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Witches by Hans Baldung Grien (Woodcut, 1508)
.Witchcraft, in various historical, anthropological, religious and mythological contexts, is the use of supernatural or magical powers.^ Witchcraft, in various historical, anthropological, religious and mythological contexts, is the use of certain kinds of alleged supernatural or magical powers.

^ Witchcraft is generally characterised by its use of magic.

^ In both historical and mythological contexts, witches are most often female, the male equivalent being a wizard, sorcerer, warlock or magician.

.Witchcraft can refer to the use of such powers in order to inflict harm or damage upon members of a community or their property.^ Splash from either liquid inflicts 2d4 points of acid damage upon the witch, which can only be healed with magic.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ Neither imputing the use of witchcraft to [*pg 381] someone nor fearing injury from the community at large after an imputation of witchcraft would make sense.
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some years ago I was a member of a magical order, which used ceremonial magic within a kabbalistic structure.
  • Witchcraft and Judaism 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.aish.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other uses of the term distinguish between bad witchcraft and good witchcraft, the latter involving the use of these powers to heal someone from bad witchcraft.^ This type of witchcraft involved the use of charms and supernatural forces for fortune telling, fertility rituals, healing, "the casting of spells, the making of storms, converse with spirits, [and] [*pg 358] sympathetic magic."
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Delightful and exciting reading brings the reader into world of the battle between good and evil, but the real problem is that there is witchcraft and sorcery as an alternative to fighting evil.
  • Harry Potter a witch you can love 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC letusreason.org [Source type: General]

^ BOSS ATTACKS: MINI-FISH POWER BALLS If the boss starts flinging these thingies at you, use Reverse Wind evasion to stay safe.
  • Ninja Gaiden Sigma II FAQ/Walkthrough|GamesRadar 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gamesradar.com [Source type: General]

.The concept of witchcraft is normally treated as a cultural ideology, a means of explaining human misfortune by blaming it either on a supernatural entity or a known person in the community.^ Academically, the concept of witchcraft is normally treated as a cultural ideology, a means of explaining human misfortune by blaming it either on a supernatural entity or a known person in the community.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Explain the early legal concepts of witchcraft.
  • 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC ex.susd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The contributors to this volume embrace the challenge of exploring “witchcraft” as a mode of experiencing and explaining human circumstances as well as confronting the limitations of their own intellectual traditions and paradigms.
  • Witchcraft Dialogues: Anthropological and Philosophical Exchanges - Ohio University Press & Swallow Press 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.ohioswallow.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .A witch (from Old English wicce f.^ Furthermore, the Word Wicca comes from the English Word "Wicce" which was tranformed into Witch.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

/ wicca m.) is a practitioner of witchcraft.
.Belief in witchcraft, and by consequence witch-hunts, is found in many cultures worldwide, today mostly in Sub-Saharan Africa (e.g.^ It was the general belief in Paisley that the devil had strangled him, lest he should have revealed in his last moments too many of the unholy secrets of witchcraft.

^ Many were themselves accused of witchcraft; and noble ladies were shown to have dabbled in mystic arts, and proved to the world that, if they were not witches, it was not for want of the will.

^ The belief in witches has always existed in nearly every region of the world, including Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas.

in the .witch smellers in Bantu culture), and historically notably in Early Modern Europe of the 14th to 18th century, where witchcraft came to be seen as a vast diabolical conspiracy against Christianity, and accusations of witchcraft led to large-scale witch-hunts, especially in Germanic Europe.^ On occasion such accusations have led to witch hunts.

^ The classical period of witch-hunts in Europe fall into the Early Modern period or about 1450 to 1700, spanning the upheavals of the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in tens of thousand of executions.

^ The term "witchcraft" can have positive or negative connotations depending on cultural context; for instance, in post-Christian European cultures it has historically been associated with evil and the Devil, while most contemporary people who self-identify as witches see it as beneficent and morally positive.

[2]
.The "witch-cult hypothesis", a controversial theory that European witchcraft was a suppressed pagan religion, was popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries.^ Under the monotheistic religions of the Levant (primarily Christianity, and Islam), witchcraft came to be associated with heresy, rising to a fever pitch among the Catholics, Protestants, and secular leadership of the European Late Medieval/Early Modern period.

^ Religious witchcraft is a Pagan mystery religion worshipping Goddess and Gods and venerating the Divine in nature.

^ Those who maintain that European witchcraft was a cult are not sure whether it was the remains of Druidic religion or of some more ancient fertility cult.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since the mid-20th century, Witchcraft has become the self-designation of a branch of neopaganism, especially in the Wicca tradition following Gerald Gardner, who claimed a religious tradition of Witchcraft with pre-Christian roots.^ It may surpise many that the fear of witchcraft continued well into the 20th century.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Please look at the history of the colonization of the United States and it may answer some of your curiosity ;) For the person who seems to think that Wicca and the Witch trials are the same: Wicca was founded in 1948 by Gerald B. Gardner.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ T he Puritan world of the mid-17th century apparently gave Hawthorne something he badly needed--people who lived their lives to the full instead of snoring them away.
  • The Scarlet Letter notes 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC staff.gps.edu [Source type: Original source]

[3]

Contents

Witchcraft historiography

.Historians of European witchcraft have found the anthropological definition difficult to apply to European and British witchcraft, which does not match African models.^ Sources for the above references : 1 Parrinder, Geoggrey: Witchcraft: European and African, New York: Barnes and Noble, Inc., 1963, p.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This does not mean a familiar animal, as in later European witchcraft.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Judges' reasoning in South African conduit pipe cases does not take into account the imputor's belief in the conveyed imputation of witchcraft.
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The presence or absence of magical techniques seems to have been of little concern to those participating in witch trials, and some of the accused really had attempted to cause harm by mere ill-wishing.^ What caused the Salem witch trials?

^ The presence or absence of magical techniques seems to have been of little concern to those participating in witch trials, and some of the accused really had attempted to cause harm by mere ill-wishing.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some witches practise harmful magic, some don't.
  • Witchcraft @ occultclub.bravehost.com - A Bravenet.com Hosted Site 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC occultclub.bravehost.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.As in anthropology, witchcraft is seen by historians as an ideology for explaining misfortune, however this ideology manifested in diverse ways.^ As in anthropology, witchcraft is seen by historians as an ideology for explaining misfortune, however this ideology manifested in diverse ways.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fiske says witchcraft is popular in part because it offers a way for people to explain suffering and misfortune in their lives.

^ Witchcraft explains the problem posed when one seeks to understand why misfortune befalls oneself rather than someone else.
  • witchcraft :: Witchcraft in Africa and the world -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There were a few varieties of witch in popular belief, and a few types of people accused of witchcraft for different reasons.^ Are there different kinds of Witches?
  • Reclaiming: Witchcraft FAQ 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reclaiming.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Are there different types of Witches?
  • Salem Tarot: Learn about Witches and Witchcraft in our Witch FAQ 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.salemtarot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There has also existed in popular belief the concept of white witches and white witchcraft , which is strictly benevolent.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Richard Kieckhefer places the accused into three categories: Those caught in the act of positive or negative sorcery; well-meaning sorcerers or healers who lost their clients' or the authorities' trust; and those who did nothing more than gain the enmity of their neighbours.^ I mean how more clear can he get than when he says women should submit & obey their husbands, should not speak in church, should have have authority over men, etc.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing was more common, in those days, than to interpret all meteoric appearances, and other natural phenomena, that occurred with less regularity than the rise and set of sun and moon, as so many revelations from a supernatural source.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Trust me it’s harder than ever just look at all the people who are against God.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

.To these Christina Larner adds a fourth category: those reputed to be witches and surrounded with an aura of witch-beliefs.^ To these Christina Larner adds a fourth category: those reputed to be witches and surrounded with an aura of witch-beliefs.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accordingly, Christina Larner's "identification of the relationship of witch-hunting to woman-hunting" seems well-grounded, as does her conclusion that the witch-hunts were "sex-related" if not "sex-specific."
  • Gendercide Watch: European Witch-Hunts 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Witches · Psychology of Belief · Irrational Beliefs · God · jesus Witchcraft and Storm Raising In Medieval times, belief was that witches had these powers, granted by the devil.
  • Witch 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] Éva Pócs in turn identifies three varieties of witch in popular belief:
.
  • The "neighbourhood witch" or "social witch": a witch who curses a neighbour following some conflict.
  • The "magical" or "sorcerer" witch: either a professional healer, sorcerer, seer or midwife, or a person who has through magic increased her fortune to the perceived detriment of a neighbouring household; due to neighbourly or community rivalries and the ambiguity between positive and negative magic, such individuals can become labelled as witches.
  • The "supernatural" or "night" witch: portrayed in court narratives as a demon appearing in visions and dreams.^ If the community accepts magical practice in general, then there is typically a clear separation between witches (in this sense) and the terms used to describe legitimate practitioners.

    ^ Five days later, respected minister Cotton Mather wrote a letter imploring the court not to allow spectral evidence—testimony about dreams and visions.
    • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Splash from either liquid inflicts 2d4 points of acid damage upon the witch, which can only be healed with magic.
    • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

    [6]
."Neighbourhood witches" are the product of neighbourhood tensions, and are found only in self-sufficient serf village communities where the inhabitants largely rely on each other.^ Marked: The witch has a deformity that clearly separates her from others of her race, such as green skin, a long warty nose, a large hump, or cloven feet.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ Now we get a more complete view of a healthy and thriving community founded by strong and solid characters who have brought their self-reliance with them to the New World.
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC myrocketbook.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charges against Martha Corey, a loyal member of the Church in Salem Village, greatly concerned the community; if she could be a witch, then anyone could.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

.Such accusations follow the breaking of some social norm, such as the failure to return a borrowed item, and any person part of the normal social exchange could potentially fall under suspicion.^ Such accusations follow the breaking of some social norm, such as the failure to return a borrowed item, and any person part of the normal social exchange could potentially fall under suspicion.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many herbal practitioners have also used to heal uterine prolapse (falling down or slipping of a body part from its normal position) or incapacitated condition following any miscarriage or childbirth to firm up the uterine muscles.
  • Witch Hazel 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.herbs2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was even testimony that while being transported under guard past the Salem meeting house, she looked at the building and caused a part of it to fall to the ground.
  • Salem Witchcraft History 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC home.texoma.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Claims of "sorcerer" witches and "supernatural" witches could arise out of social tensions, but not exclusively; the supernatural witch in particular often had nothing to do with communal conflict, but expressed tensions between the human and supernatural worlds; and in Eastern and Southeastern Europe such supernatural witches became an ideology explaining calamities that befell entire communities.^ This use of the term is most often found in accusations against individuals who are suspected of causing harm in the community by way of supernatural means.

^ In both historical and mythological contexts, witches are most often female, the male equivalent being a wizard, sorcerer, warlock or magician.

^ Witch is a path often pursued by humans, half-elves, and half-orcs.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

[7]

Demonology

.Under the monotheistic religions of the Levant (namely, Christianity and Islam), sorcery came to be associated with heresy and apostasy.^ There is goodness in Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, Islam, Judaism, and many other religions besides Christianity.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only is this golden rule practiced in Christianity is that its also something present in other faiths, namely Islam, Buddhism, and I believe several others as well.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lets take judaism, christianity and islam as a small selection of the plethora of monotheistic religions and their variants out there.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

.Among the Catholics, Protestants, and secular leadership of the European Late Medieval/Early Modern period, fears regarding witchcraft rose to fever pitch, and sometimes led to large-scale witch-hunts.^ Witch-hunting from medieval times to 2000.
  • Research Guide to Colonial Witchcraft Trial Materials at the Connecticut State Library 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.cslib.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But at this early period of the epidemic the persecutions were directed by the heads of the Catholic Church.

^ The modern African dislikes and fears both the witch and the sorcerer.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

.Throughout this time, it was increasingly believed that Christianity was engaged in an apocalyptic battle against the Devil and his secret army of witches, who had entered into a diabolical pact.^ For those who do not know it Witches dont believe in the devil.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ A witch does not believe in the devil, That is a christian concept.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, witches do not believe in Satan, who is a Christian concept.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

.In total, tens or hundreds of thousands of people were executed, and others were imprisoned, tortured, banished, and had lands and possessions confiscated.^ Hundreds of thousans of people WERE NOT executed.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Tens of thousands of people were executed for witchcraft.

^ Then they were imprisoned, banished, or were executed.
  • History of Witchcraft: Salem Witchcraft Trials 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The majority of those accused were women, though in some regions the majority were men.^ The majority of those accused were women, though in some regions the majority were men.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those accused of practising witchcraft were hunted down and put to death throughout...over 250 years, 300 women accused of witchcraft were burned to death.
  • witchcraft Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Salem 1692 Witchcraft Trials — The Accused During the mass hysteria that swept the country in 1692,150 were accused and arrrested and 19 innocent men and women hanged for practicing witchcraft.
  • Witch 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8][9][10] .Accusations of witchcraft were frequently combined with other charges of heresy against such groups as the Cathars and Waldensians.^ Accusations of witchcraft were frequently combined with other charges of heresy against such groups as the Cathars and Waldensians.

^ I do not recall any case of witchcraft in which such a document was produced in court as evidence against the accused.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, defendants argue that the deceased's threats or actions allegedly involving witchcraft are argued to constitute such provocation that the defendant killed the deceased in the heat of passion.
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Malleus Maleficarum, a famous witch-hunting manual used by both Catholics and Protestants, outlines how to identify a witch, what makes a woman more likely to be a witch, how to put a witch to trial and how to punish a witch.^ Some of these disclosures were too much even for the abundant faith of King James, and he more than once exclaimed, that the witches were like their master, "extreme lyars."

^ Do you see how my positive statements about something that I like are being used as jumping-off points for the negativity of haters, or not?
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Time is something that you do not put as an edict - as if you are worried about when - then you are more than likely focusing on what you do not want - so therefore you recreate more of that.
  • How To Become A Witch 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: Original source]

.The book defines a witch as evil and typically female.^ The book defines a witch as evil and typically female.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you believed those "funny books," witches weren't just evil; they were actively coming for your soul.
  • newWitch Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.newwitch.com [Source type: General]

^ The very concept of a supreme evil spirit is alien to Witches; we do not worship any being known as 'Satan' or 'the Devil', as defined by the Christian tradition.
  • Fabrisia's Boschetto 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC witchcraft101.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the modern Western world, witchcraft accusations have often accompanied the satanic ritual abuse moral panic.^ In South Africa and Zimbabwe, accusations of witchcraft brought to courts often come in the form of "imputations" of witchcraft.
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Implants, also known as inserts or object links are common in Satanic Ritual Abuse survivors.

^ A "modern" standard of reasonableness, the reasonable person standard, would view accusations of witchcraft as foolish and harmless.
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

Such accusations are a counterpart to blood libel of various kinds, which may be found throughout history across the globe.

"White" witches

A painting in the Rila Monastery in Bulgaria, condemning witchcraft and traditional folk magic
.In England, the term 'witch' was not used exclusively to describe malevolent magicians, but could also indicate cunning folk.^ And I use the term witch lightly.
  • How To Become A Witch 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Witchcraft was practiced by "cunning folk," a term for practitioners of "white magic."
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If the community accepts magical practice in general, then there is typically a clear separation between witches (in this sense) and the terms used to describe legitimate practitioners.

."There were a number of interchangeable terms for these practitioners, ‘white’, ‘good’, or ‘unbinding’ witches, blessers, wizards, sorcerers, however ‘cunning-man’ and ‘wise-man’ were the most frequent."^ Witchcraft was practiced by "cunning folk," a term for practitioners of "white magic."
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He recommended, as a remedy for the evil, that all these exorcists, whether lay or clerical, should be sent to the galleys, and that the number of witches would then very sensibly diminish.

^ As the life and good fame of yonder man were in your hands there seemed no choice to me, save to be silent in accordance with your behest.
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

[11] .The contemporary Reginald Scott noted “At this day it is indifferent to say in the English tongue, ‘she is a witch’ or ‘she is a wise woman’”.^ So if anyone has a problem with warlock, realize the intention here, note that it only says "often called" (so you can still call your male witches witches), and just deal with it.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ Second, I read people saying they feel sorry for all of those innocent people, as if they were witches they were guilty and should be murdered on that note.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ (Both Hawthorne and his literary contemporary, James Fenimore Cooper, borrow this artistic device from the English novelist, Sir Walter Scott.
  • the scarlet letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

[12] .While cunning-folk could command a lot of respect, public perceptions of them were often ambivalent and a little fearful, for many were deemed just as capable of harming as of healing.^ Her career for many years was such as to command the respect and fear of the people.

