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.This article discusses wind-powered electrical generators.^ Wind Powered Generator (domestic) .
  • wind turbine - offers from Buyers, importers, purchasers, resellers & dropshippers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.tradekey.com [Source type: General]

^ Generating electricity from wind .
  • Wind | The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ashdenawards.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind turbines harness the power of the wind and use it to generate electricity.
  • Small scale wind power - Home wind power generators - Energy Saving Trust 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.energysavingtrust.org.uk [Source type: General]
  • Raine or Shine - Alternative Energy Solutions. 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC raine-or-shine.com [Source type: General]

See windmill for wind-powered machinery used to grind grain or pump water.
Wind turbines near Aalborg, Denmark
.A wind turbine converts the energy of wind into kinetic energy.^ According to Wikipedia.org: A wind turbine is a machine for converting the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy.
  • Wind turbines - Zimbio 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: General]

^ Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power.
  • Wind power, Wind Energy, Wind Mills, wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ Wind power, Wind Energy, Wind Mills, wind Turbines .
  • Wind power, Wind Energy, Wind Mills, wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

.If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as pumping water, cutting lumber or grinding stones, the machine is called a windmill.^ If the mechanical energy is then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator .
  • Wind Turbine Types, savonius, Darrieus wind turbine, coriolis force, Turby concept, Warp turbine, laddermill 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ If the mechanical energy is then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator.
  • Wind turbines - Zimbio 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: General]

^ Water pumping rural windmill in Germany.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the mechanical energy is instead converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator, wind turbine, wind power unit (WPU), wind energy converter (WEC), or aerogenerator.^ The turbine uses wind energy to produce power for his home.
  • Home Wind Turbine Kits, Residential Wind Power Kits 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC windenergy7.com [Source type: General]
  • Home Wind Turbine's Page - PickensPlan 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC push.pickensplan.com [Source type: General]

^ Wind turbines produce electricity by capturing the natural power of the wind to drive a generator.
  • Wind Turbines - Do you need one at home? - Telegraph 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Home » wind powered generators » Wind Turbine Electricity for the Home .
  • Wind Turbine Electricity For Home | idigibuzz.com 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC idigibuzz.com [Source type: General]

Contents

History

Wind farm in the North Sea off Belgium
.
The world's first automatically operated wind turbine was built in Cleveland in 1888 by Charles F. Brush.
^ Wind turbines operate on a simple principle.
  • Wind power, Wind Energy, Wind Mills, wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ In operation, the wind turbine is connected to the controller.
  • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

^ All the world's small wind turbines (?
  • Hugh Piggott's home page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC scoraigwind.com [Source type: General]

.It was 60 feet tall, weighed four tons and had a 12kW turbine.^ Most wind energy comes from turbines that can be as tall as a 20-story building and have three 200-foot-long (60-meter-long) blades.

^ Each blade is more than 100 feet long and weighs seven tons or more.
  • Wind turbine company's woes mirror that of the industry | Minnesota Public Radio NewsQ 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC minnesota.publicradio.org [Source type: News]

^ Each Windspire turbine is 30 feet tall and two feet wide, and it resembles a sculpture as much as it does a renewable energy device.
  • A Wind Turbine for Every Rooftop? : Green Building Elements 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC greenbuildingelements.com [Source type: General]
  • Low Impact Living » Blog Archive » Wind Power for Every Rooftop? 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.lowimpactliving.com [Source type: General]

[1]
.Wind machines were used in Persia as early as 200 B.C.[2] The windwheel of Heron of Alexandria marks one of the first known instances of wind powering a machine in history.^ Can I use wind power for heating?

^ The first known wind turbines were used in Persia as early as 200 B.C. and were used for for grinding grain.
  • Wind Turbine Information: Renewable Energy - Energy Matters 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.energymatters.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rated output (W) 7000 The Aerostar 6 metre wind turbine is a large machine suitable for domestic use (if you have the space!

[3][4] .However, the first practical windmills were built in Sistan, a region between Afghanistan and Iran, from the 7th century.^ Windmills have been built in The Netherlands for many centuries.
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wampanoag - the tribe that welcomed the Pilgrims in the 17th century and known as "The People of the First Light" - practice sacred rituals requiring an unblocked view of the sunrise.
  • Articles about Wind Turbines - SFGate 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC articles.sfgate.com [Source type: News]

^ The world's first megawatt wind turbine at Castleton, Vermont Wind machines were used in Persia as early as 200 B.C. This type of machine was introduced into the Roman Empire by 250 A.D. However, the first practical windmills were built in Sistan, Iran, from the 7th century.

.These were vertical axle windmills, which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle-shaped blades.^ These were vertical axle windmills, which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle shaped blades.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike traditional windmill designs, which have wide propeller blades, the manufacturer says the vertical turbines are designed to turn slowly and are unlikely to harm passing birds.
  • Adobe turns to the wind for power - SiliconValley.com 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.siliconvalley.com [Source type: News]

^ The vertical axis Darrius rotor is also a lift device, with its airfoil-shaped eggbeater blades.
  • Wind Power 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.stiltman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water, and were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries.^ Small windmills are still commonly used to pump water out of the ground, often to fill small tanks of water for livestock to drink.
  • Wind turbines and the wind energy - how much power is in the wind? 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ftexploring.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The use of wind turbines for providing mechanical power is also fairly old, with records of wind-powered machines for grinding corn going back to 1000 AD in Persia.
  • Wind | The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ashdenawards.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as a pump or grinding stones, the machine is usually called a windmill.
  • Wind turbines - Zimbio 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: General]
  • Wind Turbine Types, savonius, Darrieus wind turbine, coriolis force, Turby concept, Warp turbine, laddermill 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.By the 14th century, Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine River delta.^ By the 14th century, Dutch windmills were in use to drain areas of the Rhine River delta.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same type of wind turbines were later introduced into the Roman Empire by about 250 A.D. By the 14th century the Dutch were using wind turbines for pumping and as mills.
  • Wind Turbine Information: Renewable Energy - Energy Matters 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.energymatters.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As late as the 1920s, Americans used small windmills to generate electricity in rural areas without electric service.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Denmark by 1900, there were about 2500 windmills for mechanical loads such as pumps and mills, producing an estimated combined peak power of about 30 MW. The first known electricity generating windmill operated was a battery charging machine installed in 1887 by James Blyth in Scotland.^ If the mechanical energy is then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator .
  • Wind Turbine Types, savonius, Darrieus wind turbine, coriolis force, Turby concept, Warp turbine, laddermill 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ If the mechanical energy is then converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator.
  • Wind turbines - Zimbio 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.zimbio.com [Source type: General]

^ By 1900 the Dutch had about 2500 wind turbines that produced an estimate peak power of about 30 mega-watts.
  • Wind Turbine Information: Renewable Energy - Energy Matters 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.energymatters.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .The first windmill for electricity production in the United States was built in Cleveland, Ohio by Charles F Brush in 1888, and in 1908 there were 72 wind-driven electric generators from 5 kW to 25 kW. The largest machines were on 24 m (79 ft) towers with four-bladed 23 m (75 ft) diameter rotors.^ In 2008, wind machines in the United States generated a total of 52 billion kilowatthours, about 1.3% of total U.S. electricity generation.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind generators are "active" electricity producers.
  • Small Wind Turbine Home Power Systems | Alternative & Renewable Energy - ABS Alaskan, Inc. 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.absak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Makers of an 18 ft rotor diameter wind turbine.
  • Wind Power Generators -- Windmills 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.builditsolar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Around the time of World War I, American windmill makers were producing 100,000 farm windmills each year, mostly for water-pumping.^ Around the time of World War I, American windmill makers were producing 100,000 farm windmills each year, most for water-pumping.

^ Water pumping rural windmill in Germany.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The American rural electrification connected many farms to centrally-generated power and replaced individual windmills as a primary source of farm power by the 1950s.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .By the 1930s, windmills for electricity were common on farms, mostly in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed.^ By the 1930s windmills for electricity were common on farms, mostly in the United States where distribution systems had not yet been installed.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once broad-scale electricity distribution spread to farms and country towns, use of wind energy in the United States started to subside, but it picked up again after the U.S. oil shortage in the early 1970s.

