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Willow
Salix alba 'Vitellina-Tristis'
Morton Arboretum acc. 58-95*1
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Salicaceae
Tribe: Saliceae[1]
Genus: Salix
L.
Species

About 400.[2]
See List of Salix species

Willows, sallows, and osiers form the genus Salix, around 400 species[2] of deciduous trees and shrubs, found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called osier, and some broader-leaved species are referred to as sallow (derived from the Latin word salix, willow). Some willows (particularly arctic and alpine species) are low-growing or creeping shrubs; for example the Dwarf Willow (Salix herbacea) rarely exceeds 6 cm (2 in) in height, though spreading widely across the ground.

Willows are very cross-fertile, and numerous hybrids occur, both naturally and in cultivation. A well-known ornamental example is the Weeping Willow (Salix × sepulcralis), which is a hybrid of Peking Willow (Salix babylonica) from China and White Willow (Salix alba) from Europe.

Contents

Description

Willows all have abundant watery bark, sap which is heavily charged with salicylic acid, soft, usually pliant, tough wood, slender branches, and large, fibrous, often stoloniferous roots. The roots are remarkable for their toughness, size, and tenacity to life, and roots readily grow from aerial parts of the plant.

The leaves are typically elongated but may also be round to oval, frequently with a serrated margin. Most species are deciduous; semi-evergreen willows with coriaceous leaves are rare, e.g. Salix micans and S. australior in the eastern Mediterranean. All the buds are lateral; no absolutely terminal bud is ever formed. The buds are covered by a single scale, enclosing at its base two minute opposite buds, alternately arranged, with two small, opposite, scale-like leaves. This first pair soon fall, and the later leaves are alternately arranged. The leaves are simple, feather-veined, and typically linear-lanceolate. Usually they are serrate, rounded at base, acute or acuminate. The leaf petioles are short, the stipules often very conspicuous, looking like tiny round leaves and sometimes remaining for half the summer. On some species, however, they are small, inconspicuous, and fugacious (soon falling). In color the leaves show a great variety of greens, ranging from yellowish to bluish.

Flowers

Willows are dioecious with male and female flowers appearing as catkins on different plants; the catkins are produced early in the spring, often before the leaves, or as the new leaves open.

The staminate (male) flowers are without either calyx or corolla; they consist simply of stamens, varying in number from two to ten, accompanied by a nectariferous gland and inserted on the base of a scale which is itself borne on the rachis of a drooping raceme called a catkin, or ament. This scale is oval and entire and very hairy. The anthers are rose colored in the bud but orange or purple after the flower opens, they are two-celled and the cells open longitudinally. The filaments are threadlike, usually pale yellow, and often hairy.

The pistillate (female) flowers are also without calyx or corolla; and consist of a single ovary accompanied by a small flat nectar gland and inserted on the base of a scale which is likewise borne on the rachis of a catkin. The ovary is one-celled, the style two-lobed, and the ovules numerous.

Fruit

Open capsules of Salix cinerea with seeds and hairs

The fruit is a small, one-celled, two-valved, cylindrical beaked capsule containing numerous tiny (0.1 mm) seeds. The seeds are furnished with long, silky, white hairs, which allow the fruit to be widely dispersed by the wind.

Cultivation

Almost all willows take root very readily from cuttings or where broken branches lie on the ground. There are a few exceptions, including the Goat Willow (Salix caprea) and Peachleaf Willow (Salix amygdaloides). One famous example of such growth from cuttings involves the poet Alexander Pope, who begged a twig from a parcel tied with twigs sent from Spain to Lady Suffolk. This twig was planted and thrived, and legend has it that all of England's weeping willows are descended from this first one.[3]

Willows are often planted on the borders of streams so that their interlacing roots may protect the bank against the action of the water. Frequently the roots are much larger than the stem which grows from them.

Ecological issues

Willows are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species - see list of Lepidoptera that feed on willows.

A number of willow species were widely planted in Australia, notably as erosion control measures along watercourses. They are now regarded as an invasive weed and many catchment management authorities are removing them to be replaced with native trees.[4][5]

Willow roots grow widespread and are very aggressive in seeking out moisture; for this reason, they can become problematic when planted in residential areas, where the roots are notorious for clogging French drains, drainage systems, weeping tiles, septic systems, storm drains, and sewer systems, particularly older, tile, concrete, or ceramic pipes. Newer, PVC sewer pipes are much less leaky at the joints, and are therefore less susceptible to problems from willow roots; the same is true of water supply piping.[6][7]

Uses

Medicine

The leaves and bark of the willow tree have been mentioned in ancient texts from Assyria, Sumer and Egypt[8] as a remedy for aches and fever,[9] and the Ancient Greek physician Hippocrates wrote about its medicinal properties in the 5th century BC. Native Americans across the American continent relied on it as a staple of their medical treatments. This is because it contains salicylic acid, the precursor to aspirin.