^ Just a terrible, terrible article that will do more harm to the perception of the Scarlet Witch than anything the Marvel writers could come up with.
  • Scarlet Witch and the Avengers Disassembled: How Magneto's Daughter Destroyed the Marvel Team 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC graphicnovelscomics.suite101.com [Source type: General]

^ Well in the end I just laid back and thought of England… and tried to talk about as many of our friends as I could.
  • Witch Art - Witchbeam 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.witchbeam.com [Source type: General]

[13] .Throughout Europe many such healers and wise men and women were convicted of witchcraft (Éva Pócs' 'sorcerer witches'): many English 'witches' convicted of consorting with demons seem to have been cunning folk whose fairy familiars had been demonised;[14] many French devins-guerisseurs were accused of witchcraft;[15] and over half the accused witches in Hungary seem to have been healers.^ Many many million women were accused of being witches yet none of them were.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Witchcraft was practiced by "cunning folk," a term for practitioners of "white magic."
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was very strange how people were being accused as witches and users of witchcraft without any real evidence and it was even stranger to see that people truly believed in the accusers.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

[16]
.Some of the healers and diviners historically accused of witchcraft have considered themselves mediators between the mundane and spiritual worlds, roughly equivalent to shamans.^ Some of the healers and diviners historically accused of witchcraft have considered themselves mediators between the mundane and spiritual worlds, roughly equivalent to shamans .
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Healers, diviners and mediators .
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shaman Among tribal peoples, a magician, medium, or healer who owes his powers to mystical communion with the spirit world.

[17] .Such people described their contacts with fairies, spirits or the dead, often involving out-of-body experiences and travelling through the realms of an 'other-world'.[18] Beliefs of this nature are implied in the folklore of much of Europe, and were explicitly described by accused witches in central and southern Europe.^ It was very strange how people were being accused as witches and users of witchcraft without any real evidence and it was even stranger to see that people truly believed in the accusers.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Influenced by Romanticism, the Transcendentalists respected the individual spirit and the natural world, believing that divinity was present everywhere, in nature and in each person.
  • The Scarlet Letter notes 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC staff.gps.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Such helpfulness was found in her,—so much power to do, and power to sympathize,—that many people refused to interpret the scarlet A by its original signification.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Repeated themes include participation in processions of the dead or large feasts, often presided over by a female divinity who teaches magic and gives prophecies; and participation in battles against evil spirits, 'vampires' or 'witches' to win fertility and prosperity for the community.^ Repeated themes include participation in processions of the dead or large feasts, often presided over by a female divinity who teaches magic and gives prophecies; and participation in battles against evil spirits, 'vampires' or 'witches' to win fertility and prosperity for the community.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, a witch is someone who works magic.
  • The Scarlet Letter: Witch Watching in the Witch City 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.hauntedsalem.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who's ever heard of a witch that can't use magic?
  • Harvest Moon Island of Happiness - The Witch Princess 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.fogu.com [Source type: General]

[18]

Alleged practices

Magic Circle by John William Waterhouse, 1886.
.Practices to which the witchcraft label has historically been applied are those which influence another person's mind, body, or property against his or her will, or which are believed, by the person doing the labelling, to undermine the social or religious order.^ Influenced by Romanticism, the Transcendentalists respected the individual spirit and the natural world, believing that divinity was present everywhere, in nature and in each person.
  • The Scarlet Letter notes 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC staff.gps.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Biblical words for a witch do not describe the sort of person later called a witch, yet there may be some practices which resemble witchcraft.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The witch-doctor is a person who seeks to doctor and cure those who are believed to have been bewitched.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some modern commentators consider the malefic nature of witchcraft to be a Christian projection.^ Some modern commentators, especially neopagan ones, consider the malefic nature of witchcraft to be a Christian projection.

^ Christian views on witchcraft - Modern views.

^ Some modern commentators consider the malefic nature of witchcraft to be a Christian projection.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The concept of a magic-worker influencing another person's body or property against his or her will was clearly present in many cultures, as there are traditions in both folk magic and religious magic that have the purpose of countering malicious magic or identifying malicious magic users.^ The folk magic used to identify or protect against malicious magic users is often indistinguishable from that used by the witches themselves.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concept of a magic-worker influencing another person's body or property against his or her will was clearly present in many cultures, as there are traditions in both folk magic and religious magic that have the purpose of countering malicious magic or identifying malicious magic users.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concept of a magic-worker influencing another person's body or property ag ...

.Many examples can be found in ancient texts, such as those from Egypt and Babylonia, where malicious magic is believed to have the power to influence the mind, body or possessions, malicious magic users can become a credible cause for disease, sickness in animals, bad luck, sudden death, impotence and other such misfortunes.^ This demonstration of power caused the deputy to believe.
  • WINNING OVER WITCHCRAFT 1 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.demonbuster.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And every time you 'conquer' the body with the mind (you can say ' heel ' it, if you like) you cause a deeper, more dangerous complex or tension somewhere else.

^ Had he once found power to smile, and wear a face of gaiety, there would have been no such man!
  • The Scarlet Letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.Witchcraft of a more benign and socially acceptable sort may then be employed to turn the malevolence aside, or identify the supposed evil-doer so that punishment may be carried out.^ Folk magic of a more benign and socially acceptable sort may then be employed to turn the malevolence aside, or identify the supposed witch so that punishment may be carried out.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I suppose the only way to navigate this question safely is to point out what some may consider the main differences.
  • Questions about Witchcraft - Ask.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Depending on the values of the community, witchcraft in this sense may be regarded with varying degrees of suspicion and hostility, or with ambivalence, being neither intrinsically good nor evil.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The folk magic used to identify or protect against malicious magic users is often indistinguishable from that used by the witches themselves.^ The folk magic used to identify or protect against Witches is often indistinguishable from that used by the witches themselves.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The folk magic used to identify or protect against malicious magic users is often indistinguishable from that used by the witches themselves.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She used the witches’ own magic against them and sealed them away.
  • A Witch's Tale (2009) on Nintendo DS 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC ds.ign.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There has also existed in popular belief the concept of white witches and white witchcraft, which is strictly benevolent.^ Still dangerous The image of witchcraft in the popular mindset has come a long way since the time of the Spanish Inquisition and the Salem witch trials, when thousands of women were persecuted, prosecuted, tortured and even burned for their beliefs.

^ More than one example of the popular belief in witchcraft occurred in the neighbourhood of Hastings so lately as the year 1830.

^ The effect of a conflict between state legal norms and norms underlying popular beliefs in witchcraft, as seen in several African countries, is exemplary of Watson's argument.
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Many neopagan witches strongly identify with this concept, and profess ethical codes that prevent them from performing magic on a person without their request.^ A witch is considered a person of magical powers.
  • Sexy Witch Costumes & Accessories | Costumzee.com 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.costumzee.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many neopagan witches strongly identify with this concept, and profess ethical codes that prevent them from performing magic on a person without their request.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WITCH - a person who professes or is supposed to practice MAGIC, esp.

.
.Where belief in malicious magic practices exists, such practitioners are typically forbidden by law as well as hated and feared by the general populace, while beneficial magic is tolerated or even accepted wholesale by the people – even if the orthodox establishment objects to it.^ Witchcraft practices (in the common, malefic sense) are typically forbidden by law where belief in them exists (as well as being hated and feared by the general populace) while folk magic is tolerated or even accepted wholesale by the people, even if the orthodox establishment objects to it.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The belief in witchcraft and its practice seem to have existed among all primitive peoples.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Witchcraft - Original Catholic Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC oce.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Witchcraft - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the Greeks and Romans the same general belief, with the corresponding practices, existed.

Spell casting

.Probably the most obvious characteristic of a witch was the ability to cast a spell, a "spell" being the word used to signify the means employed to accomplish a magical action.^ This is the philosophy of the spell-casting witch.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prerequisites: Ability to cast spells.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ This type of witchcraft involved the use of charms and supernatural forces for fortune telling, fertility rituals, healing, "the casting of spells, the making of storms, converse with spirits, [and] [*pg 358] sympathetic magic."
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A spell could consist of a set of words, a formula or verse, or a ritual action, or any combination of these.^ A spell could consist of a set of words, a formula or verse, or a ritual action, or any combination of these.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of us continually strive to consider all potential outcomes of our thoughts and actions pausing to seriously consider the consequences before undertaking a ritual, spell or rite that could go astray.
  • What is Wicca, Witchcraft and Paganism 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.wicca.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But I believe in Fairy Tales and as a child kissed every frog I could find to set the Prince free from the evil wicked witch spell.

[19] .Spells traditionally were cast by many methods, such as by the inscription of runes or sigils on an object to give it magical powers; by the immolation or binding of a wax or clay image (poppet) of a person to affect him or her magically; by the recitation of incantations; by the performance of physical rituals; by the employment of magical herbs as amulets or potions; by gazing at mirrors, swords or other specula (scrying) for purposes of divination; and by many other means.^ The group chanted in between each ritual, but no spells or magic were performed.

^ An amulet is a material object on which a charm has been written, or over which a charm or spell has been cast.

^ As YOU are the most powerful person to cast a spell for YOURSELF. .
  • How To Become A Witch 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: Original source]

[20]

Conjuring the dead

.Strictly speaking, "necromancy" is the practice of conjuring the spirits of the dead for divination or prophecy – although the term has also been applied to raising the dead for other purposes.^ In other words, children are covered by their parents, wife is covered by her husband, husband is covered by the Holy Spirit who communicates with Jesus Christ and Almighty God (divine order).

^ Wizard (Clairvoyant or Physic) - a male witch, conjurer, a ghost prognosticator Witchcraft    - Practices of dealing with evil spirits (soothsaying and magic).

^ Many of them have ridiculous claims like "how to raise spirit armies", "the secret of levitation", and other bizarre things.
  • Mastering The Magick Of Witchcraft: The Ancient Secrets Of Magick For Love, Success, Protection, And A Life You Have Always Dreamed! 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC masteringmagickwitchcraft.com [Source type: General]

.The Biblical Witch of Endor is supposed to have performed it (1 Sam.^ The so-called "witch" of Endor has frequently been quoted as a clear example of a Biblical witch.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

28), and it is among the witchcraft practices condemned by Ælfric of Eynsham:[21][22][23]
.
Witches still go to cross-roads and to heathen burials with their delusive magic and call to the devil; and he comes to them in the likeness of the man that is buried there, as if he arise from death.^ Hadst thou been secret, then had I been happy And had a hope, like man, of joys to come.
  • The Witch, by Thomas Middleton 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.tech.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So if anyone has a problem with warlock, realize the intention here, note that it only says "often called" (so you can still call your male witches witches), and just deal with it.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ This calls to mind the promise that Jesus' death and resurrection mean the salvation of repentant sinners in the world to come, and offers hope that it is not too late for Arthur Dimmesdale.
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC myrocketbook.com [Source type: Original source]

[24]

By region

Europe

During the Christianisation of Norway, King Olaf Trygvasson had male völvas (shamans) tied up and left on a skerry at ebb.
Persecution of witches. Current scholarly estimates of the number of people executed for witchcraft vary between about 40,000 and 100,000.[25] The total number of witch trials in Europe which are known for certain to have ended in executions is around 12,000.[26]
.In Early Modern European tradition, witches have stereotypically, though not exclusively, been women.^ Witches have stereotypically, though not exclusively, been women.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the Catholics , Protestants , and secular leadership of the European Late Medieval / Early Modern period, fears regarding witchcraft rose to fever pitch, and sometimes led to large-scale witch-hunts .
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a by-product of the witch hunts, the field of early medicine also transferred to exclusively male hands and the Western herbal tradition was largely destroyed.
  • The Horrors of The Church and its Holy Inquisition 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.bibliotecapleyades.net [Source type: Original source]

[8][27] .European pagan belief in witchcraft was associated with the goddess Diana and dismissed as "diabolical fantasies" by medieval Christian authors.^ Religious witchcraft is a Pagan mystery religion worshipping Goddess and Gods and venerating the Divine in nature.

^ One of the fastest growing religious movements in the world today is Witchcraft , also known as the Earth Religion , and closely related to Paganism and Goddess Worship .

^ Many of the beliefs are rooted in European pagan traditions, but witches also see a parallel between themselves and the role of the shaman in tribal cultures.

[28]
The familiar witch of folklore and popular superstition is a combination of numerous influences. .The characterization of the witch as an evil magic user developed over time.^ The characterisation of the witch as an evil magic user developed over time.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These can work magic, and each line has a different specialty, but witch society as a whole tends to spend most of its time hunting the vampires that run rampant in these books.
  • Witch Species - Television Tropes & Idioms 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wizard (Clairvoyant or Physic) - a male witch, conjurer, a ghost prognosticator Witchcraft    - Practices of dealing with evil spirits (soothsaying and magic).

.Early converts to Christianity looked to Christian clergy to work magic more effectively than the old methods under Roman paganism, and Christianity provided a methodology involving saints and relics, similar to the gods and amulets of the Pagan world.^ In place of the old Pagan magic methodology, the Church placed a Christian methodology involving saints and divine relics — a short step from the old Pagan techniques of numerous dieties, amulets and talismans.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In place of the old Pagan magic methodology, the Church placed a Christian methodology involving saints and divine relics — a s ...

^ What had been a pagan community now was "converted" to Christianity.

As Christianity became the dominant religion in Europe, its concern with magic lessened.[29]
.The Protestant Christian explanation for witchcraft, such as those typified in the confessions of the Pendle Witches, commonly involves a diabolical pact or at least an appeal to the intervention of the spirits of evil.^ Only Evil and Good witches can dabble in Spiritism.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ Such were the principal details given by the children, and corroborated by the confessions of the full-grown witches.

^ So during this period of practicing witchcraft in this haunted house the people are being filled with evil spirits.
  • WINNING OVER WITCHCRAFT 1 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.demonbuster.com [Source type: Original source]

.The witches or wizards engaged to such practices were alleged to reject Jesus and the sacraments; observe "the witches' sabbath" (performing infernal rites which often parodied the Mass or other sacraments of the Church); pay Divine honour to the Prince of Darkness; and, in return, receive from him preternatural powers.^ It must be remembered that the Black Mass is performed at every witches Sabbath.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Power: The witch receives Cold resistance 5.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ Marked: The witch has a deformity that clearly separates her from others of her race, such as green skin, a long warty nose, a large hump, or cloven feet.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

.It was a folkloric belief that a Devil's Mark, like the brand on cattle, was placed upon a witch's skin by the devil to signify that this pact had been made.^ Marked: The witch has a deformity that clearly separates her from others of her race, such as green skin, a long warty nose, a large hump, or cloven feet.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ And what the Devil had not time to bestow his personal attention upon, the witch was always ready to do for him.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Somebody present reminded the torturing Bailie of this fact, and on examination, the devil's mark was found upon the throat of poor Gellie.

[30] .Witches were most often characterized as women.^ Most witches tend to be chaotic and often neutral.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ That was actually worldwide.’’ He said most of the real witches committed suicide, often drowning themselves rather than be tortured by Puritan or other authorities.

.Witches disrupted the societal institutions, and more specifically, marriage.^ Witches disrupted the societal institutions, and more specifically, marriage.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other rulers such as King Coloman of Hungary declared that witch-hunts should cease because witches (more specifically, strigas ) do not exist.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Murray probably did more than anyone to promote the belief that the "witches" persecuted in the past were members of a specific religion.
  • Witchcraft - www.SpookyFiles.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.spookyfiles.com [Source type: General]

.It was believed that a witch often joined a pact with the devil to gain powers to deal with infertility, immense fear for her children's well-being, or revenge against a lover.^ Abuse of children in the Congo believed to be witches.

