The Full Wiki

More info on Winston Churchill

Winston Churchill: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Right Honourable
 Sir Winston Churchill 
KG OM CH TD PC FRS


In office
26 October 1951 – 7 April 1955
Monarch George VI
Elizabeth II
Deputy Anthony Eden
Preceded by Clement Attlee
Succeeded by Anthony Eden
In office
10 May 1940 – 26 July 1945
Monarch George VI
Deputy Clement Attlee
Preceded by Neville Chamberlain
Succeeded by Clement Attlee

In office
6 November 1924 – 4 June 1929
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by Philip Snowden
Succeeded by Philip Snowden

In office
19 February 1910 – 24 October 1911
Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith
Preceded by Herbert Gladstone
Succeeded by Reginald McKenna

Born 30 November 1874(1874-11-30)
Blenheim, Oxfordshire, England
Died 24 January 1965 (aged 90)
Hyde Park, London, England
Resting place St Martin's Church, Bladon, Oxfordshire, England
Nationality British
Political party Conservative
(1900–1904, 1924–1964)
Liberal (1904–1924)
Spouse(s) Clementine Churchill
Relations Pamela Harriman, daughter-in-law
Children Diana Churchill
Randolph Churchill
Sarah Tuchet-Jesson
Marigold Churchill
Mary Soames
Residence 10 Downing Street (official)
Chartwell (private)
Alma mater Harrow School, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
Profession Member of Parliament, statesman, soldier, journalist, historian, author, painter
Signature
.Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, PC, FRS (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician known chiefly for his leadership of the United Kingdom during World War II.^ Barrage balloons during World War II .

^ Churchill died in London on 24 January 1965.

^ Armament production during World War II .

.He served as Prime Minister from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.^ From 1951 to 1955, Churchill served again as Conservative prime minister.

^ In may 1940 who could have become prime minister and held together the coalition of interests that were keeping British forces in the field against nazi Germany?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ British political leader, cabinet minister, and prime minister and minister of defense, from 1940 to 1945.

.A noted statesman and orator, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, an historian, writer and artist.^ Winston Churchill with army officers.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Churchill, victory meant defending the whole British Empire, for the partisans of the People’s War victory meant beating Hitler; and it was Stalin’s Red Army that were doing the fighting.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Interior meeting of British VIPs with Indian army officer?
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To date, he is the only British Prime Minister to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature, and the first person to be recognised as an Honorary Citizen of the United States.^ Among the other countless honours and decorations he received, special mention should be made of the honorary citizenship of the United States which President Kennedy conferred on him in 1963.

^ Churchill received the first state funeral for any British commoner since the death of the duke of Wellington over a century before.

^ Except in the British Commonwealth and in the United States, where communism is in its infancy, the communist parties or fifth columns constitute a growing challenge and peril to Christian civilization.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.During his army career, Churchill saw military action in India, the Sudan and the Second Boer War.^ In the British and American bombing of Germany and Italy during the Second World War the casualties were 140,000...
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilkie with Churchill in front of Downing Street during war.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He gained fame and notoriety as a war correspondent and through contemporary books he wrote describing the campaigns.^ His four early books covering his life as soldier and war correspondent.

.He also served briefly in the British Army on the Western Front in World War I, commanding the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers.^ STAFFS I would turn aside for a moment to emphasize how perfect is the co-operation between the commanders of the British and American Armies.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the British and American bombing of Germany and Italy during the Second World War the casualties were 140,000...
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also by the end of the second world war was forced to see everything he had believed the war was fought for lost: the supremacy of the British Empire, the values associated with it etc.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the forefront of the political scene for almost fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions.^ Throughout the 1930s, although Churchill held no cabinet position, he nonetheless continued to the campaign for rearmament.

^ Leningrad held, and the British newspapers began to talk about Napoleon’s defeat one hundred and fifty years earlier.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty as part of the Asquith Liberal government.^ Liberalism is the world-wide antagonist of war.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1904, his party's partial conversion to protectionism caused him to join the Liberals, who made him president of the Board of Trade (1908–1910) and home secretary (1910–1911) after they returned to power.

^ At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915.

.During the war he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign caused his departure from government.^ At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915.

^ Your debased references to “Zimmerwald” suggest that you think the position of socialists in the Second World war should have been neutrality, by analogy with the Zimmerwald conference of socialists during the first world war.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But his main thesis is that the Second World War was caused by the First?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.He returned as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air.^ WWII England - Hore Belisha inspects Rural Defences Secretary of State for War arrives by car.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the interwar years, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Conservative government.^ Two years after Lloyd George's 1922 defeat, Churchill returned to the Conservatives, who made him chancellor of the exchequer in November 1924, a post he held for five years.

.After the outbreak of the Second World War, Churchill was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty.^ Lets not forget that the wars against anti-colonial movements in the region were continued almost without a break in the aftermath of the second world war in the region, in Vietnam, in Malaya etc.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915.

^ Eggleston, George T. Roosevelt, Churchill, and the World War II Opposition: A revisionist autobiography.

.Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, he became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and led Britain to victory against the Axis powers.^ In may 1940 who could have become prime minister and held together the coalition of interests that were keeping British forces in the field against nazi Germany?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nonetheless, it seems absurd to rank the strike wave during the war years as more significant than the battle against the Axis powers.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It may be that these societies, dazzled and dizzy with their own schemes of aggression and the prospect of early victories, have forced their country against its better judgement into war.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Churchill was always noted for his speeches, which became a great inspiration to the British people and embattled Allied forces.^ Winston Churchill, tips hat to crowd, people listen to radio broadcast we shall fight them on the beaches speech over shots of invasion defences.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English people listen to radio - Churchill audio 04Jun40 speech we shall fight on the beaches...
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Churchill, victory meant defending the whole British Empire, for the partisans of the People’s War victory meant beating Hitler; and it was Stalin’s Red Army that were doing the fighting.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

After losing the 1945 election, he became Leader of the Opposition. .In 1951, he again became Prime Minister before finally retiring in 1955. Upon his death, the Queen granted him the honour of a state funeral, which saw one of the largest assemblies of statesmen in the world.^ From 1951 to 1955, Churchill served again as Conservative prime minister.

^ Among the other countless honours and decorations he received, special mention should be made of the honorary citizenship of the United States which President Kennedy conferred on him in 1963.

^ Churchill received the first state funeral for any British commoner since the death of the duke of Wellington over a century before.

Contents

Family and early life

Churchill aged seven in 1881
.A descendant of the famous aristocratic Spencer family,[1] Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, like his father, used the surname Churchill in public life.^ England: The life story of Winston Churchill.

^ Winston Churchill: His life in pictures.

^ The one exception is a splendid and thoroughly researched biography by a historian of popular culture: Robert W. Schneider, Novelist to a Generation: The Life and Thought of Winston Churchill (1976).
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[2] .His ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to Spencer-Churchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough.^ Copies) Churchill, John Spencer.

.Winston's father, Lord Randolph Churchill, the third son of John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, was a politician, while his mother, Lady Randolph Churchill (née Jennie Jerome) was the daughter of American millionaire Leonard Jerome.^ Winston Churchill attends wedding of his son, Randolph Churchill, in London.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ Born at Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, on 30 November 1874, Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was the eldest son of Lord Randolph Churchill, third son of the duke of Marlborough and a rising Conservative politician, and his wife, Jennie Jerome, an American heiress.

^ News In Brief: France 84 year old Winston Churchill celebrates Golden Wedding anniversary on French Riviera; Churchill in car and sitting on terrace with Randolph Churchill, Lady Churchill and granddaughter Lady Arabella; CUs Winston and Lady Churchill; CU wedding photo.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Born on 30 November 1874, 2 months prematurely, in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire,[3] Churchill had one brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill.^ Churchill out of building Blenheim Palace ?
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Winston Churchill, speech, Blenheim Palace, August 4, 1947.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Winston Churchill is born, November 10, in St. Louis.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

Blenheim Palace, the Churchill family home
Independent and rebellious by nature, Churchill generally did poorly in school, for which he was punished. He was educated at three independent schools: St George's School in Ascot, Berkshire, followed by Brunswick School in Hove, near Brighton (the school has since been renamed Stoke Brunswick School and relocated to Ashurst Wood in West Sussex), and then at Harrow School from 17 April 1888, where his military career began. Within weeks of his arrival, he had joined the Harrow Rifle Corps.[4] He earned high marks in English and History and was also the school's fencing champion.
.He was rarely visited by his mother (then known as Lady Randolph Churchill), and wrote letters begging her to either come to the school or to allow him to come home.^ Jennine: Lady Randolph Churchill, a portrait with letters.

^ The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965), the son of Lord Randolph Churchill and an American mother, was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst.

^ Churchill Comes Home Northolt airfield, Mr & Mrs Churchill out of plane after holiday in Marrakech.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His relationship with his father was a distant one; he once remarked that they barely spoke to each other.^ History teaches us that men and nations behave wisely once they have exhausted all other alternatives.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once that curtain is raised or rent we can all see how the scenery is arranged, what actors are left upon the scene, and how they appear to be related to one another.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One who believes himself the master of others is nonetheless a greater slave than they.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] .Due to this lack of parental contact he became very close to his nanny, Elizabeth Anne Everest, whom he used to call "Old Woom".[6] His father died on 24 January 1895, aged just 45, leaving Churchill with the conviction that he too would die young, so should be quick about making his mark on the world.^ Churchill died in London on 24 January 1965.

^ He doesn’t want to talk about Churchill’s role in World War II, so he talks about the Bengal famine instead” .
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the creation of the United Nations in 1945, Churchill hoped that close Anglo-American understanding would be the bedrock of the international world order, a perspective intensified by his continuing fears of Germany.

[7]

Speech impediment

Churchill described himself as having a "speech impediment" which he consistently worked to overcome. .After many years, he finally stated, "My impediment is no hindrance".[8] Trainee speech therapists are often shown videotapes of Churchill's mannerisms during his speeches and the Stuttering Foundation of America uses Churchill, pictured on its home page, as one of its role models of successful stutterers.^ My years with Churchill.

^ Chiang w/ Madam Chiang Kai-Shek & crowd seen during speech (no Sd) from balcony to crowd below.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TAXES Control over taxation and revenues of the state has always been the foundation on which Parliamentary Government has rested, and indeed there is no other foundation upon which it can rest.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.A large number of 1920s–1940s printed materials[9] by various authors mention the stutter in terms implying that it was a well-known Churchill characteristic.^ It is often forgotten or not known that Churchill retained grandiose illusions about the revival of the glory of Europe during the war and was also planning what became termed “The Cold War”.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

Philip Snowden's 1934 autobiography describes Churchill's stuttering at that date as 'occasional' but says that in earlier years it had been 'more prominent'.[10]
The Churchill Centre, however, flatly refutes the claim that Churchill stuttered, while confirming that he did have difficulty pronouncing the letter S and spoke with a lisp.[11] His father also spoke with a lisp.[12] Certainly, the careful ear of diarist and fellow parliamentarian Harold Nicolson led him to portray Churchill's speech with a lazy S rather than any hint of a stutter: "It is cuthtomary to thtand up when the Kingth thpeech is read."[13]

Marriage and children

.Churchill met his future wife, Clementine Hozier, in 1904 at a ball in Crewe House, home of the Earl of Crewe and his wife Margaret Primrose (daughter of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery).^ Winston Churchill and wife, PM Attlee, Duchess of Kent w/ two children, Earl and Countess Mountbatten w/ daughter Pamela, and Queen Mary.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Waving w/ FDR from White House balcony; w/ Churchill at FDR grave; CU talking to children touring home.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [WWII - Churchill w/ Wife Inspects Damage & Cheered by Workmen] Winston Churchill wearing pea-coat & wife Clementine riding in car as people cheer.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] In 1908, they met again at a dinner party hosted by Lady St Helier. .Churchill found himself seated beside Clementine, and they soon began a lifelong romance.^ He stopped at the harness shop, where Ephraim came limping out and lifted Cynthia to the seat beside her father, and they joggled off to Brampton.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Chester tightened up his reins so suddenly that his horse reared, while Jethro calmly climbed into the seat beside him and they drove off.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She ushered the unsuspecting Chester into the kitchen, and there, seated beside Joe and sipping a saucer of very hot coffee, was Jethro Bass himself.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[15] He proposed to Clementine during a house party at Blenheim Palace on 10 August 1908, in a small Temple of Diana.[16] On 12 September 1908, they were married in St. Margaret's, Westminster. The church was packed; the Bishop of St Asaph conducted the service.[17] .In March 1909, the couple moved to a house at 33 Eccleston Square.^ It is, “How are we going to stop this war which seems to be moving towards us in so many ways.” - Winston Churchill, speech, House of Commons, March 26, 1936.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

Their first child, Diana, was born in London on 11 July 1909. After the pregnancy, Clementine moved to Sussex to recover, while Diana stayed in London with her nanny.[18] On 28 May 1911, their second child, Randolph, was born at 33 Eccleston Square.[19] Their third child, Sarah, was born on 7 October 1914 at Admiralty House. The birth was marked with anxiety for Clementine, as Winston had been sent to Antwerp by the Cabinet to "stiffen the resistance of the beleaguered city" after news that the Belgians intended to surrender the town.[20]
.Clementine gave birth to her fourth child, Marigold Frances Churchill, on 15 November 1918, four days after the official end of World War I.[21] In the early months of August, the Churchills' children were entrusted to a French nursery governess in Kent named Mlle Rose.^ One day the end of the world will come as a result of a 'justified' war.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bougainville Campaign (1 November 1943–15 August 1945) .

^ If Churchill had announced that following the war all colonies would gain independence this would have utterly undercut axis propaganda throughout the colonial world.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

Clementine, meanwhile, travelled to Eaton Hall to play tennis with Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster and his family. While still under the care of Mlle Rose, Marigold had a cold, but was reported to have recovered from the illness. As the illness progressed with hardly any notice, it turned into septicaemia. Following advice from a landlady, Rose sent for Clementine. However the illness turned fatal on 23 August 1921, and Marigold was buried in the Kensal Green Cemetery three days later.[22] On 15 September 1922, the Churchills' last child was born, Mary. Later that month, the Churchills bought Chartwell, which would be Winston's home until his death in 1965.[23][24]

Service in the Army

Churchill in military uniform in 1895
.After Churchill left Harrow in 1893, he applied to attend the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.^ The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965), the son of Lord Randolph Churchill and an American mother, was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst.

^ Churchill was the glue that allowed the anti-fascist left and the USSR to find common cause with the British empire’s pro-imperialist military machine for the European theatre.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Winston Churchill, speech, Royal College of Physicians, July 10, 1951.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.It took three attempts before he passed the entrance exam; he applied for cavalry rather than infantry because the grade requirement was lower and did not require him to learn mathematics, which he disliked.^ When he comes back for his wagon, hand it to him,” he said, feeling that he would rather, at that moment, face the devil himself than Mr. Bixby.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And, most remarkable of all to the storekeeper, not a man of the three hundred, however obscure, could rise that the Speaker did not instantly call him by name.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Battleship HMS Royal Sovereign going to sea w/ signal flags flying, others lowered; passing entrance to harbour.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He graduated eighth out of a class of 150 in December 1894,[25] and although he could now have transferred to an infantry regiment as his father had wished, chose to remain with the cavalry and was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the 4th Queen's Own Hussars on 20 February 1895.[4] In 1941, he received the honour of Colonel of the Hussars.^ After the war the British working class kicked him out, in recognition of the fact that the time for Britain’s own brand of Popular Frontism had come to an end.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wal, now, I wish I could, Lem, but my hoss is stun lame.” .
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Leyte, Landings on and Capture of (20 October–25 December 1944) .

.Churchill's pay as a second lieutenant in the 4th Hussars was £300. However, he believed that he needed at least a further £500 (equivalent to £25,000 in 2001 terms) to support a style of life equal to other officers of the regiment.^ Camouflaged truck off landing craft; rolling artillery past Churchill & other officers watching.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His mother provided an allowance of £400 per year, but this was repeatedly overspent. .According to biographer Roy Jenkins, this is one reason he took an interest in war correspondence.^ If there is no sufficient reason for war, the war party will make war on one pretext, then invent another...after the war is on.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is no sufficient reason for war, the war party will make war on one pretext, then invent another.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[26] .He did not intend to follow a conventional career of promotion through army ranks, but to seek out all possible chances of military action and used his mother's and family influence in high society to arrange postings to active campaigns.^ All I can work out is that you think he ‘captured the mood of the nation’, although as you put it, he did not create that mood.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All hearts go out to the fighter pilots, whose brilliant actions we see with our own eyes day after day.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If I stay, it is because I have the feeling that I may, through things that have happened, have an influence on what I care about above all else — the building of a sure and lasting peace.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

His writings both brought him to the attention of the public, and earned him significant additional income. .He acted as a war correspondent for several London newspapers[27] and wrote his own books about the campaigns.^ His four early books covering his life as soldier and war correspondent.

^ About the quote : (quote from 'The Anti-War Quote Book,' edited Eric Groves, Sr., pub.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

Cuba

.In 1895, Churchill travelled to Cuba to observe the Spanish fight the Cuban guerrillas; he had obtained a commission to write about the conflict from the Daily Graphic.^ It’s pretty clear from a lot of writing about Churchill, that he entertained huge, global pipedreams of many different kinds.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

To his delight, he came under fire for the first time on his twenty-first birthday.[4] He had fond memories of Cuba as a "...large, rich, beautiful island..."[28] .While there, he soon acquired a taste for Havana cigars, which he would smoke for the rest of his life.^ Now that she was there, she would have given her life to have been able to retrace her steps, to lose herself in the wild, dark places of the mountain.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

While in New York, he stayed at the home of Bourke Cockran, an admirer of his mother. Bourke was an established American politician, and a member of the House of Representatives. He greatly influenced Churchill, both in his approach to oratory and politics, and encouraging a love of America.[29]
He soon received word that his nanny, Mrs Everest, was dying; he then returned to England and stayed with her for a week until she died. He wrote in his journal "She was my favourite friend." In My Early Life he wrote: "She had been my dearest and most intimate friend during the whole of the twenty years I had lived."[30]

India

In early October 1896, he was transferred to Bombay, British India. He was considered one of the best polo players in his regiment and led his team to many prestigious tournament victories.[31]
A young Winston Churchill on a lecture tour of the United States in 1900
.In 1897, Churchill attempted to travel to both report and, if necessary, fight in the Greco-Turkish War, but this conflict effectively ended before he could arrive.^ At the February 1945 Yalta Conference, Churchill and Roosevelt both acquiesced in effective Soviet domination of most of that region.

^ The truth is …If not Churchill we could have ended up with a pro Nazi like Halifax .
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For one thing, the diplomatic channels were kept open under churchill as well as Chamberlain, and there is no question that Churchill was prepared to end the war.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later, while preparing for a leave in England, he heard that three brigades of the British Army were going to fight against a Pashtun tribe in the North West Frontier of India and he asked his superior officer if he could join the fight.^ I’ve heard her being asked to leave because she wants to know information on people that aren’t her business or relations to her, but then she will just go back later and corner a poor worker that she has intimidated in the past and interrogate them for the information.
  • Welcome to Churchill | Town Of Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.townofchurchill.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ A great war leaves a country with three armies: an army of cripples, an army of mourners, and an army of thieves.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A great war leaves the country with three armies - an army of cripples, an army of mourners, and an army of thieves.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[32] .He fought under the command of General Jeffery, who was the commander of the second brigade operating in Malakand, in the Frontier region of British India.^ Haggard Chindits emerge from jungle (jungle fighting force under British command), bathing.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alternative, a British Petain, would have hung on to India, and fought to keep it.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ STAFFS I would turn aside for a moment to emphasize how perfect is the co-operation between the commanders of the British and American Armies.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

Jeffery sent him with fifteen scouts to explore the Mamund Valley; while on reconnaissance, they encountered an enemy tribe, dismounted from their horses and opened fire. After an hour of shooting, their reinforcements, the 35th Sikhs arrived, and the fire gradually ceased and the brigade and the Sikhs marched on. Hundreds of tribesmen then ambushed them and opened fire, forcing them to retreat. .As they were retreating four men were carrying an injured officer but the fierceness of the fight forced them to leave him behind.^ He gave the young men a pretty fight indeed, and long before they had him conquered the elder guests had made their escape through door and window.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The man who was left behind was slashed to death before Churchill’s eyes; afterwards he wrote of the killer, "I forgot everything else at this moment except a desire to kill this man."^ A man who kills on his own is a murderer.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Churchill emulated his father—who attained the position of chancellor of the exchequer before resignation, illness, and premature death cut short his political career—by entering politics in 1900 as a Unionist member of Parliament.

