some noises coming from the Abbey, the Norman guards stationed outside that they set fire to the neighbouring houses.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.By 1070, the indigenous nobility had ceased to be an integral part of the English landscape, and by 1086, it maintained control of just 8% of its original land-holdings.^ By 1070, the indigenous nobility had ceased to be an integral part of the English landscape, and by 1086, it maintained control of just 8% of its original land-holdings.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1070, the indigenous nobility had ceased to be an integral part of the English landscape, and by 1086, it maintained control of just 8 percent of its original land-holdings.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church would not allow the Jews to become an integral part of the English nation, and they therefore had to leave the country.

[10] .However, to the new Norman noblemen, William handed the English parcels of land piecemeal, dispersing these widely, ensuring nobody would try conspiring against him without jeopardising their own estates within the still unstable post-invasion England.^ Thus, most English estates and titles of nobility were handed to the Norman noblemen.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, to the new Norman noblemen, William handed the English parcels of land piecemeal, dispersing these wide.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, to the new Norman noblemen, William handed the English parcels of land piecemeal, dispersing these wide, thus nobody would essay conspiring against him, without jeopardizing their own estates, within the so unstable England.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Effectively, this strengthened William's political stand as a monarch.^ Effectively, this strengthened William's political stand as a monarch.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Effectively, this strengthened William's political stand, as a monarch.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.The medieval chronicler William of Malmesbury says that the king also seized and depopulated many miles of land (36 parishes), turning it into the royal New Forest region to support his enthusiastic enjoyment of hunting.^ William refused with many pithy sayings.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nonetheless, William was enthusiastic for hunting so, after conquering England, many miles of land (36 parishes) were seized by William, who expelled its inhabitants, becoming the royal New Forest region (1079) for practicing this sport regularly.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The medieval chronicler William of Malmesbury says that the king also seized and depopulated many miles of land (36 parishes), turning it into the royal New Forest region to support his enthusiastic enjoyment of hunting.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] .Modern historians, however, have come to the conclusion that the New Forest depopulation was greatly exaggerated.^ Modern historians, however, have come to the conclusion that the New Forest depopulation was greatly exaggerated.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As to that forest there is a good deal of ancient exaggeration and a good deal of modern misconception.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 3/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William also seized and depopulated many miles of land (36 parishes), turning it into the royal New Forest region to support his enthusiastic enjoyment of hunting.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most of the lands of the New Forest are poor agricultural lands, and archaeological and geographic studies have shown that the New Forest was likely sparsely settled when it was turned into a royal forest.^ Most of the lands of the New Forest are poor agricultural lands, and archaeological and geographic studies have shown that the New Forest was likely sparsely settled when it was turned into a royal forest.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nonetheless, William was enthusiastic for hunting so, after conquering England, many miles of land (36 parishes) were seized by William, who expelled its inhabitants, becoming the royal New Forest region (1079) for practicing this sport regularly.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides certain distinguished converts like Tremellius and Philip Ferdinand , the most remarkable visitor was Joachim Gaunse , who introduced new methods of mining into England .

[12]

Death, burial, and succession

Coin of William I of England.
.In 1087 in France, William burned Mantes (50 km west of Paris), besieging the town.^ In July 1087 William besieged the town of Mantes.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1087 in France, William burned Mantes (50 km west of Paris), besieging the town.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Death, burial, and succession In 1087 in France, William burned Mantes (50 km west of Paris), besieging the town.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, he fell off his horse, suffering fatal abdominal injuries from the saddle pommel.^ However, he fell off his horse, suffering fatal abdominal injuries, by the saddle pommel.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, he fell off his horse, suffering fatal abdominal injuries from the saddle pommel.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As his horse jumped over a ditch William received an injury from the pommel of his saddle which ripped into his stomach.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

.On his deathbed, William divided his succession for his sons, sparking strife between them.^ On his deathbed, William divided his succession for his sons, sparking strife between them.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his deathbed, William divided his succession for his sons questionably (Rebellion of 1088, between both heirs).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There he summoned his younger sons, William and Henry, to his deathbed.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Despite William's reluctance, his combative elder son Robert received the Duchy of Normandy, as Robert II.^ Robert became duke of Normandy and William II became king of England.
  • ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His three elder sons, Robert, Richard, and William, still resided in Normandy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - IV: WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR - The History of England, vol. 1 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the reluctant William, the conflictive elder son Robert received the Normandy's dukedom, as Robert III (1087).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.William Rufus (his third son) was next English king, as William II.^ William Rufus (third son) was next English king, as William II (1087).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William of Malmesbury records that he was the third son of King William I[68].
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite William's reluctance, his combative elder son Robert received the Duchy of Normandy, as Robert II. William Rufus (his third son) was next English king, as William II. William's youngest son Henry received 5,000 silver pounds, which would be earmarked to buy land.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.William's youngest son Henry received 5,000 silver pounds, which would be earmarked to buy land.^ William's youngest son Henry received 5000 silver pounds, which would be earmarked to buy land.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite William's reluctance, his combative elder son Robert received the Duchy of Normandy, as Robert II. William Rufus (his third son) was next English king, as William II. William's youngest son Henry received 5,000 silver pounds, which would be earmarked to buy land.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To Henry, the youngest son, later destined to inherit all his dominions, he left 5,000 silver pounds.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.He also became King Henry I of England after William II died without issue.^ Two other sons, William and Henry, Succeeded William as kings of England.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ She died without issue.
  • Online Library of Liberty - IV: WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR - The History of England, vol. 1 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ July 1189 Henry II King of England|b.
  • Order of the Crown of Charlemagne In the United States of America - Person Page 33 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.charlemagne.org [Source type: Original source]

