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Vestas V47-660kW wind turbine at American Wind Power Center in Lubbock, Texas

Wind power in Texas consists of many wind farms with a total installed nameplate capacity of 9,410 MW[1] from over 40 different projects. Texas produces the most wind power of any U.S. state, followed by Iowa with 3,670 MW.[2]

Several forces are working to the advantage of wind power in Texas: the wind resource in many areas of the state is very large, large projects are relatively easy to site, and the market price for electricity is relatively high because it is set by natural gas prices.[3] The wind power industry is also creating many jobs and farmers may earn extra income by leasing their land to wind developers.[4]

The Roscoe Wind Farm (781 MW) is the world's largest wind farm. Other large wind farms in Texas include: Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center, Sherbino Wind Farm, Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm, Sweetwater Wind Farm, Buffalo Gap Wind Farm, King Mountain Wind Farm, Desert Sky Wind Farm, Wildorado Wind Ranch, and the Brazos Wind Farm.

Contents

Overview

Part of the Desert Sky Wind Farm off I-10

Wind power has a long history in Texas. West Texas State University began wind energy research in 1970 and led to the formation of the Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) in 1977. AEI has been a major information resource about wind energy for Texas.[5]

There are many wind farms in Texas and, as of March 2010, Texas has 9410 (MW) of capacity, which is the most wind power capacity of any U.S. state, followed by Iowa with 3,670 MW.[2] The expanding wind power market will help Texas meet its 2015 renewable energy goal of 5,000 new megawatts of power from renewable sources.[6]

The table below lists the larger wind farms in Texas, currently operating or under construction. Wind farms which are smaller than 120 MW in capacity are not shown.

Summary table: Large wind farms in Texas[7][2]
Wind farm Installed
capacity (MW)
Turbine
Manufacturer
County
Barton Chapel Wind Farm 120 Gamesa Jack
Brazos Wind Ranch (Green Mt. Energy Wind Farm) 160 Mitsubishi Scurry/ Borden
Buffalo Gap Wind Farm 523 Vestas Taylor/ Nolan
Bull Creek Wind Farm 180 Mitsubishi
Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm 662 GE/ Siemens Sterling/ Coke
Champion Wind Farm 126 Siemens Nolan
Desert Sky Wind Farm 160 GE Energy Pecos
Elbow Creek Wind Project 122 Siemens Howard
Forest Creek Wind Farm 124 Siemens Glasscock/ Stirling
Gulf Wind Farm 283 [8] Mitsubishi Kenedy
Hackberry Wind Project 165 Siemens Shackelford
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center 735 GE Energy/ Siemens Taylor/ Nolan
Inadale Wind Farm 197 Mitsubishi
King Mountain Wind Farm 278 Bonus/ GE Energy Upton
Langford Wind Farm 150 GE Energy Tom Green/Schleicher/Irion
Lone Star Wind Farm 400 Gamesa Shackelford/Callahan
McAdoo Wind Farm 150 GE Energy
Panther Creek Wind Farm 458 GE Energy
Peñascal Wind Farm 202 [9] Mitsubishi Kenedy
Pyron Wind Farm 249 GE Energy
Roscoe Wind Farm 781[10] Mitsubishi Nolan
Sherbino Wind Farm 150 Vestas Pecos
Stanton Energy Center 120 GE Energy
Sweetwater Wind Farm 585 GE Energy/ Siemens/ Mitsubishi Nolan
Trent Wind Farm 150 GE Energy Taylor
Turkey Track Wind Farm 169
Wildorado Wind Ranch 161 Siemens Oldham/ Potter/ Randall
Woodward Mountain Wind Ranch 159 Vestas Upton/ Pecos
A wind turbine blade on I-35 near Elm Mott, an increasingly common sight in Texas

Several forces are driving the growth of wind power in Texas: the wind resource in many areas of the state is very large, large projects are relatively easy to site, and the market price for electricity is set by natural gas prices and so is relatively high.[3] The broad scope and geographical extent of wind farms in Texas is considerable:

"Wind resource areas in the Texas Panhandle, along the Gulf Coast south of Galveston, and in the mountain passes and ridge tops of the Trans-Pecos offer Texas some of the greatest wind power potential in the United States. Currently there are over 2,000 wind turbines in West Texas alone. Most of the new wind capacity added in the last two years has been in the Abilene-Sweetwater area. The Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center is the largest wind power facility in the nation with a total capacity of 735 MW. It is spread across approximately 47,000 acres (190 km2) in Taylor and Nolan County near Abilene."[11]