^ Shipman, who is seeking state certification to develop big wind farms as well as smaller units, expects the rush to continue.
  • Wind turbines becoming growth industry in Ohio | Business - cleveland.com - cleveland.com 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.cleveland.com [Source type: News]

.In this period, high-tensile steel was cheap, and windmills were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers.^ In this period, high-tensile steel was cheap, and windmills were placed atop prefabricated open steel lattice towers.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steel Lattice-- These towers are very strong and lightweight, but expensive if purchased new.
  • Simple Wind Turbine Towers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.otherpower.com [Source type: General]

^ Tilt-up towers can be made from wooden utility poles, steel lattice radio towers, or 21-foot sections of steel pipe coupled together.
  • Simple Wind Turbine Towers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.otherpower.com [Source type: General]

.A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta, USSR in 1931. This was a 100 kW generator on a 30 m (100 ft) tower, connected to the local 6.3 kV distribution system.^ HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE SYSTEM DEMAND 2002 - 2017 .
  • Wind Turbine Systems to 2012 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders, Demand Forecast, Sales, Company Profiles, Market Research, Industry Trends and Companies 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.freedoniagroup.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A forerunner of modern horizontal-axis wind generators was in service at Yalta, USSR in 1931.

^ This was a 100 kW generator on a 30 m (100 ft) tower, connected to the local 6.3 kV distribution system.

.It was reported to have an annual capacity factor of 32 per cent, not much different from current wind machines.^ It was said to have an annual load factor of 32 per cent, which is not much different from current wind turbines.
  • Wind Turbine Information: Renewable Energy - Energy Matters 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.energymatters.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was reported to have an annual capacity factor of 32 per cent, not much different from current wind machines.

^ Can wind power make much of a difference?
  • http://zfacts.com/p/416.html 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC zfacts.com [Source type: Original source]

[9] .In the fall of 1941, the first megawatt-class wind turbine was synchronized to a utility grid in Vermont.^ Hornet wind turbines to unplug from the grid!
  • wind turbine GENERATOR sustainable 403 energy wind mills wind power lakota wind power airx generation Wind turbines wind mills wind power wind power generation 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.hydrogenappliances.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This wind turbine will be a utility grade wind turbine.
  • Carleton College: Facilities Management: The History of Carleton's Wind Turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC apps.carleton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grid-Tied 1.3kw Wind Turbine .
  • Wind Turbines 200 watts to 1,000 watts 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wsetech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Smith-Putnam wind turbine only ran for 1100 hours.^ Watt Wind Turbine only $500!
  • Wind Power Basics, Part 1 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.otherpower.com [Source type: General]

^ The future can only get better for wind turbines.
  • How wind turbine is made - material, manufacture, used, parts, components, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of wind turbine, Quality Control 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The “Quiet Revolution” turbine has 5-metre-tall blades which can generate 10Kw-hours of energy from a mean annual wind speed of just 5.8 metres per second.
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Due to war time material shortages the unit was not repaired.
.The first utility grid-connected wind turbine operated in the UK was built by John Brown & Company in 1954 in the Orkney Islands.^ Wind turbines operate on a simple principle.
  • Wind power, Wind Energy, Wind Mills, wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ In operation, the wind turbine is connected to the controller.
  • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

^ What are the companies that sell wind turbines?
  • What do I need to know to purchase a residential wind turbine? 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.awea.org [Source type: General]

It had an 18 meter diameter, three-bladed rotor and a rated output of 100 kW.

Resources

.Wind turbines locations with constantly high wind speeds bring best return on investment.^ Wind turbine location .
  • Green technology: Inside an advanced wind turbine | Machine Design 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC machinedesign.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ W wind turbine on a site with a wind speed of 6.5m/s .

^ They also know the location of the wind turbines.
  • Wind turbines can create some weather radar interference» Abilene Reporter News 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.reporternews.com [Source type: News]

.With a wind resource assessment it is possible to estimate the amount of energy the wind turbine will produce.^ The turbine uses wind energy to produce power for his home.
  • Home Wind Turbine Kits, Residential Wind Power Kits 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC windenergy7.com [Source type: General]
  • Home Wind Turbine's Page - PickensPlan 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC push.pickensplan.com [Source type: General]

^ How much energy can a single turbine or wind farm produce?

^ Learn how wind energy is produced.
  • Earth4Energy.com - make solar panel and make wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.earthforenergy.com [Source type: General]

.A quantitative measure of the wind energy available at any location is called the Wind Power Density (WPD.) It is a calculation of the mean annual power available per square meter of swept area of a turbine, and is tabulated for different heights above ground.^ Wind power calculations wind power calculation, P = r.
  • Wind power, Wind Energy, Wind Mills, wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ The turbine uses wind energy to produce power for his home.
  • Home Wind Turbine Kits, Residential Wind Power Kits 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC windenergy7.com [Source type: General]

^ Solidity means the wind cannot pass through the swept area.
  • SUR Energy: Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sur.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Calculation of wind power density includes the effect of wind velocity and air density.^ Power AVAILABLE in the wind = .5 x air density x swept area x (wind velocity cubed) .
  • Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Wind Turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenterrafirma.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (B) V = wind velocity in kph The air density figure is for sea level.

^ Wind power calculations wind power calculation, P = r.
  • Wind power, Wind Energy, Wind Mills, wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

.Color-coded maps are prepared for a particular area described, for example, as "Mean Annual Power Density at 50 Meters."^ This last example of hype again shows exactly why you should select a wind turbine based on swept area and not rated power output.
  • Wind Power Basics, Part 1 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.otherpower.com [Source type: General]

^ The density is the mass per unit volume (kilograms per cubic meter [kg/m^3], or pounds mass per cubic foot [lbm/ft^3] are a couple of typical examples of units of density).
  • Wind turbines and the wind energy - how much power is in the wind? 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ftexploring.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Power AVAILABLE in the wind = .5 x air density x swept area x (wind velocity cubed) .
  • Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Wind Turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenterrafirma.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the United States, the results of the above calculation are included in an index developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab and referred to as "NREL CLASS." The larger the WPD calculation, the higher it is rated by class.^ The Swift Rooftop Wind Energy System, developed by Edinburgh-based Renewable Devices Ltd., can be installed on a flat roof.
  • More families use wind turbines for home energy - MLive.com 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mlive.com [Source type: General]

^ As local government tends to be behind the times with technological developments in renewable energy, it doesn't hurt to raise the possibility of that alternative.

^ They are also based in Texas, the leading US state in wind power development and home of T. Boone Pickens, a wealthy and vocal proponent of renewable energies such as wind power.
  • Industry:Wind Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industry:Wind Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Classes range from Class 1 (200 watts/square meter or less at 50 meters altitude) to Class 7 (800 to 2000 watts/square meter).^ They live less than 800 meters away from the 12-turbine wind farm and are planning to move to a new property they have bought elsewhere in the district.
  • Wind turbines don't make good neighbors 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenberkshires.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the 510V turbine is rated at 32 mph, the power curve for the unit shows less than 200 watts of output in 20 mph (9 m/s) wind.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 18:5 - The Folly of Building-Integrated Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Power of Wind Air moving at 40 Kph through one square meter theoretically has an energy content of 400 watts if it were stopped.
  • Wind Turbine Generator Towers - Comsite Construction, Inc. 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.comsiteconstruction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Commercial wind farms generally are sited in Class 3 or higher areas, although isolated points in an otherwise Class 1 area may be practical to exploit.^ Before consideration can be given to the construction of individual wind turbines, manufacturers must determine a proper area for the siting of wind farms.
  • How wind turbine is made - material, manufacture, used, parts, components, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of wind turbine, Quality Control 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind farms also have the capacity to generate much more electricity than geothermal or solar installations.
  • Industry:Wind Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industry:Wind Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many rural or isolated areas where wind farms are located, he said, have residents who get television by cable or satellite signal, which are not affected by the towers.
  • Wind turbines don't make good neighbors 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenberkshires.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

Types of wind turbines

.Wind turbines can rotate about either a horizontal or vertical axis, the former being more common.^ Machine Type: Horizontal-axis wind turbine 2.
  • wind turbines - offers from wind turbines manufacturers, suppliers, exporters, wholesalers & distributors 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.tradekey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of these turbines are vertical axis wind turbines, or VAWTs.
  • A Wind Turbine for Every Rooftop? : Green Building Elements 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC greenbuildingelements.com [Source type: General]
  • Low Impact Living » Blog Archive » Wind Power for Every Rooftop? 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.lowimpactliving.com [Source type: General]

^ We have build wind turbine that is vertical axis.
  • Virtual Wind Turbine Breaks Betz' Law | Symscape 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.symscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]

Horizontal axis

Components of a horizontal axis wind turbine (gearbox, rotor shaft and brake assembly) being lifted into position
.Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind.^ For years we have been designing, constructing, and distrubiting wind turbine generator towers.