^ It was believed that witches had intercourse with the Devil.
  • Witchcraft Act - Tracy Monger Profile - Paranormal Investigator 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC tracymonger.moonfruit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Children are often accused of being witches.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Church and European society were not always so zealous in hunting witches or blaming them for bad occurrences.^ The European witch-hunt .
  • witchcraft@Everything2.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Church and European society was not always so zealous in hunting witches and blaming them for bad occurrences.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Catholic Church and European society was not always obsessed with hunting witches and blaming them for bad occurrences.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Saint Boniface declared in the 8th century that belief in the existence of witches was un-Christian.^ Dad no longer belongs to a church, but still declares a fervent belief in Christianity.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Boston: Nichols and Noyes, 1869 [CSL call number F 67 .A42] Background of English seventeenth century belief in witches; also recounts the Salem trials.
  • Research Guide to Colonial Witchcraft Trial Materials at the Connecticut State Library 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.cslib.org [Source type: Academic]

.The emperor Charlemagne decreed that the burning of supposed witches was a pagan custom that would be punished by the death penalty.^ On the other hand, a penalty which, in our days, would infer a degree of mocking infamy and ridicule, might then be invested with almost as stern a dignity as the punishment of death itself.
  • The Scarlet Letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The next-door neighbours were in great alarm that the witch-doctor would, on the solicitation of the recovering patient, employ some means to punish them for their pretended witchcraft.

^ If she had remained four hours longer, she would have been burned by judicial sentence, as a witch and a heretic.

.In 820 the Bishop of Lyon and others repudiated the belief that witches could make bad weather, fly in the night, and change their shape.^ And I am saying this knowing I could make a lot of money offering to cast spells for others.
  • How To Become A Witch 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How you could just accuse someone of being a witch and then just like that they were put on trial and killed.Just seems pathetic that it was this bad.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ I now have bad dreams so i wonder does that make me a witch?
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

.This denial was accepted into Canon law until it was reversed in later centuries as the witch-hunt gained force.^ Prophecy: Some witches uncover their third eye, gaining insight into truth and possibility.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ Out of civil and canon law a net was woven through whose meshes there was no escape, and into it the victims were driven by popular clamor.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Did not she witch the devil into my son-in-law, when he killed my poor daughter?—Do you hear, Mother Sawyer?
  • Luminarium Editions. Thomas Dekker. The Witch of Edmonton. (1623) 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1307 the trial of the Knights Templar shows close parallels to accusations of witchcraft, maleficium, and sorcery and may have been the beginning of the great European witch-hunt.^ I studied the witch trials and hunts throughout Europe and in the country and this article is a good start to the American trials.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ A good summary of the witchcraft accusations and trials of Connecticut.
  • Research Guide to Colonial Witchcraft Trial Materials at the Connecticut State Library 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.cslib.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As James VI. advanced in manhood, he took great interest in the witch trials.

[31] .Other rulers such as King Coloman of Hungary declared that witch-hunts should cease because witches (more specifically, strigas) do not exist.^ Marked: The witch has a deformity that clearly separates her from others of her race, such as green skin, a long warty nose, a large hump, or cloven feet.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of these disclosures were too much even for the abundant faith of King James, and he more than once exclaimed, that the witches were like their master, "extreme lyars."

^ Because i have always wanted to become a witch and wannted powers to bring good to others!
  • How To Become A Witch 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Church did not invent the idea of witchcraft as a potentially harmful force whose practitioners should be put to death.^ The Church did not invent the idea of witchcraft as a potentially harmful force whose practitioners should be put to death.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have at least one ancestor of my own who was put to death for witchcraft, but one doesn't have to reach back into history to see the pattern repeated.
  • NAVAJO WITCHCRAFT AND THE SKINWALKERS 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.hunterbear.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Innocent VIII. issued the celebrated bull Summis Desiderantes in 1484, directing inquisitors and others to put to death all practisers of witchcraft and other diabolical arts.

.This idea is commonplace in pre-Christian religions.^ This idea is commonplace in pre-Christian religions and is a logical consequence of belief in magic.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This idea is commonplace in pre-Christian religions.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In recent years, the growing popularity of witchcraft, a neopagan religion with many traditions derived from pre-Christian and prehistoric religions, has caught the public eye.

.According to the scholar Max Dashu, the concept of medieval witchcraft contained many of its elements even before the emergence of Christianity.^ According to the scholar Max Dashu, the concept of medieval witch contained many of its elements even before the emergence of Christianity.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the scholar Max Dashu, the concept of medieval witchcraft contained many of its elements even before the emergence of Christianity.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many modern day Christians theology focuses on mercy and grace, and applies these concepts to Christ’s power to save us, even in our sins.
  • http://english.byu.edu/novelinks/Novel%20pages/Witch%20of%20Blackbird%20Pond.htm 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC english.byu.edu [Source type: General]

.These can be found in Bacchanalias, especially in the time when they were led by priestess Paculla Annia (188–186).^ In these peoples minds the right thing to do was destroy the ones they found to be guilty or most suspect and all would be right.It would answer their problems.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ To know the kind of life these people led, the kind of place they dwelt in, and the tenor of their thought, makes much real to us that was conjectural before.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "These, Sire, are truths so intimately bound up with the principles of our religion, that, extraordinary although they be, no person has been able to this time to call them in question.

.However, even at a later date, not all witches were assumed to be harmful practicers of the craft.^ However, even at a later date, not all witches were assumed to be harmful practicers of the craft.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do all Witches practice magick?
  • Traditional Witchcraft FAQ 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC pages.prodigy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, if there is a rapist in the neighborhood, a group of Witches might want to restrain him, to keep him from doing further harm, or even to assist the authorities to arrest him.
  • Reclaiming: Witchcraft FAQ 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reclaiming.org [Source type: Original source]

.In England, the provision of this curative magic was the job of a witch doctor, also known as a cunning man, white witch, or wiseman.^ Witchcraft was practiced by "cunning folk," a term for practitioners of "white magic."
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In this instance, the accused, an alleged witch doctor, was convicted of unlawfully imputing the use of witchcraft to a man named Sigumba.
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The witch-doctor alluded to is better known by the name of the cunning man, and has a large practice in the counties of Lincoln and Nottingham.

.The term "witch doctor" was in use in England before it came to be associated with Africa.^ The term "witch doctor" was in use in England before it came to be associated with Africa.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Witchcraft: Encyclopedia II - European witchcraft - History of European witchcraft From the earliest recorded use of the term 'witch' to about the mid-19th century, witches were universally associated with evil, under the belief that the witch's magical powers were granted by Satan in exchange for the witch's soul.

^ The term witch doctor, often attributed to African inyanga, has been misconstrued to mean "a healer who uses witchcraft" rather than its original meaning of "one who diagnoses and cures maladies caused by witches".

Toad doctors were also credited with the ability to undo evil witchcraft. .(Other folk magicians had their own purviews.^ (Other folk magicians had their own purviews.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Girdle-measurers specialised in diagnosing ailments caused by fairies, while magical cures for more mundane ailments, such as burns or toothache, could be had from charmers.^ It would mean that I didn’t truly love her because I could cause such horrible suffering.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pact: The witch is schooled in magic by a more powerful being, such as a celestial, dragon, fiend, or spirit of the land – but at a price.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ Were such a man once more to fall, what plea could be urged in extenuation of his crime?
  • The Scarlet Letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter by Hawthorne - Full Text Free Book (Part 4/5) 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

)
.
In the north of England, the superstition lingers to an almost inconceivable extent.^ In the north of England, the superstition lingers to an almost inconceivable extent.

^ Still, for many years after this, the superstition lingered both in England and Scotland, and in some districts is far from being extinct even at this day.

.Lancashire abounds with witch-doctors, a set of quacks, who pretend to cure diseases inflicted by the devil ...^ Lancashire abounds with witch-doctors, a set of quacks, who pretend to cure diseases inflicted by the devil.

^ The special meaning of the word among the witches is a "band" or "company", who were set apart for the practice of the rites of the religion and for the performance of magical ceremonies; in short, a kind of priesthood.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As soon as the arrest of Gellie Duncan and Fian became known in Scotland, it was reported by everybody who pretended to be well-informed that these witches and their associates had, by the devil's means, raised the storms which had endangered the lives of the King and Queen.

.The witch-doctor alluded to is better known by the name of the cunning man, and has a large practice in the counties of Lincoln and Nottingham.^ The witch-doctor alluded to is better known by the name of the cunning man, and has a large practice in the counties of Lincoln and Nottingham.

^ The accused person was one Jane Wenham, better known as the Witch of Walkerne; and the persons who were alleged to have suffered from her witchcraft were two young women, named Thorne and Street.

^ He agreed, and sent his wife to the cunning man, who lived in New Saint Swithin's, in Lincoln.

[32]
Francisco Goya's Los Caprichos: ¡Linda maestra! ("The Spoils: Beautiful Teacher!") – witches heading to a Sabbath
.Such "cunning-folk" did not refer to themselves as witches and objected to the accusation that they were such.^ They often refer to themselves as Witches, Pagans and Neopagans .
  • Definitions of "Witch" and "Witchcraft" indictionaries 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may also consider themselves Witches.

^ Such "cunning-folk" did not refer to themselves as witches and objected to the accusation that they were such.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Records from the Middle Ages, however, make it appear that it was, quite often, not entirely clear to the populace whether a given practitioner of magic was a witch or one of the cunning-folk.^ Witchcraft was practiced by "cunning folk," a term for practitioners of "white magic."
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ No one else can make you a Witch.

^ Records from the Middle Ages , however, make it appear that it was, quite often, not entirely clear to the populace whether a given practitioner of magic was a witch or one of the cunning-folk.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, it appears that much of the populace was willing to approach either of these groups for healing magic and divination.^ In addition, it appears that much of the populace was willing to approach either of these groups for healing magic and divination.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This form of witchcraft has nothing to do with sorcery, and is instead based on a reverence for nature, the worship of a fertility goddess, a restrained hedonism, and group magic aimed at healing.
  • witchcraft Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of these shapes are misty and fog-like, sometimes appearing in different parts of the cave, only to vanish when approached.

.When a person was known to be a witch, the populace would still seek to employ their healing skills; however, as was not the case with cunning-folk, members of the general population would also hire witches to curse their enemies.^ When a person was known to be a witch, the populace would still seek to employ their healing skills; however, as was not the case with cunning-folk, members of the general population would also hire witches to curse their enemies.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The witch-doctor alluded to is better known by the name of the cunning man, and has a large practice in the counties of Lincoln and Nottingham."
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The important distinction is that there are records of the populace reporting alleged witches to the authorities as such, whereas cunning folk were not so incriminated; they were more commonly prosecuted for accusing the innocent or defrauding people of money.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The important distinction is that there are records of the populace reporting alleged witches to the authorities as such, whereas cunning-folk were not so incriminated; they were more commonly prosecuted for accusing the innocent or defrauding people of money.^ Such people are witches and man-eaters.

^ The important distinction is that there are records of the populace reporting alleged witches to the authorities as such, whereas cunning folk were not so incriminated; they were more commonly prosecuted for accusing the innocent or defrauding people of money.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such "cunning-folk" did not refer to themselves as witches and objected to the accusation that they were such.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The long-term result of this amalgamation of distinct types of magic-worker into one is the considerable present-day confusion as to what witches actually did, whether they harmed or healed, what role (if any) they had in the community, whether they can be identified with the "witches" of other cultures and even whether they existed as anything other than a projection.^ We did another brew in one day event, late into the evening and the results are in.
  • Witch's Brew 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC witchsbrew.org [Source type: General]

^ The long-term result of this amalgamation of distinct types of magic-worker into one is the considerable present-day confusion as to what witches actually did, whether they harmed or healed, what role (if any) they had in the community, whether they can be identified with the "witches" of other cultures and even whether they existed as anything other than a projection.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Witches also have a responsibility in how they present themselves to others.
  • A Witch's Cauldron - Being A Witch 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.pathcom.com [Source type: Original source]

.Present-day beliefs about the witches of history attribute to them elements of the folklore witch, the charmer, the cunning man or wise woman, the diviner and the astrologer.^ Remember Christianity has a history of murdering innocent people on religious fervor, no different that what has occurred in present day America with Islam.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ I find it fascinating to just learn about the brief history of Salem Witch Hunt and looking forward to learn more from the web.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ The witch-doctor alluded to is better known by the name of the cunning man, and has a large practice in the counties of Lincoln and Nottingham.

.Powers typically attributed to European witches include turning food poisonous or inedible, flying on broomsticks or pitchforks, casting spells, cursing people, making livestock ill and crops fail, and creating fear and local chaos.^ Powers typically attributed to European witches include turning food poisonous or inedible, flying on broomsticks, casting spells, and creating fear and local chaos.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bewitchment includes casting spells and curses.

^ Powers typically attributed to European witches include turning food poisonous or inedible, flying on broomsticks or pitchforks, casting spells, cursing people, making livestock ill and crops fail, and creating fear and local chaos.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Russian word for witch is ведьма (ved'ma, literally "the one who knows", from Old Slavic вѣдъ "to know").^ The Russian word for witch, ведьма (ved'ma), shows exactly that (the literal translation means "The one who knows").
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, Icelandic vitki , a witch, came from vita , to know; or vizkr , clever or knowing one.

^ If only one spouse is a witch the other knows nothing about it when someone is eaten in their house, because the witch does his cooking under cover of his witchcraft.

[33]

North America

Examination of a Witch by T. H. Matteson, inspired by the Salem witch trials
.The most famous witchcraft incident In the British North America were the witch trials that took place in Salem, Massachusetts.^ I love the Salem witch trials.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ The Salem Witch Trials has always been interesting to me.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Salem witch trial very interesting.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

.The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings before local magistrates followed by county court trials to prosecute people accused of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk, and Middlesex Counties of colonial Massachusetts, between February 1692 and May 1693. Over 150 people were arrested and imprisoned, with even more accused who were not formally pursued by the authorities.^ The Salem witch trials occurred in colonial Massachusetts between 1692 and 1693.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ I love the Salem witch trials.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Salem Story: Reading the Witch Trials of 1692.
  • Research Guide to Colonial Witchcraft Trial Materials at the Connecticut State Library 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.cslib.org [Source type: Academic]

.The two courts convicted twenty-nine people of the capital felony of witchcraft.^ The two courts convicted twenty-nine people of the capital felony of witchcraft.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All twenty-six who went to trial before this court were convicted.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mary Ayer Parker was tried and convicted of witchcraft in September 1692 by the Court of Oyer and Terminer in Salem, Massachusetts.
  • Common-place: Salem Witchcraft in the Classroom 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.common-place.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nineteen of the accused, fourteen women and five men, were hanged.^ Nineteen of the accused, fourteen women and five men, were hanged.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On top of that, the tradition of cunning men and women (often old-school Witches by any other name) was still hanging in there.

^ All of those innocent men and women accused of being witches just because some girls were acting funny?
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

.One man who refused to enter a plea was crushed to death under heavy stones in an attempt to force him to do so.^ He killed a guy by crushing him to death.

^ When he refused to enter a plea, the authorities decided to induce him to do so.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ One man who refused to enter a plea was crushed to death under heavy stones in an attempt to force him to do so.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At least five more of the accused died in prison.^ At least five more of the accused died in prison.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Salem witch trials were the result of a period of Puritan paranoia which led to the deaths of at least twenty-five people and the imprisonment of scores more.

^ Kay and Nikulina face up to five years in prison if convicted of just one of the third-degree charges they are accused of.

.Despite being generally known as the "Salem" witch trials, the preliminary hearings in 1692 were conducted in a variety of towns across the province: Salem Village, Ipswich, Andover, as well as Salem Town, Massachusetts.^ The Salem witch trials occurred in colonial Massachusetts between 1692 and 1693.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ I love the Salem witch trials.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Salem Story: Reading the Witch Trials of 1692.
  • Research Guide to Colonial Witchcraft Trial Materials at the Connecticut State Library 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.cslib.org [Source type: Academic]
  • The Witch of Salem, New York 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.ithaca.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The best-known trials were conducted by the Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692 in Salem Town.^ The best-known trials were conducted by the Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692 in Salem Town.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings before local magistrates followed by county court trials to prosecute people accused of witchcraft in Essex , Suffolk , and Middlesex Counties of colonial Massachusetts, between February 1692 and May 1693.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The four sessions of the Superior Court of Judicature in 1693, held in Salem Town, but also in Ipswich, Boston, and Charlestown, produced only three convictions in the thirty-one witchcraft trials it conducted.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All twenty-six who went to trial before this court were convicted.^ All twenty-six who went to trial before this court were convicted.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were early trials in the 15th and early 16th centuries, but then the witch scare went into decline, before becoming a big issue again and peaking in the 17th century.
  • Witch encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Witch trials were equally common in ecclesiastical and secular courts before 1550, and then, as the power of the state increased, they took place more often in secular ones.
  • witchcraft :: The witch-hunts -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The four sessions of the Superior Court of Judicature in 1693, held in Salem Town, but also in Ipswich, Boston, and Charlestown, produced only three convictions in the thirty-one witchcraft trials it conducted.^ No one died as a convicted witch in America again after the Salem witch trials.
  • Salem Witchcraft: the Events and Causes of the Salem Witch Trials 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.salemwitchtrials.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The best-known trials were conducted by the Court of Oyer and Terminer in 1692 in Salem Town.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also has only one setting: Boston in the 1640s.
  • The Scarlet Letter notes 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC staff.gps.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Likewise, alleged witchcraft was not isolated to New England.^ Examples of New England witchcraft cases.
  • Research Guide to Colonial Witchcraft Trial Materials at the Connecticut State Library 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.cslib.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Also recounts incidents of supposed witchcraft in New England, especially Salem.
  • Research Guide to Colonial Witchcraft Trial Materials at the Connecticut State Library 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.cslib.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sees colonial women accused of witchcraft as those who upset the social and patriarchal order of colonial New England.
  • Research Guide to Colonial Witchcraft Trial Materials at the Connecticut State Library 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.cslib.org [Source type: Academic]

In 1706 Grace Sherwood the "Witch of Pungo" was imprisoned for the crime in Princess Anne County, Virginia.

South America

In Chile there is a tradition of the Kalku in the Mapuche mythology; and Witches of Chiloé in the folklore and Chilote mythology.

Asia

Ancient Near East

.The belief in sorcery and its practice seem to have been widespread in the past.^ The belief in sorcery and its practice seem to have been widespread in the past.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The belief in witchcraft and its practice seem to have been widespread in the past.

^ We practice our religions and belief systems, celebrate our holidays with festivals and continue to study and explore our past while contemplating our futures.
  • VampireFreaks.com Cult: wicca_and_witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC vampirefreaks.com [Source type: Original source]

.Both in ancient Egypt and in Babylonia it played a conspicuous part, as existing records plainly show.^ Both ethics and morals can develop without religious input, although religion does tend to play a part if the society that is developing has a strong religious beliefs.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

It will be sufficient to quote a short section from the Code of Hammurabi (about 2000 B.C.). It is there prescribed,
.
If a man has put a spell upon another man and it is not justified, he upon whom the spell is laid shall go to the holy river; into the holy river shall he plunge.^ Among many morals which press upon us from the poor minister's miserable experience, we put only this into a sentence:--"Be true!
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They probably fancied that my sole object—and, indeed, the sole object for which a sane man could ever put himself into voluntary motion—was, to get an appetite for dinner.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Master Prynne never arrived, and in his absence Hester fell into a sinful relationship with another man.
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC myrocketbook.com [Source type: Original source]

.If the holy river overcome him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house.^ Charming - To put a spell upon.

^ If the holy river overcome him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I shall not let that rest!  Who is the man?
  • The Scarlet Letter, Part 1 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.washburn.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid the spell shall be put to death.^ If the holy river overcome him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witch encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I shall not let that rest!  Who is the man?
  • The Scarlet Letter, Part 1 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.washburn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid the spell shall be put to death.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witch encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He that plunged into the river shall take possession of the house of him who laid the spell upon him.^ Becoming a constant companion to the young minister, he eventually moves into the same house with him.
  • the scarlet letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If he possesses an unusual share of native energy, or the enervating magic of place do not operate too long upon him, his forfeited powers may be redeemable.
  • The Scarlet Letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If he hath a mind to be merry with them, he lets them all ride upon Spits before him, takes afterwards the Spits and beats them black and blue, and then laughs at them.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

[34]

Hebrew Bible

According to the New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia:
.
In the Holy Scripture references to sorcery are frequent, and the strong condemnations of such practices found there do not seem to be based so much upon the supposition of fraud as upon the abomination of the magic in itself.^ Had he once found power to smile, and wear a face of gaiety, there would have been no such man!
  • The Scarlet Letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such helpfulness was found in her,—so much power to do, and power to sympathize,—that many people refused to interpret the scarlet A by its original signification.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She seems a token of Hester's adultery, as much as the scarlet letter which her mother is "doomed to wear upon her bosom."
  • the scarlet letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

[35]
.The King James Bible uses the words "witch", "witchcraft", and "witchcrafts",[36] wherever the masoretic text, from which it is translated, has כשף (kashaph or kesheph) and קסם (qesem), and the Septuagint has φαρμακεια (pharmakeia); similarly in the New Testament it uses 'witch', 'witchcraft', and 'witchcrafts' to translate the φαρμακεια (pharmakeia) of the underlying Greek text.^ Some of these disclosures were too much even for the abundant faith of King James, and he more than once exclaimed, that the witches were like their master, "extreme lyars."

^ On the slave bit, I know the word is in our english translation but there was no word for slavery in the Hebrew/Greek text so english translators use slave which is not equal to the type of chatteled slavery we know today.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They used the bible and the church to justify the hanging of people that they thought were witches.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

.Traditional translations of verses such as Deuteronomy 18:11–12 and Exodus 22:18 therefore produce "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live" which was seen as providing scriptural justification for Christian witch hunters in the early Modern Age (see Christian views on witchcraft).^ There is a command in Exodus 22:18 about not allowing a witch to live.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He transelated, Thou shalt not suffer a Witch to Live.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.” Thousands of innocent women have suffered excruciating deaths because of this verse.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, Kashaph more literally means either mutterer (from a single root) or herb user (as a compound word formed from the roots kash, meaning herb, and hapaleh, meaning using); the equivalent pharmakeia of the Septuagint means poison.^ The word comes from an Arabic root meaning to obscure or to eclipse, used of the sun or moon.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If there is a single claim in the book that turns out to be untrue, does this not mean that there are possibly more?
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The text is beautiful; however, people who claim to know what it means and use it to brow beat others is not.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

.As such a closer translation would be potion user (additionally, pharmakeia implies further malevolent intent), or more generally one who uses magic to harm others, rather than a very general term like witch.^ Once having abandoned their own culture by becoming American, Americans cease to understand why others will die rather than let their culture be stripped from them.

^ Some of these disclosures were too much even for the abundant faith of King James, and he more than once exclaimed, that the witches were like their master, "extreme lyars."

^ Hester smilingly refuses, saying that if Pearl had been taken from her, she would very likely have been in the party.
  • the scarlet letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

The Bible provides some evidence that these commandments were enforced under the Hebrew kings:
.
And Saul disguised himself, and put on other raiment, and he went, and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: and he said, I pray thee, divine unto me by the familiar spirit, and bring me him up, whom I shall name unto thee.^ Two days and two nights it went on!

^ She renounced her baptism, and did prostrate her body to the foul spirit, and received his mark, and got a new name from him, and was called Margaratus .
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They said that was the Black Man's mark on thee, And that it glows like fire in the night, Out in the forest, when thou meet'st with him.
  • The Scarlet Letter, Part 2 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.washburn.edu [Source type: Original source]

.And the woman said unto him, Behold, thou knowest what Saul hath done, how he hath cut off those that have familiar spirits, and the wizards, out of the land: wherefore then layest thou a snare for my life, to cause me to die?^ As thou hast said, this is the better life!
  • The Scarlet Letter, Part 2 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.washburn.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you see how my positive statements about something that I like are being used as jumping-off points for the negativity of haters, or not?
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They said that was the Black Man's mark on thee, And that it glows like fire in the night, Out in the forest, when thou meet'st with him.
  • The Scarlet Letter, Part 2 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.washburn.edu [Source type: Original source]

[37]
The Hebrew verb Hichrit (הכרית) translated in the King James as cut off, can also be translated as excommunicate, or as kill wholesale or exterminate. .Note that the Hebrew word ob, translated as familiar spirit in the above quotation, has a different meaning than the usual English sense of the phrase; namely, it refers to a spirit that the woman is familiar with, rather than to a spirit which physically manifests itself in the shape of an animal.^ On the slave bit, I know the word is in our english translation but there was no word for slavery in the Hebrew/Greek text so english translators use slave which is not equal to the type of chatteled slavery we know today.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Credulity, as a mental and moral phenomenon, manifests itself in widely different ways, according as it chances to be the daughter of fancy or terror.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nets and snares (Psalm 140:5) are common words for magic and cursing, and they have a deeper meaning than is apparent on the surface.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

New Testament

See also: Christian views on witchcraft
.The New Testament condemns the practice as an abomination, just as the Old Testament had (Galatians 5:20, compared with Revelation 21:8; 22:15; and Acts 8:9; 13:6), though the overall topic of Biblical law in Christianity is still disputed.^ I believe the GUIDELINES set forth through the 10 commandments in the Old Testament and 2 commandments of the New Testament.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the days of witchcraft all science was still in the condition of May-be; it is only just bringing itself to find a higher satisfaction in the imperturbable Must-be of law.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The name "serpent" to the average mind implies loathesomeness and repulsiveness "And he laid hold on this dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil" (Revelation 20:2).
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

The word in most New Testament translations is "sorcerer"/"sorcery" rather than "witch"/"witchcraft".

Judaism

.Jewish law views the practice of witchcraft as being laden with idolatry and/or necromancy; both being serious theological and practical offenses in Judaism.^ Laws of Tanzania), because it involved the practice of witchcraft.
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, both South Africa and Zimbabwe's Witchcraft Suppression Acts make it a crime to accuse someone of [*pg 353] being a witch.
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But it was not till the religious reformers began the practice of straining Scripture to the severest extremes, that the arm of the law was called upon to punish witchcraft as a crime per se.

.According to Traditional Judaism, it is acknowledged that while magic exists, it is forbidden to practice it on the basis that it usually involves the worship of other gods.^ The old Testament books are certain accounts by prophets of things that happened to certain them or others, at a time when they were able to interact on a one on one basis with God.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chaos magic isn't Catastrophy magic, but they do get confused with each other a lot, that's why it was a big debate between me and some others when Strange told the Avengers that Chaos magic doesn't exist.
  • Dr. strange VS. Dr. fate & and current scarlet witch& zatanna 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.killermovies.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The wisest man that ever lived (1 Kg.4:31) was misled by his wives into worshipping other gods.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rabbis of the Talmud also condemned magic when it produced something other than illusion, giving the example of two men who use magic to pick cucumbers (Sanhedrin 67a).^ Rabbis of the Talmud also condemned magic when it produced something other than illusion, giving the example of two men who use magic to pick cucumbers (Sanhedrin 67a).
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The one who creates the illusion of picking cucumbers should not be condemned, only the one who actually picks the cucumbers through magic.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sorcerers or charmers by the use of superstitious of words or by means of images or other representation of person or things, produced strange effects above the ordinary course of nature.

.The one who creates the illusion of picking cucumbers should not be condemned, only the one who actually picks the cucumbers through magic.^ A bishop should have only one wife.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The one who creates the illusion of picking cucumbers should not be condemned, only the one who actually picks the cucumbers through magic.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Dawn From the mischief of created things; From the mischief of Darkness as it overspreads; From the mischief of those who practise secret arts; And from the mischief of the envious one as he practises envy.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, some of the Rabbis practiced "magic" themselves.^ However, some of the Rabbis practiced "magic" themselves.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Neopagans study and practice forms of magic based on a syncretism between classical Jewish mysticism and modern witchcraft.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, the practice by some ministers of using magic tricks in the pulpit , and attempting to justify it as merely object lessons to aid them in presenting the Gospel is a delusion of Satan .

.For instance, Rabbah created a person and sent him to Rabbi Zera, and Rabbi Hanina and Rabbi Oshaia studied every Sabbath evening together and created a small calf to eat (Sanhedrin 65b).^ For instance, Rabbah created a person and sent him to Rabbi Zera, and Rabbi Hanina and Rabbi Oshaia studied every Sabbath evening together and created a small calf to eat (Sanhedrin 65b).
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No matter what their original field of study, they have also mastered every other discipline that’s even vaguely related to science.
  • Polite Dissent » Search Results » quicksilver 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.politedissent.com [Source type: General]

^ If the minister is a brilliant study in guilt, it is because he believes with all his soul that his sin is terrible, and that a concerned, personal God is watching every move he makes.
  • The Scarlet Letter notes 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC staff.gps.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In these cases, the "magic" was seen more as divine miracles (i.e., coming from God rather than pagan gods) than as witchcraft.^ Nevertheless, in the remarkable providence of God, these creatures may become His instruments to chasten and discipline God's erring subjects and therefore in an ultimate sense fulfill the divine will."
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of these points come down to a simple base argument – whether or not God is truly good, and whether or not His character is consistent throughout scripture.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of these disclosures were too much even for the abundant faith of King James, and he more than once exclaimed, that the witches were like their master, "extreme lyars."

.Judaism does make it clear that Jews shall not try to learn about the ways of witches (Deuteronomy/Devarim 18: 9–10) and that witches are to be put to death.^ I've read one reason for the accusations was greed not witch craft, some owned large plots of land making a few jealous, does this have any validity?
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ The way he tries to “disprove” it is very superficial and of course he never cities the actual people who make the case against it — only for it.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They learned about the animals who are traditionally pets of witches and warlocks and there was even time for a disco at the end of the day.

(Exodus/Shemot 22:17)

Islam

.Divination and magic in Islam encompass a wide range of practices, including black magic, warding off the evil eye, the production of amulets and other magical equipment, conjuring, casting lots, astrology, and physiognomy.^ Many pagans think that it is a powerful symbol to ward off evil and that is likely why it is seen in so many secret societies throughout America.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The man who practices magic uses an evil power, to undermine the righteous by crooked ways and secret arts.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When a person crosses his fingers, he uses his hand- universally the instrument of blessing- either to promote good luck or ward off evil.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

.Muslims do commonly believe in magic (Sihr) and explicitly forbid its practice.^ Muslims do commonly believe in magic ( Sihr ) and explicitly forbid its practice.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muslim practitioners commonly seek the help of the Jinn (singular--jinni) in magic.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wiccans believe that they are practicing White magic, which is good as opposed to Black magic which is evil.
  • Wicca Witchcraft Religion and Wiccans 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiccawitchcraft.net [Source type: General]

.Sihr translates from Arabic as sorcery or black magic.^ These and other types of activity, loosely translated "witchcraft" are in reality magic, good or bad, and sorcery.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Witchcraft" as defined in Webster's Dictionary, is "the power or practice of witches; black magic; sorcery."

.The best known reference to magic in Islam is the Surah Al-Falaq (meaning dawn or daybreak), which is known as a prayer to Allah to ward off black magic.^ Black Magic: Also known as the Dark Art, Bone Magic, and Voodoo, Black Magic is a vile branch of witchcraft devoted to death and pain.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ There are other scattered references in the Old Testament to evil forces, which may mean either the magic arts in general or evil spirits which operate at night.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

.Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Dawn From the mischief of created things; From the mischief of Darkness as it overspreads; From the mischief of those who practise secret arts; And from the mischief of the envious one as he practises envy.^ The man who practices magic uses an evil power, to undermine the righteous by crooked ways and secret arts.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fate of one poor old gentleman, who fell a victim to the arts of Hopkins in 1646, deserves to be recorded.

^ Prithee, young one, who art thou, and what has ailed thy mother to bedizen thee in this strange fashion?
  • The Scarlet Letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

(Quran 113:1–5)
Also according to the Quran:
.And they follow that which the devils falsely related against the kingdom of Solomon.^ Let not the world witches or devils condemn; They follow us, and then we follow them.
  • Luminarium Editions. Thomas Dekker. The Witch of Edmonton. (1623) 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

Solomon disbelieved not; but the devils disbelieved, teaching mankind sorcery and that which was revealed to the two angels in Babel, Harut and Marut ... .And surely they do know that he who trafficketh therein will have no (happy) portion in the Hereafter; and surely evil is the price for which they sell their souls, if they but knew.^ And surely they do know that he who trafficketh therein will have no (happy) portion in the Hereafter; and surely evil is the price for which they sell their souls, if they but knew.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The men who were close to a woman (particularly her husband or mate) would make sure that they brought their lover plenty of roses during her period.

^ Those who trust the Bible know that they do not need people to return from the dead to give them supernatural knowledge.
  • Bible and Occult: Witchcraft, Wicca, Spiritualism, Psychics 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.gospelway.com [Source type: Original source]

(al-Qur'an 2:102)
.However, whereas performing miracles in Islamic thought and belief is reserved for only Messengers and Prophets; supernatural acts are also believed to be performed by Awliyaa – the spiritually accomplished.^ These awaken, by turns, pity, indignation, disgust, and dread,--dread at the thought of what the human mind may be brought to believe not only probable, but proven.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even Mr. Leckie softens a little at the thought of the many innocent and beautiful beliefs of which a growing scepticism has robbed us in the decay of supernaturalism.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only thing I am disregarding is belief in the supernatural dogma of these traditions.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

.Disbelief in the miracles of the Prophets is considered an act of disbelief; belief in the miracles of any given pious individual is not.^ Disbelief in the miracles of the Prophets is considered an act of disbelief; belief in the miracles of any given pious individual is not.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The belief of this great reformer proves the folly of considering a man wise, because he is pious.
  • "OUR STRUGGLE IS FOR ALL LIFE": THE THEOSOPHIST/UNITARIAN FEMINIST PIONEER MATILDA JOSLYN GAGE (1826-1898 CE) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.fnsa.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Qur'an 2:102) However, whereas performing miracles in Islamic thought and belief is reserved for only Messengers and Prophets; supernatural acts are also believed to be performed by Awliyaa - the spiritually accomplished.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Neither are regarded as magic, but as signs of Allah at the hands of those close to Him that occur by His will and His alone.^ Neither are regarded as magic, but as signs of Allah at the hands of those close to Him that occur by His will and His alone.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hester can see that he has given up on everything, but the only sign of active suffering she sees in him is that gesture of keeping his hand over his heart.
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC myrocketbook.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Photographers have published images of him showing the "Horned Hand" sign of Satanic greeting.

.Some Muslim practitioners believe that they may seek the help of the Jinn (singular—jinni) in magic.^ Power: Enchanted Weapon: The witch may enchant a single broom to act as a +1 magical weapon (that they are automatically proficient with) that does 1d3 bludgeoning damage.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ He explains why he believes some people dare not confess: they are afraid that they will lose their good reputations and will then have no further opportunity to serve mankind.
  • the scarlet letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If adultery is the issue, then the wife or husband has permission to divorce, if abuse is present, than they should separate and seek help for a time.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is a common belief that jinn can possess a human, thus requiring Exorcism.^ It is a common belief that jinn can possess a human, thus requiring Exorcism .
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Still, the practice of seeking help to the Jinn is prohibited and regarded the same as seeking help to a devil.
The belief in jinn is part of the Muslim faith. .Imam Muslim narrated the Prophet said: "Allah created the angels from light, created the jinn from the pure flame of fire, and Adam from that which was described to you (i.e., the clay.^ She got a call after the fire, and a person said "see what you get hanging a picture of Jesus in your store," she said.

^ God created everything, put adam and eve in eden and said “do whatever you want, aslong as you do what i say.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, I sometimes use the word “creation” in place of evolution as you could easily and dare I say simplistically, describe evolution as a “creative process”.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

)".
Also in the Quran, chapter of Jinn:
And persons from among men used to seek refuge with persons from among the jinn, so they increased them in evil doing.
—(The Holy Qur'an) (72:6)
.To cast off the jinn from the body of the possessed, the "ruqya," which is from the Prophet's sunnah is used.^ Alone in the world, cast off by it, and with this sole treasure to keep her heart alive, she felt that she possessed indefeasible rights against the world, and was ready to defend them to the death.
  • The Scarlet Letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter by Hawthorne - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/5) 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.The ruqya contains verses of the Qur'an as well as prayers which are specifically targeted against demons.^ The ruqya contains verses of the Qur'an as well as prayers which are specifically targeted against demons.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This can be done with any of the prayers against witchcraft just by naming the conditions to be prevailed against specifically.
  • WINNING OVER WITCHCRAFT 1 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.demonbuster.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This can be done with any of the prayers of witchcraft just by naming the conditions to be prevailed against specifically.

The knowledge of which verses of the Qur'an to use in what way is what is considered "magic knowledge".
.There is a Hadeeth recorded by Al-Bukhari which narrates that one who has eaten seven dates in the morning will not be adversely affected by magic in the course of that day.^ A man who has sex with a menstruating woman “shall be unclean seven days.” 15:24 .
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fate of one poor old gentleman, who fell a victim to the arts of Hopkins in 1646, deserves to be recorded.

^ The man, of course, remains perfectly clean through it all, even though he was the one who “put her away” in the first place.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

.Students of the history of religion have linked several magical practises in Islam with pre-islamic Turkish and East African customs.^ Students of the history of religion have linked several magical practises in Islam with pre-islamic Turkish and East African customs.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Combining Roman Catholic beliefs and practices and traditional West African religious beliefs and practices are several syncretic religions in the Americas, in ...

Most notable of these customs is the Zar Ceremony.[38][39]
.In 2006 Fawza Falih Muhammad Ali, a citizen of Saudi Arabia, was condemned to death for practicing witchcraft.^ Fourteen persons, condemned to death for witchcraft, appealed against the judgment to the Parliament of Paris, which for political reasons had been exiled to Tours.

[40]

India

.Belief in the supernatural is strong in certain parts of India, and lynchings for witchcraft are reported in the press from time to time.^ Both ethics and morals can develop without religious input, although religion does tend to play a part if the society that is developing has a strong religious beliefs.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Wiccan Religious Cooperative of Florida (Wiccans) follow an earth-based belief religion and at one time qualified for the tax exemption on certain items sold by the Cooperative.

[41] .It is estimated that 750 people have been killed in witch-hunts in the states of Assam and West Bengal since 2003.[42] More than 100 women are tortured, paraded naked, or harassed in the state of Chhattisgarh annually, officials said.^ Additionally, if a witch lingers in a superstitious or culturally unsophisticated community for more than a day, she runs the risk of facing a mob of hostile citizens bent on running her out of town, imprisoning her, torturing her, or executing her.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ Still dangerous The image of witchcraft in the popular mindset has come a long way since the time of the Spanish Inquisition and the Salem witch trials, when thousands of women were persecuted, prosecuted, tortured and even burned for their beliefs.

^ I mean how more clear can he get than when he says women should submit & obey their husbands, should not speak in church, should have have authority over men, etc.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

[43] A social activist in the region said the reported cases were only the tip of the iceberg.[44]

Japan

.In Japanese folklore the witch can commonly be separated into two categories: those who employ snakes as familiars, and those who employ foxes.^ To these Christina Larner adds a fourth category: those reputed to be witches and surrounded with an aura of witch-beliefs.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main reason was its 600 plus residents were divided into two main parts: those who wanted to separate from Salem Town, and those who did not.
  • Salem Witchcraft: the Events and Causes of the Salem Witch Trials 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.salemwitchtrials.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fifth level is divided into two separate volumes, based upon the mysteries of both Goddess and God, making it a six book series in total.

[45]
Fox employers
.The fox witch is by far the most commonly seen witch figure in Japan.^ The latter was by far the most showy and gallant figure, so far as apparel went, anywhere to be seen among the multitude.
  • The Scarlet Letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter by Hawthorne - Full Text Free Book (Part 4/5) 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only Evil witches, most commonly drow warlocks, can dabble in Spider Magic.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

.Differing regional beliefs set those who use foxes into two separate types: the kitsune-mochi, and the tsukimono-suji.^ Especially in two different mediums with two separate sets of production conditions.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deadpool and Spider-Man are just two different types off humor.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Puritan belief, the Elect are those who are chosen by God for salvation and eternal life.
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC myrocketbook.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first of these, the kitsune-mochi, is a solitary figure who gains his fox familiar by bribing it with its favourite foods.^ Wiccans, those who formally practice witchcraft, gained legal protection under the First Amendment for their nature-based religion in 1985.

The kitsune-mochi then strikes up a deal with the fox, typically promising food and daily care in return for the fox's magical services. The fox of Japanese folklore is a powerful trickster in and of itself, imbued with powers of shape changing, possession, and illusion. .These creatures can be either nefarious; disguising themselves as women in order to trap men, or they can be benign forces as in the story of 'The Grateful foxes'.[46] However, once a fox enters the employ of a human it almost exclusively becomes a force of evil to be feared.^ Even the Gospels themselves show that women moved freely out in public and were in no way separated from men socially.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And if you don't have the courage to do any of the above, don't take it out on other women out of fear of standing up to men.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ As the story opens in the month of June, in 1642, a group of Puritan men and women gather in front of the door of the prison waiting for Hester to make her appearance.
  • the scarlet letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.A fox under the employ of a human can provide him with many services.^ Terms and Privacy Policy under which this service is provided to you.
  • The Blair Witch Project (1999) 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That there should have been so much loyalty to him, under these disheartening circumstances, seems to me, on the whole, creditable to poor human nature.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.The fox can turn invisible and be set out to find any secrets its master desires and it still retains its many powers of illusion which its master will often put to use in order to trick and deceive his enemies.^ I got your manual and I used it, and it turned out!

^ Many pagans think that it is a powerful symbol to ward off evil and that is likely why it is seen in so many secret societies throughout America.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The easy checklist I use to find out why a spell failed (and cast it again to make sure it works) See Unit 3, Page 45 .
  • Mastering The Magick Of Witchcraft: The Ancient Secrets Of Magick For Love, Success, Protection, And A Life You Have Always Dreamed! 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC masteringmagickwitchcraft.com [Source type: General]

.The most feared power the kitsuni-mochi possess is the ability to command his fox to possess other humans.^ Power: The witch gains low-light vision; if she already possesses this ability, she can now see three times as far (instead of twice as far) as a creature without it.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ If one were to apply this approach to most other facets of human discourse one would be considered insane.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unwholesome Aura: The witch's magical powers and extraplanar contact have caused her to be pervaded with what others will perceive as negative energy and will cause those of a superstitious bent to fear and hate her.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

This process of possession is called Kitsunetsuki.
.By far the most commonly reported cases of Fox Employment in modern Japan are enacted bytsukimono-suji families, or "hereditary witches".[47] The Tsukimono-suji is traditionally a family who is reported to have foxes under their employ.^ They learned about the animals who are traditionally pets of witches and warlocks and there was even time for a disco at the end of the day.

^ It was my understanding, too, that most who were sent to prison never made it out due to starvation and illness, and that their families ended up in ruin as well...as far as the "compensation" is concerned, for most of the victims and their families, it was much too late.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Sometimes it happened that he caught only his shadow, and in that case the man who had been nimble enough to do what Goethe pronounces impossible, became the most profound magician of his year.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.These foxes serve the family and are passed down through the generations, typically through the female line.^ I dug through every piece of Magickal knowledge handed down from my family...
  • Mastering The Magick Of Witchcraft: The Ancient Secrets Of Magick For Love, Success, Protection, And A Life You Have Always Dreamed! 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC masteringmagickwitchcraft.com [Source type: General]

^ The ridiculousness of it all is a bit overwhelming so I find it sad that so many families are living through the depression and sadness caused by these beliefs.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

.tsukimono-suji foxes are able to supply much in the way of the same mystical aide that the foxes under the employ of a kitsune-mochi can provide its more solitary master with.^ Some of these disclosures were too much even for the abundant faith of King James, and he more than once exclaimed, that the witches were like their master, "extreme lyars."

^ In much the same way, The Witch Doctor is dabbling about in The Spell Pantry in total denial that there could possibly be a conspiracy of gigantic proportions going on.

^ "They have a much more civil way of dealing with the animals that have been sacrificed," she said.

.In addition to these powers, if the foxes are kept happy and well taken care of, they will bring great fortune and prosperity to the Tsukimono-suji house.^ Warning: some of these spells are highly controversial (because they are so effective in bringing love) and should only be used in desperate circumstances.
  • Mastering The Magick Of Witchcraft: The Ancient Secrets Of Magick For Love, Success, Protection, And A Life You Have Always Dreamed! 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC masteringmagickwitchcraft.com [Source type: General]

^ I am not saying that these woman were witches as in following a religious bend, but they probably were healers in their village and had much to much "power" for people to be comfortable with them.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ With great excitement Hester reacts, exclaiming that the child is her "happiness" as well as her "torture."
  • the scarlet letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the aid in which these foxes give is often overshadowed by the social and mystical implications of being a member of such a family.^ It would be greatly for the public behoof, if we women, being of mature age and church-members in good repute, should have the handling of such malefactresses as this Hester Prynne.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The astonishing similarity of the confessions of all the persons implicated in these proceedings has often been remarked.

^ It is possible that such a being exists, however humanity wants to put God in a box.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

In many villages, the status of local families as tsukimono-suji is often common, everyday knowledge. Such families are respected and feared, but are also openly shunned. Due to its hereditary nature, the status of being Tsukimono-suji is considered contagious. .Because of this, it is often impossible for members of such a family to sell land or other properties, due to fear that the possession of such items will cause foxes to inundate ones own home.^ I've read one reason for the accusations was greed not witch craft, some owned large plots of land making a few jealous, does this have any validity?
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ It would mean that I didn’t truly love her because I could cause such horrible suffering.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Averill's and the Wilde's were surveyors, so they were target's and the Towne's family owned the land the Putnam's wanted, so there you have it, that's my story and I am sticking too it.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

.In addition to this, because the foxes are believed to be passed down through the female line, it is often nearly impossible for women of such families to find a husband whose family will agree to have him married to a tsukimono-suji family.^ Any man who forces his wife to submit isn’t being a true Christian, because Christ does not force people to believe in him.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As you say, the husband is the head of his family, not a servant to his wife, but loving her and his wife submit to him under that banner of his love to her, him leading the family.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It kept him down on a level with the lowest; him, the man of ethereal attributes, whose voice the angels might else have listened to and answered!
  • The Scarlet Letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.In such a union the woman's status as a Tsukimono-suji would transfer to any man who married her.^ Had he once found power to smile, and wear a face of gaiety, there would have been no such man!
  • The Scarlet Letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A man who has sex with a menstruating woman “shall be unclean seven days.” 15:24 .
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Had he once found power to smile, and wear a face of gayety, there would have been no such man!
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Tocharians

.An expedition sent to what is now the Xinjiang region of western China by the PBS documentary series Nova found a fully clothed female Tocharian mummy wearing a black conical hat of the type now associated with witches in Europe in the storage area of a small local museum, indicative of an Indo-European priestess.^ PBS did a series also where the ergot theory was more fully explained for those of us unfamiliar with the 1976 book.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ He wears a "dark feather in his hat, a border of embroidery on his cloak, and a black velvet tunic beneath."
  • the scarlet letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although we witches are usually associated with our Black Cats, it is often not appreciated that we are soft on all animals and are usually surrounded by a veritable menagerie in addition to our feline helpers.

[48]

Oceania

.A local newspaper informed that more than 50 people were killed in two Highlands provinces of Papua New Guinea in 2008 for allegedly practicing witchcraft.^ Isaac claims to be more powerful than his father and reveals that he is the one who killed his mother and sister.

^ More than one example of the popular belief in witchcraft occurred in the neighbourhood of Hastings so lately as the year 1830.

^ As many as 70 percent have been abandoned for allegedly practicing sorcery, according to a report this year by New York-based Human Rights Watch.

[49]

Africa

.Africans have a wide range of views of traditional religions.^ Africans have a wide range of views of traditional religions.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Witchcraft Beliefs: Encyclopedia II - Witchcraft - African witchcraft Africans have a wide range of views of traditional religions.

^ Combining Roman Catholic beliefs and practices and traditional West African religious beliefs and practices are several syncretic religions in the Americas, in ...

[50] .African Christians typically accept Christian dogma as do their counterparts in Latin America and Asia.^ African Christians typically accept Christian dogma as do their counterparts in Latin America and Asia.
  • Witchcraft Beliefs 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: General]
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term witch doctor, often attributed to Zulu inyanga, has been misconstrued to mean "a healer who uses witchcraft" rather than its original meaning of "one who diagnoses and cures maladies caused by witches". Combining Roman Catholic beliefs and practices and traditional West African religious beliefs and practices, particularly West African Vodun, are several syncretic religions in the Americas, including Vodou, Obeah, Candomblé, Quimbanda and Santería.^ There were several foolscap sheets, containing many particulars respecting the life and conversation of one Hester Prynne, who appeared to have been rather a noteworthy personage in the view of our ancestors.
  • The Scarlet Letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Scarlet Letter, by Hawthorne : Arthur's Classic Novels 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He said “it were better than ten suspected witches should escape then one innocent person be condemned”.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ In his torment, Dimmesdale takes up secretly whipping himself, a practice the Puritan fathers would have associated with Roman Catholic tradition and strongly condemned.
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC myrocketbook.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Southern African traditions, there are three classifications of somebody who uses magic.^ In Southern African traditions, there are three classifications of somebody who uses magic.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An example would be those people of certain Celtic traditions who instead use Earth, Sky, and Water, and preferably worship on a cliffside near the ocean where the three worlds of these elements meet together as one.
  • House Shadow Drake - Traditional Witchcraft FAQ 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.shadowdrake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Traditional Witchcraft FAQ 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC pages.prodigy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The man who practices magic uses an evil power, to undermine the righteous by crooked ways and secret arts.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

.The thakathi is usually improperly translated into English as "witch", and is a spiteful person who operates in secret to harm others.^ Furthermore, the Word Wicca comes from the English Word "Wicce" which was tranformed into Witch.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Psychological Analysis Basically, witches are people mentally afflicted with the obsession that they have the power to harm others by thinking them harm.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The person who approaches the victim is usually a woman.

.The sangoma is a diviner, somewhere on a par with a fortune teller, and is employed in detecting illness, predicting a person's future (or advising them on which path to take), or identifying the guilty party in a crime.^ "All paths are divine," he said, "and every person has an individual path to follow, but we all travel it together."

.She also practices some degree of medicine.^ She also practices some degree of medicine.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She also practices some degree of medicine .
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The inyanga is often translated as "witch doctor" (though many Southern Africans resent this implication, as it perpetuates the mistaken belief that a "witch doctor" is in some sense a practitioner of malicious magic).^ The inyanga is often translated as "witch doctor" (though many Southern Africans resent this implication, as it perpetuates the mistaken belief that a "witch doctor" is in some sense a practitioner of witchcraft).
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some Central African areas, witches are believed be the source of terminal illness such as AIDS and cancer .
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term witch doctor, often attributed to African inyanga, has been misconstrued to mean "a healer who uses witchcraft" rather than its original meaning of "one who diagnoses and cures maladies caused by witches".

.The inyanga's job is to heal illness and injury and provide customers with magical items for everyday use.^ The inyanga 's job is to heal illness and injury and provide customers with magical items for everyday use.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They believed that the Ka would use these as the real item because the mortuary priests possessed magic that would make them real for the dead.
  • History of Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.paganlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some traditions use common items used in everyday life, where as other traditions demand that the tools be hand-crafted by the person for the specific use in ritual.
  • House Shadow Drake - Traditional Witchcraft FAQ 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.shadowdrake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Traditional Witchcraft FAQ 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC pages.prodigy.net [Source type: Original source]

.Of these three categories the thakatha is almost exclusively female, the sangoma is usually female, and the inyanga is almost exclusively male.^ Of these three categories the thakatha is almost exclusively female, the sangoma is usually female, and the inyanga is almost exclusively male.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yep, you'd be welcome to your pick of them too, J. :) The male is the one in this pic, and the female is almost exactly the same colours.

^ Luckily for all these fans, male and female, Oberon Zell-Ravenheart, today’s foremost genuine wizard, has written the essential handbook.” (13) .
  • Wicca Witchcraft Religion and Wiccans 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiccawitchcraft.net [Source type: General]

.In some Central African areas, malicious magic users are believed by locals to be the source of terminal illness such as AIDS and cancer.^ Eliminate the next couple of ninjas that appear with some easy combos and work your way down to the Central Bridge area to encounter a new enemy.
  • Ninja Gaiden Sigma II FAQ/Walkthrough|GamesRadar 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gamesradar.com [Source type: General]

.In such cases, various methods are used to rid the person from the bewitching spirit, occasionally Physical abuse and Psychological abuse.^ The problem in such a situation isn’t with the Bible but with the person incorrectly using it.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Evil spirits are real, and I have personally seen young children in a third world country delivered from the torment of such.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Rather, Satan's method is to use a person for awhile and then kill him or her .
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

.Children may be accused of being witches, for example a young niece may be blamed for the illness of a relative.^ Children may be accused of being witches, for example a young niece may be blamed for the illness of a relative.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children are often accused of being witches.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A young niece maybe blamed for the illness of a relative.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of these cases of abuse go unreported since the members of the society that witness such abuse are too afraid of being accused of being accomplices.^ It was extremely dangerous to be accused of being a "witch", since a common punishment was to be burnt at the stake.

^ In any case, one who even spoke for an accused heretic would be arrested as an accomplice.
  • The Horrors of The Church and its Holy Inquisition 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.bibliotecapleyades.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The twentieth century "witnessed a progressive relaxation" in judges making most of the value judgments, with the jury deciding the borderline cases.
  • Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law: Mohammed A. Diwan, Conflict Between State Legal Norms AndNorms Underlying Popular Beliefs: Witchcraft In Africa As A CaseStudy*, 14 Duke J. of Comp. & Int'l L. 351 (2004) 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.law.duke.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is also believed that witchcraft can be transmitted to children by feeding.^ It is also believed that witchcraft can be transmitted to children by feeding.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also beleived that witchcraft can be transmited to children by feeding.
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Parents discourage their children from interacting with people believed to be witches.^ Parents discourage their children from interacting with people believed to be witches.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Witchcraft - WiccanWeb Wiki 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.wiccanweb.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was believed that a witch often joined a pact with the devil to gain powers to deal with infertility, immense fear for her children's well-being, or revenge against a lover.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was very strange how people were being accused as witches and users of witchcraft without any real evidence and it was even stranger to see that people truly believed in the accusers.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

.As of 2006, between 25,000 and 50,000 children in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, had been accused of witchcraft and thrown out of their homes.^ Thank you for trying your "Mastering The Magick of Witchcraft" Home Academy In-A-Box today, and I can't wait to send it out to you immediately.
  • Mastering The Magick Of Witchcraft: The Ancient Secrets Of Magick For Love, Success, Protection, And A Life You Have Always Dreamed! 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC masteringmagickwitchcraft.com [Source type: General]

^ P.P.P.P.S. Are you worried that someone you live with will not agree with your choice to try out my "Mastering The Magick of Witchcraft" Home Academy?
  • Mastering The Magick Of Witchcraft: The Ancient Secrets Of Magick For Love, Success, Protection, And A Life You Have Always Dreamed! 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC masteringmagickwitchcraft.com [Source type: General]

^ A dispute arose in the little village of Glen, in Leicestershire, between two old women, each of whom vehemently accused the other of witchcraft.

[51] .On April, 2008, Kinshasa, the police arrested 14 suspected victims (of penis snatching) and sorcerers accused of using black magic or witchcraft to steal (make disappear) or shrink men's penises to extort cash for cure, amid a wave of panic.^ Black Magic: Also known as the Dark Art, Bone Magic, and Voodoo, Black Magic is a vile branch of witchcraft devoted to death and pain.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ Suspicion of witchcraft was justified by general report, by the ill-looks of the suspected, by being silent when accused, by her mothers having been a witch, by flight, by exclaiming when arrested, I am lost!
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As for Use Magic Device: I reserve this for my version of the sorcerer, which, being an inherently magical spellcaster, should be able to inherently manipulate magic of any sort.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

[52] .Arrests were made in an effort to avoid bloodshed seen in Ghana a decade ago, when 12 alleged penis snatchers were beaten to death by mobs.^ Arrests were made in an effort to avoid bloodshed seen in Ghana a decade ago, when 12 alleged penis snatchers were beaten to death by mobs.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ D. Trull reported in 1997 that "the killings of alleged 'penis snatchers'" had been reported "along the west coast from Cameroon to Nigeria."
  • Gendercide Watch: European Witch-Hunts 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.gendercide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This baby is already labeled for punishment because a remote alleged ancestor made a mistake atleast 10,000 years ago’ .
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

[53] .It was reported on May 21, 2008 that in Kenya a mob had burnt to death at least 11 people accused of witchcraft.^ Posted by Andrea on May 21,2008 .
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ It was reported on May 21, 2008 that in Kenya a mob had burnt to death at least 11 people accused of witchcraft.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings before local magistrates followed by county court trials to prosecute people accused of witchcraft in Essex , Suffolk , and Middlesex Counties of colonial Massachusetts, between February 1692 and May 1693.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .In Tanzania in 2008, President Kikwete publicly condemned witchdoctors for killing albinos for their body parts which are thought to bring good luck.^ Bring good luck to you and everyone around you , and create a stream of miracles in your life .
  • Mastering The Magick Of Witchcraft: The Ancient Secrets Of Magick For Love, Success, Protection, And A Life You Have Always Dreamed! 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC masteringmagickwitchcraft.com [Source type: General]

^ How to cast some beginner luck spells, step-by-step (there are 2 spells that will not only bring you good luck, but steer you away from bad luck!
  • Mastering The Magick Of Witchcraft: The Ancient Secrets Of Magick For Love, Success, Protection, And A Life You Have Always Dreamed! 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC masteringmagickwitchcraft.com [Source type: General]

^ The religous leaders thought they were doing good to kill everyone, but they were actually doing what Satan was trying to accomplish.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

.25 albinos have been murdered since March 2007.[55] In the Meatu district of Tanzania, half of all murders are “witch-killings”.^ Reply Janet Greene March 17, 2009 at 12:13 pm Grass – Actually, in the OT God COMMANDS murder, rape, killing of babies.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How do you explain all the murder, rape, genocide, and baby-killing commanded by God?
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Commissioners were coming, he told the Witches they should not fear them, for he would certainly kill them all.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

[42] .In the Nigerian states of Akwa Ibom and Cross River about 15,000 children branded as witches and most of them end up abandoned and abused on the streets.^ Continue up the street to a dead end.
  • Ninja Gaiden Sigma II FAQ/Walkthrough|GamesRadar 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gamesradar.com [Source type: General]

^ Poverty and desperation are the basic causes,” said Mike Mwamba, the director of a center for abandoned children in Gombe, a busy commercial section of Kinshasa where hundreds of street kids prowl about the main marketplace.

^ Aid workers estimate that there are 25,000 to 50,000 children living on the streets here, and their numbers are growing.

.In Gambia, about 1,000 people accused of being witches were locked in detention centers in March 2009 and forced to drink a dangerous hallucinogenic potion, human rights organization Amnesty International said.^ The coven is said to be the nucleus of the witches organization.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So that 4 year old was accused of being a witch?
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ It was very strange how people were being accused as witches and users of witchcraft without any real evidence and it was even stranger to see that people truly believed in the accusers.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

[56]
Complementary remarks about witchcraft by a native Congolese initiate : "From witchcraft ... may be developed the remedy (kimbuki) that will do most to raise up our country."[57] "Witchcraft ... deserves respect ... it can embellish or redeem (ketula evo vuukisa)."[58] "The ancestors were equipped with the protective witchcraft of the clan (kindoki kiandundila kanda). ... .They could also gather the power of animals into their hands ...^ They probably fancied that my sole object—and, indeed, the sole object for which a sane man could ever put himself into voluntary motion—was, to get an appetite for dinner.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Had she gathered pearls, and diamonds, and rubies, in the wood, they could not have become her better.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They could not imagine why, if he had been an ox, modern men could not become wolves, by Divine permission and the power of the devil.

whenever they needed. ... .If we could make use of these kinds of witchcraft, our country would rapidly progress in knowledge of every kind."^ So… in today’s world, if someone still uses that scripture to claim women need to “be silent in church”, the person making that false application of the text would be ignorant.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are a few secrets to making them work - but once I found out what they were, all of our money worries "evaporated" rapidly - for good !
  • Mastering The Magick Of Witchcraft: The Ancient Secrets Of Magick For Love, Success, Protection, And A Life You Have Always Dreamed! 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC masteringmagickwitchcraft.com [Source type: General]

^ But, to all these shadowy beings, so long our near acquaintances,—as well Roger Chillingworth as his companions,—we would fain be merciful.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[59] ."You witches (zindoki) too, bring your science into the light to be written down so that ...^ Jesus Christ will come and live in your heart (literally) if you invite Him into your heart .
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (I walk you through each step of bringing love into your life using this unique kind of Love Magick) - See Unit 4, Page 23 .
  • Mastering The Magick Of Witchcraft: The Ancient Secrets Of Magick For Love, Success, Protection, And A Life You Have Always Dreamed! 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC masteringmagickwitchcraft.com [Source type: General]

^ But hey, fight on and see if you can bring down the woman-bashers from the inside.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

the benefits in it ... endow our race."[60]
.Among the Mende (of Sierra Leone), trial and conviction for witchcraft has a beneficial effect for those convicted.^ Eventually, the colony admitted the trials were a mistake and compensated the families of those convicted.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

"The witchfinder had warned the whole village to ensure the relative prosperity of the accused and sentenced ... old people. ... Six months later all of the people ... accused, were secure, well-fed and arguably happier than at any [previous] time; they had hardly to beckon and people would come with food or whatever was needful. ... .Instead of such old and widowed people being left helpless or (as in Western society) institutionalized in old people’s homes, these were reintegrated into society and left secure in their old age ...^ I think that instead of the accusing the people of being whitches the accuse them of being a tad crazy!
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Your ASSumption that the poster was female or ever married, instead off pointing out the damage Christianity does to peoples’ well-being.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An aged woman, who resided in the Rope-walk of that town, was so repulsive in her appearance, that she was invariably accused of being a witch by all the ignorant people who knew her.

. ... .Old people are 'suitable' candidates for this kind of accusation in the sense that they are isolated and vulnerable, and they are 'suitable' candidates for 'social security' for precisely the same reasons."^ The watchers are very solemn, which is suitable for people for whom religion and law mean practically the same thing.
  • the scarlet letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Are they the same people who believe the verse about anyone who changes a “jot or tittle” (*snort*) of it is damned?
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They didn't have stricter rules on witch trials simply because it was not a common trial in America and that people's religous beliefs at the time overshadowed any sense of logic.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

[61]
.Christian pastors in Nigeria have been involved in the torturing and killing of children accused of witchcraft.^ A woman lay in the dungeon of the city accused of witchcraft, and the Duke, having given previous instructions to the officiating torturers, went with the two Jesuits to hear her confession.

^ In 2004 four elderly women were butchered in Centane after they were accused of being involved in witchcraft.

^ Eventually many men and children, and, believe it or not, even animals were accused, tortured, and condemned!
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

[62][63] Over the past decade, over 1000 children have been murdered with some being set on fire.[64] .Church pastors, in an effort to distinguish from the competition, establish their credentials by accusing children of witchcraft.^ Accused of witchcraft, children kicked to the streets in Congo .

^ Accused of practicing witchcraft, children are ejected from homes .

^ Antoinette Bourignon, who had put these absurd notions into the heads of the children, was accused of witchcraft, and examined before the council.

[65][66] When repeatedly asked to comment about the matter, the Church has refused to comment.[67]

Neopaganism

.Modern practices identified by their practitioners as "witchcraft" have arisen in the twentieth century which may be broadly subsumed under the heading of Neopaganism.^ Modern practices identified by their practitioners as "witchcraft" have arisen in the twentieth century which may be broadly subsumed under the heading of Neopaganism .
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Witchcraft of a more benign and socially acceptable sort may then be employed to turn the malevolence aside, or identify the supposed evil-doer so that punishment may be carried out.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the mid 20th century on, a growing number of people have come to identify with the term "witch", many seeing witchcraft as a religion with possible pre-Christian roots (see below, under Neopaganism ).
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, as forms of Neopaganism can be quite different and have very different origins, these representations can vary considerably despite the shared name.^ However, as forms of Neopaganism can be quite different and have very different origins, these representations can vary considerably despite the shared name.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, I would be sad to see someone reject the Christian faith, not understanding that many committed Christians who take Scripture seriously have a very different take on alot of these issues people are sharing here.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You see in fact every culture through the ages of man, have had some form of witchcraft - they may call it a different name.
  • How To Become A Witch 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: Original source]

.Contemporary witchcraft often involves the use of divination, magic, and working with the classical elements and unseen forces such as spirits and the forces of nature.^ Pact: The witch is schooled in magic by a more powerful being, such as a celestial, dragon, fiend, or spirit of the land – but at a price.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ Fairy Magic: Some witches tap Fey for arcane inspiration, drawing upon these nature spirits to augment their own magic.
  • The WITCH Core Class > Classes & Class Features > The Wizards Community 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC community.wizards.com [Source type: General]

^ If a person knocks on wood he is symbolically invoking the assistance or protective influence of a magic wand, the oldest mystic instrument used by man in an effort to bend the forces of nature to his will.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

.The practice of natural medicine, folk medicine, and spiritual healing is also common, as are alternative medical and New Age healing practices.^ I fought hard and wouldn't give up...I had the support of a few very wise souls who helped me to use many natural methods and medicines, to help me to heal.

^ Also the age of enlightenment encroached on areas that women once dominated as in midwifery and folk healing.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Deciding to practice medicine in the new world, he chooses to settle in Boston under the assumed name of Roger Chillingworth.
  • the scarlet letter 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.studyworld.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some schools of modern witchcraft, such as traditional forms of Wicca, are secretive and operate as initiatory secret societies.^ While there are certain things I find deplorable in the Bible, such as genocide and other forms of violence, there is some good in it.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wicca is a resarrected form of Witchcraft(Which has been going on for 1000's of years).
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

.There have been a number of pagan practitioners such as Paul Huson[68] claiming inheritance to non-Gardnerian traditions as well.^ However, I rejected Christianity and the Bible for purely intellectual reasons — that is, because it wasn’t true and there is no evidence for any of the Bible’s supernatural claims (and for many of it’s non-supernatural historical claims).
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The store stocked a wide range of books on paganism, Wicca and old-world, non-Christian traditions.

[69]
.More recently a movement to recreate pre-Christian traditions has taken shape in polytheistic reconstructionism, including such practices as Divination, Seid and various forms of Shamanism.^ In Puritan tradition, children were given names that expressed the various Christian virtues to which people aspired.
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC myrocketbook.com [Source type: Original source]

Wicca

.During the 20th century interest in witchcraft in English-speaking and European countries began to increase, inspired particularly by Margaret Murray's theory of a pan-European witch-cult originally published in 1921, since discredited by further careful historical research.^ Those who maintain that European witchcraft was a cult are not sure whether it was the remains of Druidic religion or of some more ancient fertility cult.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I’d ask what’s your point, but since I don’t expect any coherent, reasoned thought from you, I am not interested in reading replies in the form of further irrational rants.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We can float the post to the top during the witching hour every time you add something interesting.

[70] .Interest was intensified, however, by Gerald Gardner's claim in 1954 in Witchcraft Today that a form of witchcraft still existed in England.^ So… in today’s world, if someone still uses that scripture to claim women need to “be silent in church”, the person making that false application of the text would be ignorant.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many houses are still to be found in England with the horse-shoe (the grand preservative against witchcraft) nailed against the threshold.

^ Gerald Gardner justsohappened to Re-introduce the World to Witchcraft, in his ever-so-famous book.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

The truth of Gardner's claim is now disputed too, with different historians offering evidence for[71][72] or against[73][74][75] the religion's existence prior to Gardner.
.The Wicca that Gardner initially taught was a witchcraft religion having a lot in common with Margaret Murray's hypothetically posited cult of the 1920s.^ Wicca and Witchcraft are two seperate religions.
  • Traditional Witchcraft FAQ 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC pages.prodigy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Wicca” is a religion that practices Witchcraft.
  • Wicca Witchcraft Religion and Wiccans 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC wiccawitchcraft.net [Source type: General]

^ Witchcraft and Wicca are two seperate religions.
  • Traditional Witchcraft FAQ 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC pages.prodigy.net [Source type: Original source]

[76] .Indeed Murray wrote an introduction to Gardner's Witchcraft Today, in effect putting her stamp of approval on it.^ She was put to the torture again, and her fortitude giving way under the extremity of her anguish, she confessed that she was indeed a witch -- that she had sold her soul to the devil, and effected all her cures by his aid.

^ In WITCHCRAFT TODAY (p 47), Gardner asks himself, with what degree of irony one can only guess at, who, in modern times, could have invented the Wiccan rituals.
  • Secret History of Modern Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC draeconin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Gardner, WITCHCRAFT TODAY, pp.
  • Secret History of Modern Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC draeconin.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wicca is now practised as a religion of an initiatory secret society nature with positive ethical principles, organised into autonomous covens and led by a High Priesthood.^ But two members of a coven that operates in this region say that Wicca, the religion of witches, is not what most people think it is.

^ His neighbor and the high priestess of the coven, Sandra Craven, said she got involved in Wicca through Homler.

^ We are known as Hermetic witches because this is the Pantheon we feel comfortable with, through the ancient Egyptian religion.’’ According to Homler, Wicca is a nature-based religion.

.There is also a large "Eclectic Wiccan" movement of individuals and groups who share key Wiccan beliefs but have no initiatory connection or affiliation with traditional Wicca.^ And there are many wiccans who are not witches.
  • How To Become A Witch 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were no Holy Wiccan crusades!
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Since there are NO Key Items in Sigma II, the house remains locked for the whole game.
  • Ninja Gaiden Sigma II FAQ/Walkthrough|GamesRadar 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.gamesradar.com [Source type: General]

.Wiccan writings and ritual show borrowings from a number of sources including 19th and 20th-century ceremonial magic, the medieval grimoire known as the Key of Solomon, Aleister Crowley's Ordo Templi Orientis and pre-Christian religions.^ The special meaning of the word among the witches is a "band" or "company", who were set apart for the practice of the rites of the religion and for the performance of magical ceremonies; in short, a kind of priesthood.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In medieval times, he said, the Church attempted to Christianize the holiday, which became known as "All Hallows' Eve."

^ Salem Struggling Several centuries ago, many practicing Christians, and those of other religions, had a strong belief that the Devil could give certain people known as witches the power to harm others in return for their loyalty.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

[77][78][79] .Both men and women are equally termed "witches."^ Both men and women are equally termed "witches."
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think the only figure in the Bible that comes close to treating men and women equally is Christ.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both men have been reviled as lecherous "dirty old men" -- Crowley, as a seducer of women and a homosexual, a drug addict and `Satanist' rolled together.
  • Secret History of Modern Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC draeconin.com [Source type: Original source]

They practice a form of duotheistic universalism.
.Since Gardner's death in 1964 the Wicca that he claimed he was initiated into has attracted many initiates, becoming the largest of the various witchcraft traditions in the Western world, and has influenced other Neopagan and occult movements.^ Members of some religions have applied the term witchcraft in a pejorative sense to refer to all magical or ritual practices other than those sanctioned by their own doctrines - although this has become less common, at least in the Western world.

^ The hexagram has remained in use with in the occult and is prominent in the rituals and worship of Druids, Freemasons, Astrology, New Age, Wicca (tattooed on the abdomens or palms of initiates) and a long list of other satanic cults.

^ Delightful and exciting reading brings the reader into world of the battle between good and evil, but the real problem is that there is witchcraft and sorcery as an alternative to fighting evil.
  • Harry Potter a witch you can love 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC letusreason.org [Source type: General]

Stregheria

.Stregheria is an Italian witchcraft religion popularised in the 1980s by Raven Grimassi, who claims that it evolved within the ancient Etruscan religion of Italian peasants who worked under the Catholic upper classes.^ Those who maintain that European witchcraft was a cult are not sure whether it was the remains of Druidic religion or of some more ancient fertility cult.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some Catholics, indeed, affirmed that he himself was the son of a demon who lodged in his fathers house under the semblance of a merchant.
  • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wiccans, those who formally practice witchcraft, gained legal protection under the First Amendment for their nature-based religion in 1985.

.Leland's account depicts the followers of Italian witchcraft as worshipping the Goddess Diana, along with her brother Dianus/Lucifer, and their daughter Aradia (by divine acceptance and infusion of that which is Diana, as Diana is supposed to be perpetually virginal).^ Religious witchcraft is a Pagan mystery religion worshipping Goddess and Gods and venerating the Divine in nature.

.Leland's witches do not see Lucifer as the evil Satan of Christian myth, but a benevolent god of the Sun and Moon.^ He is Eternally Contrary to God's Principles and God's Will "Satan opposes all that is good and promotes all that is evil.
  • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The modern Witch of today does not even believe in "Evil" or "Satan" in any form!
  • Mastering The Magick Of Witchcraft: The Ancient Secrets Of Magick For Love, Success, Protection, And A Life You Have Always Dreamed! 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC masteringmagickwitchcraft.com [Source type: General]

^ Most people think witches are Satanic — we are not, that is a Christian concept.

.The ritual format of contemporary Stregheria is roughly similar to that of other Neo-Pagan witchcraft religions such as Wicca.^ Religious witchcraft is a Pagan mystery religion worshipping Goddess and Gods and venerating the Divine in nature.

^ But how did other regions feel about witchcraft and did they have similar beliefs?
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Paganism: Paganism describes a group of contemporary religions based on a reverence for nature.

.The pentagram is the most common symbol of religious identity.^ I have very little in common with most fundamentalists or the religious right.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most followers celebrate a series of eight festivals equivalent to the Wiccan Wheel of the Year, though others follow the ancient Roman festivals.^ He said he "came out of the broom closet" 11 years ago to find that most of his friends were Wiccan, too.

^ Even the Romans, who have to be the most anal bureaucratic society that has ever been, has no direct writings of the man himself, only his followers.
  • The Tragic Trap of Christian Marriage | Unreasonable Faith 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC unreasonablefaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most Pagans are eco-friendly, seeking to live in a way that minimises harm to the natural environment and almost all Pagans celebrate a cycle of eight festivals, which are spaced every six or seven weeks through the year.

An emphasis is placed on ancestor worship.

Feri Tradition

.The Feri Tradition is a modern witchcraft practice founded by Victor Anderson and his wife Cora.^ His stepmother found a sinister explanation for his stubbornness: He was practicing witchcraft.

.It is an ecstatic tradition with strong emphasis is placed on sensual experience and awareness, including sexual mysticism, which is not limited to heterosexual expression.^ It is an ecstatic tradition with strong emphasis is placed on sensual experience and awareness, including sexual mysticism, which is not limited to heterosexual expression.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the many characteristics that distinguish Y Dynion Mwyn from other traditions of Witchcraft are: a strong emphasis on the shamanic trance experience, through drumming, meditation, and sensual awareness; the acknowledgment of an ecstatic journey to Faerieland through the art of Shape-Shifting; a path of sexual mysticism; the use of the Welsh language, bardic poetry and liturgical material in ritual and worship; acknowledgment of Welsh deities and archetypes specific to the Tradition;.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC welshwitchcraft.net [Source type: General]
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.tylwythteg.com [Source type: General]

^ Because of an ecstatic Shamanistic emphasis, there is more risk of mental disturbance than in Wiccan traditions, which only work with the fertility aspect.
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC welshwitchcraft.net [Source type: General]
  • Witchcraft and Wicca  with Welsh Paganism 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.tylwythteg.com [Source type: General]

.Most practitioners worship three main deities; the Star Goddess, and two divine twins, one of whom is the blue God.^ Most practitioners worship three main deities; the Star Goddess, and two divine twins, one of whom is the blue God.
  • Witchcraft encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gods most often called upon are the gods and goddesses’ of one’s ancestors.
  • Gray Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC graywitchcraft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I was most impressed with the first two or three of his articles I saw, particularly the "Acid Test Failed" and the "Rape of Dulcinea," plus another one whose title I forgot, maybe it was "Winter Fool, Summer Fool" or something like that.

.They believe that there are three parts to the human soul, a belief taken from the Hawaiian religion of Huna as described by Max Freedom Long.^ Prithee look but in the lover's almanac: when he has been but three days absent, "O," says he, "I have not seen my love these seven years:" there's a long cut!
  • Luminarium Editions. Thomas Dekker. The Witch of Edmonton. (1623) 23 January 2010 20:34 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But wherever they go in the world they will carry the human community and its beliefs within themselves, even if they seek a home in the wilderness.
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC myrocketbook.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hester and Dimmesdale are part of the wider human community, whether they remain a part of this particular community or not.
  • Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC myrocketbook.com [Source type: Original source]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Pócs 1999, pp. 9–12.
  2. ^ "Witchcraft". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  3. ^ Adler, Margot (1979) Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston: Beacon Press. pp. 45–47, 84–5, 105.
  4. ^ Thomas, Keith (1997). Religion and the Decline of Magic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 464–5. ; Ankarloo, Bengt and Henningsen, Gustav (1990) Early Modern European Witchcraft: Centres and Peripheries. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1, 14.
  5. ^ Pócs 1999 pp. 9–10.
  6. ^ Pócs 1999 pp. 10–11.
  7. ^ Pócs 1999 pp. 11–12.
  8. ^ a b Gibbons, Jenny (1998) "Recent Developments in the Study of the Great European Witch Hunt" in The Pomegranate #5, Lammas 1998.
  9. ^ Barstow, Anne Llewellyn (1994) Witchcraze: A New History of the European Witch Hunts San Francisco:Pandora. p. 23.
  10. ^ For a book-length treatment, see Lara Apps and Andrew Gow, Male Witches in Early Modern Europe, Manchester University Press (2003), ISBN 0719057094. Conversely, for repeated use of the term "warlock" to refer to a male witch see Chambers, Robert, Domestic Annals of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1861; and Sinclair, George, Satan's Invisible World Discovered, Edinburgh, 1871.
  11. ^ Macfarlane 1970 p. 130; also Appendix 2.
  12. ^ Scot 1989 V. ix.
  13. ^ Wilby, Emma (2005) Cunning Folk and Familiar Spirits. pp. 51–4.
  14. ^ Emma Wilby 2005 p. 123; See also Alan Macfarlane 1970 p. 127 who notes how 'white witches' could later be accused as 'black witches'.
  15. ^ Monter () Witchcraft in France and Switzerland. Ch. 7: "White versus Black Witchcraft".
  16. ^ Pócs 1999, p. 12.
  17. ^ As defined by Mircea Eliade in Shamanism, Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy, Bollingen Series LXXVI, Pantheon Books, NY NY 1964, pp. 3–7.
  18. ^ a b Ginzburg (1990) Part 2, Ch. 1.
  19. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, the Compact Edition, Oxford University Press, p. 2955, 1971.
  20. ^ for instance, see Luck, Georg, Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds; a Collection of Ancient Texts, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1985, 2006; also Kittredge, G. L., Witchcraft in Old and New England, New York: Russell & Russell, 1929, 1957, 1958; and Davies, Owen, Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, 1736–1951, Manchester University Press, 1999.
  21. ^ Semple, Sarah (2003), "Illustrations of damnation in late Anglo-Saxon manuscripts", Anglo-Saxon England 32: 231–245 
  22. ^ Semple, Sarah (1998), "A Fear of the Past: The Place of the Prehistoric Burial Mound in the Ideology of Middle and Later Anglo-Saxon England", World Archaeology 30: 117, http://www.jstor.org/stable/125012?seq=9 
  23. ^ Pope, J.C. (1968), Homilies of Aelfric: a supplementary collection (Early English Text Society 260), II, Oxford University Press, p. 796 , lines 118–125, from the second manuscript in an appendix to De Auguriis, lesson XVII from Ælfric's "Lives of the Saints".
  24. ^ Meaney, Audrey L. (1984), "Aelfric and Idolatry", Journal of Religious History 13: 119–35, doi:10.1111/j.1467-9809.1984.tb00191.x, http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120036238/abstract , source of English translation from Anglo-Saxon.
  25. ^ Brian Levack (The Witch Hunt in Early Modern Europe) multiplied the number of known European witch trials by the average rate of conviction and execution, to arrive at a figure of around 60,000 deaths. Anne Lewellyn Barstow (Witchcraze) adjusted Levack's estimate to account for lost records, estimating 100,000 deaths. Ronald Hutton (Triumph of the Moon) argues that Levack's estimate had already been adjusted for these, and revises the figure to approximately 40,000.
  26. ^ "Estimates of executions". http://www.summerlands.com/crossroads/remembrance/current.htm.  Based on Ronald Hutton's essay Counting the Witch Hunt.
  27. ^ Drury, Nevill (1992) Dictionary of Mysticism and the Esoteric Traditions Revised Edition. Bridport, Dorset: Prism Press. "Witch".
  28. ^ Regino of Prüm (906), see Ginzburg (1990) part 2, ch. 1 (89ff.)
  29. ^ Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. (2000) "The Emergence of the Christian Witch" in History Today, Nov, 2000.
  30. ^ Drymon, M.M. Disguised as the Devil: How Lyme Disease Created Witches and Changed History, 2008.
  31. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. "Knights Templar".
  32. ^ Mackay, C., Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds.
  33. ^ See also Ryan, W.F. The Bathhouse at Midnight: An Historical Survey of Magic and Divination in Russia, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.
  34. ^ International Standard Bible Encyclopedia article on Witchcraft, last accessed 31 March 2006. There is some discrepancy between translations; compare with that given in the Catholic Encyclopedia article on Witchcraft (accessed 31 March 2006), and the L. W. King translation (accessed 31 March 2006).
  35. ^ Newadvent.org[[]]
  36. ^ Nahum 3:4; 1 Samuel 15:23; 2 Chronicles 33:6; 2 Kings 9:22; Deuteronomy 18:10; Exodus 22:18
  37. ^ I Samuel 28.
  38. ^ Geister, Magier und Muslime. Dämonenwelt und Geisteraustreibung im Islam. Kornelius Hentschel, Diederichs 1997, Germany.
  39. ^ Magic and Divination in Early Islam (The Formation of the Classical Islamic World) by Emilie Savage-Smith (Ed.), Ashgate Publishing 2004.
  40. ^ BBC News, "Pleas for condemned Saudi 'witch'", 14 February 2008BBC NEWS
  41. ^ "Jaipur woman thrashed for witchcraft". The Times of India. 2008-10-08. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Jaipur_Woman_thrashed_for_witchcraft/articleshow/3578363.cms. Retrieved 2008-10-11. 
  42. ^ a b Witchcraft is given a spell in India's schools to remove curse of deadly superstition. The Times. November 24, 2008
  43. ^ Fifty 'Witches' Beaten By Mob. Sky News. December 22, 2008
  44. ^ Indian villagers 'killed witch'. BBC News. March 27, 2008
  45. ^ Blacker, Carmen. The Catalpa Bow : A Study of Shamanistic Practices in Japan. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 1999. 51–59.
  46. ^ http://academia.issendai.com/foxtales/japan-grateful-foxes.shtml
  47. ^ Blacker, Carmen Catalpa Bow p. 56.
  48. ^ Nova, "China's Tocharian Mummies", 38:40-39:10. http://video.google.ca/videoplay?docid=-1362674044731979808&q=tocharians&total=10&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=2#
  49. ^ Woman suspected of witchcraft burned alive CNN.com. January 8, 2009.
  50. ^ Is witchcraft alive in Africa?, BBC News.
  51. ^ Thousands of child 'witches' turned on to the streets to starve.
  52. ^ Penis theft panic hits city.., Reuters.
  53. ^ 7 killed in Ghana over 'penis-snatching' episodes, CNN, January 18, 1997.
  54. ^ Mob burns to death 11 Kenyan "witches".
  55. ^ Living in fear: Tanzania's albinos, BBC News.
  56. ^ CNN: Abuse of child 'witches' on rise, aid group says
  57. ^ Janzen & MacGaffey 1974, p. 54b (13.9.12).
  58. ^ Janzen & MacGaffey 1974, p. 54b (13.9.14).
  59. ^ Janzen & MacGaffey 1974, pp. 54b-55a (13.9.16).
  60. ^ Janzen & MacGaffey 1974, p. 55b (13.10.8).
  61. ^ Gittins 1987, p. 199.
  62. ^ Church burns 'witchcraft' children
  63. ^ Churches involved in torture, murder of thousands of African children denounced as witches
  64. ^ Church Burns 'witchcraft' children
  65. ^ Church Burns 'witchcraft' children
  66. ^ Churches involved in torture, murder of thousands of African children denounced as witches
  67. ^ [1]
  68. ^ Huson, Paul Mastering Witchcraft: a Practical Guide for Witches, Warlocks, and Covens, New York: G.P. Putnams Sons, 1970.
  69. ^ Clifton, Chas S., Her Hidden Children: The Rise of Wicca and Paganism in America, Lanham, MD: Altamira, 2006, ISBN 0759102023.
  70. ^ Rose, Elliot, A Razor for a Goat, University of Toronto Press, 1962. Hutton, Ronald, The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles, Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 1993. Hutton, Ronald, The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft, Oxford University Press, 1999.
  71. ^ Heselton, Philip. Wiccan Roots. 
  72. ^ Heselton, Philip. Gerald Gardner and the Cauldron of Inspiration. 
  73. ^ Kelly, Aidan, Crafting the Art of Magic, Llewellyn Publications, 1991.
  74. ^ Hutton, Ronald, Triumph of the Moon, Oxford University Press, 1999.
  75. ^ Ruickbie, Leo. Witchcraft Out of the Shadows. 
  76. ^ Murray, Margaret A., The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, Oxford University Press, 1921.
  77. ^ Hutton, R.,The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft, Oxford University Press, pp. 205–252, 1999.
  78. ^ Kelly, A.A., Crafting the Art of Magic, Book I: a History of Modern Witchcraft, 1939–1964, Minnesota: Llewellyn Publications, 1991.
  79. ^ Valiente, D., The Rebirth of Witchcraft, London: Robert Hale, pp. 35–62, 1989.

References

  • University of Kansas Publications in Antropology, No. 5 = John M Janzen and Wyatt MacGaffey: An Anthology of Kongo Religion: Primary Texts from Lower Zaïre. Lawrence, 1974.
  • Studia Instituti Anthropos, Vol. 41 = Anthony J. Gittins: Mende Religion. Steyler Verlag, Nettetal, 1987.

Literature

.
  • Lizanne Henderson, ‘Witch-Hunting and Witch Belief in the Gàidhealtachd’’, Witchcraft and Belief in Early Modern Scotland Eds.^ The witch-cult, being a survival of an ancient religion, many of the beliefs and rites of these early religions are to be found in it.
    • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is significant that European belief in witchcraft only received its death-blow with the spread of modern medical and scientific knowledge, and with the spread of revivalistic Christianity.
    • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

    Julian Goodare, Lauren Martin and Joyce Miller. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007
  • Hyatt, Harry Middleton. .Hoodoo, conjuration, witchcraft, rootwork: beliefs accepted by many Negroes and white persons, these being orally recorded among Blacks and whites. s.n., 1970.
  • Lindquest, Galina.^ It was the general belief in Paisley that the devil had strangled him, lest he should have revealed in his last moments too many of the unholy secrets of witchcraft.

    ^ In the midst of these executions, rare were the gleams of mercy; few instances are upon record of any acquittal taking place when the charge was witchcraft.

    ^ The witch-cult, being a survival of an ancient religion, many of the beliefs and rites of these early religions are to be found in it.
    • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

    Conjuring Hope: Healing and Magic in Contemporary Russia. Vol. .1. New York: Berghahn Books, 2006.
  • Pentikainen, Juha.^ Anton LaVey, The Satanic Bible, New York: Avon Books, 1971, p.
    • Witchcraft and Satanism Exposed by Kraig Rice 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York : Warner Books, 1981.
    • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Scar" to "Scavenging" 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ New York : Ballantine Books, 2004- .
    • Index to Comic Art Collection: "Witches" (M-Z titles) to "Witek" 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC comics.lib.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Marnina Takalo as an Individual." C. Jstor. 26 February 2007.
  • Pentikainen, Juha. "The Supernatural Experience." F. Jstor. .26 February 2007.
  • Moore, Henrietta L. and Todd Sanders 2001. Magical Interpretations, Material Realities: Modernity, Witchcraft and the Occult in Postcolonial Africa.^ You should have more detail on witchcraft magic it's really cool.
    • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

    London: Routledge.
  • Worobec, Caroline. "Witchcraft Beliefs and Practices in Prerevolutionary Russia and Ukrainian Villages." Jstor. 27 February 2007.
  • Pócs, Éva (1999). .Between the Living and the Dead: A perspective on Witches and Seers in the Early Modern Age.^ It is something like the difference between live metaphor and dead personification.
    • Witchcraft 18 January 2010 11:011 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

    Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN 963-9116-19-X.
     
  • Ginzburg, Carlo (1990) Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches' Sabbath.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.WITCH and Wizard. These two words are now generally used of an adept of the black art, a sorcerer, magician, female and male respectively (see Magic and Witchcraft).^ It was very strange how people were being accused as witches and users of witchcraft without any real evidence and it was even stranger to see that people truly believed in the accusers.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Not all the persons claiming others were `witches' were young females; at least one very unrepentant male also was responsible.
  • A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 17 January 2010 14:17 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: General]

^ Upon one occasion, in 1598, his words were, "It may please your Grace to understand that witches and sorcerers, within these last four years, are marvellously increased within this your Grace's realm.

"Witch," formerly of common gender, represents O. Eng. wicca (masc.), wicce (fern.), agent-nouns to wiccian, to practise sorcery, probably a causative verb from O. Eng. wican, to give way (cf. "weak"), and therefore signifying to avert (evil), conjure away. So Norweg. vikja means (I) to turn aside, (2) to exorcise. .The participial "wicked" means witch-like.^ It is likely that someone cleverer that The Witch Doctor could find a way of trying to relieve the Witch Doctor of this burden of responsibility and complicity by introducing a different meaning to the vocabulary above.

^ For The Witch doctor, like Rabbie Burns, knows that there is always a wicked uncle chuckling in the background when you make your plans.

"Wizard" is formed from "wise," with the slightly contemptuous Anglo-French suffix -ard, as in drunkard, laggard, sluggard, &c.


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Occurs only in Ex 22:18, as the rendering of mekhashshepheh, the feminine form of the word, meaning "enchantress" (R.V., "sorceress"), and in Deut 18:10, as the rendering of mekhashshepheth, the masculine form of the word, meaning "enchanter."
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)
Facts about WitchRDF feed

Simple English

is called Examination of a Witch]]
(1508)]]

A witch is a person who practices witchcraft. a Warlock is not a male witch, Warlock means traitor or devil. The stereotypical witches are commonly portrayed as wicked old women who have wrinkled skin, pimples, and pointy hats. They wear clothes that are black or purple. They also have warts on their noses and sometimes long claw-like fingernails.

The belief in witchcraft can be found in many cultures worldwide. Witches have often been seen outside accepted cultures and faith. As a consequences, people often made witches feel unwanted in their societies.

In the Bible, the punishment for witchcraft is death (Exodus 22:18, "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live," meaning "you should not let a witch live"). "Witch" in the Bible means summoner of spirits, so it might really mean warlock. In Europe in the early modern period, persecution of witches (witch hunts and witchcraft trials) took place. Many Christians were scared of witches and witchcraft at that time. As a result, about sixty thousand people were tried for witchcraft, and executed. Most were hanged. Some were burned at the stake (tied to a long pole and burned alive). Especially in the early modern period, this punishment was often applied.

The Salem trials were among these trials. Gilles Corey was one of the people accused of witchcraft. Because he knew that he had done no wrong, Corey simply refused to speak. He was pressed to death.

Women were burned at the stake for simply sweeping their porches on Sundays or putting herbs in a soup.

Among those punished were people who did not live peacefully with their rulers, like Joan of Arc. Queen Anne Boleyn was accused of being a witch and was said to have had a large mole on her neck and a sixth finger, though this was likely invented by her ennemies.

There were some men (for example, Johann Weyer, Friedrich Spee and Anton Praetorius) who protested against torture and against the chase of witches.

Contents

Common ideas about witches

During the early Modern Age, the (mostly Catholic) Church developed a whole set of teachings and beliefs about witches. These beliefs were centered around the following:

  1. Witches are able to fly around on brooms, sticks, animals, daemons, or using special ointments
  2. Witches meet with other witches, and with the devil on occasions called witches' sabbath.
  3. Witches have a pact with the devil
  4. Witches can use magic spells to do bad things to others

How people were identified as witches

People believed that a witch had certain things that clearly identified her as a witch. Some of these were:

  • What was called Diabolical mark. It was a mark of the devil. Most of the time, this was a mole or birthmark. If the examiner found no mark, often he would say he had found an invisible mark
  • A pact with the devil
  • Being denounced by another witch. This was common. Often, witches who told about other witches were punished less severely. For example, they were strangled before being burnt at the stake.
  • A relationship with other known witch(es)
  • Blasphemy
  • Taking part in Sabbaths.
  • To harm someone with sorcery
  • To have some of the things needed to do black magic
  • To have one or more witches in the family
  • To be afraid during the interrogations. Most often the interrogations involved torture.
  • To not cry when tortured
  • To have red hair
  • Another common methode of test was the `Swim` test the suspected witch would have a rope tied around the waist and rocks (on ropes as well) attached to their feet. The suspected witch was then thrown into the water if they drowned (which is more than likely) they were wrongly accused, if they floated they were a witch and a trial would be held.

The mark of the devil

People believed that witches had a pact with the devil. The diabolical mark (or mark of the devil) was a token left on the skin of the witch.

Most of the time, this was believed to be a mole or birthmark. It was said that since this was a sign of the devil, touching (or picking) it would not hurt the person. People also though that this mark could not bleed.

This soon developed into a safe test for witchcraft. Most often, special techniques were used by those doing the test, so that the pricked spot would not bleed, or hurt. Some needles were also found that were special. When touching the skin, the needle would go into its shaft. In that way it could not be felt, and did of course not bleed. Many innocent people were wrongfully convicted because of this test.

Modern-day understanding of Witches

In the 20th century, a new attempt has been made at understanding witchcraft. Many people say that witches were in fact wise women who were hunted down by the church (mostly for their knowledge of herbs to treat certain diseases). This has led to a new movement. Some of it is known as Wicca. Some of it is known as Shamanism. Often, women understand this as a way to express themselves. Sometimes feminists have also spoken about it. Some of the rites have also been used as a form of protest.

Famous Witches

All of the following persons were real people.

  • Child-Witch, Agatha Gatter
  • The Witches of Salem, Massachusetts. The trials of 1692 contributed to the title of "the Witch-city", Salem has today.
  • Elisabeth von Doberschütz, beheaded and burnt outside the gates of Stettin, on 17th December, 1591
  • Anna Roleffes, better known as Tempel Anneke was one of the last witches to be executed in Braunschweig. She was executed 30th December,1663.
  • Hester Jonas, known as The Witch of Neuss. Beheaded and burnt on Christmas Eve 1635. She was about 64 years old. The complete proceedings of the trial is still available in Neuss.
  • Catherine Monvoisin, close to Marquise the Montespan, a lover of Louis XIV. She delivered poisons, and held black masses, against payment. Burnt with some others on the Place de la Grève in Paris, in 1680.
  • Maria Holl, also known as The Witch of Nördlingen. She was one of the first women to withstand being tortured during her Witch-trial of 1593/1594. It was through her force that she rid the town of Nördlingen of the Witch-craze. Her act led to doubts quelling up about the righteousness of witch-trials. She was cleared of the accusations. She died in 1634, probably from the plague.
  • Anna Schnidenwind, one of the last women to be publicly executed for Witchcraft in Germany. Burnt after being strangled, in Endingen am Kaiserstuhl, 24th April,1751
  • Anna Göldi (or Göldin). Last witch to be executed in Europe. This happened in Glarus, Switzerland, in the summer of 1782.

Other websites

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Witchcraft, which are similar to those in the above article.








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