Wind is an highly variable resource. With proper understanding it can be incorporated into an electric utility's generation mix. Nevertheless, when providing for the generating capacity to meet the peak demand in summer, the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), which manages the Texas power grid, counts wind at only 8.7% of nameplate capacity.[12] Many areas contain areas with winds presently suitable for electric power generation. The number of commercially attractive sites will expand as wind turbine technology improves and development costs continue to drop.[13]

Texas farmers may lease their land to wind developers for either a set rental per turbine or for a small percentage of gross annual revenue from the project.[14] This offers farmers a fresh revenue stream without impacting traditional farming and grazing practices. Although leasing arrangements vary widely, the U. S. Government Accountability Office reported in 2004 that a farmer who leases land to a wind project developer can generally obtain royalties of $3,000 to $5,000 per turbine per year in lease payments. These figures are rising as larger wind turbines are being produced and installed.[4]

The wind power industry is also creating thousands of jobs for communities and for the state.[15] Wind technology and the various aspects of producing electricity from wind power can help to keep employment in Texas after the rigs stop producing oil.[11]

Terrorism and industrial accidents can be potential threats to the large, centrally located, power plants that provide most of Texas’ electricity. Should one of these plants be damaged, repairs could take more than a year, possibly creating power shortages on a scale that Texans have never experienced before. Coal trains and gas pipelines are also vulnerable to disruption. However, wind power plants are quickly installed and repaired. The modular structure of a wind farm also means that if one turbine is damaged, the overall output of the plant is not significantly affected.[16]

A drop in West Texas wind, as well as a failure of several energy providers to reach scheduled production, and a spike in electricity usage, caused supply problems one evening in February 2008. This resulted in interruptible customers being cut off and the threat of rolling blackouts. The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) has said that technological advances will make it easier in the future to forecast wind energy, and that it would help to locate wind turbines in geographically diverse areas of the state.[17]

The wind power boom in Texas has outstripped the capacity of the transmission systems in place, and predicted shortages in transmission capability may dampen the growth of the industry in years to come. It is said that until now, the growth in wind power "piggybacked" on existing lines, but has now almost depleted spare capacity.[18] As a result, in winter the west Texas grid often has such a local surplus of power that the price falls below zero.[19][20] According to Michael Goggin, electric industry analyst at AWEA, "Prices fell below US −$30/MWh (megawatt-hour) on 63% of days during the first half of 2008, compared to 10% for the same period in 2007 and 5% in 2006."[21] In July 2008, utility officials gave preliminary approval to a $4.9 billion plan to build new transmission lines to carry wind-generated electricity from West Texas to urban areas such as Dallas. The new plan would be the biggest investment in renewable energy in U.S. history, and would add transmission lines capable of moving about 18,000 megawatts.[22]

Installed capacity growth

The following table compares the growth in wind power installed nameplate capacity in MW for Texas, California, and the entire United States since 1999.[23]

Year Texas California US
1999 180 1,646 2,500
2000 181 1,646 2,566
2001 1,096 1,714 4,261
2002 1,096 1,822 4,685
2003 1,293 2,043 6,374
2004 1,293 2,096 6,740
2005 1,995 2,150 9,149
2006 2,739 2,376 11,575
2007 4,296 2,439 16,596
Installed capacity by state as of 2008-09-30 (for an animated map of installed capacity growth, click here)

Large wind farms

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Roscoe Wind Farm (781 MW)

The Roscoe Wind Farm in Roscoe, Texas is the world's largest wind farm (as of September 2009) with 627 wind turbines and a total capacity of 781 MW, which is enough to power more than 250,000 average Texan homes.[24][25][26]

Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center (735 MW)

The Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center is a large wind farm with 735.5 MW of installed capacity. It consists of 291 GE Energy 1.5 megawatt wind turbines and 130 Siemens 2.3 megawatt wind turbines spread over nearly 47,000 acres (190 km²) of land in Taylor and Nolan Counties.[27]

The first stage of the Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center consisted of 213 MW was completed in late 2005; phase two consisted of 223.5 MW was completed in the second quarter of 2006; and, phase three consisting of 299 megawatts, was completed in September 2006.[27] FPL Energy (through its subsidiaries) currently operates Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center.