In 1763 its medicinal properties were observed by the Reverend Edward Stone in England. He notified the Royal Society who published his findings. The active extract of the bark, called salicin, was isolated to its crystalline form in 1828 by Henri Leroux, a French pharmacist, and Raffaele Piria, an Italian chemist, who then succeeded in separating out the acid in its pure state. Salicin is acidic when in a saturated solution in water (pH = 2.4), and is called salicylic acid for that reason.

In 1897 Felix Hoffmann created a synthetically altered version of salicin (in his case derived from the Spiraea plant), which caused less digestive upset than pure salicylic acid. The new drug, formally Acetylsalicylic acid, was named Aspirin by Hoffmann's employer Bayer AG. This gave rise to the hugely important class of drugs known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Manufacturing

Willow wood is also used in the manufacture of boxes, brooms, cricket bats (grown from certain strains of white willow), cradle boards, chairs and other furniture, dolls, flutes, poles, sweat lodges, toys, turnery, tool handles, veneer, wands and whistles.

In addition tannin, fibre, paper, rope and string, can be produced from the wood. Willows are also popular for wicker (often from osiers), which is used in basket weaving, fish traps, wattle fences and wattle and daub.

Agriculture

Willow bark contains auxins (plant growth hormones), especially those used for rooting new cuttings. The bark can even be used to make a simple extract that will promote cutting growth.

Apiculture

Male catkin of Salix cinerea with bee

Willows produce a modest amount of nectar that bees can make honey from, and are especially valued as a source of early pollen for bees.

Energy

Willow is grown for biomass or biofuel, in energy forestry systems, as a consequence of its high energy in-energy out ratio, large carbon mitigation potential and fast growth.[10]Large scale projects to support willow as an energy crop are already at commercial scale in Sweden[11] , and in other countries there are being developed through initiatives such as the Willow Biomass Project in the US and the Energy Coppice Project in the UK.[12]

Willow may also be grown to produce Charcoal.

Environment

As a plant, willow is used for biofiltration, constructed wetlands, ecological wastewater treatment systems, hedges, land reclamation, landscaping, phytoremediation, streambank stabilisation (bioengineering), slope stabilisation, soil erosion control, shelterbelt & windbreak, soil building, soil reclamation, tree bog compost toilet, wildlife habitat.

Art

Woodbine caused by Honeysuckle on a Willow.

Willow is used as charcoal (for drawing) and in living sculptures. Living sculptures are created from live willow rods planted in the ground and woven into shapes such as domes and tunnels. Willow stems are used to weave baskets and 3 dimensional sculptures such as animals and figures. Willow stems are also used to create garden features such as decorative panel and obelisks.

Religion

In religion, willow is one of the "Four Species" used in a ceremony on the Jewish holiday of Sukkot. In Buddhism, a willow branch is one of the chief attributes of Kwan Yin, the bodhisattva of compassion. Willow is also one of the "nine sacred trees" mentioned in Wicca and witchcraft, with several magical uses. In the Wiccan Rede, it is described as growing by water, guiding the dead to "The Summerland", a commonly used term in Wicca to refer to the afterlife. Christian churches in northwestern Europe often used willow branches in place of palms in the ceremonies on Palm Sunday.[13]

Willow in human culture

The willow is a famous subject in many East Asian nations' cultures, particularly in paintings (pen and ink) from China and Japan.

A Gisaeng (Korean Geisha) named Hongrang, who lived in the middle of the Joseon Dynasty, wrote the poem "By the willow in the rain in the evening", which she gave to her parting lover (Choi Gyeong-chang).[14] Hongrang wrote:

"...I will be the willow on your bedside."

Willow trees are also quite prevalent in folklore and myths.[15][16] In English folklore, a willow tree is believed to be quite sinister, capable of uprooting itself and stalking travellers.

In literature

Hans Christian Andersen wrote a story called Under the Willow Tree (1853) in which children ask questions of a tree they call willow-father, paired with another entity called elder-mother.[17]

The Wind in the Willows

Algernon Blackwood wrote a story called The Willows (1907) about two friends on a canoe trip down the Danube river who have a horrifying experience with the trees. This story was a personal favorite of H. P. Lovecraft.