.While on his deathbed, William pardoned many of his political adversaries, including Odo.^ While on his deathbed, William pardoned many of his political adversaries, including Odo.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also during his deathbed, William pardoned many of his political adversaries (among whom Odo was).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the numbers on each side were about equal, William had both cavalry and infantry, including many archers, while Harold had only foot soldiers and few if any archers.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.William died at age 59 at the Convent of St Gervais in Rouen, capital city of Normandie, France, on 9 September 1087. William was buried in the Abbaye-aux-Hommes, which he had erected, in Caen, Normandy.^ William was buried in the Abbaye-aux-Hommes, which he had erected, in Caen, Normandy.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He died on 9 September 1087 at Priory of St. Gervais, Rouen, Caux, France , from wounds received while fighting.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10203 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She died on 3 July 1126 at Caen, Normandy, France .
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10203 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is said that Herluin, his stepfather, loyally bore his body to his grave.^ It is said that Herluin, his step-father, loyally bore his body to his grave.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.The original owner of the land on which the church was built claimed he had not been paid yet, demanding 60 shillings, which William's son Henry had to pay on the spot.^ According to some sources, a fire broke out during the funeral; the original owner of the land on which the church was built claimed he had not been paid yet, demanding 60 shillings, which William's son Henry had to pay on the spot; and, in a most unregal postmortem, William's now corpulent body would not fit in the stone sarcophagus.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William's son Henry.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The original owner of the land on which the church was built claimed he had not been paid yet, demanding 60 shillings, which William's son Henry had to pay on the spot.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.In a most unregal postmortem, it was found that William's corpulent body would not fit in the stone sarcophagus as his body had bloated due to the warm weather and length of time that had passed since his death.^ In a most unregal postmortem, it was found that William's corpulent body would not fit in the stone sarcophagus as his body had bloated due to the warm weather and length of time that had passed since his death.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I wanted Neil but he's wanted William every since he read a dumb book about a William who conquered some peasants in Europe a long time ago."
  • A CONVERSATION WITH WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR - An Abortion Story 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC brevia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to some sources, a fire broke out during the funeral; the original owner of the land on which the church was built claimed he had not been paid yet, demanding 60 shillings, which William's son Henry had to pay on the spot; and, in a most unregal postmortem, William's now corpulent body would not fit in the stone sarcophagus.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.A group of bishops applied pressure on the king's abdomen to force the body downward but the abdominal wall burst and putrefaction drenched the king's coffin "filling the church with a foul smell". William's grave is currently marked by a marble slab with a Latin inscription; the slab dates from the early 19th century.^ A group of bishops applied pressure on the king's abdomen to force the body downward but the abdominal wall burst and putrefaction drenched the king's coffin "filling the church with a foul smell".
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We mark also William's relations to the Church.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William's grave is currently marked by a marble slab with a Latin inscription, the slab dates from the early 19th century.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.The grave was defiled twice, once during the French Wars of Religion, when his bones were scattered across the town of Caen, and again during the French Revolution.^ The grave was defiled twice, once during the French Wars of Religion, when his bones were scattered across the town of Caen, and again during the French Revolution.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The grave was defiled twice, once during the French Wars of Religion, when his bones were scattered across the town of Caen and again during the French Revolution.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His grave has since been desecrated twice, in the course of the French Wars of Religion his bones were scattered across Caen, and during the tumultuous events of the French Revolution, the Conqueror's tomb was again despoiled.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following those events, only William's left femur, some skin particles and bone dust remain in the tomb.^ Following those events, only William's left femur, some skin particles and bone dust remain in the tomb.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following those events, only William's left femur remains in the tomb.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Normandy was handed over to his eldest son Robert, William Rufus became king of England after him, and the third remaining son, Henry, was left 5,000 pounds in silver.
  • William the Conqueror, Part 1 - The Gold Scales 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC oaks.nvg.org [Source type: Original source]