Sweetwater Wind Farm (585 MW)

Construction of the Sweetwater Wind Farm has proceeded in five stages and some generating capacity is still being built. Sweetwater stage 4 employs 135 Mitsubishi 1.0 megawatt turbines and 46 Siemens 2.3 megawatt turbines. Its output is being sold to San Antonio’s CPS Energy under a 20-year purchase agreement. Construction of Sweetwater stage 5 began in February 2007, with completion expected by December 2007. Using 35 Siemens turbines, Sweetwater 5 will have a capacity of 80 MW.[28]

Buffalo Gap Wind Farm (523 MW)

The Buffalo Gap Wind Farm is located in Nolan and Taylor Counties, about 20 miles (30 km) south west of Abilene. It was constructed in three phases and has a total wind generation capacity of 523 MW. All of the electricity Buffalo Gap produces is sold to Texas retail electric provider Direct Energy.[29]

King Mountain Wind Farm (278 MW)

The King Mountain Wind Farm is a 278.2 MW wind farm, with 214 wind turbines in rows along the south-eastern and north-western edges of a mesa (tabletop mountain) surrounded by deep ravines.[30] Dust, sand and high temperatures place extraordinary demands on the wind turbines. Consequently, the design was modified for the desert-like conditions, providing additional cooling and protection against wind-blown sand. Annual electricity production is more than 0.75 TWh.[30]

Other wind farms

The Wildorado Wind Ranch is located near Amarillo and consists of 161 MW of wind turbines (70 Siemens Mk II turbines each with a rating of 2.3 MW). These turbines have the capacity to meet the electricity demand of more than 50,000 households. The Wildorado Wind Ranch was developed by Cielo Wind Power, of Austin, Texas, in conjunction with Edison Mission Group of Irvine, California.[31]

The Brazos Wind Ranch, also known as the Green Mt. Energy Wind Farm, has 160 wind turbines, each rated at one MW and supplied by Mitsubishi, and was completed in December 2003. The wind farm sells generated power on a long-term basis, to a local power distributor, TXU Energy, to supply approximately 30,000 homes in Texas. Fifty per cent of the Brazos Wind Farm is owned by Shell Wind Energy Inc.[32]

The Desert Sky Wind Farm is a 160.5 MW wind farm located near the far West Texas town of Iraan, in Pecos County. The site, visible to travelers on Interstate 10, consists of 107 GE turbines, each rated at 1.5 megawatts. American Electric Power (AEP) owns the facility and CPS Energy of San Antonio purchases all power.[33]

The Woodward Mountain Wind Ranch in Pecos County has an installed capacity of 159.7 MW and is owned by FPL Energy. The wind farm uses Vestas V47 turbines, each rated at 660 kW, and the project became fully operational in July 2001.[34]

The Trent Wind Farm is a 150 MW wind farm located between Abilene and Sweetwater in West Texas. The wind farm consists of 100 GE wind turbines each rated at 1.5 megawatts. American Electric Power owns the Trent Wind Farm and TXU purchases the electricity produced under a long-term agreement.[35]

Airtricity's fourth Texas wind farm, the 126 MW Champion Wind Farm project, recently commenced construction five miles (8 km) from the Roscoe Wind Farm site.[6]

Airtricity North America has officially opened its 124 MW wind farm at Forest Creek. TXU will purchase the electricity generated by the wind farm, which entered commercial operation in March 2007.[36] The Forest Creek Wind Farm will provide the equivalent of 10 full time jobs during its operation over the next 25 years.[37]

Future developments

In June 2007, Texas was selected by USDOE to be home to one of two large-scale wind turbine research and testing facilities, which aims to accelerate the commercial availability of wind power. The facilities are expected to conduct blade testing and be operational in 2009.[11]

In July 2007, a joint development agreement was signed, between Shell WindEnergy Inc. and Luminant, for a 3,000-megawatt wind project in the Texas Panhandle. This project will explore the use of compressed-air energy storage, in which excess power could be used to pump air underground for later use in generating electricity.[38]

After evaluating the potential for wind-generation in about 25 areas in the state, the Texas Public Utility Commission voted on 20 July 2007 to designate eight zones as the best sites for construction of new power lines to serve more than 20,000 megawatts of proposed wind generation. The eight areas are called "Competitive Renewable Energy Zones".[39]

In a bid to block construction of two large wind energy projects on the South Texas coast, an alliance of environmental groups and landowners is opposing the high-voltage transmission line required for the project. However, none of the alliance members owns land where the wind project and transmission line would be constructed, and thus cannot demonstrate a "justifiable interest" in the matter.[40]