^ PRISONERS OF WAR A prisoner of war is a man who tries to kill you and fails, and then asks you not to kill him.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

[33] .However the Sikhs' numbers were being depleted so the next commanding officer told Churchill to get the rest of the men and boys to safety.^ Churchill bids farewell to Queen and Duke: Next morning shots of Churchill ministers entering Number 10.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ SCOTLAND: Churchill seen reviewing ships and meeting officers and men; Churchill receives the Freedom of the City of Edinburgh.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

.Before he left he asked for a note so he would not be charged with desertion.^ Bitterly the storekeeper comprehended that, had he possessed courage, he would have marched straight after Mr. Bixby and confronted him before them all with the charge of bribery.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[34] .He received the note, quickly signed, and headed up the hill and alerted the other brigade, whereupon they then engaged the army.^ G-glad to hev you in any fixin’s, Cynthy,” he said, giving her arm a little squeeze, and by that time they were up the hill and William Wetherell quite winded.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They came from other settlements, too, for news spread quickly in that country, despite the distances.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

The fighting in the region dragged on for another two weeks before the dead could be recovered. .He wrote in his journal: "Whether it was worth it I cannot tell."^ COMMUNISM A communist is like a crocodile: when it opens its mouth you cannot tell whether it is trying to smile or preparing to eat you up.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

[33][35] .An account of the Siege of Malakand was published in December 1900 as The Story of the Malakand Field Force.^ The Story of the Malakand Field Force: An episode of frontier war.

He received £600 for his account. During the campaign, he also wrote articles for the newspapers The Pioneer and The Daily Telegraph.[36] His account of the battle was one of his first published stories, for which he received £5 per column from The Daily Telegraph.[37]

Sudan and Oldham

The River War was published in 1899
Churchill was transferred to Egypt in 1898 where he visited Luxor before joining an attachment of the 21st Lancers serving in the Sudan under the command of General Herbert Kitchener. .During his time he encountered two future military officers, with whom he would later work, during the First World War: Douglas Haig, then a captain and David Beatty, then a gunboat lieutenant.^ At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915.

^ Barrage balloons during World War II .

^ In August 1941, Churchill and Roosevelt met for the first time at sea, in Placentia Bay off the Newfoundland coast, and agreed to endorse a common set of liberal war aims—the Atlantic Charter—and to coordinate their two countries' military strategies.

[38] .While in the Sudan, he participated in what has been described as the last meaningful British cavalry charge at the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898. He also worked as a war correspondent for the Morning Post.^ He visited Cuba on leave and saw active service on the Afghan frontier and in the Sudan, where he took part in the Battle of Omdurman.

^ After the war the British working class kicked him out, in recognition of the fact that the time for Britain’s own brand of Popular Frontism had come to an end.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Monty Johnston (a CPGB member) showed in 1996, the CPGB’s governmental slogans during the war were dictated by Moscow, as was the post-war “British Road to Socialism”.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.By October 1898, he had returned to Britain and begun his two-volume work; The River War, an account of the reconquest of the Sudan published the following year.^ The River War: An historical account of the reconquest of the Soudan.

^ But in Britain working class consciousness was significantly deepened by the war, and by Britain’s alliance with the Soviet Union.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the war the British working class kicked him out, in recognition of the fact that the time for Britain’s own brand of Popular Frontism had come to an end.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

Churchill resigned from the British Army effective from 5 May 1899.
He soon had his first opportunity to begin a Parliamentary career, when he was invited by Robert Ascroft to be the second Conservative Party candidate in Ascroft's Oldham constituency. The event of Ascroft's sudden death caused a double by-election and Churchill was one of the candidates. .In the midst of a national trend against the Conservatives, both seats were lost; however Churchill impressed by his vigorous campaigning.^ En Route Home from Tehran, Roosevelt Hails Troops in Sicily FDR seated in car, Winston Churchill in civilian suit leans against car chatting.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

South Africa

.Having failed at Oldham, Churchill looked about for some other opportunity to advance his career.^ Jabez hemmed and hawed, said his farm was mortgaged; spoke at some length about the American citizen, however humble, having a right to vote as he chose.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the members looked up at him and laughed; others began to make frantic signs, indicative of helplessness; still others telegraphed him obvious advice about reënforcements which, if anything, increased his fury.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For someone who complains about misrepresentations (I wasn’t replying to you actually but some of the other crazed sectarian ranting) you sure can dish them out.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.On 12 October 1899, the Second Boer War between Britain and the Boer Republics broke out and he obtained a commission to act as war correspondent for the Morning Post with a salary of £250 per month.^ At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915.

^ So without Britain’s assistance, the soviet Union may have been knocked out of the war.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Incidently the idea that the only difference between the first and second world war was the presence of the Soviet Union seems deeply misplaced.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

He rushed to sail on the same ship as the newly appointed British commander, Sir Redvers Buller. After some weeks in exposed areas he accompanied a scouting expedition in an armoured train, leading to his capture and imprisonment in a POW camp in Pretoria. .His actions during the ambush of the train led to speculation that he would be awarded the Victoria Cross, Britain's highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy, but this did not occur.^ It didn’t occur to me that you would care — for the first few years.” There was in his voice a note of reproach that did not escape her.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[4] Writing in London to Ladysmith via Pretoria, a collected version of his war reports, he described the experience:
.
I have had, in the last four years, the advantage, if it be an advantage, of many strange and varied experiences, from which the student of realities might draw profit and instruction.^ It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to figure out that the students might have wanted/needed to use the library to finish off the school year.
  • Welcome to Churchill | Town Of Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.townofchurchill.ca [Source type: Original source]

.But nothing was so thrilling as this: to wait and struggle among these clanging, rending iron boxes, with the repeated explosions of the shells and the artillery, the noise of the projectiles striking the cars, the hiss as they passed in the air, the grunting and puffing of the engine—poor, tortured thing, hammered by at least a dozen shells, any one of which, by penetrating the boiler, might have made an end of all—the expectation of destruction as a matter of course, the realisation of powerlessness, and the alternations of hope and despair—all this for seventy minutes by the clock with only four inches of twisted iron work to make the difference between danger, captivity, and shame on the one hand—safety, freedom, and triumph on the other.^ All of these things, and more, Cynthia might have had if she had only accepted that promise to pay!
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To: tet68 I believe it was "they were offered a choice between shame and war, they chose shame, and they got war."
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No, not at all, but it does make me feel good to know that the domains (and not just township ones, but Canadian hero’s, National Parks etc) will never fall in the hands of someone who would clearly do harm.
  • Welcome to Churchill | Town Of Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.townofchurchill.ca [Source type: Original source]

[39]
He escaped from the prison camp and travelled almost 300 mi (480 km) to Portuguese Lourenço Marques in Delagoa Bay, with the assistance of an English mine manager.[40] .His escape made him a minor national hero for a time in Britain, though instead of returning home, he rejoined General Buller's army on its march to relieve the British at the Siege of Ladysmith and take Pretoria.^ Commemoration Ceremony; Dead; British Royalty; High Holborn; England; NOTE: Volume lists 28,000 Americans who served w/ US, Canadian & British units and died coming to Britain, while based in Britain or returning home.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was possible that Cynthia might take him, and Deacon Ira Perkins made a note the next time he went to Brampton to question Silas Wheelock on Mr. Worthington’s origin, habits, and orthodoxy.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After the war the British working class kicked him out, in recognition of the fact that the time for Britain’s own brand of Popular Frontism had come to an end.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[41] .This time, although continuing as a war correspondent, he gained a commission in the South African Light Horse.^ But also put paid to dreams of revivals of Empire (although the wars against the colonised continued for the next few decades)… .
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

He was among the first British troops into Ladysmith and Pretoria. He and his cousin, the Duke of Marlborough, were able to get ahead of the rest of the troops in Pretoria, where they demanded and received the surrender of 52 Boer prison camp guards.[42]
.
Returning from the Boer War on the RMS Dunottar Castle, July 1900.[43] Standing L-R: Sir Byron Leighton, Claud Grenfel, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, Captain Gordon Forbes, Abe Bailey (his son John would marry Diana Churchill in 1932), next two unidentified, Lord John Weston Brooke.
^ Allied War Council Plans For Invasion White House w/ large table, FDR at head w/ Churchill next to him.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Auchinleck, Sir Claude John Eyre (1884–1981) .

^ Nevertheless, had it not been for Churchill’s ability to capture a national mood of defiance, and his willingness to unleash the social changes necessary to win the war, then Hitler would have triumphed.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Seated L-R: Major Bobby White, Lord Downe, General Sir Henry Edward Colville (a year later Churchill as MP would demand an inquiry over his dismissal from South Africa), Major Harry White, Major Joe Laycock, Winston Churchill, Sir Charles Bentinck.^ The one exception is a splendid and thoroughly researched biography by a historian of popular culture: Robert W. Schneider, Novelist to a Generation: The Life and Thought of Winston Churchill (1976).
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sir Winston S. Churchill.

^ Sir Winston Churchill: The compelling life story of one of the towering figures of the 20th Century.

Sitting L-R: unidentified, Col. Maurice Gifford (who had lost his arm in the Second Matabele War).
.In 1900, Churchill returned to England on the RMS Dunottar Castle, the same ship on which he set sail for South Africa eight months earlier.^ (PART MUTE) ENGLAND: London: Horseguards: Churchill attends parade for the crew of HMS Hardy on their return from Narvik.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ ENGLAND: Plymouth: GVs of HMS Exeter and battle damage; Churchill on board ship and meets crew.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ Churchill greets General Diaz of Italy on his arrival in London 1919 B/W footage ENGLAND: Dover & Victoria Station, London: Italian destroyer arriving at Dover; General Diaz off ship; Diaz off ...
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

[43] He there published London to Ladysmith and a second volume of Boer war experiences, Ian Hamilton's March. .Churchill stood again for parliament in Oldham in the general election of 1900 and won (his Conservative colleague, Crisp, was defeated) in the contest for two seats.^ News in Brief - England - Churchill Wins Exterior polling stations - votes counted in general election.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ENGLAND: Various Locations: Randolph Churchill in Liverpool and Winston Churchill in Epping at the hustings prior to the 1935 General Election.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

[44][45] After the 1900 general election he embarked on a speaking tour of Britain, followed by tours of the United States and Canada, earning in excess of £5,000.[46]

Territorial service

In 1900, he retired from regular army and in 1902 joined the Imperial Yeomanry where he was commissioned as a Captain in the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars on 4 January 1902.[47] In April 1905, he was promoted to Major and appointed to command of the Henley Squadron of the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Hussars.[48] In September 1916, he transferred to the territorial reserves of officers where he remained till retiring in 1924.[48]

Western front

.Churchill was First Lord of the Admiralty at the start of World War I, but was obliged to leave the war cabinet after the disastrous Battle of Gallipoli.^ Winston Churchill - First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill leaves Admiralty buildings and walks towards camera.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the few initial cabinet supporters of British intervention in World War I, Churchill soon took the blame for the disastrous 1915 Dardanelles expedition against Turkey, which prompted his resignation.

^ He doesn’t want to talk about Churchill’s role in World War II, so he talks about the Bengal famine instead” .
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

He attempted to obtain a commission as a brigade commander, but settled for command of a battalion. .After spending some time as a Major with the 2nd Battalion, Grenadier Guards, he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel, commanding the 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers (part of the 9th (Scottish) Division), on 1 January 1916. Correspondence with his wife shows that his intent in taking up active service was to rehabilitate his reputation, but this was balanced by the serious risk of being killed.^ He visited Cuba on leave and saw active service on the Afghan frontier and in the Sudan, where he took part in the Battle of Omdurman.

^ Worthington stopped in his tracks, and it was some time before he remembered to take off his woollen cap and sweep the mud with it.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Several members hurried by and up the stairs, some of them in their Sunday black; and the lobby above seemed, even to the storekeeper’s unpractised eye, a trifle active for a woodchuck session.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.As a commander he continued to exhibit the reckless daring which had been a hallmark of all his military actions, although he disapproved strongly of the mass slaughter involved in many western front actions.^ The dangerous patriot...drifts into chauvinism and exhibits blind enthusiasm for military actions.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[49]
.Lord Deedes explained to a gathering of the Royal Historical Society in 2001 why Churchill went to the front line: "He was with Grenadier Guards, who were dry at battalion headquarters.^ Front Line Towns Honour Mr. Churchill White Cliffs of Dover; high shot across town; Home Guard / ARP Warden puts sign up in street Shelling in Progress - Take Cover [WWII shots].
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Russians fight with magnificent devotion; not only that, our generals who have visited the Russian front line report with admiration the efficiency of their military organization and the excellence of their equipment.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now you ask why was churchill is important - well that is because it had to be someone who could hold that coalition together.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.They very much liked tea and condensed milk, which had no great appeal to Winston, but alcohol was permitted in the front line, in the trenches.^ There were at least three very attractive men at Lily Dallam’s tea — I won’t tell you who they were — who would be glad to marry me in a minute.” .
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Now I liked the man’s looks very much, but I did not know what he would do.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The words swam before Honora’s eyes like the great signs she had seen printed in black letters on the tall buildings they had passed.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.So he suggested to the colonel that he really ought to see more of the war and get into the front line.^ It is in war that the State really comes into its own: swelling in power, in number, in pride, in absolute dominion over the economy and the society.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Germans displayed a large banner on the front line in French during the “phony war”, saying “If the French don’t attack the Germans, the Germans won’t attack the French”.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That these imperialists were forced to enter into an alliance with anti-imperialist forces does not, as I said, really alter the reality that for the Chinese this was a different kind of struggle and a different kind of war, with very different goals.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.This was highly commended by the colonel, who thought it was a very good thing to do."^ It’s a terrible thing for a father to say, I know, but I’d feel easier about her if she was married to some good man who could hold her.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[50]

Political career to World War II

Churchill's election poster for the 1899 by-election in Oldham, which he lost

Early years in Parliament

Churchill stood again for the seat of Oldham at the 1900 general election. .After winning the seat, he went on a speaking tour throughout Britain and the United States, raising £10,000 for himself (about £800,000 today[51]).^ About the quote : Truman (1884-1972) was president of the United States.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bixby, who had, as we know, a confidential and winning manner, seated himself in a chair very close to Mr. Worthington — somewhat to that gentleman’s alarm.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the war began, Britain had purchased war supplies in the United States on a "cash-and-carry" basis.

In Parliament, he became associated with a faction of the Conservative Party led by Lord Hugh Cecil; the Hughligans. .During his first parliamentary session, he opposed the government's military expenditure[52] and Joseph Chamberlain's proposal of extensive tariffs, which were intended to protect Britain's economic dominance.^ He held many high posts in Liberal and Conservative governments during the first three decades of the century.

.His own constituency effectively deselected him, although he continued to sit for Oldham until the next general election.^ Stalin looking stony faced sitting next to him.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, he remained a Member of Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election.

^ But also put paid to dreams of revivals of Empire (although the wars against the colonised continued for the next few decades)… .
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

After the Whitsun recess in 1904 he crossed the floor to sit as a member of the Liberal Party. As a Liberal, he continued to campaign for free trade. .When the Liberals took office with Henry Campbell-Bannerman as Prime Minister, in December 1905, Churchill became Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies dealing mainly with South Africa after the Boer War.^ In late 1920, he became colonial secretary.

^ You seem unaware of the prcoess by which churchill became prime minister.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the first acts of the Japanese having declared war in Dec 1941 were to occupy Hong Kong and the areas of Shanghai under western colonial control.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.From 1903 until 1905, Churchill was also engaged in writing Lord Randolph Churchill, a two-volume biography of his father which was published in 1906 and received much critical acclaim.^ The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965), the son of Lord Randolph Churchill and an American mother, was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst.

^ Churchill s daughter and her husband Lord Soames and Randolph Churchill walk towards home surrounded by press.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Martin, Ralph G. Lady Randolph Churchill: A biography.

[53]
Following his deselection in the seat of Oldham, Churchill was invited to stand for Manchester North West. .He won the seat at the 1906 general election with a majority of 1,214 and represented the seat for two years, until 1908.[54] When Campbell-Bannerman was succeeded by Herbert Henry Asquith in 1908, Churchill was promoted to the Cabinet as President of the Board of Trade.^ In 1904, his party's partial conversion to protectionism caused him to join the Liberals, who made him president of the Board of Trade (1908–1910) and home secretary (1910–1911) after they returned to power.

^ For Free Trade: A collection of speeches delivered at Manchester or in the House of Commons during the Fiscal controversy preceding the late General Election.

^ However, he remained a Member of Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election.

[45] .Under the law at the time, a newly appointed Cabinet Minister was obliged to seek re-election at a by-election; Churchill lost his seat but was soon back as a member for Dundee constituency.^ However, he remained a Member of Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election.

.As President of the Board of Trade he joined newly appointed Chancellor Lloyd George in opposing First Lord of the Admiralty, Reginald McKenna's proposed huge expenditure for the construction of Navy dreadnought warships, and in supporting the Liberal reforms.^ In 1904, his party's partial conversion to protectionism caused him to join the Liberals, who made him president of the Board of Trade (1908–1910) and home secretary (1910–1911) after they returned to power.

^ As first lord of the Admiralty (1911–1915), Churchill enthusiastically backed the campaign of First Sea Lord John "Jackie" Fisher to modernize the British navy with faster battleships and more efficient administration.

^ When Britain declared war on Germany in September 1939, Churchill resumed his old position as first lord of the Admiralty.

[55] .In 1908, he introduced the Trade Boards Bill setting up the first minimum wages in Britain,[56] In 1909, he set up Labour Exchanges to help unemployed people find work.^ Didn’t Churchill introduce the first (albeit industry specific) minimum wage legislation?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People to People Reel 1 Four British trades union men arrive in New York Harbor on an exchange visit.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had been surprised at Jethro’s complaisance, and he wondered whether, after all, he had done well to help Chester stir people up at this time.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[57] He helped draft the first unemployment pension legislation, the National Insurance Act of 1911.[58]
Churchill in 1904
.Churchill also assisted in passing the People's Budget[59] becoming President of the Budget League, an organisation set up in response to the opposition's "Budget Protest League".[60] The budget included the introduction of new taxes on the wealthy to allow for the creation of new social welfare programmes.^ She almost allowed two or three of them to hope that they might become her intimates, and made excursions to New York with them, and lunched in fashionable restaurants.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There can be no really valid defence for any country or any people which allows its freedom and inherent rights to pass out of its own hands.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a League of peace-seeking people is set at naught, we must convert it into a league of armed peoples, too faithful to molest others, too strong to be molested themselves.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the budget bill was sent to the Commons in 1909 and passed, it went to the House of Lords, where it was vetoed.^ Winston Churchill, House of Commons, June 16, 1909.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ENGLAND: London: Churchill, accompanied by Diana Churchill goes to the House of Commons to present the Budget A1: Mute / A2: Mute .
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

The Liberals then fought and won two general elections in January and December 1910 to gain a mandate for their reforms. The budget was then passed following the Parliament Act 1911 for which he also campaigned. In 1910, he was promoted to Home Secretary. .His term was controversial, after his responses to the Siege of Sidney Street and the dispute at the Cambrian Colliery and the suffragettes.^ BGU408270027The Siege of Sidney Street, 1911 B/W footage.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ The Siege of Sidney Street.

In 1910, a number of coal miners in the Rhondda Valley began what has come to be known as the Tonypandy Riot.[55] The Chief Constable of Glamorgan requested troops be sent in to help police quell the rioting. .Churchill, learning that the troops were already travelling, allowed them to go as far as Swindon and Cardiff but blocked their deployment.^ [Churchill & Polish Inspecting Troops and Sailors] Churchill with Polish military VIPs inspecting troops - on roadside saluting jeeps and troops going past.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On 9 November, the Times criticised this decision. .In spite of this, the rumour persists that Churchill had ordered troops to attack, and his reputation in Wales and in Labour circles never recovered.^ My argument is simply that it was necessary for the labour movement to ally with Churchill, and to make the necessary compromises in order to win the war.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My (NM) argument is simply that it was necessary for the labour movement to ally with Churchill, and to make the necessary compromises in order to win the war.” .
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among working class communities and in left circles, Churchill’s reputation as a right-winger from before the war had left a deep legacy of resentment against him.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[61]
Winston Churchill (highlighted) at Sidney Street, 3 January 1911
.In early January 1911, Churchill made a controversial visit to the Siege of Sidney Street in London.^ Churchill made repeated visits to the United States and met Roosevelt at other venues.