Legacy

Silver penny of William I, c.1075, moneyer Oswold, at the mint of Lewes.
.William's invasion was the last time that England was successfully conquered by a foreign power.^ Legacy William's invasion was the last time that England was successfully conquered by a foreign power.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William's invasion was the last time that England was successfully conquered by a foreign power.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I wanted Neil but he's wanted William every since he read a dumb book about a William who conquered some peasants in Europe a long time ago."
  • A CONVERSATION WITH WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR - An Abortion Story 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC brevia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although there would be a number of other attempts over the centuries, the best that could be achieved would be excursions by foreign troops, such as the Raid on the Medway during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, but no actual conquests such as William's.^ There was no serious council of war.
  • JACKALS IN IRON:an historical novel of William the Conqueror & the battle of Hastings 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC larsen-family.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Although there would be a number of other attempts over the centuries, the best that could be achieved would be excursions by foreign troops, such as the Raid on the Medway during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, but no actual conquests such as William's.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On no other point is there any agreement.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.There have however been occasions since that time when foreign rulers have succeeded to the English/British throne, notably the Dutch Stadtholder William III of Orange who in 1688, with his Dutch army, was invited by prominent English politicians to invade England with the intention of deposing the Catholic King James II (see Glorious Revolution) and George of Hanover b.^ The Battle of the Boyne was fought between William of Orange and Catholic King James II in 1690.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ William's claims to the English throne.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There have however been occasions since that time when foreign rulers have succeeded to the English/British throne, notably the Dutch Stadtholder William III of Orange who in 1688, with his Dutch army, was invited by prominent English politicians to invade England with the intention of deposing the Catholic king James II (see Glorious Revolution) and George of Hanover b.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.1660, who acceded by virtue of the exclusion of Roman Catholics from the succession.^ Roman Catholics from the succession.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.As Duke of Normandy and King of England he divided his realm among his sons, but the lands were reunited under his son Henry, and his descendants acquired other territories through marriage or conquest and, at their height, these possessions would be known as the Angevin Empire.^ Two other sons, William and Henry, Succeeded William as kings of England.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Titles: King of England, Duke of Normandy (until 1259) and Aquitaine.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The marriage produced six chidren including King Henry V of England .
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They included many lands in France, such as Normandy and Aquitaine, but the question of jurisdiction over these territories would be the cause of much conflict and bitter rivalry between England and France, which took up much of the Middle Ages, including the Hundred Years War.^ They included many lands in France, such as Normandy and Aquitaine, but the question of jurisdiction over these territories would be the cause of much conflict and bitter rivalry between England and France, which took up much of the Middle Ages, including the Hundred Years War and, some might argue, continued as far as the Battle of Waterloo of 1815.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Death of William I The last year of William's life was spent fighting in Normandy, in battle for the Vexin, a much disputed territory, which lay between Normandy and France.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It had been very difficult, they said, for many years, for the kings of France to maintain any effectual authority over the dukes of Normandy, and when once master of so distant and powerful a realm as England, all control over them would be sundered forever.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.An example of William's legacy even in modern times can be seen on the Bayeux Memorial, a monument erected by Britain in the Normandy town of Bayeux to those killed in the Battle of Normandy during World War II.^ An example of William's legacy even in modern times can be seen on the Bayeux Memorial, a monument erected by Britain in the Normandy town of Bayeux to those killed in the Battle of Normandy during World War II. A Latin inscription on the memorial reads NOS A GULIELMO VICTI VICTORIS PATRIAM LIBERAVIMUS – freely translated, this reads "We, once conquered by William, have now set free the Conqueror's native land".
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An example of William's legacy even in modern times can be seen on the Bayeux Memorial, a monument erected by Britain in the Normandy town of Bayeux to those killed in the Battle of Normandy during World War II. A Latin inscription on the memorial reads NOS A GULIELMO VICTI VICTORIS PATRIAM LIBERAVIMUS - freely translated, this reads "We, once conquered by William, have now set free the Conqueror's native land" .
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a curious illustration of the feudal feelings of those times in respect to the gradation of ranks, or else of the extraordinary modesty and good sense of William's character, that he assumed no airs of superiority over his sovereign, and showed no signs of extravagant elation after this battle.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

A Latin inscription on the memorial reads NOS A GULIELMO VICTI VICTORIS PATRIAM LIBERAVIMUS – freely translated, this reads "We, once conquered by William, have now set free the Conqueror's native land".[14]
.The numbering scheme of the English (or British) Crown regards William as the Founder of the State of England.^ Unluckily we know nothing of the state of feeling in England while William was plotting and pleading beyond the sea.
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He obtained, he said, a promise from Edward that Edward would sanction and confirm his claim to the English crown, in the event of his decease, by bequeathing it to William in his will.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Initially, Harold opposed William with a large army on the south coast of England and a fleet of ships guarding the English Channel.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.This explains, among other things, why King Edward I was "the First" even though he ruled long after the Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor.^ As duke and king, as prior, abbot, and archbishop, William and Lanfranc ruled side by side, each helping the work of the other till the end of their joint lives.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The feudal lords were compelled to acknowledge the jurisdiction of the local courts, which William retained along with many other Anglo-Saxon institutions.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ King Edward offered a reward for their deaths, and is rumoured to have even carried a knife in his hose with which to kill his wife.
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Physical appearance

.No authentic portrait of William has been found.^ No authentic portrait of William has been found.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Physical appearance No authentic portrait of William has been found.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We may be sure therefore that some promise was made; for that promise a time must be found, and no time seems possible except this time of William's visit to Edward.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror by E.A. Freeman - Readings on Pat Patterson's Pages 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC patp.us [Source type: Original source]