Transmission Lines

In 2008, the Public Utility Commission (PUC) of Texas approved a $4.93 billion dollar plan to build transmission lines to carry up to 18,456 megawatts (MW) of wind power from West Texas and the Texas Panhandle to metropolitan areas of the state. The PUC estimates that the new lines will be in service between 2011-2013, at which point residential customers will be charged about $4 per month to pay off the cost of the transmission lines. The plan included 6,903 MW of existing or already in development wind power capacity, plus 11,553 MW of future capacity. Additionally, the plan, allows for 2,393 MW of wind power to be transmitted from the so-called "Panhandle B" zone. The first lines to be run will stretch the western side of the Amarillo-Lubbock corridor, with construction expected to begin in the latter half of 2011.[41]

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c [2]
  3. ^ a b Wind Riding Favorable Policy Breeze Toward Record Year Renewable Energy Access, 5 June 2007.
  4. ^ a b State Energy Conservation Office. The New Cash Crop
  5. ^ "Alternative Energy Institute". http://www.windenergy.org/. 
  6. ^ a b Airtricity Finalizes 209-MW Wind Project in Texas Renewable Energy Access, 16 May 2007.
  7. ^ Texas Renewable Energy Industries Association. Texas operational wind plants
  8. ^ "Babcock & Brown Gulf Coast wind project clears legal hurdle". Power Engineering International. 7 August 2008. http://pepei.pennnet.com/display_article/336467/6/ARCHI/none/INDUS/1/Babcock-&-Brown-Gulf-Coast-wind-project-clears-legal-hurdle/. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  9. ^ Chirinos, Fanny S. (March 13, 2008). "Wind power advances". Corpus Christi Caller-Times. http://www.caller.com/news/2008/mar/13/wind-power-advances/. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  10. ^ E.ON Delivers 335-MW of Wind in Texas
  11. ^ a b c State Energy Conservation Office. Texas wind energy
  12. ^ "ERCOT Expects Adequate Power Supplies for Summer". Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). May 16, 2008. http://www.ercot.com/news/press_releases/2008/nr-5-16-08. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  13. ^ "Texas Wind Energy Resources". http://www.infinitepower.org/reswind.htm. 
  14. ^ Krauss, Clifford (2008-02-23). "Move Over, Oil, There’s Money in Texas Wind". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/23/business/23wind.html. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  15. ^ Block, Ben (2008-07-24). "In Windy West Texas, An Economic Boom". http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/008271.html. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  16. ^ SEED Coalition and Public Citizen’s Texas office (2002). Renewable Resources: The New Texas Energy Powerhouse p. 11.
  17. ^ Dallas Morning. State almost saw rolling blackouts Tuesday night. 02/28/2008
  18. ^ USA Today. Lines lacking to transmit wind energy.
  19. ^ Giberson, Michael (28 January 2009). "UPDATED: Negative power prices in the West region of ERCOT in 2008". Knowledge Problem. http://knowledgeproblem.com/2009/01/28/updated-negative-power-prices-in-ercot-2008/. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  20. ^ Wang, Ucilia (10 December 2008). "Texas Wind Farms Paying People to Take Power". Greentech Media. http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/texas-wind-farms-bring-free-energy-and-cash-bonuses--5347.html. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  21. ^ Goggin, Michael (19 September 2008). "Curtailment, Negative Prices Symptomatic of Inadequate Transmission". Renewable Energy World. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2008/09/curtailment-negative-prices-symptomatic-of-inadequate-transmission-53616. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  22. ^ Texas Will Spend Billions on Transmission of Wind Power
  23. ^ "The Energy Report (Publication 96-1266). Chapter 11: Wind Power". Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts. 2008. http://www.window.state.tx.us/specialrpt/energy/renewable/wind.php. Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  24. ^ E.ON Delivers 335-MW of Wind in Texas
  25. ^ U.S. Wind Energy Industry Installs over 2,800 MW in First Quarter
  26. ^ E.ON wraps up 457 MW wind farm, transfers assets
  27. ^ a b Energy, FPL. "Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center now largest wind farm in the world". http://www.fplenergy.com/news/contents/090706.shtml. 
  28. ^ Energy, GE. "GE unit expands wind energy portfolio" (PDF). http://www.geenergyfinancialservices.com/press_room/press_releases/SweetwaterRelease5242007_FINAL.pdf. 
  29. ^ AES Adds 170 MW to Buffalo Gap Wind Farm
  30. ^ a b Siemens. King Mountain Wind Farm
  31. ^ Siemens Receives 70-Turbine Order for Texas Project Renewable Energy Access, 22 March 2006.
  32. ^ Mitsui. Mitsui USA's Advance in Wind Power Generation
  33. ^ "Desert Sky Wind Farm". http://www.desertskywind.com/. 
  34. ^ Renewable Energy Systems. Woodward Mountain Wind Ranch
  35. ^ "Trent Mesa Wind Project". http://www.trentmesa.com/. 
  36. ^ Airtricity Opens 124 MW Forest Creek Wind Farm in West Texas Renewable Energy Access, 1 June 2007.
  37. ^ Airtricity. Airtricity officially opens 124 MW Forest Creek Wind Farm in West Texas
  38. ^ Luminant and Shell Join Forces to Develop a Texas-Sized Wind Farm PR Newswire, 27 July 2007.
  39. ^ Texas agency okays 8 zones for new wind projects Reuters, 20 July 2007.
  40. ^ Alliance fights wind farm, Houston Chronicle, 29 August 2007.
  41. ^ Competitive Renewable Energy Zone Map of Texas Courtesy of PUCT