^ Winston Churchill, London, January 21, 1950.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Churchill died in London on 24 January 1965.

.There is some uncertainty as to whether he attempted to give operational commands, and his presence attracted much criticism.^ If some peoples pretend that history or geography gives them the right to subjugate other races, nations, or peoples, there can be no peace.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

After an inquest, Arthur Balfour remarked, "he [Churchill] and a photographer were both risking valuable lives. I understand what the photographer was doing, but what was the right honourable gentleman doing?"[62] A biographer, Roy Jenkins, suggests that he went simply because "he could not resist going to see the fun himself" and that he did not issue commands.[63]
.Churchill's proposed solution to the suffragette issue was a referendum on the issue, but this found no favour with Herbert Henry Asquith and women's suffrage remained unresolved until after the First World War.^ Your debased references to “Zimmerwald” suggest that you think the position of socialists in the Second World war should have been neutrality, by analogy with the Zimmerwald conference of socialists during the first world war.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course 1939 is eurocentric but if we are talking about the start of World War 2 then actually that could not be said to have begun until December 1941 when the US entered the war.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No war is inevitable until it breaks out.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[64]
.In 1911, Churchill was transferred to the office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, a post he held into World War I. He gave impetus to several reform efforts, including development of naval aviation (he undertook flying lessons himself),[65] the construction of new and larger warships, the development of tanks, and the switch from coal to oil in the Royal Navy.^ At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915.

^ But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United State, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Your debased references to “Zimmerwald” suggest that you think the position of socialists in the Second World war should have been neutrality, by analogy with the Zimmerwald conference of socialists during the first world war.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[66]

World War I and the Post War Coalition

On 5 October 1914, Churchill went to Antwerp, which the Belgian government proposed to evacuate. .The Royal Marine Brigade was there and at Churchill’s urgings the 1st and 2nd Naval Brigades were also committed.^ Churchill inspects Royal Marine Guard of Honour at Deal, near Dover.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Antwerp fell on 10 October with the loss of 2500 men. At the time he was attacked for squandering resources.[67] .It is more likely that his actions prolonged the resistance by a week (Belgium had proposed surrendering Antwerp on 3 October) and that this time saved Calais and Dunkirk.^ The practice of violence, like all action, changes the world, but the most probable change is a more violent world.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[68]
Churchill was involved with the development of the tank, which was financed from naval research funds.[69] .He then headed the Landships Committee which was responsible for creating the first tank corps and, although a decade later development of the battle tank would be seen as a tactical victory, at the time it was seen as misappropriation of funds.^ It would be inspiring to summon the vision of Honora, in rustling garments, poised as the figurehead of this craft, beckoning him on to battle and victory.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His eyes glared again, even as when we had first seen him, curses escaped under his breath, and he would have darted into the cane had not Tom seized him sternly by the shoulder.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[69] .In 1915, he was one of the political and military engineers of the disastrous Gallipoli landings on the Dardanelles during World War I.[70] He took much of the blame for the fiasco, and when Prime Minister Asquith formed an all-party coalition government, the Conservatives demanded his demotion as the price for entry.^ One of the few initial cabinet supporters of British intervention in World War I, Churchill soon took the blame for the disastrous 1915 Dardanelles expedition against Turkey, which prompted his resignation.

^ Barrage balloons during World War II .

^ Your debased references to “Zimmerwald” suggest that you think the position of socialists in the Second World war should have been neutrality, by analogy with the Zimmerwald conference of socialists during the first world war.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[71]
For several months Churchill served in the sinecure of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. However on 15 November 1915 he resigned from the government, feeling his energies were not being used[72] and, though remaining an MP, served for several months on the Western Front commanding the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers, under the rank of Colonel. .[73] In March 1916, Churchill returned to England after he had become restless in France and wished to speak again in the House of Commons.^ ENGLAND: London: Newspaper headlines saying Churchill getting weaker: crowds gathered outside house: Randolph Churchill visits.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ [VE Day London, England] Crowd in Parliament Square looking towards Whitehall; Churchill leaving House of Commons preceded by Ushers & Members of Parliament.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Churchill speaks at a fete at Chelmsford 1916 B/W footage ENGLAND: Chelmsford: Winston Churchill and wife arriving at fete: Greeted by Mayor; Churchill makes speech ( unheard) from platform.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

[74] .Future Prime Minister David Lloyd George acidly commented: "You will one day discover that the state of mind revealed in (your) letter is the reason why you do not win trust even where you command admiration.^ In your eagerness to disagree with me you are actually making it difficult to understand why Churchill was important (something I don’t disagree with).
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the penalties for refusing to participate in politics is that you end up being governed by your inferiors.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What is morally wrong can never be advantageous, even when it enables you to make some gain that you believe to be to your advantage.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.In every line of it, national interests are completely overshadowed by your personal concern."
[75] In July 1917, Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions, and in January 1919, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air.^ A bit like Ireland propping up the banks and then every other state having to do so, if one state centralises its resources then the states at war with it have to as well.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Your prioritising the entirely secondary issue of India suggests that you think that neither national defence, nor the Europenan war against facsism shoudl have been the concern of socialists.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ READINESS Germany is already well on her way to become, and must become, incomparably the most heavily armed nation in the world and the nation most completely ready for war.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was the main architect of the Ten Year Rule, a principle that allowed the Treasury to dominate and control strategic, foreign and financial policies under the assumption that "there would be no great European war for the next five or ten years".^ In war, there are no unwounded soldiers.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are no politics in war.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no morality in war.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[76]
.A major preoccupation of his tenure in the War Office was the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War.^ Did the United States intervention as an ally of the USSR against the Nazis prove that it was fighting a “people’s war” as opposed to a war based on the need for power and profit?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Churchill was a staunch advocate of foreign intervention, declaring that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle".[77] He secured, from a divided and loosely organised Cabinet, intensification and prolongation of the British involvement beyond the wishes of any major group in Parliament or the nation—and in the face of the bitter hostility of Labour.^ One of the few initial cabinet supporters of British intervention in World War I, Churchill soon took the blame for the disastrous 1915 Dardanelles expedition against Turkey, which prompted his resignation.

^ When Labour won the 1929 election, Churchill lost office, but he soon began campaigning eloquently for a major British rearmament initiative, especially the massive enhancement of British airpower, to enable the country to face a revived Italian or German military threat.

.In 1920, after the last British forces had been withdrawn, Churchill was instrumental in having arms sent to the Poles when they invaded Ukraine.^ Therefore, through the structures of the British parliamentary system, significant support, especially from the armed forces, was shown for a robust national war against fascism.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.He became Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1921 and was a signatory of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which established the Irish Free State.^ In late 1920, he became colonial secretary.

^ Winston S. Churchill (Secretary of State for War, 1918-1921) 2nd impression.

^ Winston S. Churchill (Secretary of State For War, 1918-1921) Cheaper edition.

.Churchill was involved in the lengthy negotiations of the treaty and to protect British maritime interests, he engineered part of the Irish Free State agreement to include three Treaty Ports—Queenstown (Cobh), Berehaven and Lough Swilly—which could be used as Atlantic bases by the Royal Navy.^ In may 1940 who could have become prime minister and held together the coalition of interests that were keeping British forces in the field against nazi Germany?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Churchill & Winant signing pact to lease air & navy bases to the US in return for 50 destroyers.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the horses were to be rested and meat was to be got, as we could not use our guns so freely on the far side of Cumberland Gap.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[78] In 1938, however, under the terms of the Chamberlain-De Valera Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement the bases were returned to the Irish Free State.
Churchill advocated the use of tear gas on Kurdish tribesmen in Iraq,[79] based on a War Office minute of 12 May 1919:
I do not understand this squeamishness about the use of gas. We have definitely adopted the position at the Peace Conference of arguing in favour of the retention of gas as a permanent method of warfare. It is sheer affectation to lacerate a man with the poisonous fragment of a bursting shell and to boggle at making his eyes water by means of teargas. I am strongly in favour of using poisoned[80] gas against uncivilised tribes. The moral effect should be so good that the loss of life should be reduced to a minimum. .It is not necessary to use only the most deadly gasses: gasses can be used which cause great inconvenience and would spread a lively terror and yet would leave no serious permanent effects on most of those affected.^ No, he had not yet read the ‘Last of the Mohicans.’ There were things in it that Mr. Worthington would like to discuss with Miss Penniman.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I was most interested of all in the pictures of men and women in quaint, old-time costumes, and I used during the great heat of the day to sit in the drawing-room and study these, and wonder who they were and when they lived.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ TOM had promised the Kentucky settlers, fighting for their lives in their blockhouses, that he would come back again, for a good shot was sorely missed in that country in those days.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[81]
Though the British did consider the use of poison gas in putting down Kurdish rebellions, it was not used for technical reasons.[82]

Rejoining the Conservative Party – Chancellor of the Exchequer

In September, the Conservative Party withdrew from the Coalition government following a meeting of backbenchers dissatisfied with the handling of the Chanak Crisis, a move that precipitated the looming October 1922 General Election. Churchill fell ill during the campaign, and had to have an appendicectomy. .This made it difficult for him to campaign, and a further setback was the internal division that continued to beset the Liberal Party.^ In 1904, his party's partial conversion to protectionism caused him to join the Liberals, who made him president of the Board of Trade (1908–1910) and home secretary (1910–1911) after they returned to power.

^ I’ve often thought,” Lem continued, “that ef some smart, good woman could have got hold of him when he was young, it would have made a big difference.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

He came only fourth in the poll for Dundee, losing to the prohibitionist Edwin Scrymgeour. Churchill later quipped that he left Dundee "without an office, without a seat, without a party and without an appendix".[54] He stood for the Liberals again in the 1923 general election, losing in Leicester, and then as an independent, first without success in a by-election in the Westminster Abbey constituency, and then successfully in the general election of 1924 for Epping. .The following year, he formally rejoined the Conservative Party, commenting wryly that "anyone can rat, but it takes a certain ingenuity to re-rat."^ Mayer, Frank A. The Opposition Years: Winston S. Churchill and the Conservative Party, 1945-1951.

[54][83]
.Churchill was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1924 under Stanley Baldwin and oversaw Britain's disastrous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted in deflation, unemployment, and the miners' strike that led to the General Strike of 1926.^ He reluctantly acquiesced in Britain's return to the gold standard, and his determination to suppress the 1926 General Strike won him the lasting enmity of much of the labor movement.

^ Two years after Lloyd George's 1922 defeat, Churchill returned to the Conservatives, who made him chancellor of the exchequer in November 1924, a post he held for five years.

[84] .His decision, announced in the 1924 Budget, came after long consultation with various economists including John Maynard Keynes, the Permanent Secretary to the Treasury, Sir Otto Niemeyer and the board of the Bank of England.^ A short time after he came to power, the Governor of the Bank of England declared that loans to Hitler were justified as ‘an investment against Bolshevism’.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ENGLAND: London: St John's Church: various shots of guests arriving including Winston and Mrs ...
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ You will have to face rearmament of Germany,’ declared the British Foreign Secretary, Sir John Simon, on 6 February, 1934.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

This decision prompted Keynes to write The Economic Consequences of Mr. Churchill, arguing that the return to the gold standard at the pre-war parity in 1925 (£1=$4.86) would lead to a world depression. .However, the decision was generally popular and seen as 'sound economics' although it was opposed by Lord Beaverbrook and the Federation of British Industries.^ British VIPs including Lord Beaverbrook.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was, however, one argument, or panacea, which had generally worked like a charm, although some time had elapsed since last he had resorted to it.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[85]
Churchill later regarded this as the greatest mistake of his life. .However in discussions at the time with former Chancellor McKenna, Churchill acknowledged that the return to the gold standard and the resulting 'dear money' policy was economically bad.^ He reluctantly acquiesced in Britain's return to the gold standard, and his determination to suppress the 1926 General Strike won him the lasting enmity of much of the labor movement.

.In those discussions he maintained the policy as fundamentally political – a return to the pre-war conditions in which he believed.^ The slogan “Labour Take Power” expressed the political dynamics of the pre-war situation, as shown by what happened in 1945.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[86] .In his speech on the Bill he said "I will tell you what it [the return to the Gold Standard] will shackle us to.^ He reluctantly acquiesced in Britain's return to the gold standard, and his determination to suppress the 1926 General Strike won him the lasting enmity of much of the labor movement.

^ You don’t tell me,” said the Honorable Alva, acquiescing cheerfully in the change of subject.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I callate that a man of parts,” said Chester, “such as you be, will help us agin corruption and a dic'tator.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

It will shackle us to reality."[87]
.The return to the pre-war exchange rate and to the Gold Standard depressed industries.^ He reluctantly acquiesced in Britain's return to the gold standard, and his determination to suppress the 1926 General Strike won him the lasting enmity of much of the labor movement.

The most affected was the coal industry. .Already suffering from declining output as shipping switched to oil, as basic British industries like cotton came under more competition in export markets, the return to the pre-war exchange was estimated to add up to 10% in costs to the industry.^ As she walked toward Coniston, the thought came to her that she was rid of the thing she had stirred up, perhaps forever, and the thrush burst into his song once more.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Oh, Howard, I do like it,” Honora said, in an attempt — which came near succeeding — to convince herself that she could have desired nothing more.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In July 1925, a Commission of Inquiry reported generally favouring the miners, rather than the mine owners' position.^ It was also correct to support workers struggling against the bosses in the factories and mines, rather than arguing for them to be prosecuted and jailed.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[88] .Baldwin, with Churchill's support proposed a subsidy to the industry while a Royal Commission prepared a further report.^ Churchill government had widespread support from the military, civil service, judiciary, the monarchy and the owners of industry, and the newspapers - his biggest supporter was Beaverbrook.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.That Commission solved nothing and the miners dispute led to the General Strike of 1926, Churchill was reported to have suggested that machine guns be used on the striking miners.^ He reluctantly acquiesced in Britain's return to the gold standard, and his determination to suppress the 1926 General Strike won him the lasting enmity of much of the labor movement.

.Churchill edited the Government's newspaper, the British Gazette, and, during the dispute, he argued that "either the country will break the General Strike, or the General Strike will break the country" and claimed that the fascism of Benito Mussolini had "rendered a service to the whole world," showing, as it had, "a way to combat subversive forces"—that is, he considered the regime to be a bulwark against the perceived threat of Communist revolution.^ Externally, your movement has rendered service to the whole world.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His role in the General strike where he forced the BBC to be puppit of the Government and produced the lies in the Gazette .
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Fascist Movement has rendered service to the whole world.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.At one point, Churchill went as far as to call Mussolini the "Roman genius...^ Leaning far out, he scanned the House with inarticulate rage while the roll-call went monotonously on.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

the greatest lawgiver among men."[89]
.Later economists, as well as people at the time, also criticised Churchill's budget measures.^ He had been surprised at Jethro’s complaisance, and he wondered whether, after all, he had done well to help Chester stir people up at this time.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Churchill may well have been a strident imperialist and a racist, but his arrival in Downing Street in 1940 was undoubtedly, as Andy points out, a case of ‘Cometh the time.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.These were seen as assisting the generally prosperous rentier banking and salaried classes (to which Churchill and his associates generally belonged) at the expense of manufacturers and exporters which were known then to be suffering from imports and from competition in traditional export markets,[90] and as paring the Armed Forces too heavily.^ In 1945 Churchill gave orders to General Montgomery to stock arms of the surrendering Nazi armies in readiness for possible issue to the Nazi armies to use against the advancing Russians.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[91]
Churchill wrote a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough in the mid 1930s

Political isolation

.The Conservative government was defeated in the 1929 General Election.^ Nothing is so expensive as general elections and new governments.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Churchill did not seek election to the Conservative Business Committee, the official leadership of the Conservative MPs.^ However, he remained a Member of Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election.

.Over the next two years, Churchill became estranged from the Conservative leadership over the issues of protective tariffs and Indian Home Rule and by his political views and by his friendships with press barons, financiers and people whose characters were seen as dubious.^ Churchill and Beaverbrook: A study in friendship and politics.

^ Two years after Lloyd George's 1922 defeat, Churchill returned to the Conservatives, who made him chancellor of the exchequer in November 1924, a post he held for five years.

^ Churchill’s Coniston was actually two books in one: a tale of New England and New England politics in the Railroad Age, and a sentimental moral drama cum juvenile romance.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National Government in 1931, Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet.^ In the specific context of 1940, there was no possibility of any government that could be formed capable of holding such a coalition together necessary for that national defence that did not include Churchill and the pro-imperialists.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

He was at the low point in his career, in a period known as "the wilderness years".[92]
.He spent much of the next few years concentrating on his writing, including Marlborough: His Life and Times—a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough—and A History of the English Speaking Peoples (though the latter was not published until well after World War II),[92] Great Contemporaries and many newspaper articles and collections of speeches.^ One of the few initial cabinet supporters of British intervention in World War I, Churchill soon took the blame for the disastrous 1915 Dardanelles expedition against Turkey, which prompted his resignation.

^ He doesn’t want to talk about Churchill’s role in World War II, so he talks about the Bengal famine instead” .
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The one exception is a splendid and thoroughly researched biography by a historian of popular culture: Robert W. Schneider, Novelist to a Generation: The Life and Thought of Winston Churchill (1976).
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

He was one of the best paid writers of his time.[92] His political views, set forth in his 1930 Romanes Election and published as Parliamentary Government and the Economic Problem (republished in 1932 in his collection of essays "Thoughts and Adventures") involved abandoning universal suffrage, a return to a property franchise, proportional representation for the major cities and an economic 'sub parliament'.[93]

Indian independence

.Churchill opposed Mohandas Gandhi's peaceful disobedience revolt and the Indian Independence movement in the 1930s, arguing that the Round Table Conference "was a frightful prospect".[94] Later reports indicate that Churchill favoured letting Gandhi die if he went on hunger strike [95] During the first half of the 1930s, Churchill was outspoken in his opposition to granting Dominion status to India.^ Your debased references to “Zimmerwald” suggest that you think the position of socialists in the Second World war should have been neutrality, by analogy with the Zimmerwald conference of socialists during the first world war.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the first election where party political broadcasts played a major role, and around half the adult population listened to Churchill.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Newspaper headlines re Britain offers Dominion Status to India after war.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He was a founder of the India Defence League, a group dedicated to the preservation of British power in India. .In speeches and press articles in this period he forecast widespread British unemployment and civil strife in India should independence be granted.^ Britain resists Hitler and the Japanese and Indis remains a base of the allies under British rule until after the war when India gets independance.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[96] .The Viceroy Lord Irwin who had been appointed by the prior Conservative Government engaged in the Round Table Conference in early 1931 and then announced the Government's policy that India should be granted Dominion Status.^ Newspaper headlines re Britain offers Dominion Status to India after war.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Potsdam conference round table from above as Molotov comes in others sit down.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allied top brass - officers meet round conference table.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this the Government was supported by the Liberal Party and, officially at least, by the Conservative Party.^ There is no workers’ party here, there are only Conservatives and Liberal-Radicals, and the workers gaily share the feast of England’s monopoly of the world market and the colonies.” .
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the Tory rebels declared they would not support a government that excluded the labour Party, and the Labour NEC declared they would not serve under Chamberlain.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Churchill denounced the Round Table Conference.^ Potsdam conference round table from above as Molotov comes in others sit down.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allied top brass - officers meet round conference table.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Military top brass at meeting round conference table.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At a meeting of the West Essex Conservative Association specially convened so Churchill could explain his position he said, "It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr Gandhi, a seditious Middle-Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well-known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace...to parley on equal terms with the representative of the King-Emperor." [97] He called the Indian Congress leaders "Brahmins who mouth and patter principles of Western Liberalism".[98]
.There were two incidents which damaged Churchill's reputation greatly within the Conservative Party in the period.^ Churchill makes speech at the 74th Conservative Party ...
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ And within that government there was only limited room for manouvre for the Labour Party; and within britosh politics there was only limited manourvreability for the wider left.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no workers’ party here, there are only Conservatives and Liberal-Radicals, and the workers gaily share the feast of England’s monopoly of the world market and the colonies.” .
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

Both were taken as attacks on the Conservative front bench. The first was his speech on the eve of the St George by-election in April 1931. In a secure Conservative seat, the official Conservative candidate Duff Cooper was opposed by an independent Conservative. .The independent was supported by Lord Rothermere, Lord Beaverbrook and their respective newspapers.^ Churchill government had widespread support from the military, civil service, judiciary, the monarchy and the owners of industry, and the newspapers - his biggest supporter was Beaverbrook.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although arranged before the by election was set,[99] Churchill's speech was seen as supporting the independent candidate and as a part of the Press Baron's campaign against Baldwin.^ Churchill election campaign opens.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ Churchill election campaign.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ Note, although Churchill visited the scene he IS NOT seen in this sequence.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

Baldwin's position was strengthened when Duff Cooper won and when the civil disobedience campaign in India ceased with the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The second issue was a claim that Sir Samuel Hoare and Lord Derby had pressured the Manchester Chamber of Commerce to change evidence it had given to the Joint Select Committee considering the Government of India Bill and in doing so had breached Parliamentary privilege. .He had the matter referred to the House of Commons Privilege Committee which after investigations, in which Churchill gave evidence, reported to the House that there had been no breach.^ There was no shorthand reporter in Coniston in those days, and it is just as well, perhaps, that the accusations and recriminations should sink into oblivion.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no need to go into the psychology of the matter.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Committee on Corporations, to whom was referred House Bill Number 109, entitled, An Act to extend the Truro Railroad to Harwich , having considered the same, report the same with the following resolution: Resolved, that the bill ought to pass.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[100] The report was debated on 13 June. .Churchill was unable to find a single supporter in the House and the debate ended without a division.^ Churchill could not walk in the Valleys or the East End without threats to his safety even at the height of the Anti Fascist war .
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Churchill permanently broke with Stanley Baldwin over Indian independence and never held any office while Baldwin was Prime Minister.^ In may 1940 who could have become prime minister and held together the coalition of interests that were keeping British forces in the field against nazi Germany?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Winston Churchill on Holiday in France MCUs, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, wife Clementine and daughter in stand during handball match.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1951 to 1955, Churchill served again as Conservative prime minister.