Green Willow is a Japanese ghost story in which a young samurai falls in love with a woman called Green Willow who has a close spiritual connection with a willow tree.[18] The Willow Wife is another, not dissimilar tale.[19] Wisdom of the Willow Tree is an Osage Nation story in which a young man seeks answers from a Willow tree, addressing the tree in conversation as 'Grandfather'.[20]

In J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, and Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, there is an old tree on the school grounds of Hogwarts called the "Whomping Willow". It was planted in order to conceal a secret passageway that Professor Remus Lupin roamed through every full moon when he began his transformation into a werewolf.

In William Shakespeare's Hamlet, the character Ophelia climbed a willow tree when a branch broke and dropped her into the river below where she drowned. In Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night", Viola (disguised as Cesario) tells Olivia "Make me a willow-cabin at your gate/ And call upon my soul within the house." The willow here being an emblem of forsaken love. In Shakespeare's Othello, Desdemona's song before her death uses the willow imagery to highlight her lost love.

J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings also features a character known as Old Man Willow which traps some of Frodo's companions until they are rescued by Tom Bombadil.

In Persian literature, the recognized adjective for 'willow' is lunatic (مجنون), and lover (or lovers' heart) is compared to willow in many texts.

Pictures

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ "Genus Salix (willows)". Taxonomy. UniProt. http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/40685. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  2. ^ a b Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The Plant Book. Cambridge University Press #2: Cambridge.
  3. ^ Hone, William (1826). "August 9". The Every-Day Book (Electronic Edition). http://www.uab.edu/english/hone/etexts/edb/day-pages/221-aug09.html.  Hone quotes "Martyn", and notes that Martyn in turn cites "the St. James's Chronicle, for August, 1801".
  4. ^ Albury/Wodonga Willow Management Working Group (December 1998). "Willows along watercourses: managing, removing and replacing". Department of Primary Industries, State Government of Victoria. http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/dpi/nreninf.nsf/childdocs/-1C62D26CD3AF6FE44A2568B300051289-8E21A59E53B35BEFCA256BC80005C14F-E1EB709D7DCE1BC9CA256F070003E8D8-FAC3FFA202EA6384CA256BCF000AD522?open. 
  5. ^ Cremer, Kurt W. (2003). "Introduced willows can become invasive pests in Australia" (PDF). http://www.hoadley.net/cremer/willows/docs/WillowInBiodiversity.pdf. 
  6. ^ Salix spp. UFL/edu, Weeping Willow Fact Sheet ST-576, Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson, United States Forest Service
  7. ^ "Rooting Around: Tree Roots", Dave Hanson, Yard & Garden Line News Volume 5 Number 15, University of Minnesota Extension, October 1, 2003
  8. ^ James Breasted (English translation). "The Edwin Smith Papyrus". http://www.touregypt.net/edwinsmithsurgical.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-09. 
  9. ^ "An aspirin a day keeps the doctor at bay: The world's first blockbuster drug is a hundred years old this week". http://www.nobelprizes.com/nobel/medicine/aspirin.html. Retrieved 2007-06-09. 
  10. ^ Aylott, Matthew J. (2008). "Yield and spatial supply of bioenergy poplar and willow short-rotation coppice in the UK" (PDF). New Phytologist 178 (2): 358–370. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02396.x. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118760125/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  11. ^ Mola-Yudego, Blas; Aronsson, Pär. (2008). "Yield models for commercial willow biomass plantations in Sweden" (PDF). Biomass and Bioenergy 32 (9): 829-837. doi:doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.01.002. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V22-4S02D5N-1&_user=949127&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1102089875&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000049117&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=949127&md5=9a3b80e6d4a86a87261094ef833dee16. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  12. ^ Forestresearch.gov.uk
  13. ^ ChurchYear.net
  14. ^ "The Forest of Willows in Our Minds". Arirang TV. August 20, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2007. http://www.arirang.co.kr/Tv/TSymbols_Archive.asp?PROG_CODE=TVCR0271&view_cont_seq=4&code=St1&sys_lang=Eng. 
  15. ^ "In Worship of Trees by George Knowles: Willow". http://www.controverscial.com/Willow.htm. 
  16. ^ "Mythology and Folklore of the Willow". http://www.treesforlife.org.uk/forest/mythfolk/willow.html. 
  17. ^ Under The Willow Tree
  18. ^ Green Willow
  19. ^ The Willow Wife
  20. ^ Wisdom of the Willow Tree
  • Keeler, Harriet L. (1900). Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them. New York: Charles Scriber's Sons. pp. 393–395. 
  • Newsholme, C. (1992). Willows: The Genus Salix. ISBN 0-88192-565-9
  • Warren-Wren, S.C. (1992). The Complete Book of Willows. ISBN 0-498-01262-X
  • Sviatlana Trybush, Šárka Jahodová, William Macalpine and Angela Karp (2008), "A genetic study of a Salix germplasm resource reveals new insights into relationships among subgenera, sections and species", BioEnergy Research 1(1), pp 67 – 79 (link)

