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Gray Wolf
Fossil range: Late Pleistocene–Recent

Wolf howl audio
Rallying cry audio
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Caninae
Tribe: Canini[2]
Genus: Canis
Species: C. lupus
Binomial name
Canis lupus
Linnaeus, 1758
Range map. Green, present; red, former.
The gray wolf or grey wolf (Canis lupus), often known simply as the wolf, is the largest wild member of the Canidae family. It is an ice age survivor originating during the Late Pleistocene around 300,000 years ago.[3] DNA sequencing and genetic drift studies reaffirm that the gray wolf shares a common ancestry with the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). Although certain aspects of this conclusion have been questioned, the main body of evidence confirms it. A number of other gray wolf subspecies have been identified, though the actual number of subspecies is still open to discussion. Gray wolves are typically apex predators in the ecosystems they occupy.
Though once abundant over much of Eurasia and North America, the gray wolf inhabits a very small portion of its former range because of widespread destruction of its territory, human encroachment, and the resulting human-wolf encounters that sparked broad extirpation. Even so, the gray wolf is regarded as being of least concern for extinction according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, when the entire gray wolf population is considered as a whole. Today, wolves are protected in some areas, hunted for sport in others, or may be subject to extermination as perceived threats to livestock and pets.
In areas where human cultures and wolves are sympatric, wolves frequently feature in the folklore and mythology of those cultures, both positively and negatively.