.Some historians see his basic attitude to India as being set out in his book My Early Life (1930).^ My Early Life: A roving commission.

^ A Roving Commission: My early life.

^ His four early books covering his life as soldier and war correspondent.

[101] .Some historians draw a parallel between Churchill's attitudes to India and those towards theNazis.^ The considerations which determined our attitude toward the war up to the outbreak of hostilities between the United States and the Axis powers retain their validity in the new situation.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Churchill’s over at Harry’s Place for instance are split between those advocating freedom of speech for fascists (to expose them!
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact there were divisions between sections of Labour and Churchill on the question of India.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[102] .Another source of controversy about Churchill's attitude towards Indian affairs arises over what some historians term the Indian 'nationalist approach' to the Bengal famine of 1943, which has sought to place significant blame on Churchill's wartime government for the excess mortality of up to 3 million people.^ He doesn’t want to talk about Churchill’s role in World War II, so he talks about the Bengal famine instead” .
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ASCALON: The Story of Sir Winston Churchill's wartime flights from 1943 to 1945.

^ That, btw, was why Irish and Indian nationalists toyed with the idea of blocking with the Nazis and why Japan’s Coprosperity Sphere disoriented some Asian nationalists.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[103][104]While some commentators point to the disruption of the traditional marketing system and maladministration at the provincial level,[105] .Arthur Herman, author of Churchill and Gandhi, contends, 'The real cause was the fall of Burma to the Japanese, which cut off India’s main supply of rice imports when domestic sources fell short...it is true that Churchill opposed diverting food supplies and transports from other theatres to India to cover the shortfall: this was wartime.'^ Other large armies may well be cut off in the Baltic States, in Finland and in Norway.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Booth, Arthur H. The True Story of Sir Winston Churchill: British Statesman.

[106]

German rearmament

.Beginning in 1932, when he opposed those who advocated giving Germany the right to military parity with France, Churchill spoke often of the dangers of Germany's rearmament.^ France Honours Churchill with military honour.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ Those who give up essential liberties for temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Churchill’s over at Harry’s Place for instance are split between those advocating freedom of speech for fascists (to expose them!
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[107] He later, particularly in The Gathering Storm, portrayed himself as being for a time, a lone voice calling on Britain to strengthen itself to counter the belligerence of Germany.[108] However Lord Lloyd was the first to so agitate.[109] Churchill's attitude toward the fascist dictators was ambiguous. .In 1931, he warned against the League of Nations opposing the Japanese in Manchuria "I hope we shall try in England to understand the position of Japan, an ancient state...^ LEAGUE OF NATIONS I hope that the League of Nations is not going to be asked now to do the impossible.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I shall try to make the town better for it, and the state, and I shall try to elevate my neighbors.” .
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Did the United States intervention as an ally of the USSR against the Nazis prove that it was fighting a “people’s war” as opposed to a war based on the need for power and profit?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the one side they have the dark menace of Soviet Russia.^ One evening, the summer after their marriage, they were walking in the Mall under the great elms that border the Common on the Tremont Street side.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But if you get five or ten to one on one side, all bound rigorously by the covenant and the conventions which they own, then you may have an opportunity of a settlement which will heal the wounds of the world.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the other the chaos of China, four or five provinces of which are being tortured under Communist rule".[110] In contemporary newspaper articles he referred to the Spanish Republican government as a Communist front, and Franco's army as the "Anti-red movement".[111] He supported the Hoare-Laval Pact and continued up until 1937 to praise Benito Mussolini.^ They have their anti-God religion and their Communist Doctrine of the entire subjugation of the individual to the State; knowing behind it stands the largest army in the world in the hands of a government pursuing Imperialistic Expansion as no Czar or Kaiser has ever done.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lets not forget that the wars against anti-colonial movements in the region were continued almost without a break in the aftermath of the second world war in the region, in Vietnam, in Malaya etc.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Title: General Hurley in China 07:55:38 Hurley, new Ambassador, arrives walking up Chunking steps w/ other VIPs.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[112]
Speaking in the House of Commons in 1937, Churchill said "I will not pretend that, if I had to choose between communism and Nazism, I would choose communism".[113] In a 1935 essay, entitled "Hitler and his Choice" as republished in Churchill's 1937 book Great Contemporaries, Churchill expressed a hope that Hitler, if he so chose, and despite his rise to power through dictatorial action, hatred, and cruelty, he might yet "go down in history as the man who restored honour and peace of mind to the great Germanic nation and brought it back serene, helpful and strong, to the forefront of the European family circle."[114] Churchill's first major speech on defence on 7 February 1934 stressed the need to rebuild the Royal Air Force and to create a Ministry of Defence; his second, on 13 July urged a renewed role for the League of Nations. These three topics remained his themes until early 1936. In 1935, he was one of the founding members of Focus which brought together people of differing political backgrounds and occupations who were united in seeking 'the defence of freedom and peace'.[115] Focus led to the formation of the much wider Arms and the Covenant Movement in 1936.
.Churchill was holidaying in Spain when the Germans reoccupied the Rhineland in February 1936, and returned to a divided Britain.^ Churchill s Island - Reel 2 German naval school - animated map showing Nazi plan to blockade Britain.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Labour opposition was adamant in opposing sanctions and the National Government was divided between advocates of economic sanctions and those who said that even these would lead to a humiliating backdown by Britain as France would not support any intervention.^ It is useless to attack men who could not be controlled even if conquered, while failure would leave us in an even worse position...
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All those who seek to destroy the liberties of a democratic nation ought to know that war is the surest and shortest means to accomplish it.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But in the context of a national liberation war in India, and with britain defeated, then the garrison would have been aligned with Vichy France, who undoubtedly would have defended Pondichery and relied upon Axis support to do so.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[116] .Churchill's speech on 9 March was measured and praised by Neville Chamberlain as constructive.^ Churchill makes speech praising sailors.
  • Winston Churchill Compilation 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, Speech in British House of Commons .

.But within weeks Churchill was passed over for the post of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence in favour of the Attorney General Sir Thomas Inskip.^ Carriage carrying PM Sir Winton Churchill - Queen Mother and Princess Margaret pass in carriage.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A general electioon occurs when the monarch disolves parliement, which is normally done at the request of the Prime Minister (an extra-constitutional post that only exists by convention).
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As that was Churchill’s red line, then any coalition for national defence had to work within that.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[117] Alan Taylor called this 'An appointment rightly described as the most extraordinary since Caligula made his horse a consul.'[118] In June 1936, Churchill organised a deputation of senior Conservatives who shared his concern to see Baldwin, Chamberlain and Halifax. .He had tried to have delegates from the other two parties and later wrote "If the leaders of the Labour and Liberal oppositions had come with us there might have been a political situation so intense as to enforce remedial action".[119] As it was the meeting achieved little, Baldwin arguing that the Government was doing all it could given the anti-war feeling of the electorate.^ There are no politics in war.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And you, neighbor, you might come with us.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is nothing that war has ever achieved that we could not better achieve without it.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

On 12 November Churchill returned to the topic. .Speaking in the Address in Reply debate after giving some specific instances of Germany’s war preparedness he said "The Government simply cannot make up their mind or they cannot get the Prime Minister to make up his mind.^ People do not make wars; governments do.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2006 the Estonia government refused to extradite a nazi war criminal to Israel, on the spurious basis that they did not accept any crime had been committed.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ G-glad to hev you in any fixin’s, Cynthy,” he said, giving her arm a little squeeze, and by that time they were up the hill and William Wetherell quite winded.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.So they go on in strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all powerful for impotency.^ So they go on in a strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all-powerful to be impotent.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ War against a foreign country only happens when the moneyed classes think they are going to profit from it.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were all capitalist states in the epoch of imperialism; themselves imperialist—oppressing other nations or peoples—or satellites of imperialist powers.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.And so we go on preparing more months more years precious perhaps vital for the greatness of Britain for the locusts to eat."^ So we go on preparing more months and years — precious, perhaps vital, to the greatness of Britain — for the locusts to eat.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Looking more widely around, one may say that throughout Europe for one man killed or wounded in the first year perhaps five were killed or wounded in 1914-1915.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All these months, — for more than a year, perhaps, — she had been in his office, and he had not so much as looked at her twice.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.R.R. James called this one of Churchill’s most brilliant speeches in this period, Baldwin's reply sounding weak and disturbing the House.^ Winston Churchill, speech, House of Commons.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Winston Churchill, speech, Mansion House, London.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Winston Churchill, speech, House of Commons, July 29, 1941.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

The exchange gave new encouragement to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.[120]

Abdication crisis

In June 1936, Walter Monckton told Churchill that the rumours that King Edward VIII intended to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson were true. .Churchill then advised against the marriage and said he regarded Mrs Simpson's existing marriage as a 'safeguard'.[121] In November, he declined Lord Salisbury's invitation to be part of a delegation of senior Conservative backbenchers who met with Baldwin to discuss the matter.^ Two years after Lloyd George's 1922 defeat, Churchill returned to the Conservatives, who made him chancellor of the exchequer in November 1924, a post he held for five years.

^ Never seed a man who had a good word to say for ’em,” said Mr. Price, with less conviction.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The affair which I have to discuss with you is of a private nature, Mr. Bass,” he said.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On 25 November he, Attlee and Liberal leader Archibald Sinclair met with Baldwin, were told officially of the King's intention, and asked whether they would form an administration if Baldwin and the National Government resigned should the King not take the Ministry's advice.^ Socialism would destroy private interests; Liberalism would preserve private interests in the only way in which they can be safely and justly preserved, namely, by reconciling them with public right.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Do not let His Majesty's Government believe — I am sure they do not believe — that all that Germany is asking for is equal status.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know who has done it, and I could have told them if they had asked me.” .
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Both Attlee and Sinclair said they would not take office if invited to do so.^ Never would take any office but Chairman of the Selectmen,” answered Moses, who apparently bore no ill will for his father’s sake.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some said they were soft, others that they would never be United.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They’ve come to fight,” said he, “and take the town again for the King.” .
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Churchill's reply was that his attitude was a little different but he would support the government.^ As I was sayin’, if some able woman had married Jethro and made him look at things a little mite different, he would have b’en a big man.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[122]
.The Abdication crisis became public, coming to head in the first fortnight of December 1936. At this time Churchill publicly gave his support to the King.^ This is illustrated by the difference between Churchill’s reaction and the public reaction to the USA entering the war in December.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The labour Party not only supported Churchill, they effectively engineered his coming to power though the parliamentary process.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The time has come to stop beating our heads against stone walls under the illusion that we have been appointed policeman to the human race.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first public meeting of the Arms and the Covenant Movement was on 3 December.^ The storekeeper had met Mr. Bixby several times since that first memorable meeting, and on each occasion, as now, his hand had made an involuntary movement to his watch pocket.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

Churchill was a major speaker and later wrote that in replying to the Vote of Thanks he made a declaration 'on the spur of the moment' asking for delay before any decision was made by either the King or his Cabinet.[123] Later that night Churchill saw the draft of the King's proposed wireless broadcast and spoke with Beaverbrook and the King's solicitor about it. On 4 December, he met with the King and again urged delay in any decision about abdication. On 5 December, he issued a lengthy statement implying that the Ministry was applying unconstitutional pressure on the King to force him to make a hasty decision.[124] On 7 December he tried to address the Commons to plead for delay. He was shouted down. Seemingly staggered by the unanimous hostility of all Members he left.[125]
.Churchill's reputation in Parliament and England as a whole was badly damaged.^ Marx wrote to Sorge on August 4, 1874: “As to the urban workers here [in England], it is a pity that the whole pack of leaders did not get into Parliament.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some such as Alistair Cooke saw him as trying to build a King's Party.^ Inconceivable though it were (a middle-of-the-night reflection), if he insisted on trying to keep such a woman bottled up in Rivington she might some day pack up and leave him.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I tried to get him to talk, and told him about some new tanning machinery I had seen.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Wetherell saw Mr. Duncan beside him, a tense figure leaning on the rail, calling to some one below.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[126] .Others like Harold Macmillan were dismayed by the damage Churchill's support for the King had done to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.^ Arms and the Covenant: Speeches by The Right Hon.Winston S. Churchill.

[127] .Churchill himself later wrote "I was myself smitten in public opinion that it was the almost universal view that my political life was ended."^ Churchill: The end of glory; a political biography.

^ Churchill: The end of glory, a political biography.

^ And you stay in town all day and have no end of fun making money, — and expect me to amuse myself the better part of my life with a lot of women who don’t know enough to keep thin.” .
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[128] .Historians are divided about Churchill's motives in his support for Edward VIII. Some such as A J P Taylor see it as being an attempt to 'overthrow the government of feeble men'.[129] Others such as Rhode James see Churchill's motives as entirely honourable and disinterested, that he felt deeply for the King.^ As far as I can see you object to any argument which does not begin with some kind of acknowledgement of our national heritage of which Churchill is a part.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I don’t see why father can’t make money — other men do.” .
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Churchill government had widespread support from the military, civil service, judiciary, the monarchy and the owners of industry, and the newspapers - his biggest supporter was Beaverbrook.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[130]

Return from exile

Winston Churchill giving his famous 'V' sign
.Churchill later sought to portray himself as an isolated voice warning of the need to rearm against Germany.^ Which is where Churchill comes in, really - he had a better understanding of the long-term needs of British imperialism, and the fact that this necessarily meant war with Germany.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Armored Division - Tank Demonstration, Germany 21Dec44 British Churchill tanks fire flame-throwers against farm buildings at dusk.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While it is true that he had little following in the House of Commons during much of the 1930s he was given considerable privileges by the Government.^ For Free Trade: A collection of speeches delivered at Manchester or in the House of Commons during the Fiscal controversy preceding the late General Election.

^ And it was true, although the little white parsonage was scarce two hundred yards from the tannery house.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

The “Churchill group” in the later half of the decade consisted only of himself, Duncan Sandys and Brendan Bracken. It was isolated from the other main factions within the Conservative Party pressing for faster rearmament and a stronger foreign policy.[131] .In some senses the ‘exile’ was more apparent than real.^ Some of whom on both sides of the Iron Curtain face more problems than ourselves .
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, above all, — if the idea be put a little more crudely and definitely than it occurred in his thoughts, — he awoke to the realization that his wife was an asset he had hitherto utterly neglected.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Raised more than a hundred bushels — L-Listy put some of ’em on the table — t-then gave some to my old hoss Tom.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

Churchill continued to be consulted on many matters by the Government or seen as an alternative leader.[132]
.Even during the time Churchill was campaigning against Indian independence, he received official and otherwise secret information.^ During times of war, hatred becomes quite respectable even though it has to masquerade often under the guise of patriotism.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

From 1932, Churchill’s neighbour, Major Desmond Morton with Ramsay MacDonald's approval, gave Churchill information on German air power.[133] .From 1930 onwards Morton headed a department of the Committee of Imperial Defence charged with researching the defence preparedness of other nations.^ They were all capitalist states in the epoch of imperialism; themselves imperialist—oppressing other nations or peoples—or satellites of imperialist powers.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lord Swinton as Secretary of State for Air, and with Baldwin’s approval, in 1934 gave Churchill access to official and otherwise secret information.^ Churchill’s hatred for Indians is on record as revealed by the following quote of Winston Churchill to Leo Amery, Secretary of State for India (1942): “I hate Indians.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Swinton did so, knowing Churchill would remain a critic of the government, but believing that an informed critic was better than one relying on rumour and hearsay.^ The implications of glorifying Churchill’s role and defending a wartime coalition government is that any criticisms of it, any call for a Labour Government, workers control or socialism, would have been tantamount to aiding Hitler.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How could the left have simulataneously participated in the coalition government, and also promoted the one policy that would make it impossible for Churchill to include them?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Better that people should wonder why you said nothing than why you said what you did.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

[134] .Churchill was a fierce critic of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement of Adolf Hitler[135] and in a speech to the House of Commons, he bluntly and prophetically stated, "You were given the choice between war and dishonour.^ He also became perhaps the most visible and vocal critic of the appeasement policies of the successive governments of Prime Ministers Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain, who effectively tolerated German rearmament, Chancellor Adolf Hitler's deliberate contravention of the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, and Germany's and Italy's territorial demands on their neighbors.

^ By 1928, Churchill believed that the postwar peace settlement represented only a truce between wars, a view forcefully set forth in his book The Aftermath (1928).

^ For Free Trade: A collection of speeches delivered at Manchester or in the House of Commons during the Fiscal controversy preceding the late General Election.

You chose dishonour, and you will have war."[136]

Role as wartime Prime Minister

"Winston is back"

.After the outbreak of World War II, on 3 September 1939 the day Britain declared war on Germany, Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty and a member of the War Cabinet, just as he had been during the first part of World War I. When they were informed, the Board of the Admiralty sent a signal to the Fleet: "Winston is back".[137][138] In this job, he proved to be one of the highest-profile ministers during the so-called "Phoney War", when the only noticeable action was at sea.^ At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915.

^ Barrage balloons during World War II .

^ When Britain declared war on Germany in September 1939, Churchill resumed his old position as first lord of the Admiralty.

.Churchill advocated the pre-emptive occupation of the neutral Norwegian iron-ore port of Narvik and the iron mines in Kiruna, Sweden, early in the war.^ American mining equipment used - iron ore.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Chamberlain and the rest of the War Cabinet disagreed, and the operation was delayed until the successful German invasion of Norway.^ Does he believe that the British left and labour movement should have gone on struggling against whatever government was in power - Chamberlain tories, Churchill’s coalition, or a hypothetical British equivalent of Vichy, if a German invasion had been successful?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it was still the “phony war”, especially on land, until the Germans went into Denmark and Norway in April and especially until May 10, 1940 when the Blitzkrieg against the Low Countries and then France was launched.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It often happens in war that an operation which is successful on a small scale becomes vicious if it is multiplied by three, four or five times.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

Churchill wears a helmet during an air raid warning in the Battle of Britain in 1940

Bitter beginnings of the war

.On 10 May 1940, hours before the German invasion of France by a lightning advance through the Low Countries, it became clear that, following failure in Norway, the country had no confidence in Chamberlain's prosecution of the war and so Chamberlain resigned.^ France, Battle for (10 May–11 July 1940) .

^ Despite the German attacks on the British aircraft carrier Courageous and the battleship Royal Oak, as well as the responsibility he himself bore for the Allied disaster in Norway during April and May 1940, he succeeded Chamberlain as prime minister on 10 May 1940, the day Germany launched an invasion of France and the Low Countries.

^ After Norway the Labour Party forced a vote of confidence, in which serious figures such as david LLoyd George listed the litany of Chamberlain’s failures called for Chamberlain to go, and serving Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger Keyes (who was also a Tory MP) speaking in unifirm made it clear that the armed forces no longer support Chamberlain.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.The commonly accepted version of events states that Lord Halifax turned down the post of Prime Minister because he believed he could not govern effectively as a member of the House of Lords instead of the House of Commons.^ It is not the function of the House of Lords to govern the people but to make sure that the people have the right to govern themselves.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In may 1940 who could have become prime minister and held together the coalition of interests that were keeping British forces in the field against nazi Germany?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On any day, if they thought the people wanted it, the House of Commons could by a simple vote remove me from my office.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although the Prime Minister does not traditionally advise the King on the former's successor, Chamberlain wanted someone who would command the support of all three major parties in the House of Commons.^ However the catalyst was the Labour Party who engineered Chamberlain’s fall and Churchill taking the premiership.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In may 1940 who could have become prime minister and held together the coalition of interests that were keeping British forces in the field against nazi Germany?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain to Adolf Hitler, 22 August 1939 .