.Nonetheless, he was depicted as a man of fair stature with remarkably strong arms, "with which he could shoot a bow at full gallop". William showed a magnificent appearance, possessing a fierce countenance.^ Nonetheless, he was depicted as a man of fair stature with remarkably strong arms, "with which he could shoot a bow at full gallop".
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nonetheless, he was depicted, as a man of fair stature, with remarkably strong arms, "with which he could shoot a bow at full gallop".
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William showed a magnificent appearance, possessing a fierce countenance.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.He enjoyed excellent health until old age; nevertheless his noticeable corpulence in later life increased eventually so much that French King Philip I commented that William looked like a pregnant woman.^ He enjoyed excellent health until old age; nevertheless his noticeable corpulence in later life increased eventually so much that French King Philip I commented that William looked like a pregnant woman.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He enjoyed an excellent health nevertheless his noticeable corpulence augmented eventually so much that the French king Philip I commented that William looked just like a pregnant woman.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I'd like to look the old place over."
  • The Mighty Conqueror -- 58-0610 -- Sermon preached by William Branham 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC nathan.co.za [Source type: Original source]

[15] .Examination of his femur, the only bone to survive when the rest of his remains were destroyed, showed he was approximately 5' 10" tall which was around two inches taller than the average for the 11th century.^ Examination of his femur, the only bone to survive when the rest of his remains were destroyed, showed he was approximately 5' 10" tall which was around two inches taller than the average for the 11th century.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The rings of Uranus were discovered almost two centuries earlier than is commonly thought, according to new research by a British scientist.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ Following those events, only William's left femur, some skin particles and bone dust remain in the tomb.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

[16]

Ancestors

Descendants

Family tree
.William is known to have had nine children, though Matilda, a tenth daughter who died a virgin, appears in some sources.^ Descendants Family tree William is known to have had nine children, though Agatha, a tenth daughter who died a virgin, appears in some sources.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They had seven daughters: Agnes Ferrers (died 11 May 1290), married William de Vesci.
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rival who in the end gave William most trouble was his cousin Guy of Burgundy, son of a daughter of his grandfather Richard the Good.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Several other unnamed daughters are also mentioned as being betrothed to notable figures of that time.^ Several other unnamed daughters are also mentioned as being betrothed to notable figures of that time.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The sources are contradictory concerning the name of the daughter betrothed to Harold Godwinson, as well as the timing of her death.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Matthew of Paris places her as the fifth daughter (unnamed) betrothed to "Aldefonso Galiciæ regi", but different from the daughter betrothed to Harold[89].
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Despite rumours to the contrary (such as claims that William Peverel was a bastard of William)[17] there is no evidence that he had any illegitimate children.^ Despite rumours to the contrary (such as claims that William Peverel was a bastard of William)[20] there is no evidence that he had any illegitimate children,[21] .
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are no laws of William Rufus.
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since he had no legitimate heir to succeed him, he persuaded his unruly barons to accept the illegitimate William as future Duke of Normandy.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

[18]
.
  1. Robert Curthose (1054–1134), Duke of Normandy, married Sybil of Conversano, daughter of Geoffrey of Conversano.
  2. Richard (c.^ Robert Curthose (1054–1134), Duke of Normandy, married Sybil of Conversano, daughter of Geoffrey of Conversano.
    • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Robert , sixth Duke of Normandy.
    • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Richard III. , fifth Duke of Normandy.
    • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    1055 – c. .1081), Duke of Bernay, killed by a stag in New Forest.
  3. Adeliza (or Alice) (c.^ Duke of Bernay, killed by a stag in New Forest.
    • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Florence of Worcester records that "Willelmi iunioris germanus Ricardus" was killed in the New Forest long before, when recording the death of his brother King William II[39].
    • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ GUILLAUME de Normandie ([1056/60]-killed in the New Forest 2 Aug 1100, bur Winchester Cathedral[67]).
    • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    1055 – c. .1065), reportedly betrothed to Harold II of England.
  4. Cecilia (or Cecily) (c.^ Harold II of England.
    • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    .1056–1126), Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen.
  5. William "Rufus" (c.^ ADELA de Normandie (Normandy [1066/67]-Marigney-sur-Loire 8 Mar 1138, bur Abbey of Holy Trinity, Caen).
    • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen.
    • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ CECILIA de Normandie (-Caen 3/13 Jul [1126/27], bur Caen, Abbey of Holy Trinity).
    • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    .1056–1100), King of England, killed by an arrow in New Forest.
  6. Agatha (c.^ King of England: 1100-1135.
    • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Eleanor was also the niece of the new king, Edward II of England , and this connection brought Hugh closer to the English royal court.
    • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thereafter he was joint Guardian of England, during the King's absence, and on the new King's arrival in England, in August 1274, entertained him at Tonbridge Castle .
    • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1064–1079), betrothed to Alfonso VI of Castile.
  7. Constance (c. .1066–1090), married Alan IV Fergent, Duke of Brittany; poisoned, possibly by her own servants.
  8. Adela (c.^ Alan IV Fergent, Duke of Brittany; poisoned, possibly by her own servants.
    • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ March 1275 ), married to John II, Duke of Brittany Edmund ( 16 January 1245 - d.
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    ^ Elizabeth Fitz-Alan would marry as her 2nd husband Thomas Mowbray, the Earl of Nottingham and later the Duke of Norfolk, in July of 1384.
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    .1067–1137), married Stephen, Count of Blois.
  9. Henry "Beauclerc" (1068–1135), King of England, married Edith of Scotland, daughter of Malcolm III, King of the Scots.^ King of England: 1135-1154.
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    ^ King of England: 1100-1135.
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    ^ First marriage On 11 November 1100 Henry married Edith , daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland.
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    His second wife was Adeliza of Leuven.