Contents

Physiology

Physical characteristics

Gray wolf weight and size can vary greatly worldwide, tending to increase proportionally with latitude as predicted by Bergmann's Rule. In general, height varies from 0.6 to 0.95 meters (24 to 37 in) at the shoulder. Wolf weight varies geographically; on average, European wolves may weigh 38.5 kilograms (85 lb), North American wolves 36 kilograms (79 lb), and Indian and Arabian wolves 25 kilograms (55 lb).[4] Though rarely encountered, extreme specimens of more than 77 kilograms (170 lb) have been recorded in Alaska, Canada,[5] and the former Soviet Union.[6] The heaviest recorded gray wolf in North America was killed on 70 Mile River in east-central Alaska on July 12, 1939 and weighed 79 kilograms (170 lb),[4] while the heaviest recorded wolf in Eurasia was killed after World War II in the Kobelyakski Area of the Poltavskij Region in the Ukrainian SSR, and weighed 86 kilograms (190 lb).[7] Grey wolves are sexually dimorphic, with females in any given wolf population typically weighing 20% less than males.[8] Females also have narrower muzzles and foreheads; slightly shorter, smoother furred legs; and less massive shoulders.[4] Gray wolves can measure anywhere from 1.3 to 2 meters (4.3 to 6.6 ft) from nose to the tip of the tail, which itself accounts for approximately one quarter of overall body length.[9]
Gray Wolf skeleton
Gray wolves rely on their stamina rather than speed for hunting. Their narrow chests and powerful backs and legs facilitate efficient locomotion. They are capable of covering several miles trotting at about 10 kilometers per hour (6 mph), and have been known to reach speeds approaching 65 kilometers per hour (40 mph) during a chase.[10] One female gray wolf was recorded to have made 7-meter (23 ft) bounds when chasing prey.[7]
Gray wolf paws are able to tread easily on a wide variety of terrains, especially snow. There is a slight webbing between each toe, which allows them to move over snow more easily than comparatively hampered prey. Gray wolves are digitigrade, which, with the relative largeness of their feet, helps them to distribute their weight well on snowy surfaces. The front paws are larger than the hind paws, and have a fifth digit, the dewclaw, that is absent on hind paws.[11] Bristled hairs and blunt claws enhance grip on slippery surfaces, and special blood vessels keep paw pads from freezing.[12] Scent glands located between a wolf's toes leave trace chemical markers behind, helping the wolf to effectively navigate over large expanses while concurrently keeping others informed of its whereabouts.[12] Unlike dogs and western coyotes, gray wolves have a lower density of sweat glands on their paws. This trait is also present in Eastern Canadian Coyotes which have been shown to have recent wolf ancestry.[13] Wolves in Israel are unique due to the middle two toes of their paws being fused, a trait originally thought to be unique to the African Wild Dog.[14]
Genetic research has shown that black furred wolves owe their colouration to a mutation that first arose in domestic dogs
Wolves have bulky coats consisting of two layers. The first layer is made up of tough guard hairs that repel water and dirt. The second is a dense, water-resistant undercoat that insulates. The undercoat is shed in the form of large tufts of fur in late spring or early summer (with yearly variations). A wolf will often rub against objects such as rocks and branches to encourage the loose fur to fall out. The undercoat is usually gray regardless of the outer coat's appearance. Wolves have distinct winter and summer pelages that alternate in spring and autumn. Females tend to keep their winter coats further into the spring than males.
Gray wolves molt some of their coats in late spring or early summer
Fur coloration varies greatly, running from gray to gray-brown, all the way through the canine spectrum of white, red, brown, and black. These colors tend to mix in many populations to form predominantly blended individuals, though it is not uncommon for an individual or an entire population to be entirely one color (usually all black or all white). With the exception of Italy, in which black wolves can constitute 20-25% of the entire population, melanistic wolves rarely occur outside the North American continent.[15] According to genetic examinations, the black coat colour is based on a mutation that first arose among domestic dogs and later migrated into the wolf-population via interbreeding.[16] A multicolor coat characteristically lacks any clear pattern other than it tends to be lighter on the animal's underside. Fur color sometimes corresponds with a given wolf population's environment; for example, all-white wolves are much more common in areas with perennial snow cover. Aging wolves acquire a grayish tint in their coats. It is often thought that the coloration of the wolf's pelage serves as a functional form of camouflage. This may not be entirely correct, as some scientists have concluded that the blended colors have more to do with emphasizing certain gestures during interaction.[4]
At birth, wolf pups tend to have darker fur and blue irises that will change to a yellow-gold or orange color when the pups are between 8 and 16 weeks old.[17] Wolves' long, powerful muzzles help distinguish them from other canids, particularly coyotes and Golden Jackals, which have more narrow, pointed muzzles. In wolves, the anterior incisure of the nasal bones does not have a medial protrusion, unlike jackals. The cingulum on the external edge of the first upper molar is only slightly expressed, while it is broad and distinctly marked in jackals.[18]
Adolescent wolf with golden-yellow eyes
Wolves differ from domestic dogs in a more varied nature. Anatomically, wolves have smaller orbital angles than dogs (over 53 degrees for dogs, under 45 degrees for wolves) and a comparatively larger brain capacity.[19] Larger paw size, yellow eyes, longer legs, and bigger teeth further distinguish adult wolves from other canids, especially dogs. Also, a supracaudal gland is present at the base of the tail in wolves but not in many dogs.
Wolves and most larger dogs share identical dentition. The maxilla has six incisors, two canines, eight premolars, and four molars. The mandible has six incisors, two canines, eight premolars, and six molars.[20] The fourth upper premolars and first lower molars constitute the carnassial teeth, which are essential tools for shearing flesh. The long canine teeth are also important, in that they hold and subdue the prey. Capable of delivering up to 10,000 kilopascals (1,500 psi) of pressure, a wolf's teeth are its main weapons as well as its primary tools.[4] This is roughly twice the pressure that a domestic dog of similar size can deliver.[21] The dentition of grey wolves is better suited to bone crushing than those of other modern canids, though it is not as specialised as that found in hyenas.[22]
Wolf saliva has been shown to reduce bacterial infection in wounds and accelerate tissue regeneration.[23]