.A meeting between Chamberlain, Halifax, Churchill and David Margesson, the government Chief Whip, led to the recommendation of Churchill, and, as a constitutional monarch, George VI asked Churchill to be Prime Minister and to form an all-party government.^ The real fabric of American society is not all those flags you see on people's cars...it's in the Bill of Rights and in our constitutional form of government.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain to Adolf Hitler, 22 August 1939 .

^ King George-VI, and Winston Churchill ride in them.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Churchill's first act was to write to Chamberlain to thank him for his support.[139]
Churchill takes aim with a Sten submachine gun in June 1941. The man in the pin-striped suit and trilby on Churchill's left is his bodyguard, Walter H. Thompson
.Churchill had been among the first to recognise the growing threat of Hitler long before the outset of the Second World War, and his warnings had gone largely unheeded.^ The Second World War may well, like the First World War, have been a war for empire.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Second World War was a world war Paul.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But his main thesis is that the Second World War was caused by the First?
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although there was an element of British public and political sentiment favouring negotiated peace with a clearly ascendant Germany, among them the Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax, Churchill nonetheless refused to consider an armistice with Hitler's Germany.^ I therefore consider that from a political standpoint we should march as far east into Germany as possible, and that should Berlin be in our grasp we should certainly take it.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout the 1930s, although Churchill held no cabinet position, he nonetheless continued to the campaign for rearmament.

^ Had Chamberlain negotiated a peace with Hitler, like Petain, then Britain would have fought on in India.
  • SOCIALIST UNITY » SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL AND THE ANTI-FASCIST WAR 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.socialistunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[140] .His use of rhetoric hardened public opinion against a peaceful resolution and prepared the British for a long war.^ Winston Churchill: British bulldog; his career in war and peace.

^ No nation ever had an army large enough to guarantee it against attack in time of peace, or ensure it of victory in time of war.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I went into the Army believing that if you want peace you must prepare for war.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[141] Coining the general term for the upcoming battle, Churchill stated in his "finest hour" speech to the House of Commons on 18 June 1940, "I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin."[142] By refusing an armistice with Germany, Churchill kept resistance alive in the British Empire and created the basis for the later Allied counter-attacks of 1942–45, with Britain serving as a platform for the supply of Soviet Union and the liberation of Western Europe.
.In response to previous criticisms that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of the war, Churchill created and took the additional position of Minister of Defence.^ There is no morality in war.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In war, there are no winners.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In war, there are no unwounded soldiers.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.He immediately put his friend and confidant, the industrialist and newspaper baron Lord Beaverbrook, in charge of aircraft production.^ Aitken, William Maxwell (First Baron Beaverbrook, Lord Beaverbrook) (1879–1964) .

It was Beaverbrook's business acumen that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering that eventually made the difference in the war.[143]
Winston Churchill walks through the ruins of Coventry Cathedral, 1941
.Churchill's speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled British.^ Churchill speech lauding Ike as great commander and leader.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His first speech as Prime Minister was the famous "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat". He followed that closely with two other equally famous ones, given just before the Battle of Britain.^ State Visit of PM Thatcher to United States - State Dinner & Thatcher Toast Thatcher speech: names other British PMs in office through two consecutive US presidencies.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two armies that fight each other is like one large army that commits suicide.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We all slept in the one flea-infested, windowless room of the “tavern” that night; and before dawn I was up and untethered the horses, and Polly Ann and I together lifted the two bushels of alum salt on one of the beasts and the ploughshare on the other.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

One included the words:
... we shall fight in .France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.^ We shall do our duty as long as we have life and strength.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It may be that great ordeals are coming to us in this island from the air.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We mean to defend our Island from tyranny and aggression, and so far as we can, we mean to hold out a helping hand to others who may be in an even more immediate danger than at this moment we are ourselves.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

[144]
The other:
Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour'.[145]
Churchill with Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery and Field Marshal Alan Brooke, 1944
.At the height of the Battle of Britain, his bracing survey of the situation included the memorable line "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few", which engendered the enduring nickname The Few for the RAF fighter pilots who won it.^ Short excerpt from Churchill s speech so much owed by so many to so few .
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ RAF scramble - bell ringing - fighter planes take off from field.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[146] .One of his most memorable war speeches came on 10 November 1942 at the Lord Mayor's Luncheon at Mansion House in London, in response to the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein.^ Winston Churchill, speech, Mansion House, London.
  • Churchill - The Last Lion Roars 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ El Alamein, Battle of (23 October–4 November 1942) .

^ Mersa Matrûh, Battle of (7 November 1942) .

Churchill stated:
This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.[147]
.Without having much in the way of sustenance or good news to offer the British people, he took a risk in deliberately choosing to emphasise the dangers instead.^ People to People Reel 1 Four British trades union men arrive in New York Harbor on an exchange visit.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our enemies...never stop thinking about new ways to harm our country and our people, and neither do we.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our enemies are innovative and resourceful...They never stop thinking about new ways to harm our country and our people, and neither do we.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

"Rhetorical power", wrote Churchill, "is neither wholly bestowed, nor wholly acquired, but cultivated." Not all were impressed by his oratory. Robert Menzies, Prime Minister of Australia and himself a gifted phrase-maker, said of Churchill during World War II: "His real tyrant is the glittering phrase so attractive to his mind that awkward facts have to give way."[148] Another associate wrote: "He is... the slave of the words which his mind forms about ideas.... And he can convince himself of almost every truth if it is once allowed thus to start on its wild career through his rhetorical machinery."[149]

Relations with the United States

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Churchill at the Cairo Conference in 1943
Churchill's good relationship with Franklin D. Roosevelt secured vital food, oil and munitions via the North Atlantic shipping routes. .It was for this reason that Churchill was relieved when Roosevelt was re-elected in 1940.^ Roosevelt re-elected to 4th Term FDR at desk.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Upon re-election, Roosevelt immediately set about implementing a new method of providing military hardware and shipping to Britain without the need for monetary payment.^ Birth of Britain, v.2 New World, v.3 Age of Revolution, v.4 Great Democracies) (2 sets, extra copy of v.3) ________, If I lLived My Life Again.

.Put simply, Roosevelt persuaded Congress that repayment for this immensely costly service would take the form of defending the US; and so Lend-lease was born.^ Roosevelt responded by devising the Lease-Lend Act that was passed by Congress the following spring, which authorized the president to provide assistance to countries at war whose endeavors enhanced U.S. national security.

^ Davy’ll take care of you, Polly Ann,” he would say as he left us.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Let us form a new religion, that which would be called 'humanity', with 'peace' as its prophet.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.Churchill had 12 strategic conferences with Roosevelt which covered the Atlantic Charter, Europe first strategy, the Declaration by the United Nations and other war policies.^ Tehran conference Churchill, Roosevelt & Stalin.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roosevelt and Churchill pose after Tehran conference.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United Nations, Declaration (1 January 1942) .

After Pearl Harbor was attacked, Churchill's first thought in anticipation of US help was, "We have won the war!"[150] On 26 December 1941, Churchill addressed a joint meeting of the US Congress, asking of Germany and Japan, "What kind of people do they think we are?"[151] Churchill initiated the Special Operations Executive (SOE) under Hugh Dalton's Ministry of Economic Warfare, which established, conducted and fostered covert, subversive and partisan operations in occupied territories with notable success; and also the Commandos which established the pattern for most of the world's current Special Forces. The Russians referred to him as the "British Bulldog".
.Churchill's health was fragile, as shown by a mild heart attack he suffered in December 1941 at the White House and also in December 1943 when he contracted pneumonia.^ Iba Field, Attack on (8 December 1941) .

^ Pearl Harbor, Attack on (7 December 1941) .

^ FIRST I am to write a love-story of long ago, of a time some little while after General Jackson had got into the White House and had shown the world what a real democracy was.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Despite this, he travelled over 100,000 miles (160,000 km) throughout the war to meet other national leaders.^ He traveled abroad more than any of the other Allied leaders, often at substantial personal risk.

For security, he usually travelled using the alias Colonel Warden.[152]
.Churchill was party to treaties that would redraw post-World War II European and Asian boundaries.^ At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915.

^ Barrage balloons during World War II .

^ Luftwaffe FW-190 aircraft, World War II .

.These were discussed as early as 1943. At the Second Quebec Conference in 1944 he drafted and, together with US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, signed a toned-down version of the original Morgenthau Plan, in which they pledged to convert Germany after its unconditional surrender "into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character."[153] Proposals for European boundaries and settlements were officially agreed to by Harry S. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin at Potsdam.^ Stalin with Churchill and Truman at Potsdam, pose in gardens.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Franklin Roosevelt signs declaration of war .

^ Tehran Conference - Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin pose.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Churchill's strong relationship with Harry Truman was also of great significance to both countries. .While he clearly regretted the loss of his close friend and counterpart Roosevelt, Churchill was enormously supportive of Truman in his first days in office, calling him, "the type of leader the world needs when it needs him most."^ Map diagram of world w/ Truman, Churchill, Stalin, Pope, Archbishop of Canterbury & head of Russian Orthodox Church pictures, dissolve into cross.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, most remarkable of all to the storekeeper, not a man of the three hundred, however obscure, could rise that the Speaker did not instantly call him by name.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Our friend Jethro is confronted with a problem to tax even his faculties, and to look at him, a man wouldn’t suspect he had a care in the world.” .
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[154]

Relations with the Soviet Union

Churchill secretly meets with President Ismet Inönü at the Yenice Station 15 miles (24 km) outside of Adana in south-east Turkey, on 30 January 1943
.When Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, Winston Churchill, a vehement anti-Communist, famously stated "If Hitler invaded Hell, I would at least make a favourable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons," regarding his policy toward Stalin.^ Winston Churchill makes speech (SOF) re honor, says portrait is a marvellous example of modern art .
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Winston Churchill leaving Little White House.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Winston Churchill enters room with Stalin, takes seat with Anthony Eden, Molotov and Averell Harriman - CUs.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[155] Soon, British supplies and tanks were flowing to help the Soviet Union.[156]
.The settlement concerning the borders of Poland, that is, the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union and between Germany and Poland, was viewed as a betrayal in Poland during the post-war years, as it was established against the views of the Polish government in exile.^ Ack - Ack: Britain's defence against air attack during the Second World War.

^ He held many high posts in Liberal and Conservative governments during the first three decades of the century.

^ Governments use national animosities, foreign wars and the glamour of empire-making, in order to...divert rising sentiment against domestic abuses.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was Winston Churchill, who tried to motivate Mikołajczyk, who was Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile, to accept Stalin's wishes, but Mikołajczyk refused.^ From 1951 to 1955, Churchill served again as Conservative prime minister.

^ Winston Churchill and Harrow: Memories of the Prime Minister's schooldays, 1888-1892.

^ Battle: The Life Story of Winston S. Churchill, Prime Minister; study of a genius.

.Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between the two populations was the transfer of people, to match the national borders.^ By 1928, Churchill believed that the postwar peace settlement represented only a truce between wars, a view forcefully set forth in his book The Aftermath (1928).

.As he expounded in the House of Commons on 15 December 1944, "Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting.^ Bhamo, Siege of (14 November–15 December 1944) .

.There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble...^ Little people guessed that there was no love-making — only endless discussions of books beside the great centre chimney, and discussions of Isaac Worthington’s career.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions."[157][158] However the resulting expulsions of Germans were carried out in a way which resulted in much hardship and, according to a 1966 report by the West German Ministry of Refugees and Displaced Persons, the death of over 2.1 million. .Churchill opposed the effective annexation of Poland by the Soviet Union and wrote bitterly about it in his books, but he was unable to prevent it at the conferences.^ At the February 1945 Yalta Conference, Churchill and Roosevelt both acquiesced in effective Soviet domination of most of that region.

^ London & Moscow re arranging Truman-Stalin-Churchill meeting (Potsdam Conference) & negotiations re Poland & Soviet veto at San Francisco conference.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the war proceeded and Soviet forces began to push back German troops, Churchill feared that the Soviet Union would dominate postwar Eastern Europe.

[159]
Winston Churchill at the Yalta Conference, with Roosevelt and Stalin beside him
During October 1944, he and Eden were in Moscow to meet with the Russian leadership. At this point, Russian forces were beginning to advance into various eastern European countries. .Churchill held the view that until everything was formally and properly worked out at the Yalta conference, there had to be a temporary, war-time, working agreement with regard to who would run what.^ By 1928, Churchill believed that the postwar peace settlement represented only a truce between wars, a view forcefully set forth in his book The Aftermath (1928).

^ Dress it as we may...huzza it, and sing swaggering songs about it, what is war, nine times out of ten, but murder in uniform?
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The third selection, “The New Doctrine,” is drawn from Churchill’s 1910 novel, A Modern Chronicle , the author’s first attempt at a contemporary problem novel, a form that would define his work until the end of his career as a novelist.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[160] .The most significant of these meetings were held on 9 October 1944 in the Kremlin between Churchill and Stalin.^ Interior Kremlin: Stalin seated with Churchill and Harriman.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interior Kremlin Stalin seated with Churchill and Harriman.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October 1944, he negotiated an informal agreement with Stalin whereby the two leaders delineated their countries' respective spheres of influence in Eastern Europe.

During the meeting, Poland and the Balkan problems were discussed.[161] Churchill recounted his speech to Stalin on the day:
Let us settle about our affairs in the Balkans. Your armies are in Rumania and Bulgaria. We have interests, missions, and agents there. Don't let us get at cross-purposes in small ways. .So far as Britain and Russia are concerned, how would it do for you to have ninety per cent predominance in Rumania, for us to have ninety per cent of the say in Greece, and go fifty-fifty about Yugoslavia?^ How far have you read?” .
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ H-how much you know about it.” .
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Dear Cynthia: Judge Bass wished me to say to you that he would be pleased if you and Will would come to the capital and spend a week with him at the Pelican House, and see the sights.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[160]
Stalin agreed to this Percentages Agreement, ticking a piece of paper as he heard the translation. In 1958, five years after the recount of this meeting was published (in The Second World War), authorities of the Soviet denied that Stalin accepted the "imperialist proposal".[161]
.One of the conclusions of the Yalta Conference was that the Allies would return all Soviet citizens that found themselves in the Allied zone to the Soviet Union.^ At the February 1945 Yalta Conference, Churchill and Roosevelt both acquiesced in effective Soviet domination of most of that region.

^ If there was a God, a nice, kind, all-powerful God, would he permit what happened in one of the loom-rooms last week?
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As the war proceeded and Soviet forces began to push back German troops, Churchill feared that the Soviet Union would dominate postwar Eastern Europe.

.This immediately affected the Soviet prisoners of war liberated by the Allies, but was also extended to all Eastern European refugees.^ As the war proceeded and Soviet forces began to push back German troops, Churchill feared that the Soviet Union would dominate postwar Eastern Europe.

[162] .Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn called the Operation Keelhaul "the last secret of World War II."[163] The operation decided the fate of up to two million post-war refugees fleeing eastern Europe.^ At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty - a post which he had earlier held from 1911 to 1915.

^ Barrage balloons during World War II .

^ Luftwaffe FW-190 aircraft, World War II .

[164]

Dresden bombings controversy

Historical footage of the destruction of Dresden, February 1945
.Between 13-15 February 1945, British and US bombers attacked the German city of Dresden, which was crowded with German wounded and refugees.^ Dresden, Air Attack on (13–15 February 1945) .

^ US & British bomb Germany, planes low over English Channel; bomber shadow on ground.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Battle field, German tanks fight back, shooting, explosions, British soldiers run thru city, march on the field.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[165] .Because of the cultural importance of the city, and of the number of civilian casualties close to the end of the war, this remains one of the most controversial Western Allied actions of the war.^ Of all the enemies of public liberty, war is perhaps the most to be dreaded, because it comprises and develops the germ of every other.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of all the enemies to public liberty war is, perhaps the most to be dreaded because it compromises and develops the germ of every other.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of all the enemies to public liberty, war is perhaps the most to be dreaded because it comprises and develops the germ of every other.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

Following the bombing Churchill stated in a top secret telegram:
.It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed...^ Air to air of German bomber & view of bombs dropping over city (London?
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive.^ When he comes back for his wagon, hand it to him,” he said, feeling that he would rather, at that moment, face the devil himself than Mr. Bixby.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The demands of internal growth are incomparably more important to us...than the need for any external expansion of our power.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After this, as we have said, Jethro was more than ever at the store — or rather in that domestic domain behind it which Wetherell and Cynthia shared with Miss Millicent Skinner.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[166]
.On reflection, under pressure from the Chiefs of Staff and in response to the views expressed by Sir Charles Portal (Chief of the Air Staff,) and Sir Arthur Harris (AOC-in-C of RAF Bomber Command), among others, Churchill withdrew his memo and issued a new one.^ View of other bombers; above blanket of clouds.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commander Chief General Eugeniusz Sikorski (1881-1943) & other officials shake hands, talk at meeting table.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Harris, Sir Arthur Travers (1892–1984) .

[167][168] This final version of the memo completed on 1 April 1945, stated:
.It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of the so called 'area-bombing' of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests.^ Air to air of German bomber & view of bombs dropping over city (London?
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus did Howard Spence experience one of those startling, illuminating moments which come on occasions to the busy and self-absorbed husbands of our nation.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Have we not come back to our starting-point, even as Moses Hatch drove around in a circle.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If we come into control of an entirely ruined land, there will be a great shortage of accommodation for ourselves and our allies...^ To my mother's land, I've come with Anthony Eden to talk over some family matters and to see that there are no misunderstandings...and if we work together we may get along alright ourselves & do a lot to help our neighbors.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I had been dreaming of and Temple Bow, and my father coming back to me there with a great gash in his shoulder like Weldon’s.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The state has, in order to control us, introduced division into our thinking, so that we come to distrust others and look to the state for protection.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.We must see to it that our attacks do no more harm to ourselves in the long run than they do to the enemy's war effort.^ What is more immoral than war?
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You can no more win a war than you can win an earthquake.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The maintenance of the right of criticism in the long run will do the country...more good than it will do the enemy.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[167][168]
.Ultimately, responsibility for the British part of the attack lay with Churchill, which is why he has been criticised for allowing the bombings to happen.^ Churchill also agreed to allow British scientists to pool their expertise in nuclear physics with their American counterparts in the manhattan Project, a largely U.S.-financed effort to built an atomic bomb; the project reached fruition in summer 1945.

.The German historian Jörg Friedrich, claims that "Winston Churchill's decision to [area] bomb a shattered Germany between January and May 1945 was a war crime"[169] and writing in 2006 the philosopher A. C. Grayling questioned the whole strategic bombing campaign by the RAF presenting the argument that although it was not a war crime it was a moral crime and undermines the Allies contention that they fought a just war.^ Churchill's six best-selling volumes of memoirs, The Second World War, presented a somewhat roseate view of Anglo-American wartime cooperation, and they were carefully designed to promote the continuing alliance between the two countries, which had become his most cherished objective.

^ The one exception is a splendid and thoroughly researched biography by a historian of popular culture: Robert W. Schneider, Novelist to a Generation: The Life and Thought of Winston Churchill (1976).
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bombed out window w/ picture of Winston Churchill.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[170] .On the other hand, it has also been asserted that Churchill's involvement in the bombing of Dresden was based on the strategic and tactical aspects of winning the war.^ World Affairs - Churchill Addresses Delegates Forming Congress Of Europe (ca May48) Churchill on stage shakes hands with others as people stand in front.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin, Churchill & others shaking hands at Potsdam.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Churchill also followed a demanding schedule of morale-boosting personal visits to British cities, factories, bomb targets, and military installations, which he continued throughout the war.

The destruction of Dresden, while immense, was designed to expedite the defeat of Germany. .As the historian Max Hastings said in an article subtitled, "the Allied Bombing of Dresden": "I believe it is wrong to describe strategic bombing as a war crime, for this might be held to suggest some moral equivalence with the deeds of the Nazis.^ He did not think that Cynthia loved him — yet, but he had the effrontery to believe that she might, some day; and he was content to wait.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The mere act of believing that some wrongful course of action constitutes an advantage is pernicious.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Churchill also followed a demanding schedule of morale-boosting personal visits to British cities, factories, bomb targets, and military installations, which he continued throughout the war.