Depictions in drama, film and television

.William I has appeared as a character in only a few stage and screen productions.^ Fictional depictions William I has appeared as a character in only a few stage and screen productions.
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^ And the act surely makes, like the death of Waltheof, a downward stage in William's character.
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The last challenge to a single combat between Harold and William of course appears only on the eve of the battle.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The one-act play A Choice of Kings by John Mortimer deals with his deception of Harold after the latter's shipwreck.^ The one-act play A Choice of Kings by John Mortimer deals with his deception of Harold after the latter's shipwreck.
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^ Over the following years Arundel was one of the King's principal supporters, and after the capture of Roger Mortimer in 1322 he received a large part of the forfeited Mortimer estates.
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^ The king's half-brother John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter , Earl of Huntingdon accompanied him to the scaffold, as one of King Richard's representatives.
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.Julian Glover portrayed him in a 1966 TV adaptation of this play in the ITV Play of the Week series.^ Julian Glover portrayed him in a 1966 TV adaptation of this play in the ITV Play of the Week series.
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.William has also been portrayed on screen by Thayer Roberts in the 1955 film Lady Godiva of Coventry, John Carson in the 1965 BBC TV series Hereward the Wake, Alan Dobie in the two-part 1966 BBC TV play Conquest (part of the series Theatre 625), and Michael Gambon in the 1990 TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror.^ William has also been portrayed on screen by Thayer Roberts in the film Lady Godiva of Coventry (1955), John Carson in the BBC TV series Hereward the Wake (1965), Alan Dobie in the two-part BBC TV play Conquest (1966; part of the series Theatre 625), and Michael Gambon in the TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror (1990).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Here, for the first time, the strength of the English and Welsh longbowmen played their part in seriously weakening the Scots forces.
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^ The poignant scene for viewers who can stomach it is part of a controversial 40-episode TV drama, "Stalin Live," now airing on a nationwide network here.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

On a less serious note, he has been portrayed by David Lodge in a 1975 episode of the TV comedy series Carry On Laughing entitled "One in the Eye for Harold" and by James Fleet in the 1999 humorous BBC show The Nearly Complete and Utter History of Everything'

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b Bates, David (2001). William the Conqueror. Stroud, UK: Tempus. pp. 33. ISBN 0-7524-1980-3. 
  2. ^ Dr. Mike Ibeji (1 May 2001). "1066". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/1066_01.shtml. Retrieved 16 July 2007. 
  3. ^ Carpenter, David (2003) The Struggle for Mastery: Britain 1066-1284.
  4. ^ a b c Clark, George (1978) [1971]. "The Norman Conquest". English History: a survey. Oxford University Press/Book Club Associates. ISBN 0198223390. 
  5. ^ a b Carpenter, p. 72.
  6. ^ Rodger, N. A. M. The Safeguard of the Sea: a naval history of Britain, Vol 1: 660-1649, pp. 32–35.
  7. ^ J.D. Mackie, A History of Scotland (1964), page 45.
  8. ^ While English emerged as a popular vernacular and literary language within one hundred years of the Conquest, it was only in 1362 that King Edward III abolished the use of French in Parliament
  9. ^ Alexander Herman Schutz and Urban Tigner Holmes, A History of the French Language, Biblo and Tannen Publishers, 1938. pp. 44–45. ISBN 0819601918.
  10. ^ Douglas, David Charles. English Historical Documents, Routledge, 1996, p. 22. ISBN 0415143675.
  11. ^ Based on William of Malmesbury's Historia Anglorum.
    He was of just stature, ordinary corpulence, fierce countenance; his forehead was bare of hair; of such great strength of arm that it was often a matter of surprise, that no one was able to draw his bow, which himself could bend when his horse was in full gallop; he was majestic whether sitting or standing, although the protuberance of his belly deformed his royal person; of excellent health so that he was never confined with any dangerous disorder, except at the last; so given to the pleasures of the chase, that as I have before said, ejecting the inhabitants, he let a space of many miles grow desolate that, when at liberty from other avocations, he might there pursue his pleasures.
    See English Monarch: The House of Normandy.
  12. ^ Young, Charles R. (1979). The Royal Forests of Medieval England. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-8122-7760-0. 
  13. ^ Freeman, Edward A., William the Conqueror (1902), p. 276-277
  14. ^ Bayeux Memorial
  15. ^ Spartacus Schoolnet, retrieved 17 July 2007.
  16. ^ The Year of the Conqueror by Alan Lloyd
  17. ^ The Conqueror and His Companions (J.R Planche 1874)
  18. ^ William "the Conqueror" (Guillaume "le Conquérant").