Reproduction and life cycle

Generally, mating occurs between January and April—the higher the latitude, the later it occurs.[24] A pack usually produces a single litter unless the breeding male mates with one or more subordinate females. During the mating season, breeding wolves become very affectionate with one another in anticipation of the female's ovulation cycle. The pack tension rises as each mature wolf feels urged to mate. During this time, the breeding pair may be forced to prevent other wolves from mating with one another.[25] Incest rarely occurs, though inbreeding depression has been reported to be a problem for wolves in Saskatchewan[26] and Isle Royale.[27] When the breeding female goes into estrus (which occurs once per year and lasts 5–14 days),[28] she and her mate will spend an extended time in seclusion. Pheromones in the female's urine and the swelling of her vulva make known to the male that the female is in heat. The female is unreceptive for the first few days of estrus, during which time she sheds the lining of her uterus; but when she begins ovulating again, the two wolves mate.
Wolf nursing her pups
The gestation period lasts between 60 and 63 days. The pups, which weigh about 0.5-kilogram (1 lb) at birth, are born blind, deaf, and completely dependent on their mother.[24][29] The average litter size is 5–6 pups, though there are two Soviet records of litters consisting of 17 pups.[7] The pups reside in the den and stay there for two months. The den is usually on high ground near an open water source, and has an open chamber at the end of an underground or hillside tunnel that can be up to a few meters long.[12] During this time, the pups will become more independent, and will eventually begin to explore the area immediately outside the den before gradually roaming up to a mile away from it at around five weeks of age. Wolf growth rate is slower than that of coyotes and dholes.[30] They begin eating regurgitated foods after two weeks of feeding on milk, which in wolves has less fat and more protein and arginine than dog milk.[8] By this time, their milk teeth have emerged—and are fully weaned by 10 weeks. During the first weeks of development, the mother usually stays with her litter alone, but eventually most members of the pack will contribute to the rearing of the pups in some way.[24] After two months, the restless pups will be moved to a rendezvous site, where they can stay safely while most of the adults go out to hunt. One or two adults stay behind to ensure the safety of the pups. After a few more weeks, the pups are permitted to join the adults if they are able, and will receive priority on anything killed, their low ranks notwithstanding. Letting the pups fight for eating privileges results in a secondary ranking being formed among them, and allows them to practice the dominance/submission rituals that will be essential to their future survival in pack life.[24] During hunts, the pups remain ardent observers until they reach about eight months of age, by which time they are large enough to participate actively.
Wolves typically reach sexual maturity after two or three years, at which point many of them will be compelled to leave their birth packs and seek out mates and territories of their own.[24][31] Wolves that reach maturity generally live six to ten years in the wild, although in captivity they can live to twice that age.[32] High mortality rates give them a low overall life expectancy. Pups die when food is scarce; they can also fall prey to predators such as bears, tigers, or other wolves. The most significant causes of mortality for grown wolves are hunting and poaching, car accidents, and wounds inflicted while hunting prey. Although adult wolves may occasionally be killed by other predators, rival wolf packs are often their most dangerous non-human enemy.

Diseases

Diseases recorded to be carried by wolves include brucella, deerfly fever, leptospirosis, foot-and-mouth disease, and anthrax. Wolves are major hosts for rabies in Russia, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, and India.[33] Though wolves are not reservoirs for the disease, they can catch it from other species. Wolves develop an exceptionally severe aggressive state when rabid and can bite numerous people in a single attack. Before a vaccine was developed, bites were almost always fatal. Today, rabid wolf bites can be treated, but the severity of rabid wolf attacks can sometimes result in outright death, or a bite near the head will make the disease act too fast for the treatment to take effect. Rabid attacks tend to cluster in winter and spring. With the reduction of rabies in Europe and North America, few rabid wolf attacks have been recorded, though some still occur annually in the Middle East.[34] Wolves also carry the Canine coronavirus, infections being most prevalent in winter months.[35]
Wolves in Russia have been recorded to carry over 50 different kinds of harmful parasites, including echinococcus, cysticercosis, and coenuri.[33] Wolves are also carriers of Trichinella spiralis. Between 1993-94, 148 wolf carcasses near Fairbanks, Alaska were examined for larvae, 54 (36%) of which were found to be infected. Prevalence of Trichinella spiralis in wolves is significantly related to age.[36] Wolves may carry Neospora caninum, which is of particular concern to farmers, as the disease can be spread to livestock; infected animals being three to thirteen times more likely to abort than those not infected.[37]
Despite their habit of carrying harmful diseases, large wolf populations are not heavily regulated by epizootic outbreaks as with other social canids. This is largely due to the habit of infected wolves vacating their packs, thus preventing mass contagion.[33]

