Wind: Wikis


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Wind, from the Tacuinum Sanitatis
A breeze lifts the veil of a bride on the ruins of Sutro Baths

Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, and their effect. The strongest observed winds on a planet in our solar system occur on Neptune and Saturn.

In meteorology, winds are often referred to according to their strength, and the direction the wind is blowing from. Short bursts of high speed wind are termed gusts. Strong winds of intermediate duration (around one minute) are termed squalls. Long-duration winds have various names associated with their average strength, such as breeze, gale, storm, hurricane, and typhoon. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, to global winds resulting from the difference in absorption of solar energy between the climate zones on Earth. The two main causes of large scale atmospheric circulation are the differential heating between the equator and the poles, and the rotation of the planet (Coriolis effect). Within the tropics, thermal low circulations over terrain and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations. In coastal areas the sea breeze/land breeze cycle can define local winds; in areas that have variable terrain, mountain and valley breezes can dominate local winds.

In human civilization, wind has inspired mythology, influenced the events of history, expanded the range of transport and warfare, and provided a power source for mechanical work, electricity, and recreation. Wind has powered the voyages of sailing ships across Earth's oceans. Hot air balloons use the wind to take short trips, and powered flight uses it to increase lift and reduce fuel consumption. Areas of wind shear caused by various weather phenomena can lead to dangerous situations for aircraft. When winds become strong, trees and man-made structures are damaged or destroyed.

Winds can shape landforms, via a variety of Aeolian processes such as the formation of fertile soils, such as loess, and by erosion. Dust from large deserts can be moved great distances from its source region by the prevailing winds; winds that are accelerated by rough topography and associated with dust outbreaks have been assigned regional names in various parts of the world because of their significant effects on those regions. Wind effects the spread of wildfires. Winds disperse seeds from various plants, enabling the survival and dispersal of those plant species, as well as flying insect populations. When combined with cold temperatures, wind has a negative impact on livestock. Wind affects animals' food stores, as well as their hunting and defensive strategies.



Surface analysis of Great Blizzard of 1888. Areas with greater isobaric packing indicate higher winds.

Wind is caused by differences in pressure. When a difference in pressure exists, the air is accelerated from higher to lower pressure. On a rotating planet the air will be deflected by the Coriolis effect, except exactly on the equator. Globally, the two major driving factors of large scale winds (the atmospheric circulation) are the differential heating between the equator and the poles (difference in absorption of solar energy leading to buoyancy forces) and the rotation of the planet. Outside the tropics and aloft from frictional effects of the surface, the large-scale winds tend to approach geostrophic balance. Near the Earth's surface, friction causes the wind to be slower than it would be otherwise. Surface friction also causes winds to blow more inward into low pressure areas.[1]

Winds defined by an equilibrium of physical forces are used in the decomposition and analysis of wind profiles. They are useful for simplifying the atmospheric equations of motion and for making qualitative arguments about the horizontal and vertical distribution of winds. The geostrophic wind component is the result of the balance between Coriolis force and pressure gradient force. It flows parallel to isobars and approximates the flow above the atmospheric boundary layer in the midlatitudes.[2] The thermal wind is the difference in the geostrophic wind between two levels in the atmosphere. It exists only in an atmosphere with horizontal temperature gradients.[3] The ageostrophic wind component is the difference between actual and geostrophic wind, which is responsible for air "filling up" cyclones over time.[4] The gradient wind is similar to the geostrophic wind but also includes centrifugal force (or centripetal acceleration).[5]


A windmill style of anemometer
An occluded mesocyclone tornado (Oklahoma, May 1999)

Wind direction is reported by the direction from which it originates. For example, a northerly wind blows from the north to the south.[6] Weather vanes pivot to indicate the direction of the wind.[7] At airports, windsocks are primarily used to indicate wind direction, but can also be used to estimate wind speed by its angle of hang.[8] Wind speed is measured by anemometers, most commonly using rotating cups or propellers. When a high measurement frequency is needed (such as in research applications), wind can be measured by the propagation speed of ultrasound signals or by the effect of ventilation on the resistance of a heated wire.[9] Another type of anemometer uses pitot tubes that take advantage of the pressure differential between an inner tube and an outer tube that is exposed to the wind to determine the dynamic pressure, which is then used to compute the wind speed.[10]

Sustained wind speeds are reported globally at a 10 meters (33 ft) height and are averaged over a 10 minute time frame. The United States reports winds over a 2 minute average,[11] while India typically reports winds over a 3 minute average.[12] Knowing the wind sampling average is important, as the value of a one-minute sustained wind is typically 14 percent greater than a ten-minute sustained wind.[13] A short burst of high speed wind is termed a wind gust, one technical definition of a wind gust is: the maxima that exceed the lowest wind speed measured during a ten minute time interval by 10 knots (19 km/h). A squall is a doubling of the wind speed above a certain threshold, which lasts for a minute or more.

To determine winds aloft, rawinsondes determine wind speed by GPS, radio navigation, or radar tracking of the probe.[14] Alternatively, movement of the parent weather balloon position can be tracked from the ground visually using theodolites.[15] Remote sensing techniques for wind include SODAR, Doppler LIDARs and RADARs, which can measure the Doppler shift of electromagnetic radiation scattered or reflected off suspended aerosols or molecules, and radiometers and radars can be used to measure the surface roughness of the ocean from space or airplanes. Ocean roughness can be used to estimate wind velocity close to the sea surface over oceans. Geostationary satellite imagery can be used to estimate the winds throughout the atmosphere based upon how far clouds move from one image to the next. Wind Engineering describes the study of the effects of the wind on the built environment, including buildings, bridges and other man-made objects.

Wind force scale

Historically, the Beaufort wind force scale provides an empirical description of wind speed based on observed sea conditions. Originally it was a 13-level scale, but during the 1940s, the scale was expanded to 17 levels.[16] There are general terms that differentiate winds of different average speeds such as a breeze, a gale, a storm, tornado, or a hurricane. Within the Beaufort scale, gale-force winds lie between 28 knots (52 km/h) and 55 knots (102 km/h) with preceding adjectives such as moderate, fresh, strong, and whole used to differentiate the wind's strength within the gale category.[17] A storm has winds of 56 knots (104 km/h) to 63 knots (117 km/h).[18] The terminology for tropical cyclones differs from one region to another globally. Most ocean basins use the average wind speed to determine the tropical cyclone's category. Below is a summary of the classifications used by Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers worldwide:

General wind classifications Tropical cyclone classifications (all winds are 10-minute averages)
Beaufort scale[16] 10-minute sustained winds (knots) General term[19] N Indian Ocean
SW Indian Ocean
SW Pacific
NW Pacific
NW Pacific
NE Pacific &
N Atlantic
0 <1 Calm Depression Tropical disturbance Tropical low Tropical depression Tropical depression Tropical depression Tropical depression
1 1–3 Light air
2 4–6 Light breeze
3 7–10 Gentle breeze
4 11–16 Moderate breeze
5 17–21 Fresh breeze
6 22–27 Strong breeze
7 28–29 Moderate gale Deep depression Tropical depression
8 34–40 Fresh gale Cyclonic storm Moderate tropical storm Tropical cyclone (1) Tropical cyclone (1) Tropical storm Tropical storm Tropical storm
9 41–47 Strong gale
10 48–55 Whole gale Severe cyclonic storm Severe tropical storm Tropical cyclone (2) Tropical cyclone (2) Severe tropical storm
11 56–63 Storm
12 64–72 Hurricane Very severe cyclonic storm Tropical cyclone Severe tropical cyclone (3) Severe tropical cyclone (3) Typhoon Typhoon Hurricane (1)
13 73–85 Hurricane (2)
14 86–89 Severe tropical cyclone (4) Severe tropical cyclone (4) Major hurricane (3)
15 90–99 Intense tropical cyclone
16 100–106 Major hurricane (4)
17 107–114 Severe tropical cyclone (5) Severe tropical cyclone (5)
115–119 Very intense tropical cyclone Super typhoon
>120 Super cyclonic storm Major hurricane (5)
Wind plotting within a station model

The station model plotted on surface weather maps uses a wind barb to show both wind direction and speed. The wind barb shows the speed using "flags" on the end.