^ Machine Type: Horizontal-axis wind turbine 2.
  • wind turbines - offers from wind turbines manufacturers, suppliers, exporters, wholesalers & distributors 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.tradekey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor.^ Wind turbines operate on a simple principle.
  • Wind power, Wind Energy, Wind Mills, wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Academic]

^ AEROGEN WIND TURBINES Wind turbines for marine use.
  • Wind Turbines and Wind Chargers for grid connection and battery charging 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.brightgreenenergy.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most have a gearbox, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator.^ Turbines are the generators that turn wind energy into electricity.
  • Industry:Wind Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industry:Wind Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The blades are connected to a drive shaft that turns an electric generator to produce electricity.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gearbox output shaft turns the shaft of a generator.
  • Green technology: Inside an advanced wind turbine | Machine Design 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC machinedesign.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.Since a tower produces turbulence behind it, the turbine is usually pointed upwind of the tower.^ Since a tower produces turbulence behind it, the turbine is usually pointed upwind of the tower.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mainframe is the structural backbone of the wind turbine and it includes the "slip-rings" that connect the rotating (as it points itself into changing wind directions) wind turbine and the fixed tower wiring.
  • Small Wind Turbines: Primer - AltE 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.altestore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by high winds.^ Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by high winds.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recycling wind turbine blades.
  • Recycling of Wind Turbine Blades - Appropedia: The sustainability wiki 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.appropedia.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Blades feather in high winds to prevent damage.
  • Virtual Wind Turbine Breaks Betz' Law | Symscape 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.symscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted forward into the wind a small amount.^ Additionally, the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted up a small amount.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of the towers discussed so far are typically installed using a crane, unless the turbine is small enough and the tower low enough to tilt up into position using a hinge arrangement at the base.
  • SUR Energy: Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sur.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mainframe is the structural backbone of the wind turbine and it includes the "slip-rings" that connect the rotating (as it points itself into changing wind directions) wind turbine and the fixed tower wiring.
  • Small Wind Turbines: Primer - AltE 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.altestore.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Downwind machines have been built, despite the problem of turbulence (mast wake), because they don't need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind, and because in high winds the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance.^ The power will vary with wind speed and with the size of the blades (swept area).
  • Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Wind Turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenterrafirma.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What they need to do is allow the solar or wind to be bought by the people and instaled by the people.
  • Huge Texas Wind Farm's Turbines Will Be Made in China | Popular Science 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Downwind machines have been built, despite the problem of turbulence, because they don't need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind, and because in high winds, the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since cyclic (that is repetitive) turbulence may lead to fatigue failures most HAWTs are upwind machines.^ Since turbulence leads to fatigue failures, and reliability is so important, most HAWTs are upwind machines.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most serious environmental drawbacks to wind machines may be their negative effect on wild bird populations and the visual impact on the landscape.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Light turbulence will decrease performance since a turbine cannot react to rapid changes in wind direction, while heavy turbulence may reduce expected equipment life or result in wind turbine failure.

Horizontal subtypes

Doesburger windmill, Ede, The Netherlands.
12th-century windmills
.These squat structures, typically (at least) four bladed, usually with wooden shutters or fabric sails, were developed in Europe.^ These squat structures, typically (at-least) four-bladed, usually with wooden shutters or fabric sails, were developed in Europe.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But seriously, these are blades which you know will develop rated power, and are usually well made; it couldn't hurt to have a set around to go by at least when making your own.
  • Alton's Wind Turbine Page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.alton-moore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To avoid turbulence, which diminishes performance, the bottom of the turbine’s blades should be at least 10 feet above the tops of trees, buildings, or other structures that are within 300 feet of the turbine.
  • Sierra Club Green Home » Blog Archive » Residential Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sierraclubgreenhome.com [Source type: General]

.These windmills were pointed into the wind manually or via a tail-fan and were typically used to grind grain.^ These windmills were pointed into the wind manually or via a tail-fan and were typically used to grind grain.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world's first megawatt wind turbine at Castleton, Vermont Wind machines were used for grinding grain in Persia as early as 200 B.C. This type of machine was introduced into the Roman Empire by 250 A.D. However, the first practical windmills were built in Sistan, Afghanistan, from the 7th century.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water, and were used in the gristmilling and sugarcane industries.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Netherlands they were also used to pump water from low-lying land, and were instrumental in keeping its polders dry.^ In the Netherlands they were also used to pump water from low-lying land, and were instrumental in keeping its polders dry.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small windmills are still commonly used to pump water out of the ground, often to fill small tanks of water for livestock to drink.
  • Wind turbines and the wind energy - how much power is in the wind? 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ftexploring.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American colonists used windmills to grind wheat and corn, to pump water, and to cut wood at sawmills.
  • EIA Energy Kids - Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Schiedam, the Netherlands, a traditional style windmill (the Noletmolen) was built in 2005 to generate electricity.^ Windmills have been built in The Netherlands for many centuries.
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Schiedam, the Netherlands, a traditional style windmill (the Noletmolen ) was built in 2005 to generate electricity.

^ A traditional Dutch-style windmill needs a rudder or other mechanism to turn the vanes to the wind, where this design wastes no time rotating.
  • DIY vertical axis wind turbine - Hack a Day 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC hackaday.com [Source type: General]

[13] .The mill is one of the tallest Tower mills in the world, being some 42.5 metres (139 ft) tall.^ The mill is one of the tallest Tower mills in the world, being some 42.5 metres (139 ft) tall.

^ The tubular steel towers range from 200 to 300 feet (60 to 90 metres) tall.

^ After some 20 years of solo “R&D” in this field, I find that the costs are about equal at a diameter of around just under One Metre !!
  • Argentina Will Produce Massive Wind Power Turbines : EcoWorldly 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC ecoworldly.com [Source type: General]

19th-century windmills
.The Eclipse windmill factory was set up around 1866 in Beloit, Wisconsin and soon became successful building mills for pumping water on farms and for filling railroad tanks.^ The Eclipse windmill factory was set up around 1866 in Beloit, Wisconsin and soon became a huge success building mills for farm water pumping and railroad tank filling.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Eclipse windmill factory was set up around 1866 in Beloit, Wisconsin and soon became successful building mills for pumping water on farms and for filling railroad tanks.

^ Water pumping rural windmill in Germany.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other firms like Star, Dempster, and Aeromotor also entered the market.^ Other firms like Star, Dempster, and Aeromotor also entered the market.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hundreds of thousands of these mills were produced before rural electrification and small numbers continue to be made.^ Hundreds of thousands of these mills were produced before rural electrification and small numbers continue to be made.

^ Hundreds of thousands of these mills were produced before rural electrification and small numbers continue to be made.They typically had many blades, operated at tip speed ratios (defined below) not better than one, and had good starting torque.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the number of photos and continuous additions to this page, I have added Wind Turbine Page two , Don't miss it for the latest additions to the continuing saga of small wind power.
  • Wind Turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC earthbilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .They typically had many blades, operated at tip speed ratios not better than one, and had good starting torque.^ Typically, they start creating electricity at 6 m.p.h.

^ They typically had many blades, operated at tip speed ratios (defined below) not better than one, and had good starting torque.

^ Large turbines turbine blades rotate in the range of at 50-15 rpm at constant speed, although an increasing number of machines operate at a variable speed.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some had small direct-current generators used to charge storage batteries, to provide power to lights, or to operate a radio receiver.^ Some had small direct-current generators used to charge storage batteries, to provide power to lights, or to operate a radio receiver.

^ Some had small direct-current generators used to charge storage batteries, to provide a few lights, or to operate a radio receiver.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A gear box is commonly used to step up the speed of the generator, though there are also designs that use direct drive of an annular generator.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The American rural electrification connected many farms to centrally-generated power and replaced individual windmills as a primary source of farm power by the 1950s.^ The American rural electrification connected many farms to centrally-generated power and replaced individual windmills as a primary source of farm power by the 1950s.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been estimated by a number of reliable sources that 50,000 Americans a year die from air pollution , of which about one-third is produced by power plants.