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Willow is a 1988 fantasy film.

Directed by Ron Howard. Written by George Lucas and Bob Dolman.

Contents

Willow

  • Her name is not 'Sticks'. She's Elora Danan, the future Empress of Tir Asleen...and the last thing she's gonna want is a hairy chest!
  • Absolutely, under no condition whatsoever, is anyone in this family to fall in love with that baby!

Madmartigan

  • Goodbye, Sticks. If you really are a princess, take care of him.
  • Well my mother raised me on blackroot. It's good for you. It puts hair on your chest, doesn't it, Sticks?
  • Let me out of here, Airk. Give me a sword, I'll win this war for you.
  • Burglekutt, let me out of here. I'll take care of the baby, I swear. Just let me out of here... Please. Vohnkar, let me borrow that spear just for a minute. Well... Well at least give me some water. Burglekutt, don't leave me alone here with these two! UHH! Well that was really stupid, Peck.
  • Get your hair out of my face or I'll chop it off.
  • Ooh, I'm really scared. No! Don't! There's a- a peck here with an acorn pointed at me!
  • "I love you, Sorsha?!" I don't love her, she kicked me in the face!

Franjean

  • Don't play with that wand! It holds vast powers. Only a real sorcerer can use it, not a stupid peck like you.

Cherlindrea

  • Elora Danan must survive. She must fulfill her destiny and bring about the downfall of Queen Bavmorda. Her powers are growing like an evil plague. Unless she is stopped, Bavmorda will control the lives of your village, your children, everyone. All creatures of good heart need your help, Willow. The choice is yours.

High Aldwin

  • Magic is the bloodstream of the universe. Forget all you know, or think you know. All that you require is your intuition.
  • I will consult the bones!! [Disperses the bones on the ground, pausing for a moment, then whispering to Willow discreetly] ... The bones tell me... nothing.

Queen Bavmorda

  • I didn't ask you to bring me a dead nursemaid. Sorsha, you're useless.
  • General Kael, at last.
  • You will do as I say, child.
  • Why is it with my powers and the strength of my great army you cannot so much as find one - little - child?
  • PREPARE FOR THE RITUAL!
  • You're not warriors. You're pigs PIGS! YOU'RE ALL PIGS! PIGS!
  • Traitor child. I must despise you now.
  • Is that the extent of your power, little one?
  • Now you will watch me call upon the power of the universe to send that child into the Netherworld! NOW PLACE IT ON THE ALTAR!
  • You're a fool. I shall destroy you and the child with you.

Dialogue

Willow:: Don't call me a peck!
Madmartigan:: Oh, I'm sorry! Peck! Peck! Peck, peck, peck, peck, peck, peck, peck!

Willow:: You stupid hag! With my magic, I'll send her into the... into a...
Bavmorda:: [Bavmorda laughs] You're no sorcerer!
Willow:: Into a realm where evil cannot touch her!
Bavmorda:: Impossible! There's no such place!

Willow:: We need your help!
Madmartigan:: [sarcastically] My help? Why would you need my help? You're a sorcerer.
Willow:: You're a great warrior! And a swordsman!... And you're ten times bigger than I am, stupid!

Willow:: Madmartigan, you never, ever drive that fast with an infant!
Madmartigan:: I just saved that infant's life!

Willow:: What's that?
Madmartigan:: Smells like a battle.
Willow:: I suppose you're a warrior.
Madmartigan:: I am the greatest swordsman that ever lived. ...Say, um, can I have some of that water?

Willow:: Ouch! What'd you bite me for?
Fin Raziel:: Three drops of your blood must be put in the potion.
Willow:: Well, you could've warned me!