Further reading

.
  • Douglas, David C. (1999) William the Conqueror; the Norman impact upon England, Yale English monarchs series, London : Yale University Press, 476 p., ISBN 0-300-07884-6
  • Howarth, David (1977) 1066 The Year of the Conquest, London : Collins, 207 p., ISBN 0-00-211845-9
  • Prescott, Hilda F.M. (1932) Son of Dust, reprinted 1978: London : White Lion, 288 p. ISBN 0-85617-239-1
  • Savage, Anne (transl.^ She remained in England for a year, accompanying William on his tour of conquest.
    • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ William's conquest of England took place in 1066.
    • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Further reading * Douglas, David C. (1999) William the Conqueror; the Norman impact upon England, Yale English monarchs series, London : Yale University Press, 476 p., ISBN 0-300-07884-6 * Howarth, David (1977) 1066 The Year of the Conquest, London : Collins, 207 p., ISBN 0-00-211845-9 * Prescott, Hilda F.M. (1932) Son of Dust, reprinted 1978: London : White Lion, 288 p.
    • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    and coll.) .(2002) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, London : Greenwich Editions, 288 p., ISBN 0-86288-440-3
  • Wensby-Scott, Carol.^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, London : Greenwich Editions, 288 p., ISBN 0-86288-440-3 * Wensby-Scott, Carol.
    • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

    (1984) Proud Conquest, London : Futura Publications, 240 p., IBSN 0-7088-2620-2

External links

William the Conqueror
Born: 1028 Died: 9 September 1087
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Edgar Ætheling
King of England
1066–1087
Succeeded by
William II
French nobility
Preceded by
Robert the Magnificent
Duke of Normandy
1035–1087
Succeeded by
Robert Curthose

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

William of England 
Birth September 9, 1027 in "Falaise"
Death: 1087 in "Rouen"
Father: Robert II, Duke of Normandy (c1000-1035)
Mother: Herleva of Falaise (1003)
Wife: Matilda of Flanders (c1031-1083)
Wedding: 1051
Sex:
AFN # 8XHZ-SV
Edit facts
.William the conqueror, first Norman king of England.^ William the Conqueror, King of England (1024 - 1087) - Genealogy - Geni William the Conqueror, King of England (1024 - 1087) .
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^ View Complete Profile View William the Conqueror, King of England's complete profile: .
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^ He was the first Norman king of England, also duke of Normandy, who has been called one of the first modern kings and is generally regarded as one of the outstanding figures in western European history.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