  • Each half of a flag depicts 5 knots (9.3 km/h) of wind.
  • Each full flag depicts 10 knots (19 km/h) of wind.
  • Each pennant (filled triangle) depicts 50 knots (93 km/h) of wind.[20]

Winds are depicted as blowing from the direction the barb is facing. Therefore, a northeast wind will be depicted with a line extending from the cloud circle to the northeast, with flags indicating wind speed on the northeast end of this line.[6] Once plotted on a map, an analysis of isotachs (lines of equal wind speeds) can be accomplished. Isotachs are particularly useful in diagnosing the location of the jet stream on upper level constant pressure charts, and are usually located at or above the 300 hPa level.[21]

Global climatology

The westerlies and trade winds
Winds are part of Earth's atmospheric circulation.

Easterly winds, on average, dominate the flow pattern across the poles, westerly winds blow across the mid-latitudes of the earth, to the north of the subtropical ridge, while easterlies again dominate the tropics.

Directly under the subtropical ridge are the doldrums, or horse latitudes, where winds are lighter. Many of the Earth's deserts lie near the average latitude of the subtropical ridge, where descent reduces the relative humidity of the air mass.[22] The strongest winds are in the mid-latitudes where cold Arctic air meets warm air from the tropics.


The trade winds (also called trades) are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics towards the Earth's equator.[23] The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere.[24] The trade winds act as the steering flow for tropical cyclones that form over world's oceans.[25] Trade winds also steer African dust westward across the Atlantic Ocean into the Caribbean Sea, as well as portions of southeast North America.[26]

A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind that lasts for several months within tropical regions. The term was first used in English in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and neighboring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area.[27] Its poleward progression is accelerated by the development off a heat low over the Asian, African, and North American continents during May through July, and over Australia in December.[28][29][30]

Westerlies and their impact

The Westerlies or the Prevailing Westerlies are the prevailing winds in the middle latitudes between 35 and 65 degrees latitude. These prevailing winds blow from the west to the east to the north of the subtropical ridge,[31][32] and steer extratropical cyclones in this general manner. The winds are predominantly from the southwest in the Northern Hemisphere and from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere.[24] They are strongest in the winter when the pressure is lower over the poles, and weakest during the summer and when pressures are higher over the poles.[33]

Together with the trade winds, the westerlies enabled a round-trip trade route for sailing ships crossing the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as the westerlies lead to the development of strong ocean currents on the western sides of oceans in both hemispheres through the process of western intensification.[34] These western ocean currents transport warm, tropical water polewards toward the polar regions. The westerlies can be particularly strong, especially in the southern hemisphere, where there is less land in the middle latitudes to cause the flow pattern to amplify, which slows the winds down. The strongest westerly winds in the middle latitudes are within a band known as the Roaring Forties, between 40 and 50 degrees latitude south of the equator.[35] The Westerlies play an important role in carrying the warm, equatorial waters and winds to the western coasts of continents,[36][37] especially in the southern hemisphere because of its vast oceanic expanse.

Polar easterlies

The polar easterlies, also known as Polar Hadley cells, are dry, cold prevailing winds that blow from the high-pressure areas of the polar highs at the north and south poles towards the low-pressure areas within the Westerlies at high latitudes. Unlike the Westerlies, these prevailing winds blow from the east to the west, and are often weak and irregular.[38] Because of the low sun angle, cold air builds up and subsides at the pole creating surface high-pressure areas, forcing an equatorward outflow of air;[39] that outflow is deflected eastward by the Coriolis effect.

Local considerations

Local winds around the world. These winds are formed trough the heating of land (from mountains or flat terrain)

Sea and land breezes

A: Sea breeze (occurs at daytime), B: Land breeze (occurs at night)

In coastal regions, sea breezes and land breezes can be important factors in a location's prevailing winds. The sea is warmed by the sun more slowly because of water's greater specific heat compared to land.[40] As the temperature of the surface of the land rises, the land heats the air above it by conduction. The warm air is less dense than the surrounding environment and so it rises. This causes a pressure gradient of about 2 millibars from the ocean to the land. The cooler air above the sea, now with higher sea level pressure, flows inland into the lower pressure, creating a cooler breeze near the coast. When large-scale winds are calm, the strength of the sea breeze is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the land mass and the sea. If an offshore wind of 8 knots (15 km/h) exists, the sea breeze is not likely to develop.

At night, the land cools off more quickly than the ocean because of differences in their specific heat values. This temperature change causes the daytime sea breeze to dissipate. When the temperature onshore cools below the temperature offshore, the pressure over the water will be lower than that of the land, establishing a land breeze, as long as an onshore wind is not strong enough to oppose it.[41]

Near mountains

Mountain wave schematic. The wind flows towards a mountain and produces a first oscillation (A). A second wave occurs further away and higher. The lenticular clouds form at the peak of the waves (B).

Over elevated surfaces, heating of the ground exceeds the heating of the surrounding air at the same altitude above sea level, creating an associated thermal low over the terrain and enhancing any thermal lows that would have otherwise existed,[42][43] and changing the wind circulation of the region. In areas where there is rugged topography that significantly interrupts the environmental wind flow, the wind circulation between mountains and valleys is the most important contributor to the prevailing winds. Hills and valleys substantially distort the airflow by increasing friction between the atmosphere and landmass by acting as a physical block to the flow, deflecting the wind parallel to the range just upstream of the topography, which is known as a barrier jet. This barrier jet can increase the low level wind by 45 percent.[44] Wind direction also changes because of the contour of the land.[45]

If there is a pass in the mountain range, winds will rush through the pass with considerable speed because of the Bernoulli principle that describes an inverse relationship between speed and pressure. The airflow can remain turbulent and erratic for some distance downwind into the flatter countryside. These conditions are dangerous to ascending and descending airplanes.[45] Cool winds accelerating through mountain gaps have been given regional names. In Central America, examples include the Papagayo wind, the Panama wind, and the Tehuano wind. In Europe, similar winds are known as the Bora, Tramontane, and Mistral. When these winds blow over open waters, they increase mixing of the upper layers of the ocean that elevates cool, nutrient rich waters to the surface, which leads to increased marine life.[46]

In mountainous areas, local distortion of the airflow becomes severe. Jagged terrain combines to produce unpredictable flow patterns and turbulence, such as rotors, which can be topped by lenticular clouds. Strong updrafts, downdrafts and eddies develop as the air flows over hills and down valleys. Orographic precipitation occurs on the windward side of mountains and is caused by the rising air motion of a large-scale flow of moist air across the mountain ridge, also known as upslope flow, resulting in adiabatic cooling and condensation. In mountainous parts of the world subjected to relatively consistent winds (for example, the trade winds), a more moist climate usually prevails on the windward side of a mountain than on the leeward or downwind side. Moisture is removed by orographic lift, leaving drier air on the descending and generally warming, leeward side where a rain shadow is observed.[47] Winds that flow over mountains down into lower elevations are known as downslope winds. These winds are warm and dry. In Europe downwind of the Alps, they are known as foehn. In Poland, an example is the halny wiatr. In Argentina, the local name for downsloped winds is zonda. In Java, the local name for such winds is koembang. In New Zealand, they are known as the Nor'west arch, and are accompanied by the cloud formation they are named after that has inspired artwork over the years.[48] In the Great Plains of the United States, the winds are known as a chinook. In California, downsloped winds are funneled through mountain passes, which intensify their effect, and examples into Santa Ana and sundowner winds. Wind speeds during downslope wind effect can exceed 160 kilometers per hour (99 mph).[49]

Average wind speeds

The average windspeeds at 10 m altitude
The average windspeeds at 80 m altitude

As described earlier, prevailing and local winds are not spread evenly across the earth, which means that wind speeds also differ by region. In addition, the wind speed also increases with the altitude.