.Bombing represented a sincere, albeit mistaken, attempt to bring about Germany's military defeat."
British historian, Frederick Taylor asserts that "All sides bombed each other's cities during the war.^ Besides rallying the British people to endure military defeat in France and the bombing campaign Germany soon launched against Britain's industrial cities, Churchill's speeches, which caught the international imagination, were designed to convince the political leaders and people of the United States—the only quarter from which Britain might anticipate effective assistance—of his country's commitment to the war.

^ Churchill also followed a demanding schedule of morale-boosting personal visits to British cities, factories, bomb targets, and military installations, which he continued throughout the war.

^ Of all the enemies to public liberty war is, perhaps the most to be dreaded because it compromises and develops the germ of every other.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

Half a million Soviet citizens, for example, died from German bombing during the invasion and occupation of Russia. That's roughly equivalent to the number of German citizens who died from Allied raids. But the Allied bombing campaign was attached to military operations and ceased as soon as military operations ceased."
[171]

The Second World War ends

Churchill waves to crowds in Whitehall on the day he broadcast to the nation that the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945.
.In June 1944, the Allied Forces invaded Normandy and pushed the Nazi forces back into Germany on a broad front over the coming year.^ Allied forces out of Germany.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allied forces land on beaches of Normandy.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Beginning of the End For Nazis The Mighty Allied Offensive Across The Rhine River Rows of planes on ground and paratroopers briefed and climbing into planes.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After being attacked on three fronts by the Allies, and in spite of Allied failures, such as Operation Market Garden, and German counter-attacks, including the Battle of the Bulge, Germany was eventually defeated.^ Bus with Rye on front pulls up to side of country road as German plane comes in to attack, It s Jerry - take cover!
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allied Offensive North Africa (Operation Torch ) Military equipment and hardware being moved East by rail and road - Stockpile of trucks etc at docks.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bus with Rye on front pulls up to side of country road as German plane comes in to attack - It s Jerry - take cover!
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 7 May 1945 at the SHAEF headquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany's surrender.^ Allied Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender, Potsdam, 26 July 1945 .

^ Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz, The Unconditional Surrender, 8 May 1945 .

^ Germany, Collapse of (March–May 1945) .

.On the same day in a BBC news flash John Snagge announced that 8 May would be Victory in Europe Day.^ New York: The John Day Co., 1959.

^ Victory Order of the Day and Proclamation on Germany's Defeat, 8 May 1945 .

[172] .On Victory in Europe Day, Churchill broadcast to the nation that Germany had surrendered and that a final cease fire on all fronts in Europe would come into effect at one minute past midnight that night.^ Despite the creation of the United Nations in 1945, Churchill hoped that close Anglo-American understanding would be the bedrock of the international world order, a perspective intensified by his continuing fears of Germany.

^ One of these, in front of which Janet liked to linger, was set weirdly into an old New England cottage.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Guess I would have died in the hospital if he hadn’t got it so all-fired quick, and he druv down to Brampton to fetch me back.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[173][174] .Afterwards Churchill told a huge crowd in Whitehall: "This is your victory."^ [VE Day London, England] Crowd in Parliament Square looking towards Whitehall; Churchill leaving House of Commons preceded by Ushers & Members of Parliament.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The people shouted: "No, it is yours", and Churchill then conducted them in the singing of Land of Hope and Glory. In the evening he made another broadcast to the nation asserting the defeat of Japan in the coming months.[45] The Japanese later surrendered on 15 August 1945.
.As Europe celebrated peace at the end of six years of war, Churchill was concerning on the possibility that the celebrations would soon be brutally interrupted.^ By 1928, Churchill believed that the postwar peace settlement represented only a truce between wars, a view forcefully set forth in his book The Aftermath (1928).

^ Winston Churchill: British bulldog; his career in war and peace.

^ Churchill Speaks: Winston S. Churchill in peace and war collected speeches, 1897-1963.

[175] .He concluded that the UK and the US must prepare for the Red Army ignoring previously agreed frontiers and agreements in Europe "to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire."[176] According to the Operation Unthinkable plan ordered by Churchill and developed by the British Armed Forces, the Third World War could have started on 1 July 1945 with a sudden attack against the allied Soviet troops.^ Diagram showing reduction in US Armed Forces 1945-47.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States attacks Yellow Beach .

^ One of the few initial cabinet supporters of British intervention in World War I, Churchill soon took the blame for the disastrous 1915 Dardanelles expedition against Turkey, which prompted his resignation.

.The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible.^ Quebec Conference: Roosevelt (FDR), Churchill & US & British Chiefs of Staff, Mountbatten, Stilwell.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Quebec Conference: Roosevelt (FDR), Churchill and US & British Chiefs of staff, Mountbatten, Stilwell.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Leader of the opposition

Churchill at Potsdam, July 1945
.Although Churchill's role in World War II had generated him much support from the British population, he was defeated in the 1945 election.^ One of the few initial cabinet supporters of British intervention in World War I, Churchill soon took the blame for the disastrous 1915 Dardanelles expedition against Turkey, which prompted his resignation.

^ He reluctantly acquiesced in Britain's return to the gold standard, and his determination to suppress the 1926 General Strike won him the lasting enmity of much of the labor movement.

^ Barrage balloons during World War II .

[177] .Many reasons for this have been given, key among them being that a desire for post-war reform was widespread amongst the population and that the man who had led Britain in war was not seen as the man to lead the nation in peace.^ The Sinews of Peace: Post-war speeches.

^ O'Neill, H. C. Men of Destiny: Being studies of the four who rode the war and made this precarious landfall.

^ He sat and talked of many things: of the great war that was agonizing the nation; of the strong man who, harassed and suffering himself, was striving to guide it, likening Lincoln unto a physician.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[178]
For six years he was to serve as the Leader of the Opposition. .During these years Churchill continued to have an impact on world affairs.^ World Affairs - Churchill Addresses Delegates Forming Congress Of Europe (ca May48) Churchill on stage shakes hands with others as people stand in front.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During his March 1946 trip to the United States, Churchill famously lost a lot of money in a poker game with Harry Truman and his advisors.^ About the quote : Truman (1884-1972) was president of the United States.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Churchill made repeated visits to the United States and met Roosevelt at other venues.

^ Interior, Churchill makes speech talking about '..atom bomb that England, the United States & Canada share...'
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[179] (He also liked to play Bezique, which he learned while serving in the Boer War.)
.During this trip he gave his Iron Curtain speech about the USSR and the creation of the Eastern Bloc.^ Cold War - Churchill Fulton MO 'Iron Curtain' Speech Churchill '..it is my duty to place before you certain facts about the present state of Europe...From Stettin ...Iron Curtain..
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Churchill - Fulton, MO Speech - Iron Curtain Segment] Beginning has sound problems.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iron Curtain on Eastern Europe 12:06:46 - President Truman and Churchill with cigar driving through streets 12:06:58 - speech continues .
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Speaking on 5 March 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, he declared:
Churchill with American General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery at a meeting of NATO in October 1951, shortly before Churchill was to become Prime Minister for a second time
From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.[180]
Churchill also argued strongly for British independence from the European Coal and Steel Community, which he saw as a Franco-German project. .He saw Britain's place as separate from the continent, much more in-line with the countries of the Commonwealth and the Empire and with the United States, the so-called Anglosphere.^ Since the war began, Britain had purchased war supplies in the United States on a "cash-and-carry" basis.

^ Washington...has become an alien city-state that rules America, and much of the rest of the world, in the way that Rome ruled the Roman Empire.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have never lived in the country, and I’m sure it will be delightful — and much more healthful than the city.” .
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[181][182]

Second term as Prime Minister

Return to government and the decline of the British Empire

.After the General Election of 1951, Churchill again became Prime Minister.^ Winston Churchill on Holiday in France MCUs, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, wife Clementine and daughter in stand during handball match.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ News in Brief - England - Churchill Wins Exterior polling stations - votes counted in general election.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1951 to 1955, Churchill served again as Conservative prime minister.

.His third government—after the wartime national government and the brief caretaker government of 1945—lasted until his resignation in 1955. His domestic priorities in his last government were overshadowed by a series of foreign policy crises, which were partly the result of the continued decline of British military and imperial prestige and power.^ Churchill also followed a demanding schedule of morale-boosting personal visits to British cities, factories, bomb targets, and military installations, which he continued throughout the war.

^ In July 1945, the British electorate voted Churchill out of office while he was attending a meeting at Potsdam, replacing his administration with a reformist Labour government.

^ The Foreign Policy of Churchill's Peacetime Administration, 1951-1955.

.Being a strong proponent of Britain as an international power, Churchill would often meet such moments with direct action.^ Churchill also resented intensifying U.S. pressure for the phasing out of British colonial rule, a prospect made increasingly probable by Britain's growing international weakness.

^ In such rare moments as this her heart melted towards Lise, and she would fling a protecting arm about her.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

One example was his dispatch of British troops to Kenya to deal with the Mau Mau rebellion.[183] Trying to retain what he could of the Empire, he once stated that, "I will not preside over a dismemberment."[183]

War in Malaya

This was followed by events which became known as the Malayan Emergency. .In Malaya, a rebellion against British rule had been in progress since 1948.[184] Once again, Churchill's government inherited a crisis, and Churchill chose to use direct military action against those in rebellion while attempting to build an alliance with those who were not.^ Churchill also resented intensifying U.S. pressure for the phasing out of British colonial rule, a prospect made increasingly probable by Britain's growing international weakness.

^ President Roosevelt and Churchill meeting on British Battleship Prince of Wales - British preparing for action in Singapore - unloading military equipment from ships - Indian troops - British troops and artillery on parade ground.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No great dependence is to be placed on the eagerness of young soldiers for action...fighting is agreeable to those who are strangers to it.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[45][185] .While the rebellion was slowly being defeated, it was equally clear that colonial rule from Britain was no longer sustainable.^ Churchill also resented intensifying U.S. pressure for the phasing out of British colonial rule, a prospect made increasingly probable by Britain's growing international weakness.

^ All mankind...being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty or possessions.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[184][186]

Relations with the United States

.Churchill also devoted much of his time in office to Anglo-American relations and, although Churchill did not always agree with President Dwight D. Eisenhower,[187] Churchill attempted to maintain the Special Relationship with the United States.^ Among the other countless honours and decorations he received, special mention should be made of the honorary citizenship of the United States which President Kennedy conferred on him in 1963.

^ About the quote : Truman (1884-1972) was president of the United States.
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the creation of the United Nations in 1945, Churchill hoped that close Anglo-American understanding would be the bedrock of the international world order, a perspective intensified by his continuing fears of Germany.

.He made four official transatlantic visits to America during his second term as Prime Minister.^ The Professor and the Prime Minister: The official life of Professor F. A. Lindemann, Viscount Cherwell.

^ Correspondence: Between the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. and the Presidents of the U.S.A. and the Prime Ministers of Great Britain During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945.

[188]

The series of strokes

.Churchill had suffered a mild stroke while on holiday in the south of France in the summer of 1949. In June 1953, when he was 78, Churchill suffered a more severe stroke at 10 Downing Street.^ Outside 10 Downing Street.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On steps of 10 Downing Street.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Winston Churchill on Holiday in France MCUs, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, wife Clementine and daughter in stand during handball match.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

News of this was kept from the public and from Parliament, who were told that Churchill was suffering from exhaustion. He went to his country home, Chartwell, to recuperate from the effects of the stroke which had affected his speech and ability to walk.[45] He returned to public life in October to make a speech at a Conservative Party conference at Margate.[45][189] .However, aware that he was slowing down both physically and mentally, Churchill retired as Prime Minister in 1955 and was succeeded by Anthony Eden.^ From 1951 to 1955, Churchill served again as Conservative prime minister.

^ Feb45 Arrival of Churchill & Anthony Eden; saluting them as they enter Livadia Palace.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Winston Churchill on Holiday in France MCUs, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, wife Clementine and daughter in stand during handball match.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He suffered another mild stroke in February 1956.

Retirement and death

Churchill spent much of his retirement at his home Chartwell in Kent. He purchased it in 1922 after his daughter Mary was born.
.Elizabeth II offered to create Churchill Duke of London, but this was declined due to the objections of his son Randolph, who would have inherited the title on his father's death.^ Churchill emulated his father—who attained the position of chancellor of the exchequer before resignation, illness, and premature death cut short his political career—by entering politics in 1900 as a Unionist member of Parliament.

^ Churchill received the first state funeral for any British commoner since the death of the duke of Wellington over a century before.

^ Heaven-sent sleet, said Deacon Ira Perkins, and would not speak to his son Chester, who sat down just then in one of the rear slips.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

[190] .After leaving the premiership, Churchill spent less time in parliament until he stood down at the 1964 General Election.^ However, he remained a Member of Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election.

^ News in Brief - England - Churchill Wins Exterior polling stations - votes counted in general election.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [VE Day London, England] Crowd in Parliament Square looking towards Whitehall; Churchill leaving House of Commons preceded by Ushers & Members of Parliament.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a mere "back-bencher," Churchill spent most of his retirement at Chartwell and at his home in Hyde Park Gate, in London.[45] .In the 1959 General Election Churchill's majority fell by more than a thousand, since many young voters in his constituency did not support an 85-year-old who could only enter the House of Commons in a wheelchair.^ S-saw you was goin’ with Moses Hatch more than common.” .
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Here was a man who could be dealt with by no known rules, who did not even deign to notice a week of marked coldness.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lise was the only member of the Bumpus family who did not find uncongenial such distractions and companionships as were offered by the civilization that surrounded them.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

.As his mental and physical faculties decayed, he began to lose the battle he had fought for so long against the "black dog" of depression.^ Strike against war, for without you no battles can be fought!
  • Quotes 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

[45] .There was speculation that Churchill may have had Alzheimer's disease in his last years, although others maintain that his reduced mental capacity was merely the result of a series of strokes.^ There was, however, one argument, or panacea, which had generally worked like a charm, although some time had elapsed since last he had resorted to it.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For a little while we are going to gallop through the years as before we have ambled through the days, although the reader’s breath may be taken away in the process.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Churchill's Last Years.

.In 1963, US President John F. Kennedy, acting under authorisation granted by an Act of Congress, proclaimed him an Honorary Citizen of the United States, but he was unable to attend the White House ceremony.^ Portraits of US Presidents superimposed over shot of White House.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the other countless honours and decorations he received, special mention should be made of the honorary citizenship of the United States which President Kennedy conferred on him in 1963.

^ State Visit of PM Thatcher to United States - State Dinner & Thatcher Toast Thatcher speech: names other British PMs in office through two consecutive US presidencies.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[191] Despite poor health, Churchill still tried to remain active in public life, and on St George's Day 1964, sent a message of congratulations to the surviving veterans of the 1918 Zeebrugge Raid who were attending a service of commemoration in Deal, Kent, where two casualties of the raid were buried in the Hamilton Road Cemetery, Deal, Kent. On 15 January 1965, Churchill suffered a severe stroke that left him gravely ill. .He died at his home nine days later, at age 90, on the morning of Sunday 24 January 1965, coincidentally 70 years to the day after his father's death.^ Churchill died in London on 24 January 1965.

^ A selection from the broadcasts given in memory of Winston Churchill in the sound and television services of the British Broadcasting Corporation, 24 to 30 January 1965.

[191]

Funeral

Churchill's grave at St Martin's Church, Bladon
By decree of the Queen, his body lay in state for three days and a state funeral service was held at St Paul's Cathedral.[192] As his lead-lined coffin passed down the River Thames from Tower Pier to Festival Pier on the Havengore, dockers lowered their crane jibs in a salute.[193] .The Royal Artillery fired a 19-gun salute (as head of government), and the RAF staged a fly-by of sixteen English Electric Lightning fighters.^ Parade & firing salute w/ artillery.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large artillery guns firing.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ US airmen in front of B-17 Flying Fortress plane w/ Stage Door Canteen painted on side above gun turret.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The coffin was then taken the short distance to Waterloo Station where it was loaded onto a specially prepared and painted carriage as part of the funeral train for its rail journey to Bladon.^ Time to Remember Part One 1926 The Short Sharp Shower Funeral of Valentino Rudolph Valentino as shekh, dancing on stage in costume, died in 1926.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[194] The funeral also saw one of the largest assemblages of statesmen in the world.[195] The funeral train of Pullman coaches carrying his family mourners was hauled by Bulleid Pacific steam locomotive No. .34051 "Winston Churchill". In the fields along the route, and at the stations through which the train passed, thousands stood in silence to pay their last respects.^ Winston Churchill in Fulton Missouri Winston Churchill off train with President Truman and into open top car.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Winston Churchill out of car, paying driver.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Winston Churchill in motorcade through streets 1951, gives victory V sign from inside car - arriving to accept award of Freeman of the City.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At Churchill's request, he was buried in the family plot at St Martin's Church, Bladon, near Woodstock, not far from his birthplace at Blenheim Palace. Churchill's funeral van – Southern Railway Van S2464S – is now part of a preservation project with the Swanage Railway, having been repatriated to the UK in 2007 from the USA where it was exported in 1965.[196]

Churchill as artist, historian, and writer

Statue of Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt in New Bond Street, London
.Winston Churchill was also an accomplished artist and took great pleasure in painting, especially after his resignation as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1915.[197] He found a haven in art to overcome the spells of depression, or as he termed it, the "Black Dog", which he suffered throughout his life.^ England: The life story of Winston Churchill.

^ Winston Churchill: His life in pictures.

^ Winston Churchill: An informal study of greatness.

.As William Rees-Mogg has stated, "In his own life, he had to suffer the 'black dog' of depression.^ Little did William Wetherell guess, when he glanced up at the intruder, that he was looking upon one of the forces of his own life!
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

In his landscapes and still lives there is no sign of depression".[198] He is best known for his impressionist scenes of landscape, many of which were painted while on holiday in the South of France, Egypt or Morocco.[198] He continued his hobby throughout his life and painted hundreds of paintings, many of which are on show in the studio at Chartwell as well as private collections.[199] Most of his paintings are oil-based and feature landscapes, but he also did a number of interior scenes and portraits.
Despite his lifelong fame and upper-class origins Churchill always struggled to keep his income at a level that would fund his extravagant lifestyle. .MPs before 1946 received only a nominal salary (and in fact did not receive anything at all until the Parliament Act 1911) so many had secondary professions from which to earn a living.^ However, he remained a Member of Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election.

[200] .From his first book in 1898 until his second stint as Prime Minister, Churchill's income was almost entirely made from writing books and opinion pieces for newspapers and magazines.^ From 1951 to 1955, Churchill served again as Conservative prime minister.

^ Winston Churchill and Harrow: Memories of the Prime Minister's schooldays, 1888-1892.

^ In May, 1940, he became Prime Minister and Minister of Defence and remained in office until 1945.

The most famous of his newspaper articles are those that appeared in the Evening Standard from 1936 warning of the rise of Hitler and the danger of the policy of appeasement.
.Churchill was also a prolific writer of books, writing a novel, two biographies, three volumes of memoirs, and several histories in addition to his many newspaper articles.^ Churchill’s Coniston was actually two books in one: a tale of New England and New England politics in the Railroad Age, and a sentimental moral drama cum juvenile romance.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, all three leaders gathered at major international summit conferences at Tehran in November 1943 and Yalta in February 1945, and Churchill also met Stalin separately on several occasions.

^ [An abridgement by Timothy Baker of the Four Volumes of "A History of the English-Speaking Peoples by Sir Winston Churchill.

.He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values".[201] Two of his most famous works, published after his first premiereship brought his international fame to new heights, were his six-volume memoir The Second World War and A History of the English-Speaking Peoples; a four-volume history covering the period from Caesar's invasions of Britain (55 BC) to the beginning of the First World War (1914).^ Twas he brought the news of this latest war.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The English Spirit: Essays in literature and history.

^ People to People Reel 1 Four British trades union men arrive in New York Harbor on an exchange visit.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[202]

Honours

Statue in Parliament Square, London
.Aside from receiving the great honour of a state funeral, Churchill also received numerous awards and honours, including being made the first Honorary Citizen of the United States to receive the honour while still alive (Mother Teresa was the only other living recipient, while five others have received it posthumously).^ Churchill made repeated visits to the United States and met Roosevelt at other venues.

^ Wetherell got up and turned it down, and the first citizen was still standing in the doorway.
  • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Churchill received the first state funeral for any British commoner since the death of the duke of Wellington over a century before.