Biography

.William of England was born 9 September 1027 to Robert II, Duke of Normandy (c1000-1035) and Herleva of Falaise (1003-1050) and died 1087 at the age of 59 years of unspecified causes.^ William was born in England.
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^ William was born in 1369 and died on 1 Sep 1414 at age 45.
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^ William died in 1087 leaving Normandy to his eldest son, Robert, and England to his second son, William II Rufus (reigned 1087-1100).
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.William married Matilda 1051 .^ William married Matilda , of Flanders 2 3 in 1053 in Cathedral de Notre Dame, Normandie, France.
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^ Against the wishes of Pope Leo IX, William married Matilda of Flanders in 1053 in the chapel at Eu, Normandy (Seine-Maritime).
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^ Archbishop Thomas Becket refused to allow William to marry the Countess of Surrey and the young man fled to Matilda's court at Rouen.
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.
William I, King of England, Duke of Normandy was a mediæval monarch.
^ Since he had no legitimate heir to succeed him, he persuaded his unruly barons to accept the illegitimate William as future Duke of Normandy.
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^ He was the first Norman king of England, also duke of Normandy, who has been called one of the first modern kings and is generally regarded as one of the outstanding figures in western European history.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Against the King William made ready to act himself; eastern Normandy was left to its own loyal nobles.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
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.He ruled as the Duke of Normandy from 1035 to 1087 and as King of England from 1066 to 1087. As Duke of Normandy, William was known as William II, and, as King of England, as William I. He is commonly refered to as William the Conqueror (Guillaume le Conquérant) or William the Bastard (Guillaume le Bâtard).^ In particular, before his conquest of England, he was known as "William the Bastard" (French: Guillaume le Bâtard) because of the illegitimacy of his birth.
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^ Titles: King of England, Duke of Normandy (until 1259) and Aquitaine.
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^ William then came to England a mere duke and went back to Normandy a king expectant.
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.The name "William the Bastard", a name used by his enemies arose from the fact that his mother was a Tanner's daughter who agreed to be his father Robert II's mistress.^ His mother, Herleva or Arletta, was Robert's mistress.
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^ Another name for William was William II Longespe.
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^ William and Robert agreed that if either of them died childless, then the survivor would succeed.
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She demanded that their relationship not be secret, and had a position in court. After the affair was over, she married a Viscount. .William retained the favour of his father and when Robert II left for the Holy Land, he forced his lords to pledge fealty to William.^ In 1096 Robert of Normandy had joined the Crusade to the Holy Land and had pledged the duchy to William.
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^ But the lords had armed force of the land at their bidding.
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^ Robert determines to visit the Holy Land.
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.Robert II never returned from the Holy land and the oath was quickly forgotten, and intrigue surrounded the boy Duke.^ Robert determines to visit the Holy Land.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On his return journey from the Holy Land Robert died suddenly and the young William succeeded to the Dukedom by his father's will.
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^ In 1096 Robert of Normandy had joined the Crusade to the Holy Land and had pledged the duchy to William.
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.William's guardian Gilbert of Brionne was murdered, as was his tutor, as was his uncle Osbern- killed while protecting William from kidnappers found in his bedroom.^ William's guardians were murdered in succession.
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^ And he entrusted the command to a man who will soon be memorable, his personal friend William, son of his old guardian Osbern.
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^ After Duke Alan was poisoned, Gilbert Comte d'Eu was appointed guardian but was himself murdered[241].
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.William was sent away from home for his protection, and it was common practice for William's uncle Walter to awaken him in the night to move him to a new location.^ Henry VII appointed Sir William Stanley the Lord Chamberlain and Knight of the Garter and granted him additional lands that made him the richest commoner in England.
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^ But William sent no force with the new earl, who had to take possession as he could.
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^ Meanwhile, William submitted his claim to the English throne to Pope Alexander II, who sent him a consecrated banner in support.
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.By age fifteen, William was knighted, and by twenty he went to war against his cousin Guy of Normandy to defend his title of Duke of Normandy.^ William was knighted by Henry at the age of 15.
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^ Since he had no legitimate heir to succeed him, he persuaded his unruly barons to accept the illegitimate William as future Duke of Normandy.
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^ Against the King William made ready to act himself; eastern Normandy was left to its own loyal nobles.
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.With the help of King Henri I of France, he subdued his enemies who were forced to swear allegiance to William.^ William was supported by King Henry I of France, however.
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^ But he was driven from Dol by the combined forces of Britanny and France; Philip was ready to help any enemy of William.
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^ King Henry allowed Harnec to blind and mutilate Eustace's two daughters, who were also Henry's own grandchildren.
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.William asked for the hand of Matilda, daughter of Count Baldwin V of Flanders, but Matilda would have none of it.^ William's authority increased when he married Matilda, the daughter of Baldwin V, count of Flanders, a powerful ruler whose acceptance of William as a suitable son-in-law showed that William had risen above the trials of his youth.
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^ William negotiated a marriage in 1049 to Matilda, a descendant of the old Saxon House of Wessex and daughter of Baldwin, Count of Flanders and Adela, daughter of Robert II, King of France.
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^ In William's doubtful position, a marriage with the daughter of the Count of Flanders would be useful to him in many ways; and Matilda won her husband's abiding love and trust.
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.Purportedly, she was in love with the English ambassador to Flanders, a Saxon named Brihtric, who declined her advances.^ So Plantagenet became the dynastic name of that powerful line of English kings who descended from Matilda and Geoffrey.
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^ There had been sent to her father's court in Flanders, from the English king, a young Saxon embassador, whose name was Brihtric.
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^ It was reported that on his deathbed he had nominated Harold as his successor who was duly accepted as King by the Saxon Witangemot or council of elders, which traditionally elected the next English King.
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.As for William, she told his emissary that she was far too high-born (being descended from King Alfred the Great of England) to consider marrying a bastard.^ Rohese of England, born 1114; married William de Tracy (b.
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^ In 1053, defying a papal ban, William married a descendant of King Alfred the Great, thereby strengthening his claim to the crown of England.
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^ Two other sons, William and Henry, Succeeded William as kings of England.
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.When that was repeated to him, William, all of 5'10", rode from Normandy to Bruges, found Matilda on her way to church, dragged her off her horse (some said by her long braids), threw her down in the street in front of her flabbergasted attendants, and then rode off.^ It was at an interview which William had with Matilda in the streets of Bruges, one of her father's cities.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since he had no legitimate heir to succeed him, he persuaded his unruly barons to accept the illegitimate William as future Duke of Normandy.
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^ William married Matilda , of Flanders 2 3 in 1053 in Cathedral de Notre Dame, Normandie, France.
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.Another version states that William rode to Matilda's father's house in Lille, threw her to the ground in her room (again, by the braids), and hit her (or violently shook her) before leaving.^ Not long after, in 1060, the King died, leaving his young son Philip, who had been already crowned, as his successor, under the guardianship of William's father-in-law Baldwin.
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^ Her brother died young in the White ship disaster , leaving Matilda as the last heir from the paternal line of her grandfather William the Conqueror .
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^ Lanfranc was the messenger whom he employed—the same Lanfranc who had been so successful, some years before, in the negotiations at Rome connected with the confirmation of William and Matilda's marriage.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.William convinced Matilda to relent, but the pope opposed the marriage because they were distant cousins.^ In repentance for what was a consanguine marriage (they were distant cousins), William donated St-Stephen's church (l'Abbaye-aux-Hommes) and Matilda donated Sainte-Trinité church (Abbaye aux Dames).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Against the wishes of Pope Leo IX, William married Matilda of Flanders in 1053 in the chapel at Eu, Normandy (Seine-Maritime).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Against the wishes of Pope Leo IX, William married Matilda of Flanders in 1053 in the Cathedral of Notre Dame at Eu, Normandy (Seine-Maritime).
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.For a period of time all of Normandy was excommunicated along with their duke because William disregarded the pope's advice and married Matilda.^ Since he had no legitimate heir to succeed him, he persuaded his unruly barons to accept the illegitimate William as future Duke of Normandy.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William married Matilda , of Flanders 2 3 in 1053 in Cathedral de Notre Dame, Normandie, France.
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ William was the illegitimate son of Robert I, duke of Normandy and Arletta, a tanner's daughter.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

In return for the construction of two abbeys, the excommunication of Normandy was lifted.
.In 1051, William visited his cousin Edward the Confessor, king of England.^ William was the son of Edward the Confessor's first cousin.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