Wind power density

Nowadays, a yardstick used to determine the best locations for wind energy development is referred to as wind power density (WPD). It is a calculation relating to the effective force of the wind at a particular location, frequently expressed in terms of the elevation above ground level over a period of time. It takes into account wind velocity and mass. Color coded maps are prepared for a particular area are described as, for example, "mean annual power density at 50 meters." The results of the above calculation are included in an index developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab and referred to as "NREL CLASS." The larger the WPD calculation, the higher it is rated by class.[50] At the end of 2008, worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 120.8 gigawatts.[51] Although wind produces only about 1.5 percent of worldwide electricity use,[51] it is growing rapidly, having doubled in the three years between 2005 and 2008. In several countries it has achieved relatively high levels of penetration, accounting for approximately 19 percent of electricity production in Denmark, 10 percent in Spain and Portugal, and 7 percent in Germany and the Republic of Ireland in 2008. One study indicates that an entirely renewable energy supply based on 70 percent wind is attainable at today's power prices by linking wind farms with an HVDC supergrid.[52]


Hodograph plot of wind vectors at various heights in the troposphere, which is used to diagnose vertical wind shear

Wind shear, sometimes referred to as windshear or wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the Earth's atmosphere.[53] Wind shear can be broken down into vertical and horizontal components, with horizontal wind shear seen across weather fronts and near the coast,[54] and vertical shear typically near the surface,[55] though also at higher levels in the atmosphere near upper level jets and frontal zones aloft.[56]

Wind shear itself is a microscale meteorological phenomenon occurring over a very small distance, but it can be associated with mesoscale or synoptic scale weather features such as squall lines and cold fronts. It is commonly observed near microbursts and downbursts caused by thunderstorms,[57] weather fronts, areas of locally higher low level winds referred to as low level jets, near mountains,[58] radiation inversions that occur because of clear skies and calm winds, buildings,[59] wind turbines,[60] and sailboats.[61] Wind shear has a significant effect during take-off and landing of aircraft because of their effects on control of the aircraft,[62] and was a significant cause of aircraft accidents involving large loss of life within the United States.[57]

Sound movement through the atmosphere is affected by wind shear, which can bend the wave front, causing sounds to be heard where they normally would not, or vice versa.[63] Strong vertical wind shear within the troposphere also inhibits tropical cyclone development,[64] but helps to organize individual thunderstorms into living longer life cycles that can then produce severe weather.[65] The thermal wind concept explains how differences in wind speed with height are dependent on horizontal temperature differences, and explains the existence of the jet stream.[66]

Usage of wind


As a natural force, the wind was often personified as one or more wind gods or as an expression of the supernatural in many cultures. Vayu is the Hindu God of Wind.[67][68] The Greek wind gods include Boreas, Notus, Eurus, and Zephyrus.[68] Aeolus, in varying interpretations the ruler or keeper of the four winds, has also been described as Astraeus, the god of dusk who fathered the four winds with Eos, goddess of dawn. The Ancient Greeks also observed the seasonal change of the winds, as evidenced by the Tower of the Winds in Athens.[68][69] Venti are the Roman gods of the winds.[70] Fūjin, the Japanese wind god and is one of the eldest Shinto gods. According to legend, he was present at the creation of the world and first let the winds out of his bag to clear the world of mist.[71] In Norse mythology, Njord is the god of the wind.[68] There are also four dvärgar (Norse dwarves), named Norðri, Suðri, Austri and Vestri, and probably the four stags of Yggdrasil, personify the four winds, and parallel the four Greek wind gods.[72] Stribog is the name of the Slavic god of winds, sky and air. He is said to be the ancestor (grandfather) of the winds of the eight directions.[68][73]

Kamikaze (神風) is a Japanese word, usually translated as divine wind, believed to be a gift from the gods. The term is first known to have been used as the name of a pair or series of typhoons that are said to have saved Japan from two Mongol fleets under Kublai Khan that attacked Japan in 1274 and again in 1281.[74] Protestant Wind is a name for the storm that deterred the Spanish Armada from an invasion of England in 1588 where the wind played a pivotal role,[75] or the favorable winds that enabled William of Orange to invade England in 1688.[76] During Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign, the French soldiers had a hard time with the khamsin wind: when the storm appeared "as a blood-stint in the distant sky", the natives went to take cover, while the French "did not react until it was too late, then choked and fainted in the blinding, suffocating walls of dust."[77] During the North African Campaign of the World War II, "allied and German troops were several times forced to halt in mid-battle because of sandstorms caused by khamsin ... Grains of sand whirled by the wind blinded the soldiers and created electrical disturbances that rendered compasses useless."[78]


RAF Exeter airfield on 20 May 1944, showing the layout of the runways that allow aircraft to take off and land into the wind

There are many different forms of sailing ships, but they all have certain basic things in common. Except for rotor ships using the Magnus effect, every sailing ship has a hull, rigging and at least one mast to hold up the sails that use the wind to power the ship.[79] Ocean journeys by sailing ship can take many months,[80] and a common hazard is becoming becalmed because of lack of wind,[81] or being blown off course by severe storms or winds that do not allow progress in the desired direction.[82] A severe storm could lead to shipwreck, and the loss of all hands.[83] Sailing ships can only carry a certain quantity of supplies in their hold, so they have to plan long voyages carefully to include appropriate provisions, including fresh water.[84]

While aircraft usually travel under an internal power source, tail winds affect groundspeed,[85] and in the case of hot air balloons and other lighter-than-air vehicles, wind may play a significant role in their movement and ground track.[86] In addition, the direction of wind plays a role in the takeoff and landing of fixed-wing aircraft and airfield runways are usually aligned to take the direction of wind into account. Of all factors affecting the direction of flight operations at an airport, wind direction is considered the primary governing factor. While taking off with a tailwind may be permissible under certain circumstances, it is generally considered the least desirable choice because of performance and safety considerations, with a headwind the desirable choice. A tailwind will increase takeoff distance and decrease climb gradient such that runway length and obstacle clearance may become limiting factors.[87] An airship, or dirigible, is a lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air using rudders and propellers or other thrust.[88] Unlike other aerodynamic aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, which produce lift by moving a wing, or airfoil, through the air, aerostatic aircraft, such as airships and hot air balloons, stay aloft by filling a large cavity, such as a balloon, with a lifting gas.[89] The main types of airship are non-rigid (or blimps), semi-rigid and rigid. Blimps are small airships without internal skeletons. Semi-rigid airships are slightly larger and have some form of internal support such as a fixed keel. Rigid airships with full skeletons, such as the massive Zeppelin transoceanic models,[90] all but disappeared after several high-profile catastrophic accidents during the mid-20th century.[91]

Power source

This wind turbine generates electricity from wind power.