[203] .Churchill received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his numerous published works, especially his six-edition set The Second World War. In a 2002 BBC poll of the "100 Greatest Britons", he was proclaimed "The Greatest of Them All" based on approximately a million votes from BBC viewers.^ Churchill's six best-selling volumes of memoirs, The Second World War, presented a somewhat roseate view of Anglo-American wartime cooperation, and they were carefully designed to promote the continuing alliance between the two countries, which had become his most cherished objective.

^ By 1928, Churchill believed that the postwar peace settlement represented only a truce between wars, a view forcefully set forth in his book The Aftermath (1928).

^ Says after war he wants to visit his wife s grave & the second most important thing will be to vote because then he knows he & his country will be free.
  • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[204] Churchill was also rated as one of the most influential leaders in history by Time magazine.[205] Churchill College, Cambridge was founded in 1958 on his behalf.

Honorary degrees

Ancestors

See also

.

References

Notes

  1. ^ Darryl Lundy. "Rt. Hon. Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill". thePeerage.com. http://www.thepeerage.com/p10620.htm#i106196. Retrieved 20 December 2007. 
  2. ^ Jenkins, pp. 1–20
  3. ^ Jenkins, p. 7
  4. ^ a b c d Lt Churchill: 4th Queen's Own Hussars, The Churchill Centre. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
  5. ^ Jenkins, pp. 10–11
  6. ^ Jenkins, p. 10
  7. ^ Haffner, p.32
  8. ^ Public speaking in the reshaping of ... – Google Books
  9. ^ "Churchill Stutter". Stutterers.org. http://www.stutterers.org. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  10. ^ Sharp, Keith (21 November 2008). "Winston Churchill, Stutterer". http://www.stutterers.org. Retrieved 27 March 2009. 
  11. ^ "FAQ:Personal Life". The Churchill Centre. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/reference/frequently-asked-questions-faq/personal-life. Retrieved 28 August 2009. 
  12. ^ Jenkins p.73 quoting H. W. Massingham in the Daily News
  13. ^ Nicolson, Harold (1967), The War Years 1939–1945, Diaries and Letters vol. II, New York: Atheneum, pp. 127 and 169.
  14. ^ Soames, Mary: Speaking for Themselves: The Personal Letters of Winston and Clementine Churchill. p. 1
  15. ^ Soames p. 6
  16. ^ Soames pp. 14–15
  17. ^ Soames p. 17
  18. ^ Soames pp. 18, 22, 25.
  19. ^ Soames pp. 40, 44.
  20. ^ Soames p. 105
  21. ^ Soames p. 217
  22. ^ Soames pp. 239, 241.
  23. ^ Soames p. 262.
  24. ^ Crowhurst, Richard (2006). "Chartwell: Churchill's House of Refuge". Moira Allen. http://www.timetravel-britain.com/06/Oct/chartwell.shtml. Retrieved 9 January 2008. 
  25. ^ Jenkins, pp. 20–21
  26. ^ Jenkins, pp. 21–45
  27. ^ G. K. Lewis. "On the character and achievement of Sir Winston Churchill". The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, Vol 23, No. 2 May 1957 (May, 1957): 173–194. 
  28. ^ Churchill, Winston S. 1951 The Second World War, Volume 5: Closing the Ring. Houghton Miffin Edition. Bantam Books, New York No ISBN or other number provided. p. 606. "Prime Minister to Foreign Secretary 5. Feb (19)44. Your minute about raising certain legations to the status of embassy. I must say that Cuba has as good a claim as some other places–'la perla de Las Antillas'. Great offence will be given if all the others have it and this large, rich, beautiful island, the home of the cigar, is denied. Surely Cuba has much more claim than Venezuela. You will make a bitter enemy if you leave them out, and after a bit you will be forced to give them what you have given to the others."
  29. ^ Jenkins p. 29
  30. ^ T. E. C. Jr. M.D (5 November 1977). "Winston Churchill's Poignant Description of the Death of his Nanny". PEDIATRICS Vol. 60 No.: 752. 
  31. ^ R. V. Jones. "Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill. 1874–1965". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Vol. 12, Nov., 1966 (Nov., 1966): 34–105. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0080-4606(196611)12%3C34%3AWLSC1%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X. 
  32. ^ Sir Winston S. Churchill. "The Story Of The Malakand Field Force – An Episode of Frontier War". arthursclassicnovels.com. http://arthursclassicnovels.com/arthurs/churchill/mkdff10.html. Retrieved 17 March 2007. 
  33. ^ a b "Two opposition views of Afghanistan: British activist and Dutch MP want to know why their countries are participating in a dangerous adventure". Spectrazine. 20 March 2006. 
  34. ^ Churchill, Winston (October 2002). My Early Life. Eland Publishing Ltd. pp. 143. ISBN 0-907871-62-3. 
  35. ^ "Churchill On The Frontier – Mamund Valley III". UK Commentators. 11 December 2004. 
  36. ^ Jenkins, pp. 29–31
  37. ^ "Youth: 1874–1900". Sir Winston Churchill. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/biography/timelines/youth-1874-19006. Retrieved 28 August 2009. 
  38. ^ Jenkins, p. 40
  39. ^ 'London to Ladysmith' ch. VII
  40. ^ Jenkins, pp. 55–62
  41. ^ Jenkins, pp. 61–2
  42. ^ Jenkins, pp. 62–4
  43. ^ a b "FinestHour" (pdf). Journal of the Churchill Center and Societies, Summer 2005. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/files/public/FinestHour127.pdf. Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  44. ^ Jenkins, pp. 45–50
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h Gilbert, Martin (2001). Churchill: A Study in Greatness (one volume edition). London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-7126-6725-8. 
  46. ^ Jenkins, p. 69
  47. ^ Churchill's Commissions and Military Attachments, The Churchill Centre
  48. ^ a b "Sir Winston Churchill: Biography: Chronological Summary, Churchill College". Chu.cam.ac.uk. 6 March 2009. http://www.chu.cam.ac.uk/archives/churchill_papers/biography/churchill_chronology.php. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  49. ^ Jenkins pp. 301–2
  50. ^ T Benn et al.. "Churchill Remembered: Recollections by Tony Benn MP, Lord Carrington, Lord Deedes and Mary Soames". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Vol 11, 2001 (2001): 404. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=093EF1D05E7AFB7F949C82854B159733.tomcat1?fromPage=online&aid=98683. Retrieved 17 June 2007. 
  51. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Measuring Worth: UK CPI.
  52. ^ Jenkins, pp. 74–6
  53. ^ Jenkins, p. 101
  54. ^ a b c Hall, Douglas J.. "Churchill's Elections". The Churchill Centre. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/reference/churchills-elections. Retrieved 28 August 2009. 
  55. ^ a b Toye, Richard (2007). Lloyd George and Churchill: Rivals for Greatness. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-4896-5. 
  56. ^ Churchill, Randolph. Winston S. Churchill: Young Statesman. (c) 1967 C & T Publications: pp. 287–9
  57. ^ Jenkins, pp. 150–1
  58. ^ Jenkins, p. 152
  59. ^ Jenkins, pp. 157–66
  60. ^ Jenkins, p. 161
  61. ^ Churchill, Randolph. Winston S. Churchill: Young Statesman. (c) 1967 C & T Publications pp. 359–65
  62. ^ Churchill, Randolph. Winston S. Churchill: Young Statesman. (c) 1967 C & T Publications: p. 395
  63. ^ Jenkins, p. 194
  64. ^ Jenkins, p. 186
  65. ^ Churchill took flying lessons, 1911, The Aerodrome.com
  66. ^ Naval innovation: from coal to oil, Erik J. Dahl, Joint Force Quarterly, 2000
  67. ^ The World Crisis (new edition), Odhams 1938, p. 323
  68. ^ Robert Rhode James. Churchill: A Study in Failure. Pelican, 1973, p. 80
  69. ^ a b "The First World War, The development of the Tank, sponsored by Winston Churchill". http://www.firstworldwar.com/weaponry/tanks.htm. Retrieved 16 December 2007. 
  70. ^ Callwell, C.E. (2005). Dardanelles, a study of the strategical and certain tactical aspects of the Dardanelles campaign. London: Naval & Military Press Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84574-273-7. 
  71. ^ Jenkins, pp. 282–288
  72. ^ Jenkins, p. 287
  73. ^ Jenkins, p. 301
  74. ^ Jenkins, p. 309
  75. ^ [1] "The greatest 20th century beneficiary of popular mythology has been the cad Churchill", Kevin Myers, Independent.ie
  76. ^ Ferris, John. Treasury Control, the Ten Year Rule and British Service Policies, 1919–1924. The Historical Journal, Vol. 30, No. 4. (Dec., 1987), pp. 859–83
  77. ^ Jeffrey Wallin with Juan Williams (4 September 2001). "Cover Story: Churchill's Greatness". Churchill Centre. http://web.archive.org/web/20031216033237/http://www.winstonchurchill.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=282. Retrieved 26 February 2007. 
  78. ^ Jenkins, pp. 361–65
  79. ^ See Jonathan Glancey "Gas, chemicals, bombs: Britain has used them all before in Iraq". http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/apr/19/iraq.arts. Retrieved 3 February 2009.  and Johann Hari "Our Infantile Search for Heroic Leaders". http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/johann-hari/johann-hari-our-infantile-search-for-heroic-leaders-854278.html. Retrieved 3 February 2009. 
  80. ^ It is clear from the rest of the passage that "poisoned" does not mean "deadly", as it would in modern usage
  81. ^ Martin Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, (London: Heinemann, 1976), companion volume 4, part 1
  82. ^ Bhattacharya, Sutapas (1999). The oneness/otherness mystery. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 244. ISBN 9788120816541. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=_JnQWzQlMN8C&pg=RA4-PA244&dq=churchill+kurds+gas&as_brr=3&client=firefox-a#v=onepage&q=churchill%20kurds%20gas&f=false. 
  83. ^ "Winston Churchill and Parliamentary Democracy". Churchill Society for the Advancement of Parliamentary Democracy. http://www.churchillsociety.org/CMS%20-%20Parliamentary%20Democracy.htm. Retrieved 4 May 2008. 
  84. ^ Budget Blunders: Mr Churchill and the Gold Standard (1925), BBC News. Retrieved 02-12-2007.
  85. ^ James p. 207.
  86. ^ James p. 206.
  87. ^ "Speeches – Gold Standard Bill". The Churchill Centre. 4 May 1925. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/speeches-of-winston-churchill/115-gold-standard-bill. Retrieved 28 August 2009. 
  88. ^ Jenkins, p. 405
  89. ^ Picknett, Lynn, Prince, Clive, Prior, Stephen and Brydon, Robert (2002). War of the Windsors: A Century of Unconstitutional Monarchy, p. 78. Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 1-84018-631-3.
  90. ^ H Henderson The Interwar Years and other papers. Clarendon Press
  91. ^ James p 22 212
  92. ^ a b c Gilbert, Martin (2004). Winston Churchill: The Wilderness Years. London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-1-84413-418-2. 
  93. ^ Books Written by Winston Churchill (see Amid these Storms), The Churchill Centre, 2007
  94. ^ 247 House of Commons Debates 5s col 755
  95. ^ BBC NEWS: "Churchill took hardline on Gandhi"
  96. ^ James, p. 260
  97. ^ Gilbert, Martin. Winston S. Churchill: The Prophet of Truth * 1922–1939. (c) 1976 by C&T Publications, Ltd: p. 618
  98. ^ speech on 18 March 1931 quoted in James, p. 254
  99. ^ James, p. 262
  100. ^ Rhode James, pp. 269–72
  101. ^ James, p. 258
  102. ^ Churchill India; facsimile edition see the introduction by M. Weidhorn - Dragonwyck Publishing, 1990
  103. ^ Leonard A. Gordon, Review of Prosperity and Misery in Modern Bengal: The Famine of 1943–1944 by Greenough, Paul R., American Historical Review, Vol. 88, No. 4 (October 1983), p. 1051
  104. ^ JSTOR profile
  105. ^ Gordon, American Historical Review, p. 1051
  106. ^ "The Bengali Famine". Winstonchurchill.org. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/in-the-media/churchill-in-the-news/575-the-bengali-famine. Retrieved 10 August 2009. 
  107. ^ James pp. 285–6.
  108. ^ Picknett, et al., p. 75.
  109. ^ Lord Lloyd and the decline of the British Empire J Charmley pp. 1, 2, 213ff
  110. ^ James p. 329 quoting Churchill's speech in the Commons
  111. ^ James p. 408.
  112. ^ A J P Taylor Beaverbrook Hamish Hamilton 1972 p. 375.
  113. ^ Richard Holmes (2005), In the footsteps of Churchill, Basic Books, p. 185, ISBN 9780465030828, http://books.google.com/books?id=Kyd945KSiQwC&pg=PA185&dq=%22I+would+choose+communism%22 
  114. ^ Churchill, Winston. Great Contemporaries. (c) 1937 GP Putnam Sons, Inc. New York, NY: p. 225.
  115. ^ for a history of Focus see E Spier Focus Wolff 1963
  116. ^ Harold Nicholson's letter to his wife on 13 March summed up the situation "If we send an ultimatum to Germany she ought in all reason to climb down. But then she will not climb down and we shall have war... The people of this country absolutely refuse to have a war. We would be faced with a general strike if we suggested such a thing. We shall therefore have to climb down ignominiously "Diaries and Letters 1930–1939 p. 249.
  117. ^ James pp. 333–7.
  118. ^ The Origins of the Second World War p. 153.
  119. ^ The Gathering Storm p. 276.
  120. ^ James p. 343.
  121. ^ Frederick Smith, 2nd Earl of Birkenhead Walter Monckton Weidenfield and Nicholson 1969 p. 129.
  122. ^ Middlemas K R and Barnes J Stanley Baldwin Weidenfield and Nicholson 1969 p. 999.
  123. ^ The Gathering Storm pp. 170–1. Others including Citrine who chaired the meeting wrote that Churchill did not make such a speech. Citrine Men and Work Hutchinson 1964 p. 357.
  124. ^ James pp. 349–51 where the text of the statement is given
  125. ^ Beaverbrook, Lord; Edited by A. J. P. Taylor (1966). The Abdication of King Edward VIII. London: Hamish Hamilton.
  126. ^ Alistair Cook 'Edward VIII' in Six Men Bodley Head 1977
  127. ^ H Macmillan The Blast of War Macmillan 1970
  128. ^ The Gathering Storm p. 171.
  129. ^ A J P Taylor English History (1914–1945) Hamish Hamilton 1961 p. 404.
  130. ^ James p. 353.
  131. ^ These factions were headed by Anthony Eden and Leo Amery Rhode James p. 428
  132. ^ he was so consulted and so regarded during the Abdication Crisis see footnotes above
  133. ^ James p. 302.
  134. ^ Rhode James pp. 316–8
  135. ^ Picknett, et al., pp. 149–50.
  136. ^ Current Biography 1942, p. 155.
  137. ^ Churchill, Winston: "The Second World War" (abridged edition), page 163. Pimlico, 2002. ISBN 0-7126-6702-4
  138. ^ Brendon, Piers. "The Churchill Papers: Biographical History". Churchill Archives Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge. http://www.chu.cam.ac.uk/archives/churchill_papers/biography/. Retrieved 26 February 2007. 
  139. ^ Self, Robert (2006). Neville Chamberlain: A Biography, p. 431. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-5615-9.
  140. ^ Bungay 2000, p. 11.
  141. ^ Jenkins, p. 616–46
  142. ^ Jenkins, p. 621
  143. ^ Allen, Hubert Raymond. Who Won the Battle of Britain? London: Arthur Barker, 1974. ISBN 0-213-16489-2.
  144. ^ "We Shall Fight on the Beaches, 4 June 1940". Churchill Centre. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/speeches-of-winston-churchill/128-we-shall-fight-on-the-beaches. Retrieved 20 December 2007. 
  145. ^ "Their Finest Hour, 18 June 1940". Churchill Centre. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/speeches-of-winston-churchill/122-their-finest-hour. Retrieved 20 December 2007. 
  146. ^ Speech to the House of Commons on 20 August 1940
  147. ^ "Famous Quotations and Stories". Churchill Centre. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/quotations. Retrieved 28 August 2009. 
  148. ^ Menzies, Robert. "Menzies; 1941 War Diary – Churchill and the War Cabinet". http://www.oph.gov.au/menzies/churchillandthewarcabinet.htm. Retrieved 23 December 2007. 
  149. ^ Denson, John (1997). The Costs of War: America's Pyrrhic Victories. New York: Prentice Hall, Inc.. pp. 259. ISBN 1-56000-319-7. 
  150. ^ Stokesbury, James L. (1980). A Short History of WWII. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.. pp. 171. ISBN 0-688-03587-6. 
  151. ^ Prime Minister Winston Churchill's Address to the Congress of the United States 1941, IBiblio.org
  152. ^ Pawle, Gerald (1963). "Flight to Cairo". The War and Colonel Warden. George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd. http://books.google.com/books?id=1Ok4AAAAIAAJ&q=colonel+warden&dq=colonel+warden&pgis=1. "Colonel Warden was his favourite pseudonym" 
  153. ^ Michael R. Beschloss, (2002) ‘’The Conquerors’’: p. 131.
  154. ^ Jenkins, p. 849
  155. ^ "The Churchill Papers: Biography". Chu.cam.ac.uk. http://www.chu.cam.ac.uk/archives/collections/churchill_papers/biography/. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  156. ^ Stokesbury, James L. (1980). A Short History of WWII. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.. pp. 159. ISBN 0-688-03587-6. 
  157. ^ Clare Murphy WWII expulsions spectre lives on BBC.co.uk 2 August 2004
  158. ^ De Zayas, Alfred M. (1979) Nemesis at Potsdam: The Anglo-Americans and the Expulsion of the Germans, Routledge ISBN 0-7100-0458-3. Chapter I, p. 1 citing Churchill, Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, vol. 406, col. 1484
  159. ^ Jenkins, pp. 759–63
  160. ^ a b Churchill, Winston (1989). The Second World War. London: Penguin. p. 852. ISBN 0-14-012836-0. 
  161. ^ a b Resis, Albert. The Churchill-Stalin Secret "Percentages" Agreement on the Balkans, Moscow, October 1944. The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 2. (Apr. 1978), pp. 368–87.
  162. ^ A Footnote to Yalta by Jeremy Murray-Brown, Documentary at Boston University
  163. ^ Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I. The Gulag Archipelago, vol. 1. Translated by Thomas P. Whitney. New York: Harper and Row, 1974, page 85.
  164. ^ Jacob Hornberger Repatriation—The Dark Side of World War II. The Future of Freedom Foundation, 1995. [2]
  165. ^ Taylor, Frederick; Dresden: Tuesday, 13 February 1945; US Review, New York:HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-000676-5; UK Review, London: Bloomsbury, ISBN 0-7475-7078-7. pp. 262–64 There were an unknown number of refugees in Dresden, so the historians Matthias Neutzner, Götz Bergander and Frederick Taylor have used historical sources and deductive reasoning to estimate that the number of refugees in the city and surrounding suburbs was around 200,000 or less on the first night of the bombing.
  166. ^ After the devastation of Dresden by aerial bombing, and the resulting fire storm (February 1945); quoted in Where the Right Went Wrong (2004) by Patrick J. Buchanan, p. 119
  167. ^ a b Longmate, Norman (1983). "The Bombers", Hutchins & Co. p. 346. Harris quote as source: Public Records Office ATH/DO/4B quoted by Lord Zuckerman "From Apes to Warlords" p. 352
  168. ^ a b *Taylor, Frederick (2004). Dresden: Tuesday, 13 February 1945, London: Bloomsbury, ISBN 0-7475-7078-7; pp. 432-33
  169. ^ Luke Harding German historian provokes row over war photos in The Guardian, 21 October 2003
  170. ^ Grayling, A.C. (2006). Among the Dead Cities. New York: Walker Publishing Company Inc.. ISBN 0-8027-1471-4.  pp. 237-38
  171. ^ Charles Hawley. "Dresden Bombing Is To Be Regretted Enormously", Der Spiegel online, 11 February 2005
  172. ^ coming home BBC Four, 9am to 9.45am, 9–13 May 2005.
  173. ^ On this day 8 May 1945 BBC. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  174. ^ The UK was on double summer time which was 1 hour in front of 2301 hours CET that the surrender document specified (RAF Site Diary 7/8 May).
  175. ^ The secret strategy to launch attack on Red Army. Bob Fenton. Telegraph, Issue 1124. 1 October 1998.
  176. ^ British War Cabinet, Joint Planning Staff, Public Record Office, CAB 120/691/109040 / 002 (11 August 1945). ""Operation Unthinkable: 'Russia: Threat to Western Civilization'"" (online photocopy). Department of History, Northeastern University. http://www.history.neu.edu/PRO2/. Retrieved 28 June 2008. 
  177. ^ Picknett, et al., p. 190.
  178. ^ Jenkins, pp. 789–94
  179. ^ Interview: Clark Clifford. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
  180. ^ Churchill, Winston. "Sinews of Peace (Iron Curtain)". Churchill Centre. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/speeches-of-winston-churchill/120-the-sinews-of-peace. Retrieved 26 February 2007. 
  181. ^ Jenkins, p. 810 and pp. 819–14
  182. ^ "Remembrance Day 2003". Churchill Society London. http://www.churchill-society-london.org.uk. Retrieved 25 April 2007. 
  183. ^ a b Jenkins pp. 843–61
  184. ^ a b Harper, T.N. (2001). The End of Empire and the Making of Malaya. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00465-7. 
  185. ^ Stubbs, Richard (2001). Hearts and Minds in Guerilla Warfare: The Malayan Emergency 1948–1960. New York: Eastern University. 981210352X. 
  186. ^ Ferguson, Niall (2000). Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World. London: Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-14-100754-0. 
  187. ^ Robert Blake; William Roger Louis (1993), Robert Blake; William Roger Louis, eds., Churchill, W. W. Norton & Company, p. 405, ISBN 9780393034097, http://books.google.com/books?id=pVEWPfBLNxkC&pg=PA405 
  188. ^ Jenkins p. 847
  189. ^ Jenkins, pp. 868–71
  190. ^ Rasor, p. 205
  191. ^ a b Jenkins, p. 911
  192. ^ Picknett, et al., p. 252.
  193. ^ "Winston Churchill (1874–1965)". PortCities London. http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/ConFactFile.29/Winston-Churchill.html. Retrieved 12 January 2008. 
  194. ^ Winston Churchill's funeral van project Swanage Railway News 2006
  195. ^ Largest Assemblage of Statesmen at funeral since Churchill, BBC News, 2005
  196. ^ Winston Churchill's funeral van denied Lottery funding Swanage Railway News 2008
  197. ^ Jenkins p. 279
  198. ^ a b "Portrait of the artist with his black dog". London. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/columnists/william_rees_mogg/article1824692.ece. Retrieved 6 March 2008. 
  199. ^ Lady Soames. "Winston Churchill the Painter". http://winstonchurchill.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=576. Retrieved 9 January 2008. 
  200. ^ "FAQ about Parliament". Parliament.uk. http://www.parliament.uk/faq/members_faq_page2.cfm. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  201. ^ "Official Nobel Page". Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1953/. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  202. ^ Jenkins, pp. 819–23 and pp. 525–6
  203. ^ Russell, Douglas (2002). The Orders, Decorations and Medals of Sir Winston Churchill. Churchill Centre. 
  204. ^ "Poll of the 100 Greatest Britons". BBC. http://web.archive.org/web/20060514084331/www.bbc.co.uk/history/programmes/greatbritons.shtml. Retrieved 22 December 2007. 
  205. ^ "The Most Influential People of the 20th Century". Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/time100/time100poll.html. Retrieved 22 December 2007. 
  206. ^ "The Birth Throes of a Sublime Resolve". The Churchill Centre. http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/speeches-of-winston-churchill/568-the-birth-throes-of-a-sublime-resolve-the-old-lion-. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 