Behavior

Social structure

Occasionally, single wolves are found in the wild, though packs are more common.[38][39] Lone wolves are typically old specimens driven from their pack or young adults in search of new territory.[40] Wolf packs in the northern hemisphere tend not to be as compact or unified as those of African Wild Dogs and Spotted Hyenas,[41] though they are not as unstable as those of coyotes.[42] Normally, the pack consists of a male, a female, and their offspring, essentially making the pack a nuclear family.[38][39] The size of the pack may change over time and is controlled by several factors, including habitat, personalities of individual wolves within a pack, and food supply. Packs can contain between 2 and 20 wolves, though 8 is a more typical size.[43] An unusually large pack consisting of 36 wolves was reported in 1967 in Alaska.[44] While most breeding pairs are monogamous, there are exceptions.[45] Wolves will usually remain with their parents until the age of two years. Young from the previous season will support their parents in nursing pups of a later year. Wolf cubs are very submissive to their parents, and remain so after reaching sexual maturity. On occasion in captivity, subordinate wolves may rise up and challenge the dominant pair; such revolts may result in daughters killing mothers and sons killing fathers.[46] This behavior has never been documented in the wild,[47] and it is hypothesized that it only happens in captivity because dispersal is impossible.[48] There are no documented cases of subordinate wolves challenging the leadership of their parents.[38][39][45] Instead of openly challenging the leadership of the pack leaders, most young wolves between the ages of 1–4 years leave their family in order to search for, or start, a pack of their own.[45] Wolves acting unusually, such as epileptic pups or thrashing adults crippled by a trap or a gunshot, are usually killed by other members of their own pack.[4] Asiatic and Middle Eastern wolves tend to be less inclined to socialising with any other member of their species outside their own nuclear family, passing their lives more frequently either in pairs or as social individuals, much like coyotes and dingoes.[49]
In literature, wolf packs are commonly portrayed as strongly hierarchic communities, with a dominant breeding "Alpha pair", a group of subordinate "Beta" individuals, and the scapegoat "Omega wolf" on the lowest end of the hierarchy. These descriptions are heavily based on research on captive wolf packs composed of unrelated individuals and cannot be extrapolated to wild wolf packs.[50] In captivity, dispersal of mature individuals is impossible, resulting in frequent aggressive hierarchic encounters.[38][39] According to wolf biologist L. David Mech, "Calling a wolf an alpha is usually no more appropriate than referring to a human parent or a doe deer as an alpha. Any parent is dominant to its young offspring, so alpha adds no information." and that basing observations on captive living arrangements would be like “…trying to draw inferences about human family dynamics by studying humans in refugee camps”.[45] The term may be valid under certain circumstances, such as when a pack adopts an unrelated dispersed wolf, when the breeding pair die, thus leaving the alpha position open, or when siblings disperse from a pack together. In these cases, the standard nuclear family model does not apply, which may cause wild wolves to behave more like they do in captivity.

Territorial behaviors

Wolves are territorial animals. Studies have shown that the average size of a wolf pack's territory is close to 200 km2 (80 sq mi).[51] Wolf packs travel constantly in search of prey, covering roughly 9% of their territory per day (average 25 km/d or 15 mi/d). The core of their territory is on average 35 km2 (14 sq mi), in which they spend 50% of their time.[52] Prey density tends to be much higher in the territory's surrounding areas. Despite this higher abundance of prey, wolves tend to avoid hunting in the fringes of their territory unless desperate, due to the possibility of fatal encounters with neighboring packs.[53] Established wolf packs rarely accept strangers into their territories, with one study on wolf mortality in Minnesota and the Denali National Park and Preserve concluding that 14–65% of wolf deaths were due to predation by other wolves.[54] In fact, 91% of wolf fatalities occur within 3.2 km (2.0 mi) of the borders between neighboring territories.[55] The majority of killed wolves are dominant animals, due to their greater assertiveness in confronting other packs.[56] In rare cases in which a stranger is accepted into the pack, the animal itself is almost invariably a young specimen of 1–3 years of age, while the majority of killed wolves are adults.[57]
Communication between these boundaries is achieved in part through scent marking and howling. Howling is the principal means of spacing in wolf populations. It communicates the location of a core territory as well as enforcing a territory-independent buffer zone around the roaming wolf pack. This territory-independent buffer zone is a means of avoiding encounters with neighboring packs near territory borders.[58] Lone wolves, in contrast, rarely respond to howls, instead taking an "under the radar" approach. Howling communicates a core territory over time, as a wolf pack spends much of their time there.

Dispersion

Offspring of the breeding pair tend to stay with the pack for some portion of their adulthood. These "subordinate" wolves play a number of important roles in the pack, including participating in hunts, enforcing discipline and raising pups.[59] This behavior is achieved, in part, by an active suppression of reproduction in subordinate wolves by the breeding pair. Thus, while they remain members of the pack, they are unable to reproduce, even if there are other subordinate unrelated wolves in the pack. In many wolves, the drive to reproduce leads them to leave the pack. Dispersals occur at all times during the year, and typically involve wolves that have reached sexual maturity prior to the previous breeding season.[40] Dispersed wolves search for new territory and companionship, a hazardous process that could lead to death.[47] Successful dispersions end when the wolf has found another single wolf of the opposite sex and bonds with it. Thus it takes two such dispersals from two separate packs for a new breeding pair to be formed, for dispersing wolves from the same maternal pack tend not to mate.[25] Once two dispersing wolves meet and begin traveling together, they immediately begin the process of seeking out territory, preferably in time for the next mating season.[24]