Historically, the ancient Sinhalese of Anuradhapura and in other cities around Sri Lanka used the monsoon winds to power furnaces as early as 300 BCE.[92] The furnaces were constructed on the path of the monsoon winds to exploit the wind power, to bring the temperatures inside up to 1,200 °C (2,190 °F). An early historical reference to a rudimentary windmill was used to power an organ in the first century CE.[93] The first practical windmills were later built in Sistan, Afghanistan, from the 7th century CE. These were vertical-axle windmills, which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle shaped blades.[94] Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water, and were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries.[95] Horizontal-axle windmills were later used extensively in Northwestern Europe to grind flour beginning in the 1180s, and many Dutch windmills still exist. High altitude wind power is the focus of over 30 companies worldwide using tethered technology rather than ground-hugging compressive-towers.[96] Oil is being saved by using wind for powering cargo ships by use of the mechanical energy converted from the wind's kinetic energy using very large kites.[97]


Otto Lilienthal in flight

Wind figures prominently in several popular sports, including recreational hang gliding, hot air ballooning, kite flying, snowkiting, kite landboarding, kite surfing, paragliding, sailing, and windsurfing. In gliding, wind gradients just above the surface affect the takeoff and landing phases of flight of a glider. Wind gradient can have a noticeable effect on ground launches, also known as winch launches or wire launches. If the wind gradient is significant or sudden, or both, and the pilot maintains the same pitch attitude, the indicated airspeed will increase, possibly exceeding the maximum ground launch tow speed. The pilot must adjust the airspeed to deal with the effect of the gradient.[98] When landing, wind shear is also a hazard, particularly when the winds are strong. As the glider descends through the wind gradient on final approach to landing, airspeed decreases while sink rate increases, and there is insufficient time to accelerate prior to ground contact. The pilot must anticipate the wind gradient and use a higher approach speed to compensate for it.[99]

Role in the natural world

In arid climates, the main source of erosion is wind.[100] The general wind circulation moves small particulates such as dust across wide oceans thousands of kilometers downwind of their point of origin,[101] which is known as deflation. Westerly winds in the mid-latitudes of the planet drive the movement of ocean currents from west to east across the world's oceans. Wind has a very important role in aiding plants and other immobile organisms in dispersal of seeds, spores, pollen, etc. Although wind is not the primary form of seed dispersal in plants, it provides dispersal for a large percentage of the biomass of land plants.


A rock formation in the Altiplano, Bolivia, sculpted by wind erosion

Erosion can be the result of material movement by the wind. There are two main effects. First, wind causes small particles to be lifted and therefore moved to another region. This is called deflation. Second, these suspended particles may impact on solid objects causing erosion by abrasion (ecological succession). Wind erosion generally occurs in areas with little or no vegetation, often in areas where there is insufficient rainfall to support vegetation. An example is the formation of sand dunes, on a beach or in a desert.[102] Loess is a homogeneous, typically nonstratified, porous, friable, slightly coherent, often calcareous, fine-grained, silty, pale yellow or buff, windblown (Aeolian) sediment.[103] It generally occurs as a widespread blanket deposit that covers areas of hundreds of square kilometers and tens of meters thick. Loess often stands in either steep or vertical faces.[104] Loess tends to develop into highly rich soils. Under appropriate climatic conditions, areas with loess are among the most agriculturally productive in the world.[105] Loess deposits are geologically unstable by nature, and will erode very readily. Therefore, windbreaks (such as big trees and bushes) are often planted by farmers to reduce the wind erosion of loess.[100]

Desert dust migration

During mid-summer (July), the westward-moving trade winds south of the northward-moving subtropical ridge expand northwestward from the Caribbean Sea into southeastern North America. When dust from the Sahara moving around the southern periphery of the ridge within the belt of trade winds moves over land, rainfall is suppressed and the sky changes from a blue to a white appearance, which leads to an increase in red sunsets. Its presence negatively impacts air quality by adding to the count of airborne particulates.[26] Over 50 percent of the African dust that reaches the United States affects Florida.[106] Since 1970, dust outbreaks have worsened because of periods of drought in Africa. There is a large variability in the dust transport to the Caribbean and Florida from year to year.[107] Dust events have been linked to a decline in the health of coral reefs across the Caribbean and Florida, primarily since the 1970s.[108] Similar dust plumes originate in the Gobi desert, which combined with pollutants, spread large distances downwind, or eastward, into North America.[101]

There are local names for winds associated with sand and dust storms. The Calima carries dust on southeast winds into the Canary islands.[109] The Harmattan carries dust during the winter into the Gulf of Guinea.[110] The Sirocco brings dust from north Africa into southern Europe because of the movement of extratropical cyclones through the Mediterranean Sea.[111] Spring storm systems moving across the eastern Mediterranean Sea cause dust to carry across Egypt and the Arabian peninsula, which are locally known as Khamsin.[112] The Shamal is caused by cold fronts lifting dust into the atmosphere for days at a time across the Persian Gulf states.[113]

Effect on plants

Tumbleweed blown against a fence

Wind dispersal of seeds, or anemochory, is one of the more primitive means of dispersal. Wind dispersal can take on one of two primary forms: seeds can float on the breeze or alternatively, they can flutter to the ground.[114] The classic examples of these dispersal mechanisms include dandelions (Taraxacum spp., Asteraceae), which have a feathery pappus attached to their seeds and can be dispersed long distances, and maples (Acer (genus) spp., Sapindaceae), which have winged seeds and flutter to the ground. An important constraint on wind dispersal is the need for abundant seed production to maximize the likelihood of a seed landing in a site suitable for germination. There are also strong evolutionary constraints on this dispersal mechanism. For instance, species in the Asteraceae on islands tended to have reduced dispersal capabilities (i.e., larger seed mass and smaller pappus) relative to the same species on the mainland.[115] Reliance upon wind dispersal is common among many weedy or ruderal species. Unusual mechanisms of wind dispersal include tumbleweeds. A related process to anemochory is anemophily, which is the process where pollen is distributed by wind. Large families of plants are pollinated in this manner, which is favored when individuals of the dominant plant species are spaced closely together.[116]

Wind also limits tree growth. On coasts and isolated mountains, the tree line is often much lower than in corresponding altitudes inland and in larger, more complex mountain systems, because strong winds reduce tree growth. High winds scour away thin soils through erosion,[117] as well as damage limbs and twigs. When high winds knock down or uproot trees, the process is known as windthrow. This is most likely on windward slopes of mountains, with severe cases generally occurring to tree stands that are 75 years or older.[118] Plant varieties near the coast, such as the Sitka spruce and sea grape,[119] are pruned back by wind and salt spray near the coastline.[120]

Effect on animals

Cattle and sheep are prone to wind chill caused by a combination of wind and cold temperatures, when winds exceed 40 kilometers per hour (25 mph) that renders their hair and wool coverings ineffective.[121] Although penguins use both a layer of fat and feathers to help guard against coldness in both water and air, their flippers and feet are less immune to the cold. In the coldest climates such as Antarctica, emperor penguins use huddling behavior to survive the wind and cold, continuously alternating the members on the outside of the assembled group, which reduces heat loss by 50%.[122] Flying insects, a subset of arthropods, are swept along by the prevailing winds,[123] while birds follow their own course taking advantage of wind conditions, in order to either fly or glide.[124] As such, fine line patterns within weather radar imagery, associated with converging winds, are dominated by insect returns.[125] Bird migration, which tends to occur overnight within the lowest 7,000 feet (2,100 m) of the Earth's atmosphere, contaminates wind profiles gathered by weather radar, particularly the WSR-88D, by increasing the environmental wind returns by 15 knots (28 km/h) to 30 knots (56 km/h).[126]

Pikas use a wall of pebbles to store dry plants and grasses for the winter in order to protect the food from being blown away.[127] Cockroaches use slight winds that precede the attacks of potential predators, such as toads, to survive their encounters. Their cerci are very sensitive to the wind, and help them survive half of their attacks.[128] Elk has a keen sense of smell that can detect potential upwind predators at a distance of 0.5 miles (800 m).[129] Increases in wind above 15 kilometers per hour (9.3 mph) signals glaucous gulls to increase their foraging and aerial attacks on thick-billed murres.[130]