Madmartigan:: Did I really... Did I really say those things, last night, in your tent?
Sorsha:: You said you loved me.
Madmartigan:: I don't remember that.
Sorsha:: You lied to me.
Madmartigan:: No, I... I just wasn't myself last night.
Sorsha:: I suppose my power enchanted you and you were helpless against it.
Madmartigan:: Sort of.
Sorsha:: Then what?
Madmartigan:: It... went away.
Sorsha:: Went away? 'I dwell in darkness without you' and it went away?

Madmartigan:: What the hell happened up there?
Willow:: You started spouting poetry. 'I love you Sorsha! I worship you Sorsha!' You almost got us killed!
Madmartigan:: 'I love you Sorsha?' I don't love her, she kicked me in the face! I hate her... Don't I?

Madmartigan:: What are you going to look like if this works?
Fin Raziel:: Don't interrupt.
Madmartigan:: Sorry.
Fin Raziel:: I'm a young beautiful woman.
Madmartigan:: Concentrate, Willow!

Madmartigan:: [about Elora] She is kinda cute... When she's quiet.
Willow:: She's really a princess.
Madmartigan:: Really? And you're a great sorcerer... And I'm the king of Cashmir. Go to sleep, Willow.

[Meeting Fin Raziel, who has been turned into a muskrat]
Rool:: That's Raziel?
Franjean:: I don't know, I expected something more grand, less...
Rool:: Fuzzy.
Franjean:: Fuzzy.

Rool:: We'll never catch up with those horses!
Franjean:: Then we will have to track them.
Rool:: That would take forever. Besides, even if we find them, they'll catch us, stick us in cages, torture us and finally devour us!
Franjean:: Are you suggesting we go home?
Rool:: Nah. This is more fun!
Franjean:: All right, fine then. Come on!

High Aldwin:: [throws an apple into the air which turns into a bird] Go in the direction the bird is flying!
Burgelcutt:: [relieved] He's going back to village!
High Aldwin:: ...Ignore the bird! Follow the river.

Sorsha:: What are you looking at?
Madmartigan:: Your leg. ...I'd like to break it.

Llug:: Wanna breed?
Madmartigan:: [disguised as a woman] Tempting... but no.

Burgelcutt:: [Vohnkar has volunteered to accompany Willow on his quest] No - not Vohnkar! He's the best warrior in the village, we need him here. Vohnkar - step back!
High Aldwin: All this expedition needs is a leader. And according to the bones, that leader is... you, Burgelkutt.
Burgelcutt:: VOHNKAR!

Taglines

  • Adventure doesn't come any bigger than this.
  • Forget all you know, or think you know.
  • A world where heroes come in all sizes and adventure is the greatest magic of all
  • Beyond Good... Beyond Evil... Beyond your wildest imagination...

Cast

  • Val Kilmer — Madmartigan
  • Joanne Whalley — Sorsha
  • Warwick Davis — Willow Ufgood
  • Jean Marsh — Queen Bavmorda
  • Patricia Hayes — Fin Raziel
  • Billy Barty — High Aldwin
  • Mark Northover — Burglekutt
  • Kevin Pollak — Rool
  • Rick Overton — Franjean

External links

Wikipedia
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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

There is more than one place called Willow:

United States of America

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to willow article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

A weeping willow, a commonly seen willow cultivar.

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
willow

Plural
willows

willow (plural willows)

  1. Any of various deciduous trees or shrubs in the genus Salix, in the willow family Salicaceae, found primarily on moist soils in cooler zones in the northern hemisphere.
  2. (cricket, colloquial) A cricket bat
  3. (baseball, slang, 1800s) The baseball bat.
  4. A rotating, spiked drum used to open, and clean cotton heads

Synonyms

Derived terms

Translations


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Willow

Developer(s) Capcom
Publisher(s) Capcom
Designer(s) Director:
Tokuro Fujiwara
Release date NES:
December 1989 (NA)
Genre Action role-playing game
Mode(s) Single player
Age rating(s) N/A
NES
Platform(s) Nintendo Entertainment System
Media 2 Megabit Cartridge
NES
Input NES Controller
Credits | Soundtrack | Codes | Walkthrough



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Simple English

Willows
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Salicaceae
Genus: Salix L.
Species

About 350.

Willows are a family of trees and shrubs which have many differences in size and type of growth, but are very much alike in other respects. There are about 350 species of this plant in all the world, usually found on moist soils in cooler zones in the Northern Hemisphere. Many hybrids are known, both naturally occurring and in cultivation, because willows are very fertile between their own species.

Some smaller species may also be known by the common names osier and sallow; the last name comes from the same word as the Latin salix.

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