External links


Simple English

V47-660kW wind turbine at American Wind Power Center in Lubbock, Texas]]

Wind power in Texas consists of many wind farms with a total installed generating capacity of 9,410 MW[1] from over 40 different projects. Texas produces the most wind power of any U.S. state, followed by Iowa with 3,670 MW.[2]

Several forces are working to the advantage of wind power in Texas: the wind resource in many areas of the state is very large, large projects are relatively easy to site, and the market price for electricity is relatively high because it is set by natural gas prices.[3] The wind power industry is also creating many jobs and farmers may earn extra income by leasing their land to wind developers.[4]

The Roscoe Wind Farm (781 MW) is the world's largest wind farm. Other large wind farms in Texas include: Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center, Sherbino Wind Farm, Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm, Sweetwater Wind Farm, Buffalo Gap Wind Farm, King Mountain Wind Farm, Desert Sky Wind Farm, Wildorado Wind Ranch, and the Brazos Wind Farm.

Overview

Wind power has a long history in Texas. West Texas State University began wind energy research in 1970 and led to the formation of the Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) in 1977. AEI has been a major information resource about wind energy for Texas.[5]

Texas is firmly established as the leader in wind power development in the USA, ahead of Iowa and California.[2] The expanding wind power market will help Texas meet its 2015 renewable energy goal of 5,000 new megawatts of power from renewable sources.[6]

The table below lists the larger wind farms in Texas, currently operating or under construction. Wind farms which are smaller than 120 MW in capacity are not shown.

Summary table: Large wind farms in Texas[7][2]
Wind farm Installed
capacity (MW)
Turbine
Manufacturer
County
Barton Chapel Wind Farm 120 Gamesa Jack
Brazos Wind Ranch (Green Mt. Energy Wind Farm) 160 Mitsubishi Scurry/ Borden
Buffalo Gap Wind Farm 523 Vestas Taylor/ Nolan
Bull Creek Wind Farm 180 Mitsubishi Borden
Camp Springs Wind Energy Center 130.5 Scurry
Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm 662 GE Energy/ Siemens Sterling/ Coke
Champion Wind Farm 126 Siemens Nolan
Desert Sky Wind Farm 160 GE Energy Pecos
Elbow Creek Wind Project 122 Siemens Howard
Forest Creek Wind Farm 124 Siemens Glasscock/ Sterling
Goat Mountain Wind Ranch 150 Coke/ Sterling
Gulf Wind Farm 283 [8] Mitsubishi Kenedy
Hackberry Wind Project 165 Siemens Shackelford
Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center 735 GE Energy/ Siemens Taylor/ Nolan
Inadale Wind Farm 197 Mitsubishi Scurry/ Nolan
King Mountain Wind Farm 278.5 Bonus/ GE Energy Upton
Langford Wind Farm 150 GE Energy Tom Green/ Schleicher/ Irion
Lone Star Wind Farm 400 Gamesa Shackelford/ Callahan
McAdoo Wind Farm 150 GE Energy Dickens
Notrees Windpower 150 Duke Energy Ector/ Winkler
Panther Creek Wind Farm 458 GE Energy Howard/ ...
Peñascal Wind Farm 202 [9] Mitsubishi Kenedy
Pyron Wind Farm 249 GE Energy Scurry/ Fisher/ Nolan
Roscoe Wind Farm 781[10] Mitsubishi Nolan
Sherbino Wind Farm 150 Vestas Pecos
Stanton Energy Center 120 GE Energy Martin/ Howard
Sweetwater Wind Farm 585 GE Energy/ Siemens/ Mitsubishi Nolan
Trent Wind Farm 150 GE Energy Taylor
Turkey Track Energy Center 169.5 Nolan/ Coke/ Runnels
Wildorado Wind Ranch 161 Siemens Oldham/ Potter/ Randall
Woodward Mountain Wind Ranch 159 Vestas Pecos
off I-10]]
File:Wind turbine blade transport
A wind turbine blade on I-35 near Elm Mott, an increasingly common sight in Texas

Several forces are driving the growth of wind power in Texas: the wind resource in many areas of the state is very large, large projects are relatively easy to site, and the market price for electricity is set by natural gas prices and so is relatively high.[3] The broad scope and geographical extent of wind farms in Texas is considerable:

"Wind resource areas in the Texas Panhandle, along the Gulf Coast south of Galveston, and in the mountain passes and ridge tops of the Trans-Pecos offer Texas some of the greatest wind power potential in the United States. Currently there are over 2,000 wind turbines in West Texas alone. Most of the new wind capacity added in the last two years has been in the Abilene-Sweetwater area. The Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center is the largest wind power facility in the nation with a total capacity of 735 MW. It is spread across approximately 47,000 acres in Taylor and Nolan County near Abilene."[11]

Wind is a highly variable resource, but with proper understanding it can be readily incorporated into an electric utility's generation mix. Many areas contain areas with winds presently suitable for electric power generation. The number of commercially attractive sites will expand as wind turbine technology improves and development costs continue to drop.[12]

Texas farmers may lease their land to wind developers for either a set rental per turbine or for a small percentage of gross annual revenue from the project.[13] This offers farmers a fresh revenue stream without impacting traditional farming and grazing practices. Although leasing arrangements vary widely, the U. S. Government Accountability Office reported in 2004 that a farmer who leases land to a wind project developer can generally obtain royalties of $3,000 to $5,000 per turbine per year in lease payments. These figures are rising as larger wind turbines are being produced and installed.[4]

The wind power industry is also creating thousands of jobs for communities and for the state.[14] Wind technology and the various aspects of producing electricity from wind power can help to keep employment in Texas after the rigs stop producing oil.[11]

Terrorism and industrial accidents can be potential threats to the large, centrally located, power plants that provide most of Texas’ electricity. Should one of these plants be damaged, repairs could take more than a year, possibly creating power shortages on a scale that Texans have never experienced before. Coal trains and gas pipelines are also vulnerable to disruption. However, wind power plants are quickly installed and repaired. The modular structure of a wind farm also means that if one turbine is damaged, the overall output of the plant is not significantly affected.[15]

References

  1. [1]
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 [2]
  3. 3.0 3.1 Wind Riding Favorable Policy Breeze Toward Record Year Renewable Energy Access, 5 June 2007.
  4. 4.0 4.1 State Energy Conservation Office. The New Cash Crop
  5. "Alternative Energy Institute". http://www.windenergy.org/. 
  6. Airtricity Finalizes 209-MW Wind Project in Texas Renewable Energy Access, 16 May 2007.
  7. Texas Renewable Energy Industries Association. Texas operational wind plants
  8. "Babcock & Brown Gulf Coast wind project clears legal hurdle". Power Engineering International. 7 August 2008. http://pepei.pennnet.com/display_article/336467/6/ARCHI/none/INDUS/1/Babcock-&-Brown-Gulf-Coast-wind-project-clears-legal-hurdle/. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  9. Chirinos, Fanny S. (March 13, 2008). "Wind power advances". Corpus Christi Caller-Times. http://www.caller.com/news/2008/mar/13/wind-power-advances/. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  10. E.ON Delivers 335-MW of Wind in Texas
  11. 11.0 11.1 State Energy Conservation Office. Texas wind energy
  12. "Texas Wind Energy Resources". http://www.infinitepower.org/reswind.htm. 
  13. Krauss, Clifford (2008-02-23). "Move Over, Oil, There’s Money in Texas Wind". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/23/business/23wind.html. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  14. Block, Ben (2008-07-24). "In Windy West Texas, An Economic Boom". http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/008271.html. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  15. SEED Coalition and Public Citizen’s Texas office (2002). Renewable Resources: The New Texas Energy Powerhouse p. 11.

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