Related damage

Damage from Hurricane Andrew

High winds are known to cause damage, depending upon their strength. Infrequent wind gusts can cause poorly designed suspension bridges to sway. When wind gusts are at a similar frequency to the swaying of the bridge, the bridge can be destroyed more easily, such as what occurred with the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940.[131] Wind speeds as low as 23 knots (43 km/h) can lead to power outages due to tree branches disrupting the flow of energy through power lines.[132] While no species of tree is guaranteed to stand up to hurricane-force winds, those with shallow roots are more prone to uproot, and brittle trees such as eucalyptus, sea hibiscus, and avocado are more prone to damage.[133] Hurricane-force winds cause substantial damage to mobile homes, and begin to structurally damage homes with foundations. Winds of this strength due to downsloped winds off terrain have been known to shatter windows and sandblast paint from cars.[49] Once winds exceed 135 knots (250 km/h), homes completely collapse, and significant damage is done to larger buildings. Total destruction to man-made structures occurs when winds reach 175 knots (324 km/h). The Saffir-Simpson scale and Enhanced Fujita scale were designed to help estimate wind speed from the damage caused by high winds related to tropical cyclones and tornadoes, and vice versa.[134][135]

Australia's Barrow Island holds the record for the strongest wind gust, reaching 408 km/h (253 mph) during tropical cyclone Olivia on 10 April 1996, surpassing the previous record held by Mount Washington (New Hampshire) of 372 km/h (231 mph) on the afternoon of 12 April 1934.[136]

Wildfire intensity increases during daytime hours. For example, burn rates of smoldering logs are up to five times greater during the day because of lower humidity, increased temperatures, and increased wind speeds.[137] Sunlight warms the ground during the day and causes air currents to travel uphill, and downhill during the night as the land cools. Wildfires are fanned by these winds and often follow the air currents over hills and through valleys.[138] United States wildfire operations revolve around a 24-hour fire day that begins at 10:00 a.m. because of the predictable increase in intensity resulting from the daytime warmth.[139]

In outer space

The solar wind is quite different from a terrestrial wind, in that its origin is the sun, and it is composed of charged particles that have escaped the sun's atmosphere. Similar to the solar wind, the planetary wind is composed of light gases that escape planetary atmospheres. Over long periods of time, the planetary wind can radically change the composition of planetary atmospheres.

Planetary wind

Possible future for Earth due to the planetary wind: Venus

The hydrodynamic wind within the upper portion of a planet's atmosphere allows light chemical elements such as hydrogen to move up to the exobase, the lower limit of the exosphere, where the gases can then reach escape velocity, entering outer space without impacting other particles of gas. This type of gas loss from a planet into space is known as planetary wind.[140] Such a process over geologic time causes water-rich planets such as the Earth to evolve into planets such as Venus over billions of years.[141] Planets with hot lower atmospheres could result in humid upper atmospheres that accelerate the loss of hydrogen.[142]

Solar wind

The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause

Rather than air, the solar wind is a stream of charged particles—a plasma—ejected from the upper atmosphere of the sun at a rate of 400 kilometers per second (890,000 mph). It consists mostly of electrons and protons with energies of about 1 keV. The stream of particles varies in temperature and speed with the passage of time. These particles are able to escape the sun's gravity, in part because of the high temperature of the corona,[143] but also because of high kinetic energy that particles gain through a process that is not well-understood. The solar wind creates the Heliosphere, a vast bubble in the interstellar medium surrounding the solar system.[144] Planets require large magnetic fields in order to reduce the ionization of their upper atmosphere by the solar wind.[142] Other phenomena include geomagnetic storms that can knock out power grids on Earth,[145] the aurorae such as the Northern Lights,[146] and the plasma tails of comets that always point away from the sun.[147]

On other planets

Strong 300 kilometers per hour (190 mph) winds at Venus's cloud tops circle the planet every four to five earth days.[148] When the poles of Mars are exposed to sunlight after their winter, the frozen CO2 sublimes, creating significant winds that sweep off the poles as fast as 400 kilometers per hour (250 mph), which subsequently transports large amounts of dust and water vapor over its landscape.[149] Other Martian winds have resulted in cleaning events and dust devils.[150][151] On Jupiter, wind speeds of 100 meters per second (220 mph) are common in zonal jet streams.[152] Saturn's winds are among the solar system's fastest. Cassini–Huygens data indicated peak easterly winds of 375 meters per second (840 mph).[153] On Uranus, northern hemisphere wind speeds reach as high as 240 meters per second (540 mph) near 50 degrees north latitude.[154][155][156] At the cloud tops of Neptune, prevailing winds range in speed from 400 meters per second (890 mph) along the equator to 250 meters per second (560 mph) at the poles.[157] At 70° S latitude on Neptune, a high-speed jet stream travels at a speed of 300 meters per second (670 mph).[158]

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  154. ^ L. A. Sromovsky; P. M. Fry (2005). "Dynamics of cloud features on Uranus". Icarus 179: 459–483. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.07.022. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
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External links


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Wind, while simply "the flow of air or other gases that compose an atmosphere (including that of the planet Earth)," has since ancient times been a significant and pervasive metaphor and symbol in human discourse.



I find that the great thing in this world is not so much where we stand as in what direction we are moving: To reach the port of heaven, we must sail sometimes with the wind and sometimes against it— but we must sail, and not drift, nor lie at anchor.
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.,
The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, (1858)
Come as the winds come, when
Forests are rended,
Come as the waves come, when
Navies are stranded.
Walter Scott,
Pibroch of Donald Dhu, St. 4 (1816)
Mock on, mock on, Voltaire, Rousseau.
Mock on, mock on—'tis all in vain!
You throw the sand against the wind,
And the wind blows it back again.
William Blake,
Poems from Blake's Notebook, (c. 1804), "Mock On", st. 1
I came like Water, and like Wind I go.
Omar Khayyam,
The Rubaiyat, XXVII
He comes with western winds, with evening's wandering airs,
With that clear dusk of heaven that brings the thickest stars;
Winds take a pensive tone and stars a tender fire
And visions rise and change which kill me with desire —
Emily Brontë,
The Prisoner, (1845)
A rush of wind comes furiously now, down from the mountaintop. "The ancient Greeks," I say, "who were the inventors of classical reason, knew better than to use it exclusively to foretell the future. They listened to the wind and predicted the future from that. That sounds insane now. But why should the inventors of reason sound insane?"
Robert M. Pirsig,
Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, (1974)
It's a warm wind, the west wind, full of birds' cries;
I never hear the west wind but tears are in my eyes.
For it comes from the west lands, the old brown hills,
And April's in the west wind, and daffodils.
John Masefield,
Salt-Water Ballads, (1902), "The West Wind"
Climb the mountains and get their good tidings, Nature's peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees. The winds will blow their own freshness into you and the storms their energy, while cares will drop off like autumn leaves. As age comes on, one source of enjoyment after another is closed, but nature's sources never fail.
John Muir,
Our National Parks, (1901)
ਬੋਲੈ ਪਉਣੁ ॥ ਬੁਝੁ ਰੇ ਗਿਆਨੀ ਮੂਆ ਹੈ ਕਉਣੁ ॥
The body is dust; the wind speaks through it. Understand, O wise one, who has died.
Guru Granth Sahib, "On Death"
A boy's will is the wind's will,
And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow,
My Lost Youth, (1858), refrain
The night was not very dark; there was a full moon, across which large clouds were driving before the wind. This produced alternations of light and shade, out-of-doors eclipses and illuminations, and in-doors a kind of twilight. This twilight, enough to enable him to find his way, changing with the passing clouds, resembled that sort of livid light which falls through the window of a dungeon before which men are passing.
Victor Hugo,
Les Misérables, (1862),
Book II—The Fall, "Chapter X—The Man Awakes,"
trans. Charles Wilbour, (1862 - 1863)
"Love is like a wind stirring the grass beneath trees on a black night," he had said. "You must not try to be definite and sure about it and to live beneath the trees, where soft night winds blow, the long hot day of disappointment comes swiftly and the gritty dust from passing wagons gathers upon lips inflamed and made tender by kisses."
Sherwood Anderson,
Winesburg, Ohio, (1919), "Death"
How long can men thrive between walls of brick, walking on asphalt pavements, breathing the fumes of coal and of oil, growing, working, dying, with hardly a thought of wind, and sky, and fields of grain, seeing only machine-made beauty, the mineral-like quality of life. This is our modern danger — one of the waxen wings of flight.
Charles Lindbergh,
Reader's Digest (November 1939),
"Aviation, Geography, and Race," pp. 64-67
I arise from dreams of thee
In the first sweet sleep of night,
When the winds are breathing low,
And the stars are shining bright.
Percy Bysshe Shelley,
The Indian Serenade, (1819), st. 1
The winds and waves are always on the side of the ablest navigators.
Edward Gibbon,
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,
(1776), v. 1, ch. 68.
The virtues of a superior man are like the wind; the virtues of a common man are like the grass --
I the grass, when the wind passes over it, bends.
Henry David Thoreau,
Walden, (1854), "Chapter 8—The Village"
  • The wind shrieks, the wind grieves;
    It dashes the leaves on walls, it whirls then again;
    And the enormous sleeper vaguely and stupidly dreams
    And desires to stir, to resist a ghost of pain.
  • "Love is like a wind stirring the grass beneath trees on a black night," he had said. "You must not try to be definite and sure about it and to live beneath the trees, where soft night winds blow, the long hot day of disappointment comes swiftly and the gritty dust from passing wagons gathers upon lips inflamed and made tender by kisses."
  • We are the voices of the wandering wind,
    Which moan for rest and rest can never find;
    Lo! as the wind is, so is mortal life,
    A moan, a sigh, a sob, a storm, a strife.
  • Nature, with equal mind,
    Sees all her sons at play
    Sees man control the wind,
    The wind sweep man away.
  • Write as the wind blows and command all words like an army!
  • Therefore we should not try to alter circumstances but to adapt ourselves to them as they really are, just as sailors do. They don't try to change the winds or the sea but ensure that they are always ready to adapt themselves to conditions. In a flat calm they use the oars; with a following breeze they hoist full sail; in a head wind they shorten sail or heave to. Adapt yourself to circumstances in the same way.
  • Mock on, mock on, Voltaire, Rousseau.
    Mock on, mock on—'tis all in vain!
    You throw the sand against the wind,
    And the wind blows it back again.
    • William Blake, Poems from Blake's Notebook, (c. 1804), "Mock On", st. 1
  • There's the wind on the heath, brother; if I could only feel that, I would gladly live for ever.
  • Come in, dear wind, and be our guest
    You too have neither home nor rest.
    • Bertolt Brecht, Berliner Börsen-Courier, (1924), "Weinachtslegende," trans. Poems, 1913-1956, (1976), "Christmas legend," p. 100
  • He comes with western winds, with evening's wandering airs,
    With that clear dusk of heaven that brings the thickest stars;
    Winds take a pensive tone and stars a tender fire
    And visions rise and change which kill me with desire —
  • There was a desert wind blowing that night. It was one of those hot dry Santa Anas that come down through the mountain passes and curl your hair and make your nerves jump and your skin itch. On nights like that every booze party ends in a fight. Meek little wives feel the edge of the carving knife and study their husbands' necks. Anything can happen. You can even get a full glass of beer at a cocktail lounge.
    • Raymond Chandler, published in Trouble Is My Business, (1939), "Red Wind" (short story, 1938)
  • And the wind will whip your tousled hair,
    The sun, the rain, the sweet despair,
    Great tales of love and strife.
    And somewhere on your path to glory
    You will write your story of a life.
  • The Westerly Wind asserting his sway from the south-west quarter is often like a monarch gone mad, driving forth with wild imprecations the most faithful of his courtiers to shipwreck, disaster, and death.
  • The East Wind, an interloper in the dominions of Westerly weather, is an impassive-faced tyrant with a sharp poniard held behind his back for a treacherous stab.
  • The old
    Old winds that blew
    When chaos was, what do
    They tell the clattered trees that I
    Should weep?
  • Good old Watson! You are the one fixed point in a changing age. There's an east wind coming all the same, such a wind as never blew on England yet. It will be cold and bitter, Watson, and a good many of us may wither before its blast. But it's God's own wind none the less, and a cleaner, better, stronger land will lie in the sunshine when the storm has cleared.
  • The way of the Wind is a strange, wild way.
    • Ingram Crockett, The Wind, reported in Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, 10th ed. (1919).
  • Weave the wind. I have no ghosts,
    An old man in a draughty house
    Under a windy knob.
    • T.S. Eliot, Poems, (1920), "Gerontion"
  • Like the wind crying endlessly through the universe, Time carries away the names and the deeds of conquerors and commoners alike. And all that we are, all that remains, is in the memories of those who cared we came this way for a brief moment.
  • The shadow of a dove
    Falls on the cote, the trees are filled with wings;
    And down the valley through the crying trees
    The body of the darker storm flies; brings
    With its new air the breath of sunken seas
    And slender tenuous thunder . . .
    But I wait . . .
    Wait for the mists and for the blacker rain—
    Heavier winds that stir the veil of fate,
    Happier winds that pile her hair;
    They tear me, teach me, strew the heavy air
    Upon me, winds that I know, and storm.
  • The sun was warm but the wind was chill.
    You know how it is with an April day
    When the sun is out and the wind is still,
    You´re one month on in the middle of May.
    But if you so much as dare to speak,
    A cloud comes over the sunlit arch,
    A wind comes off a frozen peak,
    And you´re two months back in the middle of March.
  • Fair laughs the morn, and soft the zephyr blows,
    While proudly riding o'er the azure realm
    In gallant trim the gilded vessel goes;
    Youth on the prow, and Pleasure at the helm;
    Regardless of the sweeping whirlwind's sway,
    That, hushed in grim repose, expects his evening prey.
  • ਬੋਲੈ ਪਉਣੁ ॥ ਬੁਝੁ ਰੇ ਗਿਆਨੀ ਮੂਆ ਹੈ ਕਉਣੁ ॥
    • The body is dust; the wind speaks through it. Understand, O wise one, who has died.
    • Guru Granth Sahib, "On Death"
  • He who will establish himself on a certain height must yield according to circumstances, like the weather-cock on a church-spire, which, though it be made of iron, would soon be broken by the storm-wind if it remained obstinately immovable, and did not understand the noble art of turning to every wind.
    • Heinrich Heine, English Fragments (1828), Ch. 11 : The Emancipation
  • The willow submits to the wind and prospers until one day it is many willows — a wall against the wind. This is the willow's purpose.
  • I find that the great thing in this world is not so much where we stand as in what direction we are moving: To reach the port of heaven, we must sail sometimes with the wind and sometimes against it— but we must sail, and not drift, nor lie at anchor.
  • There, like the wind through woods in riot,
    Through him the gale of life blew high;
    The tree of man was never quiet:
    Then 'twas the Roman, now 'tis I.
  • La nuit n’était pas très obscure; c’était une pleine lune sur laquelle couraient de larges nuées chassées par le vent. Cela faisait au dehors des alternatives d’ombre et de clarté, des éclipses, puis des éclaircies, et au dedans une sorte de crépuscule. Ce crépuscule, suffisant pour qu’on pût se guider, intermittent à cause des nuages, ressemblait à l’espèce de lividité qui tombe d’un soupirail de cave devant lequel vont et viennent des passants.
    • The night was not very dark; there was a full moon, across which large clouds were driving before the wind. This produced alternations of light and shade, out-of-doors eclipses and illuminations, and in-doors a kind of twilight. This twilight, enough to enable him to find his way, changing with the passing clouds, resembled that sort of livid light which falls through the window of a dungeon before which men are passing.
    • Victor Hugo, Les Misérables, (1862), Book II—The Fall, "Chapter X—The Man Awakes," trans. Charles Edwin Wilbour, (1862 - 1863)
  • Wind is the heart of the wave, the spoon of the sea and the angry bull of the ships. Without wind, there is no ardour, no agitation!
  • O that our souls could scale a height like this,
    A mighty mountain swept o'er by the bleak
    Keen winds of heaven; and, standing on that peak
    Above the blinding clouds of prejudice,
    Would we could see all truly as it is;
    The calm eternal truth would keep us meek.
  • "Tomorrow, go forth and stand before the Lord. A great and strong wind will blow over you and rend the mountains and break in pieces the rocks, but the Lord will not be in the wind. And after the wind and earthquake, but the Lord will not be in the earthquake. And after the earthquake a fire, but the Lord will not be in the fire. And after the fire a gentle, cooling breeze. That is where the Lord will be." This is how the spirit comes. After the gale, the earthquake, and fire: a gentle, cooling breeze. This is how it will come in our own day as well. We are passing through the period of earthquake, the fire is approaching, and eventually (when? after how many generations?) the gentle, cool breeze will blow.
  • I came like Water, and like Wind I go.
  • Winds of the World, give answer! They are whimpering to and fro —
    And what should they know of England who only England know?
  • L'absence diminue les médiocres passions, et augmente les grandes, comme le vent éteint les bougies et allume le feu.
    • Absence extinguishes small passions and increases great ones, as the wind will blow out a candle, and fan a fire.
    • François de La Rochefoucauld, Reflections; or Sentences and Moral Maxims, (1665–1678), Maxim 276.
  • How long can men thrive between walls of brick, walking on asphalt pavements, breathing the fumes of coal and of oil, growing, working, dying, with hardly a thought of wind, and sky, and fields of grain, seeing only machine-made beauty, the mineral-like quality of life. This is our modern danger — one of the waxen wings of flight. It may cause our civilization to fall unless we act quickly to counteract it, unless we realize that human character is more important than efficiency, that education consists of more than the mere accumulation of knowledge.
    • Charles Lindbergh, Reader's Digest (November 1939), "Aviation, Geography, and Race," pp. 64-67
  • A boy's will is the wind's will,
    And the thoughts of youth are long, long thoughts.
  • When the wind carries a cry which is meaningful to human ears, it is simpler to believe the wind shares with us some part of the emotion of Being than that the mysteries of a hurricane's rising murmur reduce to no more than the random collision of insensate molecules.
    • Norman Mailer, Advertisements for Myself, (1959), "Advertisement for Myself on the Way Out"
  • It is the winterwind that blows, wailing all night long, wailing for the far-off day; the branches toss, the boughs sway, it is the winterwind that blows... And the winds of winter sing a song of loneliness and silent sorrow; echo-less their lament dies away over the empty veld in the night, sighing through the grass seeds, and drawn is far away.
  • It's a warm wind, the west wind, full of birds' cries;
    I never hear the west wind but tears are in my eyes.
    For it comes from the west lands, the old brown hills,
    And April's in the west wind, and daffodils.
  • The wind is not helpless for any man's need,
    Nor falleth the rain but for thistle and weed.
    • William Morris, Love is Enough, (1872), "Song II: Have No Thought for Tomorrow"
  • Mournfully, oh, mournfully,
    The midnight wind doth sigh,
    Like some sweet plaintive melody
    Of ages long gone by.
  • The example of a believer is like a fresh tender plant; from whichever direction the wind blows, it bends the plant. But when the wind dies down, (it) straightens up again.
    • Muhammad, Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 4, Number 1
  • Climb the mountains and get their good tidings, Nature's peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees. The winds will blow their own freshness into you and the storms their energy, while cares will drop off like autumn leaves. As age comes on, one source of enjoyment after another is closed, but nature's sources never fail.
  • Look when the clouds are blowing
    And all the winds are free:
    In fury of their going
    They fall upon the sea.
    But though the blast is frantic,
    And though the tempest raves,
    The deep immense Atlantic
    Is still beneath the waves.
  • We love the kindly wind and hail,
    The jolly thunderbolt,
    We watch in glee the fairy trail
    Of ampere, watt, and volt.
    • Ogden Nash, Many Long Years Ago, (1945), "A Watched Example Never Boils"
  • Indoors or out, no one relaxes
    In March, that month of wind and taxes,
    The wind will presently disappear,
    The taxes last us all the year.
    • Ogden Nash, Versus, (1949), "Thar She Blows"
  • A certain amount of opposition is a great help to a man. Kites rise against, not with, the wind. Even a head wind is better than none. No man ever worked his passage anywhere in a dead calm.
    • John Neal, reported in The Journal of Education for Upper Canada Vol. III (1850)
  • A rush of wind comes furiously now, down from the mountaintop. "The ancient Greeks," I say, "who were the inventors of classical reason, knew better than to use it exclusively to foretell the future. They listened to the wind and predicted the future from that. That sounds insane now. But why should the inventors of reason sound insane?"
  • The wind is blowing, adore the wind.
    • Pythagoras (c. 582 - c. 496 BC), The Symbols, "Symbol 8"
  • Perhaps we cannot raise the winds. But each of us can put up the sail, so that when the wind comes we can catch it.
    • E. F. Schumacher, Small is Beautiful: A Study of Economics As If People Mattered, (1973)
  • Come as the winds come, when
    Forests are rended,
    Come as the waves come, when
    Navies are stranded.
  • Ignoranti quem portum petat nullus suus ventus est.
    • If one does not know to which port one is sailing, no wind is favourable.
    • Seneca the Younger, Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, no. 71, sect. 3; trans. Philip Gaskell Landmarks in Classical Literature (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999) p. 151.
  • Rough wind, the moanest loud
    Grief too sad for song;
    Wild wind, when sullen cloud
    Knells all the night long;
    Sad storm, whose tears are vain,
    Bare woods, whose branches strain,
    Deep caves and dreary main, —
    Wail, for the world's wrong!
  • I arise from dreams of thee
    In the first sweet sleep of night,
    When the winds are breathing low,
    And the stars are shining bright.
    • Percy Bysshe Shelley, The Indian Serenade, (1819), st. 1
  • We hear the wail of the remorseful winds
    In their strange penance. And this wretched orb
    Knows not the taste of rest; a maniac world,
    Homeless and sobbing through the deep she goes.
  • Let the winds blow! a fiercer gale
    Is wild within me! what may quell
    That sullen tempest? I must sail
    Whither, O whither, who can tell!
  • I listen to the wind
    To the wind of my soul
    Where I’ll end up well I think,
    Only God really knows
    • Cat Stevens, Teaser and the Firecat, (1971) "The Wind"
  • Sweet and low, sweet and low,
    Wind of the western sea,
    Low, low, breathe and blow,
    Wind of the western sea!
    Over the rolling waters go,
    Come from the dying moon, and blow,
    Blow him again to me;
    While my little one, while my pretty one, sleeps.
    • Alfred Tennyson, The Princess, (1847), Pt. III, Song: Sweet and Low, st. 1.
  • I have grown weary of the winds of heaven.
    I will not be a reed to hold the sound
    Of whatsoever breath the gods may blow,
    Turning my torment into music for them.
    They gave me life; the gift was bountiful,
    I lived with the swift singing strength of fire,
    Seeking for beauty as a flame for fuel —
    Beauty in all things and in every hour.
    The gods have given life — I gave them song;
    The debt is paid and now I turn to go.
    • Sara Teasdale, Rivers to the Sea, (1915), "Sappho (Rivers to the Sea)"
  • You who govern public affairs, what need have you to employ punishments? Love virtue, and the people will be virtuous. The virtues of a superior man are like the wind; the virtues of a common man are like the grass -- I the grass, when the wind passes over it, bends.
  • There will be great winds by reason of which things of the East will become things of the West; and those of the South, being involved in the course of the winds, will follow them to distant lands.
    • Leonardo da Vinci, (1452 - 1519), The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, XX, trans. Jean Paul Richter (1888)
  • I had thought, seeing how bitter is that wind
    That shakes the shutter, to have brought to mind
    All those that manhood tried, or childhood loved
    Or boyish intellect approved,
    With some appropriate commentary on each;
    Until imagination brought
    A fitter welcome; but a thought
    Of that late death took all my heart for speech.
    • William Butler Yeats, "In Memory Of Major Robert Gregory", st. 12, The Wild Swans at Coole, (1919)


Prophesy to the wind, to the wind only for only
The wind will listen.
T.S. Eliot, "Gerontion," Poems, (1920)
  • اتق الأحمق أن تصحبه إنما الأحمق كالثوب الخلق كلما رقعت منه جانبا صفقته الريح وهنا فانخرق
    • Arabic proverb
    • Literally: Be aware of the idiot, for he is like an old dress. Every time you patch it, the wind will tear it back again.
  • إذا هَبَّتْ رياحك فاغتنمها
    • Arabic proverb
    • Literally: If a wind blows, ride it!
    • Figuratively: If a chance comes, take advantage of it.
  • 空 穴 来 风 未 必 无 因
    • Chinese proverb
    • Literally: If the wind comes from an empty cave, it's not without a reason.
    • Figuratively: There is no smoke without fire.
  • 见 风 转 舵
    • Chinese proverb
    • Literally: See the wind, turn the rudder
    • Figuratively: Change one's technique or goal when having difficulties.
  • Wie wind zaait, zal storm oogsten.
    • Dutch proverb
    • Literally: He who seeds wind, shall harvest storm.
    • Figuratively: Who causes trouble, will be a victim of trouble.
  • Hoge bomen vangen veel wind
    • Dutch proverb
    • Literally: High trees catch lots of wind.
    • Figuratively: The more important the person the more criticism they get.
  • Hann fær byr, ið bíðar, og havn, ið rør.
    • Faroese proverb
    • Literally: He gets wind in his sails who waits, and harbour who rows.
    • Figuratively: You reap what you sow.
  • qoH vuvbe' SuS
  • باد آورده را باد میبرد
  • Água e vento são meio sustento.
    • Portuguese proverb
    • Literally: Water and wind are [already] half your share.
    • Figuratively: You're alive, that's not bad at all, you can go for the rest now.
  • Ищи́ ве́тра в по́ле.
    • Russian proverb
    • Literally: Look for wind in a field.
    • Figuratively: What's lost cannot be found.
  • Fa'amatagi
    • Samoan proverb
    • Literally: From the direction of the wind.
    • Figuratively: Tell the story from the beginning.
  • Eisd ri gaoth nam beann gus an traoigh na h-uisgeachan.
  • Alçak yerde yatma sel alır, yüksek yerde yatma yel alır.
    • Turkish proverb
    • Literally: Don't lie down in low places, flood will take you, don't lie down in high places, wind will take you.
    • Figuratively: Danger lies in extremes, stay casual.

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Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Wind (Teasdale) article)

From Wikisource

The Wind
by Sara Teasdale
From Helen of Troy and Other Poems Part II and Love Songs Part III

A wind is blowing over my soul,
      I hear it cry the whole night thro' --
Is there no peace for me on earth
      Except with you?

Alas, the wind has made me wise,
      Over my naked soul it blew, --
There is no peace for me on earth
      Even with you.

PD-icon.svg This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.

The author died in 1933, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 75 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

WIND (a common Teut. word, cognate with Skt. vatas, Lat. ventus, cf. "weather," to be of course distinguished from to "wind," to coil or twist, O.Eng. windan, cf. "wander," "wend," &c.), a natural motion of the air, a current of air coming from any particular direction or with any degree of velocity. For the general account of winds, their causes, &c., see Meteorology. Winds may be classified according to the strength or velocity with which they blow, varying from a calm, a breeze to a gale, storm or hurricane; for the varying scale of velocity per hour of these see Beaufort Scale, and for the measurement Anemometer. Another classification divides them into "regular" or "constant" winds, such as the "trade winds" (q.v.), and "periodic" winds, such as the "monsoon" (q.v.). There are many special winds, such as the "Fohn," "chinook," "mistral," "harmattan," "sirocco," which are treated under their individual names. For the group of musical instruments known by the generic name of Wind Instruments see that heading.

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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also wind





Wind m. (genitive Windes, plural Winde) (diminutive: Windchen)

  1. wind; movement of air usually caused by convection or differences of air pressure
Derived terms

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|A weather vane is used to find out where the wind comes from.]] [[File:|thumb|Wind socks such as this one are often used on airports. They show the direction of the wind. They can also show how strong the wind is.]]

Wind is the flow of gases. On Earth, wind is mostly the movement of air. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or particles from the sun through space. The strongest winds seen on a planet in our solar system are on Neptune and Saturn.

Short bursts of fast winds are called gusts. Strong winds that go on for about one minute are called squalls. Winds that go on for a long time are called many different things, such as breeze, gale, hurricane, and typhoon.

Wind can move land, especially in deserts. Cold wind can sometimes have a bad effect on livestock. Wind also affects animals' food stores, their hunting and the way they protect themselves.

If there is a high pressure system (that rotates clockwise in the northern hemisphere) near a low pressure system (that rotates counter-clockwise), the air will move from the high pressure to the low pressure to try and even out the pressures. If there is a small difference in pressure, there will be breezes and light winds. If there is a big difference in pressure, the winds will be high, and in some storms, such as hurricanes, typhoons, cyclones, or tornadoes, the pressure differences can cause winds faster than 200mph (320kph). This can cause damage to houses and other buildings, and can also lead to death.

Wind can also be caused by the rising of hot air, or the falling of cool air. When hot air rises, it creates a low pressure underneath it, and air moves in to equalize the pressure. When cold air drops (because it is denser or heavier than warm air), it creates a high pressure, and flows out to even out the pressure with the low pressure around it.

The wind is usually invisible, but rain, dust, or snow can let you see how it is blowing. A weathervane can also show you where the wind is coming from. The Beaufort scale is a way to tell how strong the wind is. It is used at sea, when no land can be seen.



See also: Severe weather

]] High winds can cause damage depending on how strong they are. Sometimes gusts of wind can make poorly made bridges move or be destroyed, like the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940.[1] Power can go out because of wind, even if its speed is as low as 23 knots (43 km/h). This is because tree branches could change the flow of energy through power lines.[2] No species of tree can resist hurricane-force winds, but trees with roots that are not very deep can be blown over more easily. Trees such as eucalyptus, sea hibiscus, and avocado are brittle (easy to break) and are damanged more easily.[3]

In outer space

Wind in outer space, called solar wind, is very different from a wind on earth. The wind in outer space is caused by the sun, and it is made up of particles that came out of the sun's atmosphere. Like solar wind, the planetary wind is made up of light gases that have come out of planets' atmospheres.

Planetary wind

The doldrums in January (blue) and July (red).

The doldrums are in the equatorial region. It is a wind belt where air is warm, with little pressure variations. Winds are light there. Another name for doldrums is Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).


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