^ In many cases the inverter's standby power consumption exceeds any power generated on urban sites.
  • Hugh Piggott's home page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC scoraigwind.com [Source type: General]

.They were also produced in other countries like South Africa and Australia (where an American design was copied in 1876[14]).^ They were also produced in other countries like South Africa and Australia.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australia Japan china South Africa .
  • Hugh Piggott's home page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC scoraigwind.com [Source type: General]

^ Heater elements designed to be used with 220v, may be used, although they are likely to produce less power than their intended design.
  • Wind Turbines 200 watts to 1,000 watts 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wsetech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such devices are still used in locations where it is too costly to bring in commercial power.^ Such devices are still used in locations where it is too costly to bring in commercial power.
  • Wind Turbine - KTerra 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC kterra.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • About Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC edinfo.securesites.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only advantage the Kenetower offers to traditional tubular towers, such as that used on the NSP project, is less costly foundations.
  • Wind Turbine Tower Trends 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wind-works.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jiminy Peak is the only ski resort to use wind power at such a large capacity, but the well-being of nearby animals is at risk.
  • Wind Turbines // Current 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC current.com [Source type: News]

Modern wind turbines
Three bladed wind turbine
.Turbines used in wind farms for commercial production of electric power are usually three-bladed and pointed into the wind by computer-controlled motors.^ The turbine uses wind energy to produce power for his home.
  • Home Wind Turbine Kits, Residential Wind Power Kits 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC windenergy7.com [Source type: General]

^ Wind Turbines and rising electricity costs .

^ Send me the latest products for Wind Turbines .
  • Wind Turbines Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

.These have high tip speeds of over 320 km/h (200 miles per hour), high efficiency, and low torque ripple, which contribute to good reliability.^ These have high tip speeds of up to six times the wind speed, high efficiency, and low torque ripple, which contribute to good reliability.

^ EarthTronics also claims that it can operate at speeds as low as 2 miles an hour.

^ However, these turbines make low-frequency noises that can be as damaging as high-frequency noises.
  • Wind turbines don't make good neighbors 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenberkshires.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The blades are usually colored light gray to blend in with the clouds and range in length from 20 to 40 metres (65 to 130 ft) or more.^ The blades are usually colored light gray to blend in with the clouds and range in length from 20 to 40 metres (65 to 130 ft) or more.

^ Various design features strengthen the structure of the blade so that blade lengths of more than 50 metres can be achieved.
  • Wind turbine Blade Inspection using Shearography 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.dantecdynamics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These are fairly easy to find in 20-30 foot lengths, and can be found (with difficulty) in more useful 50-60 foot sizes too.
  • Simple Wind Turbine Towers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.otherpower.com [Source type: General]

.The tubular steel towers range from 60 to 90 metres (200 to 300 feet) tall.^ The tubular steel towers range from 200 to 300 feet (60 to 90 metres) tall.

^ Lynette offers towers up to 140 feet and a choice between a conventional lattice tower and a guyed tubular tower.
  • Wind Turbine Tower Trends 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wind-works.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are tall steel towers to which supporting propeller fans are being assembled to convert wind energy into electrical power’.
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The blades rotate at 10-22 revolutions per minute.^ The blades rotate at 10-22 revolutions per minute.

^ Imagine a structure larger than a football field rotating at a leisurely ten to twelve revolutions per minute.
  • Technology Review: Giant Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The “Quiet Revolution” turbine has 5-metre-tall blades which can generate 10Kw-hours of energy from a mean annual wind speed of just 5.8 metres per second.
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At 22 rotations per minute the tip speed exceeds 300 ft per second.^ The blades rotate at 10-22 revolutions per minute.

^ Imagine a structure larger than a football field rotating at a leisurely ten to twelve revolutions per minute.
  • Technology Review: Giant Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The blades rotate at an average range of 175-500 revolutions per minute with some as high as 1150 rpm.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15][16] .A gear box is commonly used to step up the speed of the generator, although designs may also use direct drive of an annular generator.^ The wind generator is designed to survive in wind speeds of up to 90mph .
  • Wind Turbines 200 watts to 1,000 watts 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wsetech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A gear box is commonly used to step up the speed of the generator, although designs may also use direct drive of an annular generator.

^ We would also like to use some kind of CVT if possible, so that our fan can start up fast and keep going while generating more power.

.Some models operate at constant speed, but more energy can be collected by variable-speed turbines which use a solid-state power converter to interface to the transmission system.^ Some models operate at constant speed, but more energy can be collected by variable-speed turbines which use a solid-state power converter to interface to the transmission system.

^ At least he's using some of his power for good.
  • Jay Leno's wind turbine - Boing Boing 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

^ Used for charging batteries in harsh, cold climates (they are manufactured just 250 miles, or 400 km, south of the Arctic Circle), some of the turbines are designed for operation in winds up to 130 mph (60 m/s).
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 18:5 - The Folly of Building-Integrated Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All turbines are equipped with shut-down features to avoid damage at high wind speeds.^ All the world's small wind turbines (?
  • Hugh Piggott's home page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC scoraigwind.com [Source type: General]

^ All turbines are equipped with shut-down features to avoid damage at high wind speeds.

^ All the controls, necessary safety (governing and feathering) devices to protect against excessively high wind speeds, instruction manual etc should come with the machine that you purchase.

Horizontal axis advantages

.
  • Variable blade pitch, which gives the turbine blades the optimum angle of attack.^ Variable blade pitch, which gives the turbine blades the optimum angle of attack.

    ^ Allowing the angle of attack to be remotely adjusted gives greater control, so the turbine collects the maximum amount of wind energy for the time of day and season.

    ^ The new turbines will adapt to gusts by using sensor-based technology that will quickly angle the blades out of the wind to reduce the wear and tear on the turbine.
    • Technology Review: Giant Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Allowing the angle of attack to be remotely adjusted gives greater control, so the turbine collects the maximum amount of wind energy for the time of day and season.
  • The tall tower base allows access to stronger wind in sites with wind shear.^ In operation, the wind turbine is connected to the controller.
    • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

    ^ First, the maximum amount of energy in the wind is directly in front of the wind.
    • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • A Wind Turbine for Every Rooftop? : Green Building Elements 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC greenbuildingelements.com [Source type: General]
    • OhGizmo! » Archive » Donut-Shaped Wind Energizer Improves Wind Turbine Efficiency, Also Helps Soothe Wind Turbine Hemorrhoids 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ohgizmo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Helix shaped wind turbines save birds/more efficient. - The Petition Site 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Wind turbines are mounted on tall towers.
    • Sierra Club Green Home » Blog Archive » Residential Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sierraclubgreenhome.com [Source type: General]

    .In some wind shear sites, the wind speed can increase by 20% and the power output by 34% for every 10 metres in elevation.
  • High efficiency, since the blades always move perpendicular to the wind, receiving power through the whole rotation.^ As wind speed increases, power output increases dramatically.
    • Sierra Club Green Home » Blog Archive » Residential Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sierraclubgreenhome.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Power as a factor of wind speed.
    • Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Wind Turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenterrafirma.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The power will vary with wind speed and with the size of the blades (swept area).
    • Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Wind Turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenterrafirma.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In contrast, all vertical axis wind turbines, and most proposed airborne wind turbine designs, involve various types of reciprocating actions, requiring airfoil surfaces to backtrack against the wind for part of the cycle.^ Most of these turbines are vertical axis wind turbines, or VAWTs.
    • A Wind Turbine for Every Rooftop? : Green Building Elements 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC greenbuildingelements.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We have build wind turbine that is vertical axis.
    • Virtual Wind Turbine Breaks Betz' Law | Symscape 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.symscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ All the world's small wind turbines (?
    • Hugh Piggott's home page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC scoraigwind.com [Source type: General]

    .Backtracking against the wind leads to inherently lower efficiency.
  • The face of a horizontal axis blade is struck by the wind at a consistent angle regardless of the position in its rotation.^ The wind generator is a horizontal axis wind generator.
    • Wind Turbines 200 watts to 1,000 watts 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wsetech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Powerful enough to supply your needs yet harmonious with the environment, the strength of the wind is captured by our unique and highly efficient vertical blade design.

    ^ The high demand on larger and highly efficient blades leads to a high-tech product where weight and quality is the key to success.
    • Wind turbine Blade Inspection using Shearography 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.dantecdynamics.com [Source type: Reference]

    This results in a consistent lateral wind loading over the course of a rotation, reducing vibration and audible noise coupled to the tower or mount.