Scent marking

Wolves scent-roll to bring scents back to the pack
Wolves, like other canines, use scent marking to lay claim to anything—from territory to fresh kills.[60] Breeding wolves scent mark the most often, with males doing so more than females. The most widely used scent marker is urine. Male and female breeding wolves urine-mark objects with a raised-leg stance (all other pack members squat) to enforce rank and territory. They also use marks to identify food caches and to claim kills on behalf of the pack. Defecation markers are used for the same purpose as urine marks, and serve as a more visual warning, as well.[60] Defecation markers are particularly useful for navigation, keeping the pack from traversing the same terrain too often and also allowing each wolf to be aware of the whereabouts of its pack members. Above all, though, scent marking is used to inform other wolves and packs that a certain territory is occupied, and that they should therefore tread cautiously.
Wolves have scent glands all over their bodies, including at the base of the tail, between toes, and in the eyes, genitalia, and skin.[60] Pheromones secreted by these glands identify each individual wolf. A dominant wolf will "rub" its body against subordinate wolves to mark such wolves as being members of a particular pack. Wolves may also "paw" dirt to release pheromones instead of urine marking.[61]

Diet

Wolves feed primarily on medium to large sized ungulates, up to the size of bovines like bison. However, like most predators, they are opportunistic feeders, and will generally eat any meat that is available,[62] including non-ungulate species,[63] carrion and garbage.[62] Cannibalism is not uncommon in wolves, and has been recorded to occur in times of food scarcity,[64] when a pack member dies,[65] and during territorial disputes.[56] Some wolf packs in Alaska and Western Canada have been observed to feed on salmon.[66][67] Humans are rarely, but occasionally preyed upon (see Attacks on humans).[34][68][69][70] Wolves will typically avoid a potential prey item which does not conform to what they experienced during their lives. Generally, the greater the discrepancy to what wolves are accustomed to, the greater their resistance to exploring it. This is only increased should the new prey act bold, assertive, and fearless. Nevertheless, even if there is no food shortage, wolves will explore alternative prey if they continually come into close contact with it and habituate themselves.[71]
An American Bison standing its ground, thereby increasing its chance for survival
Unlike lion prides, wolf packs numbering above 2 individuals show little strategic cooperation in hunting large prey.[62] Wolves typically attempt to conceal themselves as they approach their prey. Often, they will wait for the prey to graze, when it is distracted.[7] If the prey animal stands its ground or confronts the pack, the wolves will approach and threaten it. The wolves will eventually leave if their prey does not run, though the length of time can range from hours to days.[62] If their prey attempts to flee, the wolves will give chase. Wolves generally do not engage in long chases, and will usually stop a pursuit after a chase of 10–180 meters (10–200 yd), though there has been one documented case of a wolf chasing a moose for 36 kilometers (22 mi).[7] Female wolves tend to be better at chasing prey than males, while the latter are more adept at wrestling large prey to the ground once it is caught. Packs composed largely of female wolves thrive on fleet footed prey such as elk, while packs specialising in bison tend to have a greater number of males.[72] Though commonly portrayed as targeting solely sick or infirm animals,[31] there is little evidence that they actively limit themselves to such targets. Rather, the evidence shows that wolves will simply target the easiest options available, which as well as sick and infirm animals, can also include young animals and pregnant females.[73] Though wolves commonly hunt large prey in packs, there are cases in which single wolves have successfully killed large animals unaided. One wolf was recorded to have killed moose 11 times singlehandedly.[74]
A bull elk running, thereby decreasing its chance for survival
Wolves will typically attempt to disable large prey by tearing at the haunches and perineum, causing massive bleeding and loss of coordination. A single bite can cause a wound up to 10–15 centimeters (4–6 in) in length. A large deer in optimum health generally succumbs to three bites at the perineum area after a chase of 150 meters (160 yd). Once their prey is sufficiently weakened, the wolves will grab it by the flanks and pull it down.[7] Sometimes, with medium sized prey such as dall sheep, wolves will bite the throat, severing the windpipe or jugular.[75] When attacking canid prey, such as dogs, coyotes or other wolves, wolves will kill by biting the back, neck or head.[56][76][77] With prey of equal or lesser weight to the wolf, such as lambs or small children, wolves will grab their quarry by the neck, chest, head or thigh and carry them off to a secluded spot.[7][70] Once the prey collapses, the wolves will tear open the abdominal cavity and commence feeding on the animal, sometimes before it has died.[7] On some occasions, wolves will not press an attack, and will wait for their prey to die from their wounds before feeding begins.[78] Wolves will occasionally attack pregnant ungulates to feed on the fetus(es), leaving the mother uneaten.[79] Usually, it is the dominant pair that works the hardest in killing the pack's target.[62] Wolves have on occasion been observed to engage in acts of surplus killing. This phenomenon is common when wolves target livestock.[80] In the wild, this usually occurs in late winter or spring when deep snow impedes their prey's escape.[80][81]
Pack status is reinforced during feeding. The breeding pair usually eats first, starting with the heart, liver, and lungs. Wolves of intermediate rank will prevent lower ranking pack members from feeding until the dominant pair finishes eating.[23] The stomach of prey is eaten, though the contents are left untouched if the killed animal is a herbivore. The leg muscles are eaten next, with the hide and bones being the last to be consumed.[62] If they are disturbed while feeding, they will instead focus their attention on their prey's fat deposits rather than internal organs.[82][83] A single wolf can eat up to 3.2–3.5 kilograms (7–8 lb) of food at a time, though they can eat as much as 13–15 kilograms (29–33 lb) when sufficiently hungry. A wolf's yearly requirement is 1,500 kilograms (3,307 lb).[7] Wolves can go without sustenance for long periods, with a Russian record showing how one specimen survived for 17 days without food.[4] Research has shown that 2 weeks without food will not weaken a wolf's muscle activity.[7] After eating, wolves will drink large quantities of water to prevent uremic poisoning.[4] A wolf's stomach can hold up to 7.5 liters (8 U.S. qt).[7] Wolves supplement their diet with vegetation. Scat analysis found 75% of samples found Yellowstone National Park wolves’ summer diet contained plants mostly grass (Graminae).[84] In some areas of the former Soviet Union wolves have been reported to cause serious damage to watermelon plantations.[73]
Studies on how wolves affect prey populations tend to vary considerably, with some results indicating that wolves dramatically reduce, sometimes locally extirpate some prey species, while others indicate that wolf predation simply takes over from other mortality factors present in wolf-free zones.[64][81] Wolves are not essential for the presence of many other species.[85]