^ During a visit in 1051 to his childless cousin, Edward the Confessor, king of England, William is said to have obtained Edward's agreement that he should succeed to the English throne.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1051, William visited England.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.Edward was childless, and William's account is that the king made him his heir.^ We may be sure therefore that some promise was made; for that promise a time must be found, and no time seems possible except this time of William's visit to Edward.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since he had no legitimate heir to succeed him, he persuaded his unruly barons to accept the illegitimate William as future Duke of Normandy.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Against the King William made ready to act himself; eastern Normandy was left to its own loyal nobles.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to supporters of William, Edward sent his brother in law Harold Godwinson to see William in 1063. Other accounts say that Harold was shipwrecked.^ In 1064, Harold, Edward's brother-in-law, was shipwrecked on the Norman coast and was taken prisoner.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From Wikipedia - Robert Puleston : Robert Puleston was a brother-in-law and supporter of Owain Glyndwr , at the time of his rebellion against King Henry IV of England in the early 1400s and afterwards.
  • Descendants of WILLIAM the Conqueror (c.1028-1087) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.ffish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But we see that William's generalship was equal to his statesmanship, and that it was met by equal generalship on the side of Harold.
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.All accounts agree that William refused to let Harold depart until he swore on holy relics that he would uphold William's claim to the throne of England, and agreed to marry his daughter (then an infant) Agatha.^ William's claims to the English throne.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Claim of William to the throne.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of William the Conqueror, Makers of History Series, by Jacob Abbott. 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward had previously agreed with Alexander III that the young queen would marry his son and heir Edward (later Edward II) which he hoped would lead to the union of England and Scotland.
  • william the conqueror genealog 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.themolloys.net [Source type: Original source]

.After winning his release, Harold reneged on both promises.^ According to Eadmer of Canterbury, the reason for Harold's visit was to negotiate the release of his brother Wulfnoth and nephew Haakon, both of whom had been hostages in Normandy since 1051.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.In support of his claim to the English crown, William invaded England in 1066, leading an army of Normans to victory over the Anglo-Saxon forces of Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings, and suppressed subsequent English revolts| in what has become known as the Norman Conquest.^ To press his claim to the English crown, William invaded England in 1066, leading an army of Normans, Bretons, Flemings, and Frenchmen to victory over the English forces of King Harold Godwinson (who died in the conflict) at the Battle of Hastings, and suppressed subsequent English revolts in what has become known as the Norman Conquest.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 14th October, the Saxon and Norman forces clashed in the fateful Battle of Hastings.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William the Conqueror crossed over from Normandy, defeating Harold at the Battle of Hastings.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

.His reign brought Norman culture to England, which had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages.^ His reign, which brought Norman-French culture to England, had an impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His reign, which brought Norman culture to England, had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His reign brought Norman culture to England, which had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition to political changes, his reign also saw changes to English law, a programme of building and fortification, changes in the English language and the introduction of continental European feudalism into England.^ Guls comments suggest that change is not far away; the government consulted civic organizations last year about revisions to the language of the law.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ The question was one of English law and of nothing else, a matter for the Witan of England and for no other judges.
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Here William not only added but changed; on one point he even proclaimed that the existing law of England was bad.
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

For additional details beyond William's family history, see more here.

Residence at Falaise

.In Falaise France, is a series of statues that pays tribute to the six Norman Dukes from Rollo to William Conqueror.^ But French as the Normans of William's day had become, their relation to the kings and people of France was not a friendly one.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At some unrecorded time, but at a time which must come within these years, Harold Earl of the West-Saxons became the guest and the man of William Duke of the Normans.
  • William the Conqueror by E. A. Freeman - Full Text Free Book (Part 1/3) 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • William the Conqueror / Freeman, E. A., 1823-1892 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Early life William was born in Falaise, Normandy, the illegitimate and only son of Robert I, Duke of Normandy, who named him as heir to Normandy.
  • http://www.geni.com/people/William-the-Conqueror-King-of-England/5597380726000028489 3 February 2010 18:44 UTC www.geni.com [Source type: Original source]

The castle here was the principal residence of the Norman Knights.
Château Guillaume-le-Conquérant Place Guillaume le Conquérant / 14700 Falaise / Tel: 02 31 41 61 44

Children


Offspring of  William of England and Matilda of Flanders (c1031-1083)
Name Birth Death
Robert III, Duke of Normandy (c1051-1134) 1051 in "Normandy" February 10, 1134 in "Cardiff Castle, Glamorganshire, Wales"
Richard of Normandy (c1054) 1054 in Normandy 1081 in New Forest, Hampshire
Adeliza of Normandy (c1055) 1055 in Normandy 1065
Cecilia of Normandy (c1055) 1055 in Normandy July 30, 1126 in Caen
William II of England (c1056-1100) in "Normandy" August 2, 1100 in "New Forest"
Adela of Normandy (c1062) 1062 in "Normandy" March 8, 1138 in "Marcigny, Saône-et-Loire"
Agatha of Normandy (c1064) 1129
Constance of Normandy (c1066)
Henry I, King of England (1068-1135) June 13, 1068 in Selby, Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom December 1, 1135 in Lyons-la-Forêt, Eure, France
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Citations and remarks

‡ General
  • Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973 , Reference: 193, 310
  • wikipedia:en:William_I_of_England

Contributors

 John Kenney

This article uses material from the "William I, King of England (1027-1087)" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

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