Primary sources

  • Churchill, Winston. The World Crisis. 6 vols. (1923–31); one-vol. ed. (2005). [On World War I.]
  • –––. The Second World War. 6 vols. (1948–53)
  • Coombs, David, ed., with Minnie Churchill. .Sir Winston Churchill: His Life through His Paintings.^ The one exception is a splendid and thoroughly researched biography by a historian of popular culture: Robert W. Schneider, Novelist to a Generation: The Life and Thought of Winston Churchill (1976).
    • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Winston Churchill in motorcade through streets 1951, gives victory V sign from inside car - arriving to accept award of Freeman of the City.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Winston Churchill, and others walk through scaffolding as people watch.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Fwd. by Mary Soames. .Pegasus, 2003. ISBN 0-7624-2731-0. [Other editions entitled Sir Winston Churchill's Life and His Paintings and Sir Winston Churchill: His Life and His Paintings.^ The one exception is a splendid and thoroughly researched biography by a historian of popular culture: Robert W. Schneider, Novelist to a Generation: The Life and Thought of Winston Churchill (1976).
    • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Crowds - mace carried into Parliament Square preceeding procession of Lord Chancellor, followed by Winston Churchill and other MPs.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Winston Churchill & others by fence.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Includes illustrations of approx. .500–534 paintings by Churchill.]
  • Gilbert, Martin.^ Quotes Churchill in 1952 when meeting w/ journalists in New York, quotes from Martin Gilbert s biiography of Dr. America.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    In Search of Churchill: A Historian's Journey (1994). [Memoir about editing the following multi-volume work.]
  • –––, ed. Winston S. Churchill. An 8 volume biography begun by Randolph Churchill, supported by 15 companion vols. of official and unofficial documents relating to Churchill. 1966–
I. Youth, 1874–1900 (2 vols., 1966);
II. Young Statesman, 1901–1914 (3 vols., 1967);
III. The Challenge of War, 1914–1916 (3 vols., 1973). ISBN 0-395-16974-7 (10) and ISBN 978-0-395-16974-2 (13);
IV. The Stricken World, 1916–1922 (2 vols., 1975);
V. The Prophet of Truth, 1923–1939 (3 vols., 1977);
VI. Finest Hour, 1939–1941: The Churchill War Papers (2 vols., 1983);
VII. Road to Victory, 1941–1945 (4 vols., 1986);
VIII. Never Despair, 1945–1965 (3 vols., 1988).
  • James, Robert Rhodes, ed. .Winston S. Churchill: His Complete Speeches, 1897–1963.^ Winston Churchill makes speech (SOF) re honor, says portrait is a marvellous example of modern art .
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Winston Churchill, tips hat to crowd, people listen to radio broadcast we shall fight them on the beaches speech over shots of invasion defences.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    8 vols. London: Chelsea, 1974.
  • Knowles, Elizabeth. The Oxford Dictionary of Twentieth Century Quotations. Oxford, Eng.: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-860103-4. ISBN 978-0-19-860103-6. ISBN 0-19-866250-5. ISBN 978-0-19-866250-1.
  • Loewenheim, Francis L. and Harold D. Langley, eds; Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence (1975).

Secondary sources

  • Beschloss, Michael R. (2002). .The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941–1945.^ Destruction; Wreckage; Refugees; Daily Life; July, 1945; Berlin, Occupied Germany; .
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780684810270. OCLC 50315054.
     
  • Best, Geoffrey (2003) [First published 2001]. Churchill: A Study in Greatness. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781852852535. OCLC 50339762. 
  • Blake, Robert (1997). Winston Churchill. Pocket Biographies. Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 9780750915076. OCLC 59586004. 
  • Blake, Robert; Louis, William Roger, eds (1992). .Churchill: A Major New Reassessment of His Life in Peace and War.^ The most realistic of Churchill’s novels, it is a tale of life, and life frustrated, in a “modern” New England mill town.
    • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192823175. OCLC 30029512.
     
  • Browne, Anthony Montague (1995). .Long sunset : memoirs of Winston Churchill's last private secretary.^ Jul45 Big three at Potsdam, last meeting attended by Winston Churchill.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The voting Rights Bill latest in long series of victories - quotes Winston Churchill re the end of the beginning .
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London: Cassell. ISBN 9780304344789. OCLC 32547047.
     
  • Charmley, John (1993). Churchill, The End of Glory: A Political Biography. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 9780151178810. OCLC 440131865. 
  • Charmley, John (1996). .Churchill's Grand Alliance: The Anglo-American Special Relationship 1940–57.^ Special Release - F.D.R. Meets Churchill (Atlantic Charter Meeting) High ranking army and navy officers on board American Warship in North Atlantic.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 9780340597606. OCLC 247165348.
     
  • Davis, Richard Harding. Real Soldiers of Fortune (1906). Early biography. Project Gutenberg etext, wikisource here "Real Soldiers of Fortune/Chapter 3 – Wikisource". En.wikisource.org. 20 October 2007. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Real_Soldiers_of_Fortune/Chapter_3. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
  • D'Este, Carlo (2008). Warlord : a life of Winston Churchill at war, 1874–1945 (1st ed.). New York: Harper. ISBN 9780060575731. http://lccn.loc.gov/2008009272. Retrieved 26 November 2008. 
  • Gilbert, Martin. Churchill: A Life (1992). ISBN 0-8050-2396-8. [One-volume version of 8-volume biography.]
  • Haffner, Sebastian. Winston Churchill (1967).
  • Hastings, Max. Finest Years: Churchill as Warlord, 1940–45. London, HarperPress, 2009. ISBN 9780007263677
  • Hennessy, P. Prime minister: the office and its holders since 1945 (2001).
  • Hitchens, Christopher. "The Medals of His Defeats", The Atlantic Monthly (April 2002).
  • James, Robert Rhodes. Churchill: A Study in Failure, 1900–1939 (1970).
  • Jenkins, Roy. Churchill: A Biography (2001).
  • Kersaudy, François. .Churchill and De Gaulle (1981).^ De Gaulle in motorcade with Churchill & Eden.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ [Casablanca - Giraud, De Gaulle, Churchill & Roosevelt With Press] Casablanca - FDR and Churchill seated with Giraud and de Gaulle and group behind all posing for cameras.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ [Armistice Day Celebrations in Paris with de Gaulle & Churchill] LIB 529 - Paris, France - Armistice Day Parade with Churchill, De Gaulle & Eden watching troops on Champs Elysees.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-00-216328-4.
  • Krockow, Christian. Churchill: Man of the Century. [1900–1999]. ISBN 1-902809-43-2.
  • Lukacs, John. Churchill : Visionary, Statesman, Historian. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.
  • Manchester, William. .The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Alone, 1932–1940 (1988).^ The popularity of Richard Carvel in Britain causes the English Churchill to sign his works “Winston Spencer Churchill” for a time in order to distinguish them.
    • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Winston Churchill arrives; Ms Clarissa Spencer Churchill (niece) out of car.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Jul45 Big three at Potsdam, last meeting attended by Winston Churchill.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-316-54512-0.
  • –––. .The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Defender of the Realm, 1940-1965 (2010).
  • –––.^ The popularity of Richard Carvel in Britain causes the English Churchill to sign his works “Winston Spencer Churchill” for a time in order to distinguish them.
    • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Winston Churchill arrives; Ms Clarissa Spencer Churchill (niece) out of car.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Jul45 Big three at Potsdam, last meeting attended by Winston Churchill.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Visions of Glory, 1874–1932 (1983).^ The popularity of Richard Carvel in Britain causes the English Churchill to sign his works “Winston Spencer Churchill” for a time in order to distinguish them.
    • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-316-54503-1.
  • Massie, Robert. .Dreadnought: Britain, Germany and the Coming of the Great War.^ Billboard Britain declares war on Germany.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 1-84413-528-4). [Chapters 40–41 concern Churchill at Admiralty.]
  • Pelling, Henry. Winston Churchill (1974). .ISBN 1-84022-218-2. [Comprehensive biography.]
  • Rasor, Eugene L. Winston S. Churchill, 1874–1965: A Comprehensive Historiography and Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Press, 2000. ISBN 0-313-30546-3 [Entries include several thousand books and scholarly articles.]
  • Soames, Mary, ed.^ The one exception is a splendid and thoroughly researched biography by a historian of popular culture: Robert W. Schneider, Novelist to a Generation: The Life and Thought of Winston Churchill (1976).
    • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Winston Churchill and wife, PM Attlee, Duchess of Kent w/ two children, Earl and Countess Mountbatten w/ daughter Pamela, and Queen Mary.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Winston & Mrs Churchill followed by several men walking past.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Speaking for Themselves: The Personal Letters of Winston and Clementine Churchill (1998).
  • Stansky, Peter, ed.^ [WWII - Churchill w/ Wife Inspects Damage & Cheered by Workmen] Winston Churchill wearing pea-coat & wife Clementine riding in car as people cheer.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Winston Churchill in army uniform joins group, speaking with Stalin.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Winston Churchill Arrives in US for a Quiet Vacation Churchill and Clementine land.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Churchill: A Profile (1973) [Perspectives on Churchill by leading scholars]
  • Storr, Anthony. .Churchill's Black Dog and Other Phenomena of the Human Mind.^ Black 11:48:41: Truman, Stalin & others walking L. to R. to wicker chairs, cameramen, Churchill arrives & stand & talk.
    • Footage Farm: Churchill 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. New Edition ed., 1997. ISBN 9780006375661

External links

This audio file was created from a revision dated 7 April 2006, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles
.

Speeches

Military offices
Preceded by
J H Dutton
Officer Commanding the 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers
1915-1916
Succeeded by
A D Gibb
Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Marlborough
Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies
1905–1908
Succeeded by
Jack Seely
Preceded by
David Lloyd George
President of the Board of Trade
1908–1910
Succeeded by
Sydney Buxton
Preceded by
Herbert Gladstone
Home Secretary
1910–1911
Succeeded by
Reginald McKenna
Preceded by
Reginald McKenna
First Lord of the Admiralty
1911–1915
Succeeded by
Arthur Balfour
Preceded by
Edwin Samuel Montagu
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1915
Succeeded by
Herbert Samuel
Preceded by
Christopher Addison
Minister of Munitions
1917–1919
Succeeded by
The Lord Inverforth
Preceded by
The Viscount Milner
Secretary of State for War
1919–1921
Succeeded by
Sir Laming Worthington-Evans
Preceded by
The Lord Weir
Secretary of State for Air
1919–1921
Succeeded by
Frederick Edward Guest
Preceded by
The Viscount Milner
Secretary of State for the Colonies
1921–1922
Succeeded by
The Duke of Devonshire
Preceded by
Philip Snowden
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1924–1929
Succeeded by
Philip Snowden
Preceded by
The Earl Stanhope
First Lord of the Admiralty
1939–1940
Succeeded by
A. V. Alexander
Preceded by
Neville Chamberlain
Leader of the House of Commons
1940–1942
Succeeded by
Sir Stafford Cripps
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
10 May 1940 – 27 July 1945
Succeeded by
Clement Attlee
New title Minister of Defence
1940–1945
Preceded by
Clement Attlee
Leader of the Opposition
1945–1951
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
26 October 1951 – 7 April 1955
Succeeded by
Sir Anthony Eden
Preceded by
Emanuel Shinwell
Minister of Defence
1951–1952
Succeeded by
The Earl Alexander of Tunis
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Walter Runciman
Alfred Emmott
Member of Parliament for Oldham
with Alfred Emmott

19001906
Succeeded by
John Bright
Alfred Emmott
Preceded by
Sir William Houldsworth
Member of Parliament for Manchester North West
1906–1908
Succeeded by
William Joynson-Hicks
Preceded by
Alexander Wilkie
Edmund Robertson
Member of Parliament for Dundee
with Alexander Wilkie

1908–1922
Succeeded by
Edmund Morel
Edwin Scrymgeour
Preceded by
Sir Leonard Lyle
Member of Parliament for Epping
19241945
Succeeded by
Leah Manning
New constituency Member of Parliament for Woodford
19451964
Succeeded by
Patrick Jenkin
Party political offices
Preceded by
Neville Chamberlain
Leader of the British Conservative Party
1940–1955
Succeeded by
Sir Anthony Eden
Academic offices
Unknown
Last known title holder:
Herbert Henry Asquith
Rector of the University of Aberdeen
1914–1918
Succeeded by
The Viscount Cowdray
Preceded by
Sir John Gilmour
Rector of the University of Edinburgh
1929–1932
Succeeded by
Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton
Preceded by
The Viscount Haldane
Chancellor of the University of Bristol
1929–1965
Succeeded by
The Duke of Beaufort
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Marquess of Willingdon
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1941–1965
Succeeded by
Sir Robert Menzies
Preceded by
David Grenfell
Father of the House
1959–1964
Succeeded by
Rab Butler
Preceded by
David Logan
Oldest sitting Member of Parliament
February 1964 – October 1964
Succeeded by
Manny Shinwell

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.'
.Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (1874-11-301965-01-24) was a British politician.^ Later that month, the Churchills bought Chartwell, which would be Winston's home until his death in 1965.
  • Winston Churchill - a knol by Mathias Kimmling 28 January 2010 1:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cosner, Wendell E.  Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill .
  • Winston S. Churchill 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC www.au.af.mil [Source type: General]

^ Daily Writing Tips, April 27, 2009 ...I fear, may weaken our efforts and may perhaps deprive us of success otherwise within our grasp.– Winston Churchill (1874-1965) How Can a War Be “Civil”?...
  • Winston Churchill – Author Profile and Information & Video at Simon & Schuster 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC authors.simonandschuster.com [Source type: General]

He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, and again from 1951 to 1955. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953.

Contents

Sourced

On childhood and youth

.
  • She shone for me like the Evening Star.^ She shone for me like the Evening Star.
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I loved her dearly — but at a distance.^ I loved her dearly — but at a distance.
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "I loved her dearly—but at a distance."
    • Winston Churchill - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • Where my reason, imagination or interest were not engaged, I would not or I could not learn.^ My Early Life: 1874-1904 by Winston Churchill .
    • Amazon.com: Everything Churchill: By Sir Winston Spencer Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ On studying English rather than Latin at school, My Early Life: A Roving Commission (1930), Chapter 2 (Harrow) .
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My Early Life: A Roving Commission (1930), Chapter 6 (Cuba) [ edit ] Early career years .
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • My Early Life: A Roving Commission (1930), Chapter 1 (Childhood)
  • Thus I got into my bones the essential structure of the ordinary British sentence, which is a noble thing.^ On studying English rather than Latin at school, My Early Life: A Roving Commission (1930), Chapter 2 (Harrow) .
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Roving commission; my early life, by the Rt.

    ^ My Early Life: A roving commission.

    .
    • On studying English rather than Latin at school, My Early Life: A Roving Commission (1930), Chapter 2 (Harrow)
  • Headmasters have powers at their disposal with which Prime Ministers have never yet been invested.^ Never in my life,” said Cynthia.
    • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On studying English rather than Latin at school, My Early Life: A Roving Commission (1930), Chapter 2 (Harrow) .
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My Early Life: A Roving Commission (1930), Chapter 6 (Cuba) [ edit ] Early career years .
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • My Early Life: A Roving Commission (1930), Chapter 2 (Harrow)
  • I then had one of the three or four long intimate conversations with him which are all I can boast.^ I then had one of the three or four long intimate conversations with him which are all I can boast.
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill Quotes 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quotesby.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On studying English rather than Latin at school, My Early Life: A Roving Commission (1930), Chapter 2 (Harrow) .
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My Early Life: A Roving Commission (1930), Chapter 6 (Cuba) [ edit ] Early career years .
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • On his father, Lord Randolph Churchill, My Early Life: A Roving Commission (1930), Chapter 3 (Examinations)
  • In retrospect these years form not only the least agreeable, but the only barren and unhappy period of my life.^ My Early Life: 1874-1904 by Winston Churchill .
    • Amazon.com: Everything Churchill: By Sir Winston Spencer Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In retrospect these years form not only the least agreeable, but the only barren and unhappy period of my life.
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On studying English rather than Latin at school, My Early Life: A Roving Commission (1930), Chapter 2 (Harrow) .
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I was happy as a child with my toys in my nursery.^ I was happy as a child with my toys in my nursery.
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill Quotes 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quotesby.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I have been happier every year since I became a man.^ I have been happier every year since I became a man.
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill Quotes 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quotesby.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .But this interlude of school makes a sombre grey patch upon the chart of my journey.^ But this interlude of school makes a sombre grey patch upon the chart of my journey.
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill Quotes 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quotesby.net [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It was an unending spell of worries that did not then seem petty, of toil uncheered by fruition; a time of discomfort, restriction and purposeless monotony.^ It was an unending spell of worries that did not then seem petty, of toil uncheered by fruitation; a time of discomfort, restriction and purposeless monotony.
    • Winston Churchill Quotes 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quotesby.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was an unending spell of worries that did not then seem petty, of toil uncheered by fruition; a time of discomfort, restriction and purposeless monotony.
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 3 February 2010 18:24 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Winston Churchill - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:26 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jethro was unusually silent on the way back to the hotel, but he did not seem to be worried or displeased.
    • The American Winston Churchill 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC wwwfac.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The American Winston Churchill 17 January 2010 3:03 UTC www2.mcdaniel.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .