Wladyslaw Sikorski: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Władysław Sikorski article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

General
Władysław Sikorski


In office
September 30, 1939 – July 4, 1943
President Władysław Raczkiewicz
Preceded by Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski (in country)
Succeeded by Stanisław Mikołajczyk

In office
December 16, 1922 – May 26, 1923
President Maciej Rataj (interim), Stanisław Wojciechowski
Preceded by Julian Nowak
Succeeded by Wincenty Witos

Born May 20, 1881(1881-05-20)
Tuszów Narodowy, then Austria-Hungary, now Poland
Died July 4, 1943 (aged 62)
Gibraltar
Political party None
Spouse(s) Olga Helena Zubrzewska
Profession Soldier, Statesman
Signature

Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; Polish pronunciation: [vu̯aˈdɨsu̯af ɕiˈkɔrski]  ( listen)) was a Polish military and political leader. He was born in Tuszów Narodowy a village in the present-day Subcarpathian Voivodeship of south-eastern Poland, which at the time was part of Austria-Hungary, one of Poland's three partitioners. Prior to World War I, he established and participated in several underground organizations that promoted the cause of Polish independence. He fought with distinction in the Polish Legions during World War I, and later in the newly created Polish Army during the Polish-Soviet War (1919 to 1921). In that war he played a prominent role in the decisive Battle of Warsaw, when Soviet forces, expecting an easy final victory, were surprised and routed by the Polish counterattack.

In the early years of the Second Polish Republic, Sikorski held government posts including prime minister (1922 to 1923) and minister of military affairs (1923 to 1924). Following Józef Piłsudski's May Coup (1926) and the installation of the Sanacja government, he fell out of favor with the new regime. Up until, and throughout 1939, he remained in the opposition, and wrote several books on the art of warfare and on Polish foreign relations.

During World War II he became Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile, Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces, and a vigorous advocate of the Polish cause on the diplomatic scene. He supported the reestablishment of diplomatic relations between Poland and the Soviet Union, which had been severed after the Soviet alliance with Germany in the 1939 invasion of Poland. In April 1943, however, Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin broke off Soviet-Polish diplomatic relations following Sikorski's request that the International Red Cross investigate the Katyń massacre. In July 1943, Sikorski was killed in a plane crash into the sea immediately on takeoff from Gibraltar. The exact circumstances of his death remain in dispute, which has given rise to conspiracy theories, however, investigators have concluded that Sikorski's injuries were consistent with a plane crash (see #Controversy surrounding death).

Early life and World War I

Sikorski was born in Tuszów Narodowy, Galicia, at the time Austro-Hungarian Empire. His father was Tomasz Sikorski, of impoverished Polish nobility (bearing Clan Kopaszyna coat-of-arms and apparently descended from it); his mother was Emilia Habrowska. In 1898 he joined Konarski's High School in Rzeszów, but his mother later interrupted his studies there and sent him to a teacher's seminar. In 1902 he passed a final high school exam in Lwów. Starting that year, young Sikorski studied engineering at the Lwów Polytechnic, specializing in road and bridge construction. After graduation he worked for the Galician administration in the petroleum industry. In 1906 Sikorski volunteered for a year's service in the Austro-Hungarian army and attended the Austrian Military School, obtaining an officer's diploma and becoming a reserves second lieutenant (podporucznik rezerwy). In 1909 he married Olga Helena Zubrzewska.[1]

In 1907 Sikorski joined the underground Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna), which was intent on securing Polish independence. It was then that he met Józef Piłsudski. Having a military education, he lectured other activists on military tactics. In 1908, in Lwów, Sikorski—together with Marian Kukiel, Walery Sławek, Kazimierz Sosnkowski, Witold Jodko-Narkiewicz and Henryk Minkiewicz—organized the secret Combat Association (Związek Walki Czynnej), directed at organizing an uprising against the Russian Empire, one of Poland's three partitioners. In 1910, likewise in Lwów, Sikorski organized a Riflemen's Association (Związek Strzelecki) and became responsible for military organization within the Commission of Confederated Independence Parties (Komisja Skonfederowanych Stronnictwo Niepodległościowych).[1]

Sikorski in 1918

Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, he became chief of the military department in the Supreme National Committee (Naczelny Komitet Narodowy) and remained in this post until 1916. Later, as a commissioner of the Polish Legions in Kraków, he was responsible for recruitment to the Legions, an army created by Józef Piłsudski to liberate Poland from Russian and, ultimately, Austro-Hungarian and German rule. The Legions initially fought in alliance with Austro-Hungary against Russia. From 1916 there was growing tension between Sikorski, who advocated cooperation with Austro-Hungary, and Piłsudski, who felt that Austro-Hungary and Germany had betrayed the trust of the Polish people. In June 1917 Piłsudski refused Austro-Hungarian orders to swear loyalty to the Austro-Hungarian emperor (the "oath crisis", kryzys przysięgowy) and was interned at the fortress of Magdeburg, while Sikorski returned to the Austro-Hungarian Army. Although in 1918 Sikorski came to agree with Piłsudski (and soon joined Piłsudski in internment), from then on the two great Polish leaders would drift farther apart.[1]

Polish-Soviet War

In 1918 the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and German empires collapsed, and Poland once again became independent, but the borders of the Second Polish Republic were not stable. On the east they would be determined in escalating conflicts among Polish, Ukrainian, Lithuanian and Soviet forces in what culminated in the Polish-Soviet War (1919–1921). After participating in the Polish-Ukrainian War, where troops under his command secured Przemyśl.[1] in the opening phase of the Polish-Soviet War, Władysław Sikorski, now commander of the Polish Army in the Galicia region, took part in the liberation of Lwów and Przemyśl. Later Sikorski commanded the Polesie Group during Poland's Kiev offensive in early 1920.[1] He had a good working relationship with French General Maxime Weygand of the Interallied Mission to Poland.

In April 1920 the Red Army of Russia's new Soviet regime pushed back the Polish forces and invaded Poland. Subsequently Sikorski failed to hold the Brest fortress, but then distinguished himself commanding the Polish 5th Army (the Lower Vistula front) during the Battle of Warsaw. At that time the Soviet forces, expecting an easy final victory, were surprised and crippled by the Polish counter-attack. During that battle (sometimes referred to as "the Miracle at the Vistula") Sikorski stopped the Bolshevik advance north of Warsaw and gave Józef Piłsudski the time he needed for his counter-offensive; for his valorous achievements Sikorski received the highest Polish military decoration, the order of Virtuti Militari. After the Battle of Warsaw, Sikorski commanded the 3rd Army during the latter stages of the Battle of Lwów and the Battle of Zamość, and then after battle of Niemen advanced with his forces toward Latvia and deep into Belarus.[1] The Poles defeated the Soviets, and the Polish-Soviet Treaty of Riga (March 1921) gave Poland substantial areas of Belarus and Ukraine (Kresy). Sikorski's fame was enhanced as he became known to the Polish public as one of the heroes of the Polish-Soviet War. He would describe his role in the war in a 1923 book, Nad Wisłą i Wkrą (At the Wisła and Wkra Rivers).

In government and in opposition

Sikorski in 1923
Sikorski with Marshal of France Ferdinand Foch (1923)

In April 1921 Sikorski succeeded Piłsudski as commander-in-chief of the Polish Armed Forces, and became chief of the Polish General Staff. Between 1922 and 1925 he held high government offices. After the assassination of President of Poland Gabriel Narutowicz, the Marshal of the Sejm (the Polish parliament), Maciej Rataj, appointed Sikorski prime minister. From December 18, 1922, to May 26, 1923, Sikorski served as Prime Minister and also as Minister of Internal Affairs, and was even considered as possible President. During his brief tenure as prime minister, he became popular with the Polish public and carried out essential reforms in addition to guiding the country's foreign policy in a direction that gained the approval and cooperation of the League of Nations and tightened Polish-French cooperation. He obtained recognition for Poland's eastern frontiers from the UK, France and the United States. From 1923 to 1924 he held the post of Chief Inspector of Infantry (Generalny Inspektor Piechoty). From February 1924 to 1925, under Prime Minister Władysław Grabski, he was Minister of Military Affairs and guided the modernization of the Polish military; he also created the Korpus Ochrony Pogranicza. His proposal, however, to increase the powers of the Minister of Military Affairs while reducing those of the Chief Inspector of the Armed Forces met with sharp disapproval from Piłsudski, who at that time was gathering many opponents of the government.[1] From 1925 to 1928 Sikorski commanded Military Corps District (Okręg Korpusu) VI in Lwów.

A democrat and supporter of the Sejm, Sikorski maintained his neutrality during Józef Piłsudski's May coup d'état in 1926, which was supported by most of the military. In due course, as a semi-dictatorial Sanacja regime was established, Sikorski joined the anti-Piłsudski opposition. In 1928 he was dismissed by Piłsudski from public service and transferred into the reserves.

In 1936, together with several prominent Polish politicians (Wincenty Witos, Ignacy Paderewski, and General Józef Haller) he joined the Front Morges, an anti-Sanacja political grouping. Sikorski largely withdrew from politics, spending much of his time in Paris, France, and working with the French Ecole Superieure de Guerre (war college). On the basis of his experiences in the Polish-Soviet War, he wrote a book on the future of maneuver warfare, Przyszła wojna – jej możliwości i charakter oraz związane z nimi zagadnienia obrony kraju (War in the Future: Its Possibilities and Character and Associated Questions of National Defense, Polish and French editions 1934, English edition 1943), foreseeing the scale of the next World War and advancing ideas similar to the German concept of Blitzkrieg ("lightning war"). Alongside France's Charles de Gaulle and Russia's Mikhail Tukhachevski, he may be considered one of the pioneers of Blitzkrieg theory. While the book received little attention in Poland, it was closely studied in other countries, especially Soviet Russia.[2] During this period, he wrote several other books and many articles, foreseeing, among other things, the rapid militarization of Germany[1] and the deleterious effects of Western appeasement policies. As the international situation deteriorated, Sikorski returned to Poland in 1938, hoping to be of more active service to his country.[1]

Prime Minister in exile

Sikorski (left) with Polish General Marian Kukiel, Clementine and Winston Churchill, and Polish ambassador Count Edward Raczyński

When Poland was invaded by Germany in September 1939, Sikorski was refused a military command by the Polish Commander in Chief, Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły. Sikorski escaped through Romania to Paris, where on September 28 he joined Władysław Raczkiewicz and Stanisław Mikołajczyk in a Polish government-in-exile, becoming from September 30 the Polish prime ministers in exile[3] He preserved the continuity of his country’s government and was respected and recognized by the population of occupied Poland. During his years as prime minister in exile, Sikorski personified the hopes and dreams of millions of Poles, as reflected in the saying, "When the sun is higher, Sikorski is nearer" (Polish: "Gdy słoneczko wyżej, to Sikorski bliżej").[1] On November 7 he became Commander in Chief and General Inspector of the Armed Forces (Naczelny Wódz i Generalny Inspektor Sił Zbrojnych).

His government was recognized by the western Allies, as Poland, even with its territories occupied, still commanded substantial armed forces: the Polish Navy had sailed to Britain, and many thousands of Polish troops had escaped via Romania and Hungary or across the Baltic Sea. Those routes would be used until the end of the war by both interned soldiers and volunteers from Poland, who jocularly called themselves "Sikorski's tourists" and embarked on their dangerous journeys, braving death or imprisonment in concentration camps if caught by the Germans or their allies. With the steady flow of recruits, the new Polish Army was soon reassembled in France and in French-mandated Syria.

In 1940 the Polish Highland Brigade took part in the Battle of Narvik (Norway), and two Polish divisions participated in the defense of France, while a Polish motorized brigade and two infantry divisions were in process of forming. A Polish Independent Carpathian Brigade was created in French-mandated Syria, to which many Polish troops had escaped from Romania. The Polish Air Force in France comprised 86 aircraft in four squadrons. One and a half of the squadrons were fully operational, while the rest were in various stages of training. At that time Poland was the third most powerful Ally, with some 84,000 soldiers in France alone.

Although many Polish personnel had died in the fighting or had been interned in Switzerland following the fall of France, General Sikorski refused French Marshal Philippe Pétain's proposal of capitulation to Germany.[1] On June 19, 1940, Sikorski met with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and promised that Polish forces would fight alongside the British until final victory.[1] Sikorski and his government moved to London and were able to evacuate many Polish troops to Britain. After the signing of a Polish-British Military Agreement on August 5, 1940, they proceeded to build up and train the Polish Armed Forces.[1] Experienced Polish pilots took part in the Battle of Britain, where the Polish 303 Fighter Squadron achieved the highest number of kills of any Allied squadron. After the creation of the pro-German Vichy government in France and the ensuing split of French forces, the Polish Army in the United Kingdom and the Middle East became the second largest Allied army after that of the United Kingdom.

Sikorski (left) with Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle
Władysław Anders and Sikorski with Stalin (1941)

Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union ("Operation Barbarossa") in June 1941, General Sikorski was among the first to realize that the complexion of the war had drastically changed. Strongly encouraged by British Foreign Office diplomat Anthony Eden, Sikorski on July 30, 1941, opened negotiations with the Soviet ambassador to London, Ivan Maisky, to re-establish diplomatic relations between Poland and the Soviet Union, which had been broken off after the Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939. Later that year, Sikorski went to Moscow with a diplomatic mission (including the future Polish ambassador to Moscow, Stanisław Kot, and chief of the Polish Military Mission in the Soviet Union, General Zygmunt Szyszko-Bohusz). Sikorski was the architect of the agreement reached by the Polish Government with the Soviet Union (the Sikorski-Maisky Pact of August 17, 1941), confirmed by Joseph Stalin in December of that year. Stalin agreed to invalidate the September 1939 Soviet-German partition of Poland, declare the Russo-German Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939 null and void, and release tens of thousands of Polish prisoners-of-war held in Soviet camps. Pursuant to an agreement between the Polish government-in-exile and Stalin, the Soviets granted "amnesty" to many Polish citizens, from whom a 75,000-strong army (the Polish II Corps) was formed under General Władysław Anders and later evacuated to the Middle East, where Britain faced a dire shortage of military forces. The whereabouts of thousands more Polish officers, however, would remain unknown for two more years, and this would weigh heavily on both Polish-Soviet relations and on Sikorski's fate.[1]

Nonetheless, Sikorski soon realized that the Soviet Union had plans for Polish territories, which would be unacceptable to Polish public. The Soviets began their diplomatic offensive after their first major military victory in the Battle of Moscow. In January 1942 the Soviets through diplomatic channels revealed their claims to the city of Lwow. On January 26, British diplomat Stafford Cripps informed General Sikorski that while Stalin planned to extend Polish borders to the west, by giving Poland Germany’s East Prussia, he also wanted to considerably push Poland’s eastern frontier westwards, along the lines of the Versailles concept of the Curzon Line.

Sikorksi's stance on eastern borders was not inflexible; in a memo to US President Roosevelt in December 1942 he anticipated losses in the east and proposed that the Polish_German border should be pushed much further to the west, with Poland occupying "the zone up to the Oder and Lusatian Neisse with bridegeheads on the left bank".[4] This position alienated the US Polish community; labelled as an appeaser by some groups and striving for support from Roosevelt, he issued a statement in December 1942 that the war was "not about borders."[5]

Sikorski met with British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden in January 1942 to discuss Poland's future. He linked its security with that of Europe as a whole, and proposed the creation of a new Polish-Lithuanian union, to be governed by an English prince. He also stated that "It is quite impossible...for Poland to continue to maintain 3.5 million Jews after the war. Room must be found for them elsewhere."[6]

Katyn

In 1943 the fragile relations between the Soviet Union and the Polish government-in-exile finally reached their breaking point when, on April 13, the Germans announced the discovery of the bodies of 4,000 Polish officers who had been murdered by the Soviets and buried in Katyn Forest, near Smolensk, Russia.[1] Stalin claimed that the atrocity had been carried out by the Germans,[7] while Nazi propaganda orchestrated by Joseph Goebbels successfully exploited the Katyn massacre to drive a wedge between Poland, the Western Allies and the Soviet Union.[8] The Soviet Union/Russia didn't acknowledge its responsibility for this and similar massacres of Polish officers until the 1990s.[9]

When Sikorski refused to accept the Soviet explanation and requested an investigation by the International Red Cross on April 16,[10] the Soviets accused the government-in-exile of cooperating with Nazi Germany and broke off diplomatic relations on April 26.[11] At that time the intentions of the Soviet Union become clear: Stalin wanted the recognition of his recent annexation of the Baltic states, and redrawing the Polish-Soviet border at the Curzon Line, which the government-in-exile would never accept, as it would mean the loss of about a third of Poland's territory.

The Soviets were able to sever relations with the Polish government-in-exile by exploiting controversy over an atrocity which they had themselves committed against Polish forces. They were also able to clear the way for a postwar communist-sponsored Polish government (PKWN) which would yield compliantly to Soviet demands. Stalin soon began a campaign for recognition by the Western Allies of a Soviet-backed Polish government led by Wanda Wasilewska, a dedicated communist with a seat in the Supreme Soviet, with General Zygmunt Berling, commander of the 1st Polish Army in Russia, as commander-in-chief of all Polish armed forces.[12]

Death

Sikorski's Liberator, lying on its back with its wheels just having started to retract, in the sea just off Gibraltar following the crash (1943)

On July 4, 1943, while Sikorski was returning from an inspection of Polish forces deployed in the Middle East, he was killed, together with his daughter, his Chief of Staff, Tadeusz Klimecki, and seven others, when his plane, a Liberator II, serial AL523, crashed into the sea 16 seconds after takeoff from Gibraltar Airport at 23:07 hours. He was subsequently buried in a brick-lined grave at the Polish War Cemetery in Newark-on-Trent, England. On September 17, 1993, his remains were exhumed and transferred to the royal crypts at Wawel Castle in Kraków, Poland. Other than to confirm the identity of the remains, no forensic examination was made.[1]

On July 2, 2008 Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz gave consent for the exhumation of Sikorski's remains from their grave in Krakow. An exhumation was necessary to investigate the circumstances of how Sikorski died, in spite of the account provided by the British Government.[13] In January 2009 Polish investigators concluded that there was no evidence Sikorski was murdered.[14]

Advertisements

Aftermath

Sikorski's funeral in London
Biuletyn Informacyjny from July 15, 1943 informing about the death of general Władysław Sikorski and ordering a national day of mourning

Immediately after the crash, a Polish officer who had witnessed the event from the airstrip began sobbing quietly and repeating: "This is the end of Poland. This is the end of Poland.".[1] General Sikorski's death marked a turning point for Polish influence amongst the Anglo-American allies. No Pole after him would have much sway with the Allied politicians.[15] Sikorski had been the most prestigious leader of the Polish exiles and his death was a severe setback for the Polish cause.[15] In some ways it was also convenient for the western Allies, who were finding the Polish question a stumbling-block to preserving good relations with Stalin.[15] After the Soviets had broken off diplomatic relations with Sikorski's government in April 1943, in May and June Stalin had recalled several Soviet ambassadors for "consultations": Maxim Litvinov from Washington, Gusiev from Montreal, Ivan Maisky from London. In June, Stalin had also initiated secret negotiations with Germany (via the Bulgarian embassy in Moscow), which had led the western Allies to speculate about the possibility of the Soviets making a separate peace with Germany. While Churchill had been publicly supportive of Sikorski's government, reminding Stalin of his pact with Nazi Germany in 1939 and their joint attack on Poland, in secret consultations with Roosevelt he admitted that some concessions would have to be made by Poland to appease the powerful Soviets. The Polish-Soviet crisis was beginning to threaten cooperation between the western Allies and the Soviet Union at a time when the Poles' importance to the western Allies, essential in the first years of the war, was beginning to fade with the entry into the conflict of the military and industrial giants, the Soviet Union and the United States.[15]

The Allies had no intention of allowing Sikorski's successor, Stanisław Mikołajczyk, to threaten the alliance with the Soviets. Poland, was not represented at the Tehran, Yalta or Potsdam conferences. Only four months after Sikorski's death, in November 1943, at Tehran, Churchill and Roosevelt agreed with Stalin that the whole of Poland east of the "Curzon Line" would be ceded to the Soviets, even if it were contrary to the Atlantic Charter.

In the summer of 1944, as the Polish Government in London had warned all along, the Soviet Government sponsored a Committee of National Liberation in Poland, which the Red Army was now "liberating." The Committee was recognized by the Soviet Government as the only legitimate authority in Poland, while Mikołajczyk’s Government in London, was termed by the Soviets an "illegal and self-styled authority." At the Potsdam conference in 1945, Churchill and Stalin settled the details of a new Polish Provisional Government in which the London Polish government-in-exile would have only minor influence, further diminished by the Red Army's support for the Polish communists.

In the People's Republic of Poland, Sikorski's historic role, like that of all the adherents of the London government, would be minimized and distorted by propaganda, and those loyal to the government-in-exile would be liable to imprisonment and even execution. Memory of General Sikorski was preserved both in Poland and abroad, by organizations like the Sikorski Institute. The Polish government-in-exile would continue in existence until the end of communist rule in Poland in 1990, when Lech Wałęsa became the first post-communist President of Poland[16][17][18][19] (some argue Gen. W. Jaruzelski was the first post-communist President[20]). In 2003, the Polish parliament (Sejm) declared the year (60th anniversary of Sikorski's death) to be the "Year of General Sikorski".[1] He is commemorated in London's Portland Place with a larger than life statue.

Controversy surrounding death

In 1943 a British Court of Inquiry investigated the crash of Sikorski's Liberator II serial AL 523, but was unable to determine the cause, finding only that it was an accident[15] and the "aircraft became uncontrollable for reasons which cannot be established". A popular theory was insufficient technical maintenance leading to jamming aircraft controls.[1] Despite this finding, the political context of the event, coupled with a variety of curious circumstances, immediately gave rise to speculation that Sikorski's death had been no accident, and may have been the direct result of a Soviet, British or even Polish conspiracy.

Six weeks before the crash, while Sikorski had been at Gibraltar for the first time en route to his Middle East inspection, a Polish government office in London received a phone call stating that Sikorski had been killed in a crash at Gibraltar; the call had been discounted as a prank. It is often mentioned that two of Sikorski's previous planes had been subject to incidents. The November 30, 1942, forced landing at Montreal, Canada, was suspected to have been caused by sabotage. Another incident took place a few months earlier, in March.[21] At Gibraltar, because of the special treatment accorded VIPs, there was uncertainty about who had in fact boarded the plane and about the exact cargo manifest—all leading to uncertainty as to the identity of the bodies recovered from the crash site; some bodies, including that of Sikorski's daughter, Zofia, were never recovered.[22]

Memorial plaque dedicated to Sikorski located at the end of the Great Siege Tunnels in Gibraltar

Since five bodies were never found and the bodies of several members of Sikorski's entourage were never positively identified, some conspiracy theorists postulate that they might have survived and been kidnapped to the Soviet Union. Among the putative kidnap victims was Sikorski's daughter, Zofia Leśniowska, who was reported in 1945 to have been spotted in a Soviet Gulag by a member of the elite Polish commandos (Cichociemni), Tadeusz Kobyliński. According to an article by Jan Kozłowski, Kobyliński attempted in 1945 or 1946 to gather Armia Krajowa personnel for a mission to rescue Leśniowska, but was captured at the border by Soviet agents and never heard from again.[22]

Sikorski had requested a Czech officer, Eduard Prchal, to pilot the flight. Prchal, sole survivor of the crash, like many pilots who did not wish to tempt fate was known for never wearing his Mae West life vest – but on this occasion, when rescued from the sea, he was wearing one. During the inquiry he denied this, and later blamed the inconsistency on post-crash shock affecting his actions and memory – essentially, on amnesia. Later he explained that he must have instinctively put the vest on when he realised the plane was in trouble.[23]

At about the same time as Sikorski's plane had been left unguarded at the Gibraltar airfield, a Soviet plane had been parked next to it. It carried Soviet ambassador Maisky[1] and a retinue of a dozen or so unidentified officers and soldiers. It had been bound for the Soviet Union, with a stop at a rarely used African airfield instead of the nearby, commonly used airport at Castel Benito, near Tripoli. Eyewitnesses reported that at Gibraltar the Soviets had stayed at the same place as Sikorski, the Governor's palace; Maisky, however, in a 1966 interview said that he clearly remembered having stayed at the Gibraltar Fortress and not having been aware of Sikorski's presence on the Rock. Gibraltar's British Governor, Noel Mason-Macfarlane, who prior to appointment to Gibraltar served as Head of the British Military Mission in Moscow, reportedly withheld knowledge from Maisky about Sikorski's presence in order to prevent any diplomatic incident.

In a recently declassified briefing paper dated January 24, 1969, to the British Cabinet Secretary, Sir Burke Trend, Sir Robin Cooper, a former pilot employed in the Cabinet Office, wrote, after reviewing the wartime inquiry's findings: "Security at Gibraltar was casual, and a number of opportunities for sabotage arose while the aircraft was there." Although Sir Robin doubted that sabotage had taken place, or that the pilot had crashed the aircraft deliberately, he went on to add: "The possibility of Sikorski's murder by the British is excluded from this paper. The possibility of his murder by persons unknown cannot be so excluded." The inquiry's finding about the jammed airplane controls, he wrote, seemed plausible. "But it still leaves open the question of what—or who—jammed them. No one has ever provided a satisfactory answer." It is worth noting that the head of the British Secret Intelligence Service's counterintelligence for the Iberian Peninsula from 1941 to 1944 was Kim Philby, the Soviet double agent who would defect in 1963 and later claim to have been a double agent since the 1940s. Before 1941, Philby had served as an instructor with the Special Operations Executive, an organization specializing in sabotage and diversion behind enemy lines.[23]

Suspicions that Sikorski had been assassinated continued to surface throughout the war and afterward, reaching their height in 1968 with the London staging of a play, Soldiers, by the German writer Rolf Hochhuth. The play contained the sensational allegation that none other than Winston Churchill had been in on the plot.[24] In early 1969 the Prime Minister of the British Labour Government, Harold Wilson, who was familiar with all the above evidence (much of which was then classified and unknown to the general public), asserted before the House of Commons: "There is no evidence at all that there is any need or reason to re-open the inquiry." Nonetheless the conclusion of the 1969 was that the 1943 investigation was politically toned down.[15]

None of the allegations of conspiracy have ever been proven. On the other hand, by 2000 only a small portion of British intelligence documents relating to Sikorski's death had been ." The reason why these documents continue to be classified and why British intelligence refuses to disclose the information and what it has to hide has not been answered. With the few documents currently available, most historians agree that it cannot be determined whether Sikorski died in a real accident or was in fact assassinated, or by whom. Speculations range from conspiracies involving the Germans,[15] Soviets,[15] Western Allies[15][24] and even the Polish political opponents[15][24], and various combinations of these factions.

There have been claims that the arrest of Gen. Stefan Rowecki on June 30, 1943 is linked with the death of Gen. Sikorski[15] and the arrest of the commander of NSZ (Narodowe Siły Zbrojne) colonel Ignacy Oziewicz who was arrested on June 9, 1943. The fact of the matter is that within a period of two months, the Polish Army lost three top commanders. Two of them were betrayed to the Gestapo and one died in a plane crash.

The crash of Sikorski's Liberator is portrayed in the 1958 film The Silent Enemy, in which the team of Royal Navy divers charged with retrieving Sikorski's briefcase from the wrecked aircraft is led by Lionel "Buster" Crabb, himself later to disappear in 1956 in mysterious circumstances while diving in the vicinity of a visiting Soviet warship. Because of a new wave of conspiracy theories in Poland in the first decade of 21st century, suggesting that Sikorski allegedly had been poisoned before take-off, on November 25, 2008 Sikorski's body was exhumed from Wawel's cathedral in Kraków, in order to investigate the cause of his death[25]. Investigators concluded Sikorski's injuries were consistent with a plane crash and that there was no evidence that he was poisoned, shot or strangled.[26]

Works

General Sikorski was also an active writer on the subjects of military tactics and describing his personal war experiences.[1] His works include:

  • Regulamin musztry Związku Strzeleckiego i elementarna taktyka piechoty (Drill Regulations of the Riflemen's Association and Basic Infantry Tactics), 1911.
  • Nad Wisłą i Wkrą. Studium do polsko–radzieckiej wojny 1920 roku (At the Vistula and the Wkra Rivers: a Contribution to the Study of the Polish-Soviet War of 1920), 1923; latest edition, Warsaw, 1991.
  • O polską politykę państwową. Umowy i deklaracje z okresu pełnienia urzędu prezesa Rady Ministrów 18 XII 1922 - 26 V 1923 (Polish National Policies: Agreements and Declarations from My Tenure as Prime Minister, December 18, 1922 to May 26, 1923), 1923.
  • Podstawy organizacji naczelnych władz wojskowych w Polsce (Basic Organization of the Supreme Military Authorities in Poland), 1923.
  • Polesie jako węzeł strategiczny wschodniego frontu (Polesie as a Strategic Node of the Eastern Front), 1924.
  • La campagne polono-russe de 1920 (French: The Polish-Russian Campaign of 1920), 1928.
  • Generał Władysław Sikorski: Publicystyka generała Władysława Sikorskiego na łamach Kuriera Warszawskiego w latach 1928–1939 (General Władysław Sikorski: Articles by General Władysław Sikorski in the Warsaw Courier, 1928–1939), Oficyna Wydawnicza Aspra, 1999, ISBN 8390893738.
  • Polska i Francja w przeszłości i w dobie współczesnej (Poland and France in the Past and in the Present Day), 1931.
  • Przyszła wojna – jej możliwości i charakter oraz związane z nimi zagadnienia obrony kraju (War in the Future: Its Capacities and Character and Associated Questions of National Defense), 1934; translated into French in 1934, and into English in 1943; latest edition Warsaw, MON, 1972.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u (Polish) Various authors. Biuletyn „Kombatant” nr specjalny (148) czerwiec 2003 Special Edition of Kombatant Bulletin No.148 6/2003 on the occasion of the Year of General Sikorski. Official publication of the Polish government Agency of Combatants and Repressed
  2. ^ Bernard A. Cook (2001). Europe Since 1945. Taylor & Francis. http://books.google.com/books?id=hafLHZgZtt4C&pg=PA1140&dq=sikorski+lose+eastern+borders&as_brr=3&client=firefox-a.  
  3. ^ Stanislaw Mikolajczyk The Pattern of Soviet Domination Sampson Low, Marston & Co 1948 Page 7
  4. ^ Sarah Meiklejohn Terry (1983). Poland's Place in Europe: General Sikorski and the Origin of the Oder-Neisse Line, 1939-1943. Princeton University Press.  
  5. ^ James S. Pula (1995). Polish Americans: An Ethnic Community. Verlag für die Deutsche Wirtschaft AG. http://books.google.com/books?id=rXzHHZN4mmcC&pg=PA89&dq=sikorski+chicago&lr=&as_brr=3&client=firefox-a#PPA90,M1.  
  6. ^ Anita J. Pra˙zmowska (1995). Britain and Poland, 1939-43: The betrayed ally. Cambridge University Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=Z4J2c4jEhjYC&pg=PA122&dq=sikorski+monarch&client=firefox-a#PPA122,M1.  
  7. ^ Zawodny, Janusz K. (1962). Death in the Forest: The Story of the Katyn Forest Massacre. University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-00849-3. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27886543.  
  8. ^ Goebbels, Joseph. The Goebbels Diaries (1942–1943). Translated by Louis P. Lochner. Doubleday & Company. 1948
  9. ^ Russia to release massacre files. BBC News, December 16, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-10-27.
  10. ^ , The Polish Government official statement on òApril 17, 1943, published in London on April 18online, last accessed on December 19, 2005, English translation of Polish document
  11. ^ Soviet Note of April 25, 1943, severing unilaterally Soviet-Polish diplomatic relations online, last accessed on December 19, 2005, English translation of Polish document
  12. ^ Martin Dean, "Collaboration in the Holocaust: Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine, 1941–44", Palgrave, 1999, ISBN 0-312-22056-1 Google Book page view
  13. ^ Easton, Adam (2008-11-10). "Probe into Poland WWII PM death". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7720293.stm. Retrieved 2009-01-02.  
  14. ^ No evidence Polish hero murdered BBC News, January 29, 2009
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k (Polish) Stanczyk, Zbigniew L. "Tajemnica gen. Sikorskiego", Przegląd Polski Online", December 7, 2002. Retrieved on August 2, 2005
  16. ^ "Poles apart: why Lech Walesa has left solidarity after 26 years". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/poles-apart-why-lech-walesa-has-left-solidarity-after-26-years-413126.html. Retrieved 2009-01-02.  
  17. ^ "What Lech Walesa did". Economist.com. 1990-09-22. http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?story_id=11632772. Retrieved 2009-01-02.  
  18. ^ "Lech Walesa Biography". Biography.com. http://www.biography.com/search/article.do?id=12103200. Retrieved 2009-01-02.  
  19. ^ "Walesa faces collaboration charge". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/863282.stm. Retrieved 2009-01-02.  
  20. ^ "Poland - Questions, Answers, Fun Facts, Information". Funtrivia.com. http://www.funtrivia.com/en/History/Poland-7363.html. Retrieved 2009-01-02.  
  21. ^ 'Polish soldier's 'fishy' sabotage tale' BBC September 4, 2006
  22. ^ a b (Polish) Baliszewski, Dawid, "Bransoletka Zofii" ("Zofia's Bracelet"), Tygodnik Wprost, no. 1152 (December 31, 2004) Retrieved on March 24, 2005.
  23. ^ a b (Polish) Mac, Jerzy Sławomir, "Gibraltarski łącznik," Tygodnik Wprost, no. 923 (August 6 2000). Retrieved on March 24, 2005.
  24. ^ a b c "A Charge of Murder," TIME, October 20, 1967. Retrieved on March 15, 2005.
  25. ^ Poland exhumes wartime leader Sikorski The Daily Telegraphy
  26. ^ No evidence Polish hero murdered. BBC News, January 29, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-01-29

Further reading

  • Generał Sikorski, premier, naczelny wodz (General Sikorski: Prime Minister, Commander in Chief), London, Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum, 1981, ISBN 0902508091.
  • Irving, David, Accident: the Death of General Sikorski, 1967, ISBN 0718304209.
  • Peszke, Michael Alfred, The Polish Underground Army, the Western Allies, and the Failure of Strategic Unity in World War II, foreword by Piotr S. Wandycz, Jefferson, NC, McFarland & Company, 2005.
  • Terry, Sarah Meiklejohn, Poland's Place in Europe: General Sikorski and the Origin of the Oder-Neisse Line, 1939–1943, Princeton University Press, 1983, ISBN 069107643X.
  • Waszak, Leon, and P. Lang, "Agreement in Principle: the Wartime Partnership of General Wladyslaw Sikorski and Winston Churchill," Studies in Modern European History, vol. 20, April 1996, ISBN 0820428493
  • Dead Men's Secrets the Mysterious Death of General Sikorski, The History Channel DVD, ASIN: B0007V0YCQ

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Julian Nowak
Prime Minister of Poland
1922 to 1923
Succeeded by
Wincenty Witos
Preceded by
Felicjan Sławoj-Składkowski
(Prime Minister in Poland)
Prime Minister of the Polish Republic in Exile
1939 to 1943
Succeeded by
Stanisław Mikołajczyk
Military offices
Preceded by
Edward Rydz-Śmigły
General Inspector of the Armed Forces
1939–1943
Succeeded by
Kazimierz Sosnkowski

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Wladyslaw Sikorski (1881–1943) was a Polish soldier and politician.

Churchill's Tribute to Sikorski

"We learned yesterday that the cause of the w:United Nations had suffered a most grievous loss. (Hear, hear.) It is my duty to express the feelings of this House, and to pay my tribute to the memory of a great Polish patriot and staunch ally General Sikorski. (Sympathetic cheers.) His death in the air crash at w:Gibraltar was one of the heaviest strokes we have sustained.

"From the first dark days of the Polish catastrophe and the brutal triumph of the German war machine until the moment of his death on Sunday night he was the symbol and the embodiment of that spirit which has borne the Polish nation through centuries of sorrow and is unquenchable by agony. When the organized resistance of the w:Polish Army in Poland was beaten down, General Sikorski's first thought was to organize all Polish elements in France to carry on the struggle, and a Polish army of over 80,000 men presently took its station on the French fronts. This army fought with the utmost resolution in the disastrous battles of 1940. Part fought its way out in good order into w:Switzerland, and is today interned there. Part marched resolutely to the sea, and reached this island.

"Here General Sikorski had to begin his work again. He persevered, unwearied and undaunted. The powerful Polish forces which have now been accumulated and equipped in this country and in the Middle East, to the latter of whom his last visit was paid, now await with confidence and ardor the tasks which lie ahead. General Sikorski commanded the devoted loyalty of the Polish people now tortured and struggling in Poland itself. He personally directed that movement of resistance which has maintained a ceaseless warfare against German oppression in spite of sufferings as terrible as any nation has ever endured. (Hear, hear.) This resistance will grow in power until, at the approach of liberating armies, It will exterminate the German ravagers of the homeland.

"I was often brought into contact with General Sikorski in those years of war. I had a high regard for him, and admired his poise and calm dignity amid so many trials and baffling problems. He was a man of remarkable pre-eminence, both as a statesman and a soldier, His agreement with Marshal w:Stalin of July 30th, 1941, was an outstanding example of his political wisdom. Until the moment of his death he lived in the conviction needs of the common struggle and in the faith that a better Europe will arise in which a great and independent Poland will play an honorable part. (Cheers.) We British here and throughout the Commonwealth and Empire, who declared war on Germany because of Hitler's invasion of Poland and in fulfillment of our guarantee, feel deeply for our Polish allies in their new loss.

"We express our sympathy to them, we express our confidence in their immortal qualities, and we proclaim our resolve that General Sikorski's work as Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief shall not have been done in vain. (Cheers.) The House would, I am sure, wish also that its sympathy should be conveyed to Madame Sikorski, who dwells here in England, and whose husband and daughter have both been simultaneously killed on duty." - w:Winston Churchill in the House of Commons, 7 July 1943


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message