Horizontal axis disadvantages

.
Turbine blade convoy passing through Edenfield in the UK
  • The tall towers and blades up to 45 meters long are difficult to transport.^ Wind turbines are mounted on tall towers.
    • Sierra Club Green Home » Blog Archive » Residential Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sierraclubgreenhome.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The tower of a typical American-made turbine is approximately 80 feet tall and weighs about 19,000 pounds.
    • How wind turbine is made - material, manufacture, used, parts, components, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of wind turbine, Quality Control 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The lightweight nacelle of AWT-26 lends itself to tall towers, says Advanced Wind Turbine's Bob Lynette.
    • Wind Turbine Tower Trends 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wind-works.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Transportation can now amount to 20% of equipment costs.
  • Tall HAWTs are difficult to install, needing very tall and expensive cranes and skilled operators.
  • Massive tower construction is required to support the heavy blades, gearbox, and generator.
  • Reflections from tall HAWTs may affect side lobes of radar installations creating signal clutter, although filtering can suppress it.
  • Their height makes them obtrusively visible across large areas, disrupting the appearance of the landscape and sometimes creating local opposition.
  • Downwind variants suffer from fatigue and structural failure caused by turbulence when a blade passes through the tower's wind shadow (for this reason, the majority of HAWTs use an upwind design, with the rotor facing the wind in front of the tower).
  • HAWTs require an additional yaw control mechanism to turn the blades and nacelle toward the wind.
  • In order to minimize fatigue loads due to wake turbulence, wind turbines are usually sited a distance of 5 rotor diameters away from each other, but the spacing depends on the manufacturer and the turbine model.

Cyclic stresses and vibration

.Cyclic stresses fatigue the blade, axle and bearing resulting in material failures that were a major cause of turbine failure for many years.^ Also, while larger wind turbines produce more energy, the smaller models are less likely to undergo major mechanical failure, and thus are more economical to maintain.
  • How wind turbine is made - material, manufacture, used, parts, components, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of wind turbine, Quality Control 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the wind blows over the blades, the rotor turns, causing the generator or alternator in the turbine to rotate and produce electricity.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While wind turbines on duty are counted on to work 90 percent of the time, many structural flaws are still encountered, particularly with the blades.
  • How wind turbine is made - material, manufacture, used, parts, components, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of wind turbine, Quality Control 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because wind velocity often increases at higher altitudes, the backward force and torque on a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade peaks as it turns through the highest point in its circle.^ This force increases with increasing wind speeds.
  • Wind Turbines 200 watts to 1,000 watts 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wsetech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE SYSTEM DEMAND 2002 - 2017 .
  • Wind Turbine Systems to 2012 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders, Demand Forecast, Sales, Company Profiles, Market Research, Industry Trends and Companies 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.freedoniagroup.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These turbines will be among the highest points in the region.
  • Wind turbines don't make good neighbors 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenberkshires.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tower hinders the airflow at the lowest point in the circle, which produces a local dip in force and torque.^ Fedor's point: The blade design helps to increase the turning force, or torque, as they spin the sophisticated Parker-Hannifin generator.
  • Demand for small-scale wind turbines growing among Ohio businesses | Business - cleveland.com - cleveland.com 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.cleveland.com [Source type: News]

.These effects produce a cyclic twist on the main bearings of a HAWT. The combined twist is worst in machines with an even number of blades, where one is straight up when another is straight down.^ Large turbines turbine blades rotate in the range of at 50-15 rpm at constant speed, although an increasing number of machines operate at a variable speed.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The payoff is machines that use one tenth the blade material of today’s mega-turbines yet produce the same wattage.
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even within these categories though, most of the motors won't be very good generators, but you are more likely to find one that is than in other categories.
  • Wind Turbine FAQ 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

.To improve reliability, teetering hubs have been used which allow the main shaft to rock through a few degrees, so that the main bearings do not have to resist the torque peaks.^ If the Treadmill motor comes with the hub attached, take it off, hold the end of the shaft (which comes through the hub) firmly with pliers, and turn the hub clockwise.
  • Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Wind Turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenterrafirma.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have taken the off-the-shelf approach, with a 1" shaft and a couple of pillow-block bearings, with the idea being that the parts I use can be bought anywhere.
  • Alton's Wind Turbine Page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.alton-moore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The direct drive design drastically reduces preventative maintenance by using very few moving parts, with sealed bearings throughout and no gearbox to lubricate.
  • Small Wind Turbine Equipment Providers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.awea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rotating blades of a wind turbine act like a gyroscope.^ Also, while larger wind turbines produce more energy, the smaller models are less likely to undergo major mechanical failure, and thus are more economical to maintain.
  • How wind turbine is made - material, manufacture, used, parts, components, machine, Raw Materials, The Manufacturing Process of wind turbine, Quality Control 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The blades, with just a 15-foot diameter, act more like an airplane wing than a fan blade, adding lift.
  • Demand for small-scale wind turbines growing among Ohio businesses | Business - cleveland.com - cleveland.com 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.cleveland.com [Source type: News]

^ Large turbines turbine blades rotate in the range of at 50-15 rpm at constant speed, although an increasing number of machines operate at a variable speed.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As it pivots along its vertical axis to face the wind, gyroscopic precession tries to twist the turbine disc along its horizontal axis.^ Windside and GUS vertical-axis wind turbines .
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 18:5 - The Folly of Building-Integrated Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE SYSTEM DEMAND 2002 - 2017 .
  • Wind Turbine Systems to 2012 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders, Demand Forecast, Sales, Company Profiles, Market Research, Industry Trends and Companies 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.freedoniagroup.com [Source type: Reference]

^ AeroVironment has pursued horizontal-axis, rather than vertical-axis, wind turbines.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 18:5 - The Folly of Building-Integrated Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For each blade on a wind generator's turbine, precessive force is at a minimum when the blade is horizontal and at a maximum when the blade is vertical.^ We have build wind turbine that is vertical axis.
  • Virtual Wind Turbine Breaks Betz' Law | Symscape 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.symscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind Turbine generating 3238 watts.
  • Wind Turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC earthbilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two basic wind turbines, horizontal axis and vertical axis.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vertical axis design

.Vertical-axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically.^ Most of these turbines are vertical axis wind turbines, or VAWTs.
  • A Wind Turbine for Every Rooftop? : Green Building Elements 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC greenbuildingelements.com [Source type: General]

^ We have build wind turbine that is vertical axis.
  • Virtual Wind Turbine Breaks Betz' Law | Symscape 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.symscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE SYSTEM DEMAND 2002 - 2017 .
  • Wind Turbine Systems to 2012 - Market Size, Market Share, Market Leaders, Demand Forecast, Sales, Company Profiles, Market Research, Industry Trends and Companies 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.freedoniagroup.com [Source type: Reference]

.Key advantages of this arrangement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective.^ For a wind turbine to be cost effective, it needs ample, consistent wind.
  • Sierra Club Green Home » Blog Archive » Residential Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sierraclubgreenhome.com [Source type: General]

^ Insights into the latest Wind Turbines market trends .
  • Wind Turbines Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

^ The main work of wind turbines is to utilize the energy of wind and convert it into electricity; stronger wind is considered good for electricity production.

This is an advantage on sites where the wind direction is highly variable.
.With a vertical axis, the generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground, so the tower doesn't need to support it, and it is more accessible for maintenance.^ The size of the generator/alternator needs to be more or less matched to the size of the prop.
  • Alton's Wind Turbine Page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.alton-moore.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The new turbines will also need to be more reliable than their onshore counterparts, because maintenance will be far more difficult and expensive.
  • Technology Review: Giant Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This opening in the face of the Pearl River Tower will funnel wind to a vertical-axis wind turbine.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 18:5 - The Folly of Building-Integrated Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Drawbacks are that some designs produce pulsating torque.
.It is difficult to mount vertical-axis turbines on towers[citation needed], meaning they are often installed nearer to the base on which they rest, such as the ground or a building rooftop.^ We have build wind turbine that is vertical axis.
  • Virtual Wind Turbine Breaks Betz' Law | Symscape 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.symscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next I needed a mounting for the turbine.
  • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

^ Wind turbines are mounted on tall towers.
  • Sierra Club Green Home » Blog Archive » Residential Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sierraclubgreenhome.com [Source type: General]

.The wind speed is slower at a lower altitude, so less wind energy is available for a given size turbine.^ Contrary to what old-style wind turbines led people to believe, the new models are quieter, more reliable, more efficient, and come in a variety of sizes and configurations.
  • Residential Wind turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In their pilotproject in M'muock, Cameroon they train 10 local craftsmen to build small scale wind- and waterturbines from mainly locally available material for energy production.
  • Hugh Piggott's home page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC scoraigwind.com [Source type: General]

^ The “Quiet Revolution” turbine has 5-metre-tall blades which can generate 10Kw-hours of energy from a mean annual wind speed of just 5.8 metres per second.
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Air flow near the ground and other objects can create turbulent flow, which can introduce issues of vibration, including noise and bearing wear which may increase the maintenance or shorten the service life.^ It is very important that the measurement equipment is set high enough to avoid turbulence created by trees, buildings or other obstructions.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to television interference, there are other issues directly affecting the quality of life for people living near wind power plants.
  • Wind turbines don't make good neighbors 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenberkshires.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normal wear and tear, poor component designs or lack of preventative maintenance may all be factors affecting the amount of mechanical noise produced.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, when a turbine is mounted on a rooftop, the building generally redirects wind over the roof and this can double the wind speed at the turbine.^ We have build wind turbine that is vertical axis.
  • Virtual Wind Turbine Breaks Betz' Law | Symscape 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.symscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind turbines are mounted on tall towers.
  • Sierra Club Green Home » Blog Archive » Residential Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sierraclubgreenhome.com [Source type: General]

^ So it makes sense to build a wind turbine too!
  • Earth4Energy.com - make solar panel and make wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.earthforenergy.com [Source type: General]

.If the height of the rooftop mounted turbine tower is approximately 50% of the building height, this is near the optimum for maximum wind energy and minimum wind turbulence.^ We have build wind turbine that is vertical axis.
  • Virtual Wind Turbine Breaks Betz' Law | Symscape 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.symscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind turbines are mounted on tall towers.
  • Sierra Club Green Home » Blog Archive » Residential Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sierraclubgreenhome.com [Source type: General]

^ Short answer: wind turbines must be tower mounted on towers designed for wind turbines.
  • Residential Wind turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Vertical axis subtypes

Darrieus wind turbine 
"Eggbeater" turbines, or Darrieus turbines, were named after the French inventor, Georges Darrieus..[17] They have good efficiency, but produce large torque ripple and cyclical stress on the tower, which contributes to poor reliability.^ That being a redistribution of economic effort to raise up local working populaces while at once more efficiently and cheaply producing goods for mass consumption.
  • Huge Texas Wind Farm's Turbines Will Be Made in China | Popular Science 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also generally require some external power source, or an additional Savonius rotor to start turning, because the starting torque is very low.^ Fedor's point: The blade design helps to increase the turning force, or torque, as they spin the sophisticated Parker-Hannifin generator.
  • Demand for small-scale wind turbines growing among Ohio businesses | Business - cleveland.com - cleveland.com 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.cleveland.com [Source type: News]

^ We would also like to use some kind of CVT if possible, so that our fan can start up fast and keep going while generating more power.

^ When the wind blows over the blades, the rotor turns, causing the generator or alternator in the turbine to rotate and produce electricity.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The torque ripple is reduced by using three or more blades which results in a higher solidity for the rotor.^ Doug Selsam’s Sky Serpent uses an array of small rotors to catch more wind for less money.
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the vantage of Whitcomb Summit, the highest point on Route 2, the tallest Hoosac turbine blade tip will, at full extension, be more than 900 feet higher.
  • Wind turbines don't make good neighbors 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenberkshires.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A wonderful and controversial design of which the inventor says “This is a 1,000 year-old design” of the single-bladed turbine, “I knew if I could get more rotors, I could get more power.” .
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Solidity is measured by blade area divided by the rotor area. .Newer Darrieus type turbines are not held up by guy-wires but have an external superstructure connected to the top bearing.^ I set all the electronics on a piece of plywood on top of a plastic storage bin and neatened up the wiring.
  • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

^ Simply mount the wind turbine to your roof, wire it to the grid connect inverter, and wire the inverter into the supply panel.

^ When we put those small turbines on top of buildings, the costs go up and the performance goes down.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 18:5 - The Folly of Building-Integrated Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A helical twisted VAWT.
Giromill
A subtype of Darrieus turbine with straight, as opposed to curved, blades. The cycloturbine variety has variable pitch to reduce the torque pulsation and is self-starting..[18] The advantages of variable pitch are: high starting torque; a wide, relatively flat torque curve; a lower blade speed ratio; a higher coefficient of performance; more efficient operation in turbulent winds; and a lower blade speed ratio which lowers blade bending stresses.^ Powerful enough to supply your needs yet harmonious with the environment, the strength of the wind is captured by our unique and highly efficient vertical blade design.

^ Contrary to what old-style wind turbines led people to believe, the new models are quieter, more reliable, more efficient, and come in a variety of sizes and configurations.
  • Residential Wind turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Large turbines turbine blades rotate in the range of at 50-15 rpm at constant speed, although an increasing number of machines operate at a variable speed.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Straight, V, or curved blades may be used.
Savonius wind turbine 
These are drag-type devices with two (or more) scoops that are used in anemometers, .Flettner vents (commonly seen on bus and van roofs), and in some high-reliability low-efficiency power turbines.^ Contrary to what old-style wind turbines led people to believe, the new models are quieter, more reliable, more efficient, and come in a variety of sizes and configurations.
  • Residential Wind turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ However, these turbines make low-frequency noises that can be as damaging as high-frequency noises.
  • Wind turbines don't make good neighbors 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenberkshires.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wind turbine must have generated some serious power in those high winds before it failed.
  • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

.They are always self-starting if there are at least three scoops.^ I knew this was a weak spot and always expected they would break there eventually.
  • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

They sometimes have long helical scoops to give a smooth torque.

Vertical axis advantages

.
  • A massive tower structure is less frequently used, as VAWTs are more frequently mounted with the lower bearing mounted near the ground.
  • Designs without yaw mechanisms are possible with fixed pitch rotor designs.
  • The generator of a VAWT can be located nearer the ground, making it easier to maintain the moving parts.
  • VAWTs have lower wind startup speeds than HAWTs.^ Wind turbines are mounted on tall towers.
    • Sierra Club Green Home » Blog Archive » Residential Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sierraclubgreenhome.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Short answer: wind turbines must be tower mounted on towers designed for wind turbines.
    • Residential Wind turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Also unlike conventional wind turbines helix shaped wind turbines are reported to have less maintenance issues because of the fact that they have no conventional blades to speak of and this creates a better center of gravity because the "DNA" helix strand design of the "blades" cause it to be more of an extension of the wind tower pole than conventional blades which hang out away from the tower pole structure which creates greater mechanical stress.
    • Helix shaped wind turbines save birds/more efficient. - The Petition Site 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: General]

    Typically, they start creating electricity at 6 m.p.h. .(10 km/h).
  • VAWTs may be built at locations where taller structures are prohibited.
  • VAWTs situated close to the ground can take advantage of locations where mesas, hilltops, ridgelines, and passes funnel the wind and increase wind velocity.
  • VAWTs may have a lower noise signature.^ Consider: - Wind would be much cheaper, even in areas with lower wind resources, as output would increase dramatically but costs wouldn't rise a lot.
    • Technology Review: Whale-Inspired Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I know this setup is really messy, but I was in a hurry to get up and running to take advantage of the wind once it started blowing.
    • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The turbine rotor vanes are denser close to the center of the hub and wider at the tips and spaced such that the wind passes through the turbine to the other side.
    • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • OhGizmo! » Archive » Donut-Shaped Wind Energizer Improves Wind Turbine Efficiency, Also Helps Soothe Wind Turbine Hemorrhoids 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ohgizmo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Helix shaped wind turbines save birds/more efficient. - The Petition Site 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: General]

    [citation needed]

Vertical axis disadvantages

.
  • A VAWT that uses guy-wires to hold it in place puts stress on the bottom bearing as all the weight of the rotor is on the bearing.^ Not using guy wires radically reduces the amount of land needed, and the dangerous job of having to climb the tower is completely eliminated.
    • Small Wind Turbine Equipment Providers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.awea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Then we run the wire through all that and put the machine over the top.
    • Simple Wind Turbine Towers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.otherpower.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Your earth anchors for the guy wires must also be very strong--they have to resist the lateral thrust that is put on the windmill.
    • Simple Wind Turbine Towers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.otherpower.com [Source type: General]

    .Guy wires attached to the top bearing increase downward thrust in wind gusts.^ On the larger 20A treadmill motor, we attached a dolly bearing directly to the bottom of the motor and then onto the top of the tower.
    • Do-It-Yourself (DIY) Wind Turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenterrafirma.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This photo shows a closeup of how the guy-lines attach near the top of the tower.
    • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Your earth anchors for the guy wires must also be very strong--they have to resist the lateral thrust that is put on the windmill.
    • Simple Wind Turbine Towers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.otherpower.com [Source type: General]

    .Solving this problem requires a superstructure to hold a top bearing in place to eliminate the downward thrusts of gust events in guy wired models.
  • The stress in each blade due to wind loading changes sign twice during each revolution as the apparent wind direction moves through 360 degrees.^ Not using guy wires radically reduces the amount of land needed, and the dangerous job of having to climb the tower is completely eliminated.
    • Small Wind Turbine Equipment Providers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.awea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The “Quiet Revolution” turbine has 5-metre-tall blades which can generate 10Kw-hours of energy from a mean annual wind speed of just 5.8 metres per second.
    • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The new turbines will adapt to gusts by using sensor-based technology that will quickly angle the blades out of the wind to reduce the wear and tear on the turbine.
    • Technology Review: Giant Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This reversal of the stress increases the likelihood of blade failure by fatigue.
  • While VAWTs' components are located on the ground, they are also located under the weight of the structure above it, which can make changing out parts very difficult without dismantling the structure, if not designed properly.
  • Having rotors located close to the ground where wind speeds are lower due to the ground's surface drag, VAWTs may not produce as much energy at a given site as a HAWT with the same footprint or height.

Turbine design and construction

Components of a horizontal-axis wind turbine
.Wind turbines are designed to exploit the wind energy that exists at a location.^ Amazing Wind Turbine Designs’ collection is: .
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each skirt has to be custom designed and built based on the height of the wind turbine, the length of the blades and the wind conditions where it’s installed, but Leviathan Energy claims the estimated period of return on the investment is just 4-5 years.
  • OhGizmo! » Archive » Donut-Shaped Wind Energizer Improves Wind Turbine Efficiency, Also Helps Soothe Wind Turbine Hemorrhoids 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ohgizmo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The work gives theoretical weight to a growing body of empirical evidence that similar bumps could lead to more-stable airplane designs, submarines with greater agility, and turbine blades that can capture more energy from the wind and water.
  • Technology Review: Whale-Inspired Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

.Aerodynamic modeling is used to determine the optimum tower height, control systems, number of blades and blade shape.^ Using aerodynamic modeling, Leviathan designed a special plastic and metal skirt structure that wraps around the base of the wind turbine and directs the flow of the air to the critical areas of the blades.
  • OhGizmo! » Archive » Donut-Shaped Wind Energizer Improves Wind Turbine Efficiency, Also Helps Soothe Wind Turbine Hemorrhoids 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ohgizmo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ V controller for use w/DC system or DC/AC using an inverter .

^ Readings would be most useful if they have been taken at hub height, or the elevation at the top of the tower where the wind turbine is going to be installed ( Figure 2 ).
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wind turbines convert wind energy to electricity for distribution.^ Turbines are the generators that turn wind energy into electricity.
  • Industry:Wind Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main work of wind turbines is to utilize the energy of wind and convert it into electricity; stronger wind is considered good for electricity production.

^ Huge turbines mounted on floating platforms could make wind power competitive with fossil-fuel-generated electricity.
  • Technology Review: Giant Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conventional horizontal axis turbines can be divided into three components.^ Vertical axis turbines work whatever direction the wind is blowing, but require a lot more ground space to support their guy wires than horizontal axis wind turbines.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Horizontal axis turbines (more common) need to be aimed directly at the wind.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AeroVironment has pursued horizontal-axis, rather than vertical-axis, wind turbines.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 18:5 - The Folly of Building-Integrated Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • The rotor component, which is approximately 20% of the wind turbine cost, includes the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy.
  • The generator component, which is approximately 34% of the wind turbine cost, includes the electrical generator, the control electronics, and most likely a gearbox component for converting the low speed incoming rotation to high speed rotation suitable for generating electricity.
  • The structural support component, which is approximately 15% of the wind turbine cost, includes the tower and rotor yaw mechanism.^ When the wind blows over the blades, the rotor turns, causing the generator or alternator in the turbine to rotate and produce electricity.
    • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Mechanical noises may also be produced by components of a wind turbine.
    • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Wind Turbine with 20,000W Rated Output and 10m/s Rated Wind Speed .
    • Wind Turbines Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

    [19]

Unconventional wind turbines

.One E-66 wind turbine at Windpark Holtriem, Germany, carries an observation deck, open for visitors.^ Trend Hunter magazine’s photo of a piece of one of these wind turbines, currently being built in Colorado, resembles a giant gray whale.
  • Wind Turbines | EarthFirst.com 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC earthfirst.com [Source type: General]

^ The turbines have one of the lowest wind cut-in speeds in the industry at 4.4 mph, are very quiet and have 8 levels of safety including 2 active brakes.
  • Small Wind Turbine Equipment Providers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.awea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One for my wind turbine and two for solar panels, though I only have one solar panel complete at this time.
  • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

.Another turbine of the same type, with an observation deck, is located in Swaffham, England.^ Introduction Wind Availability Picking the Best Location for a Wind Turbine Types of Wind Turbines Components of Wind Energy Systems How Much Will it Cost Me to Purchase a Wind Turbine?
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Airborne wind turbines have been investigated many times but have yet to produce significant energy.^ The “Quiet Revolution” turbine has 5-metre-tall blades which can generate 10Kw-hours of energy from a mean annual wind speed of just 5.8 metres per second.
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Companies like Xcel Energy are utilizing massive battery storage units to save excess power generated by turbines for use when the winds die down.
  • Industry:Wind Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.wikinvest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the wind blows over the blades, the rotor turns, causing the generator or alternator in the turbine to rotate and produce electricity.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conceptually, wind turbines may also be used in conjunction with a large vertical solar updraft tower to extract the energy due to air heated by the sun.^ We have build wind turbine that is vertical axis.
  • Virtual Wind Turbine Breaks Betz' Law | Symscape 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.symscape.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind turbines are mounted on tall towers.
  • Sierra Club Green Home » Blog Archive » Residential Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.sierraclubgreenhome.com [Source type: General]

^ A vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) .
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wind turbines which utilise the Magnus effect have been developed.^ Near wind power plants with turbines taller than 200’, the effects, particularly at night, are a cause of persistent distress to neighbors.
  • Wind turbines don't make good neighbors 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenberkshires.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GE is developing new ways to deal with the extreme battering the turbines will receive from the wind.
  • Technology Review: Giant Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a reflection of this, just 15 percent of the 2,800 new jobs from the new wind-turbine development will take the form of U.S. jobs.
  • Huge Texas Wind Farm's Turbines Will Be Made in China | Popular Science 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.popsci.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]

Small wind turbines

A small wind turbine being used at the Riverina Environmental Education Centre near Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia
.Small wind turbines may be as small as a fifty-watt generator for boat or caravan use.^ All the world's small wind turbines (?
  • Hugh Piggott's home page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC scoraigwind.com [Source type: General]

^ Eight 520H Aerotecture wind turbines were installed on a Mercy Housing Lakefront single-room occupancy building in Chicago in May 2007.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 18:5 - The Folly of Building-Integrated Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Huge turbines mounted on floating platforms could make wind power competitive with fossil-fuel-generated electricity.
  • Technology Review: Giant Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Small units often have direct drive generators, direct current output, aeroelastic blades, lifetime bearings and use a vane to point into the wind.^ More wind means more current into the battery which means more load on the generator.
  • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

^ The nipple would slip into the top of the piece of conduit I'd use as a tower and form a nice bearing.
  • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

^ The new turbines will adapt to gusts by using sensor-based technology that will quickly angle the blades out of the wind to reduce the wear and tear on the turbine.
  • Technology Review: Giant Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Larger, more costly turbines generally have geared power trains, alternating current output, flaps and are actively pointed into the wind.^ More wind means more current into the battery which means more load on the generator.
  • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

^ I must also emphasise a more general point.
  • Wind turbines don't make good neighbors 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.greenberkshires.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supplanting the company's current 3.6 megawatt turbines, these giant energy factories should make wind power more economical, since the major cost of building and installing offshore wind farms does not depend primarily on a turbine's size, but on the number of them that need to be erected.
  • Technology Review: Giant Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Direct drive generators and aeroelastic blades for large wind turbines are being researched.^ Large turbines turbine blades rotate in the range of at 50-15 rpm at constant speed, although an increasing number of machines operate at a variable speed.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trend Hunter magazine’s photo of a piece of one of these wind turbines, currently being built in Colorado, resembles a giant gray whale.
  • Wind Turbines | EarthFirst.com 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC earthfirst.com [Source type: General]

^ Alternative energy - Wind power generators, blades, permanent magnet alternators, towers, more...
  • Residential Wind turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Record-holding turbines

.The world's largest turbines are manufactured by the Northern German companies Enercon and REpower.^ Southwest Windpower - the World's leading manufacturer of personal size wind turbines.
  • Residential Wind turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ A giant in the world of wind turbines , which is setting an example to all other large wind turbine manufacturers around the globe.
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Denmark's Vestas, the world's largest wind turbine maker, is enjoying a large number of orders recently to come back from ...
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.October 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The Enercon E-126 delivers up to 7 MW, has an overall height of 198 m (650 ft) and a diameter of 126 m (413 ft).^ Blog detailing the activities at the last CAT course September 27 – October 2, 2009 We built two turbines:1.8 and 3 metre diameter.
  • Hugh Piggott's home page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC scoraigwind.com [Source type: General]

The Repower 5M delivers up to 5 MW, has an overall height of 183 m (600 ft) and has a diameter of 126 m (413 ft). .In 2010, the Norwegian firm Sway announced a prototype 10 MW wind turbine with a height of 162.5 m (533 ft) and a rotor diameter of 145 m (475 ft).^ OK for a 10' wind turbine.
  • Simple Wind Turbine Towers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.otherpower.com [Source type: General]

^ The turbine rotor vanes are denser close to the center of the hub and wider at the tips and spaced such that the wind passes through the turbine to the other side.
  • Wind Turbine Design - The Most Amazing Windmills in the World | Wind Power | Wind Turbines | Alternative Energy | Renewable Energy | Green Energy 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mywindpowersystem.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • OhGizmo! » Archive » Donut-Shaped Wind Energizer Improves Wind Turbine Efficiency, Also Helps Soothe Wind Turbine Hemorrhoids 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.ohgizmo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Helix shaped wind turbines save birds/more efficient. - The Petition Site 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: General]

^ Freestanding wind turbines in good wind sites typically operate at a 10% to 30% capacity factor—the better the site, the higher the capacity factor.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 18:5 - The Folly of Building-Integrated Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20][21][22]
The turbine with the lowest cut-in rating is the RePower MM92 at 3 m/s; it cuts out at 24 m/s and can produce 2.05 MW.[citation needed]
.The turbine closest to the North Pole is a Nordex N-80 in Havøygavlen near Hammerfest, Norway.^ Scientists hope that they’ll be able to design a radar system that would reduce bat activity near wind turbines by 80 to 90 percent.
  • Wind Turbines | EarthFirst.com 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC earthfirst.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed] The turbines currently operating closest to the South Pole are two Enercon E-33 in Antarctica, powering New Zealand's Scott Base and The United States' McMurdo Station since December 2009[23][24] although a modified HR3 turbine from Northern Power Systems operated at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in 1997 and 1998.[25]
.Matilda was a wind turbine located on Gotland, Sweden.^ Wind energy has a very important role to play in our energy future, but it is with large, freestanding wind turbines, located on ridgelines, in Midwestern agricultural fields, or in offshore wind farms.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 18:5 - The Folly of Building-Integrated Wind 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The wind speed at a single location may vary considerably, and this can have a significant impact on the power production from a wind turbine ( Figure 3 ).
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind speeds tend to be higher on the top of a ridge or hill, and for that reason it is a good idea to locate wind turbines at hilly locations.
  • Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines at Your Home or Farm 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It produced a total of 61.4 GW·h in the 15 years it was active. .That is more renewable energy than any other single wind power turbine had ever produced to that date.^ The row over wind power rages more fiercely than ever.
  • Do windfarms wreck lives? Stephen Moss investigates | Environment | The Guardian 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Energy · Wind power · Renewable energy Society .
  • Do windfarms wreck lives? Stephen Moss investigates | Environment | The Guardian 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Wind power can play well with others .
  • Technology Review: Giant Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was demolished on June 6, 2008.[26]
.The world's highest wind turbine made by DeWind is located in the Andes, Argentina around 4,100 metres (13,500 ft) above sea level.^ All the world's small wind turbines (?
  • Hugh Piggott's home page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC scoraigwind.com [Source type: General]

^ The meter shows that the wind turbine is producing 13.32 Volts.
  • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

^ The turbines have one of the lowest wind cut-in speeds in the industry at 4.4 mph, are very quiet and have 8 levels of safety including 2 active brakes.
  • Small Wind Turbine Equipment Providers 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.awea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The site uses a type D8.2 - 2000 kW / 50 Hz turbine.^ This web site tells you how to make a set of blades for a small wind turbine using PVC pipe.
  • How I built an electricity producing wind turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.mdpub.com [Source type: General]

.This turbine has a new drive train concept with a special torque converter (WinDrive) made by Voith and a synchronous generator.^ One could design such turbines to directly drive homopolar generators of novel construction.
  • Technology Review: Giant Wind Turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turbines Turbines are machines that generate continuous electrical power using blades drive… by Plasmana .
  • Cardboard Savonius Wind Turbine 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People new to renewable energy might mistakenly call these wind generators, wind power generators, of home wind generators...but we prefer to call them wind turbines.
  • Residential Wind turbines 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The WKA was put into operation in December 2007 and has supplied the local gold mine with electricity since then.^ I installed anchor bolts from the local home supply store into a regular phone pole and plan to put a turbine up there.
  • Alton's Wind Turbine Page 17 January 2010 1:48 UTC www.alton-moore.net [Source type: Original source]

[27]

See also

References

  1. ^ A Wind Energy Pioneer: Charles F. Brush, Danish Wind Industry Association, http://www.windpower.org/en/pictures/brush.htm, retrieved 2008-12-28 
  2. ^ "Part 1 — Early History Through 1875". http://www.telosnet.com/wind/early.html. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  3. ^ A.G. Drachmann, "Heron's Windmill", Centaurus, 7 (1961), pp. 145–151
  4. ^ Dietrich Lohrmann, "Von der östlichen zur westlichen Windmühle", Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, Vol. 77, Issue 1 (1995), pp. 1–30 (10f.)
  5. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, p. 54. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42239-6.
  6. ^ Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, p. 64-69. (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering)
  7. ^ "James Blyth". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddnb.com/public/dnb/100957.html. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 
  8. ^ a b Quirky old-style contraptions make water from wind on the mesas of West Texas
  9. ^ Alan Wyatt: Electric Power: Challenges and Choices. Book Press Ltd., Toronto 1986, ISBN 0-920650-00-7
  10. ^ http://www.nrel.gov/gis/wind.html Dynamic Maps, GIS Data and Tools
  11. ^ "Wind Energy Basics". American Wind Energy Association. http://www.awea.org/faq/wwt_basics.html. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  12. ^ http://www.windpower.org/en/tour/wtrb/comp/index.htm Wind turbine components retrieved November 8, 2008
  13. ^ Molendatabase Dutch text
  14. ^ Extract from Triumph of the Griffiths Family, http://au.oocities.com/ozwindmills/SouthernCross.htm, Bruce Millett, 1984, accessed January 26, 2008
  15. ^ 1.5 MW Wind Turbine Technical Specifications
  16. ^ Size specifications of common industrial wind turbines
  17. ^ http://www.symscape.com/blog/vertical_axis_wind_turbine
  18. ^ http://www.awea.org/faq/vawt.html
  19. ^ "Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model," Technical Report NREL/TP-500-40566, December, 2006, page 35,36. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy07osti/40566.pdf
  20. ^ http://www.norwaypost.no/content/view/23186/48/ Retrieved 2010-02-13
  21. ^ http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5j-BZEK4lR-_hxsz2hQ-92_c0oSHQ Retrieved 2010-02-13
  22. ^ http://www.grist.org/article/2010-02-12-norway-plans-the-worlds-most-powerful-wind-turbine/ Retrieved 2010-02-16
  23. ^ Antarctica New Zealand
  24. ^ New Zealand Wind Energy Association
  25. ^ Bill Spindler, The first Pole wind turbine.
  26. ^ http://green-blog.org/2008/06/06/the-demolition-of-a-record-holder/#more-418
  27. ^ http://www.voithturbo.com/vt_en_pua_windrive_project-report_2008.htm

Further reading

External links


Simple English

A wind turbine is a rotating device that creates energy from the wind. If the mechanical energy is used directly by machinery, such as for pumping water, cutting lumber or grinding stones, the machine is called a windmill. If the mechanical energy is instead converted to electricity, the machine is called a wind generator, wind turbine, wind power unit (WPU), wind energy converter (WEC), or aerogenerator.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Wind turbine, which are similar to those in the above article.








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