Interspecific predatory relationships

Rolf Peterson investigating a coyote carcass killed by a wolf in Yellowstone National Park, January 1996
Wolves typically dominate other canid species in areas where they are sympatric. In North America, wolves are generally intolerant of coyotes in their territory; two years after their reintroduction to the Yellowstone National Park, the wolves were responsible for a near 50% drop in coyote populations through both competition and predation.[86] Wolves have been reported to dig coyote pups from their dens and kill them. Wolves typically do not consume the coyotes they kill. There are no records of coyotes killing wolves,[77] though they have been known to gang up on wolves if they outnumber them.[86] Wolves have been observed to allow coyotes to approach their kills, only to chase them down and kill them. Coyote specialist Robert Crabtree of the Yellowstone Ecological Research Center suggested that this behaviour could be linked to the intraspecific territoriality of wolves, even though coyote represent no danger: "Maybe you want to teach your pups tricks of the trade... Maybe wolves are killing coyotes to practice for conflicts with other wolves later in life."[87] Near identical interactions have been observed in Greece between wolves and Golden Jackals.[88] Wolves may kill foxes on kill sites, though not as frequently as they do with coyotes. Raccoon Dogs are also reportedly preyed upon.[77]
Wolf following a brown bear
Brown Bears are encountered in both Eurasia and North America. The majority of interactions between wolves and Brown Bears usually amount to nothing more than mutual avoidance. Serious confrontations depend on the circumstances of the interaction, though the most common factor is defence of food and young. Brown Bears will use their superior size to intimidate wolves from their kills and, when sufficiently hungry, will raid wolf dens. Brown Bears usually dominate wolves on kills, though they rarely prevail against wolves defending den sites. Wolves in turn have been observed killing bear cubs, to the extent of even driving off the defending mother bears. Deaths in wolf/bear skirmishes are considered very rare occurrences, the individual power of the brown bear and the collective strength of the wolf pack usually being sufficient deterrents to both sides.[77] Encounters with American Black Bears occur solely in the Americas; their interactions with wolves are much rarer than those of Brown Bears, due to differences in habitat preferences. The majority of Black Bear encounters with wolves occur in the species' northern range, with no interactions being recorded in Mexico. Wolves have been recorded to kill Black Bears on numerous occasions without eating them. Unlike Brown Bears, Black Bears frequently lose against wolves in disputes over kills.[77] While encounters with brown and black bears appear to be common, polar bears are rarely encountered by wolves, though there are two records of wolf packs killing polar bear cubs.[89]
Large wolf populations limit the numbers of small to medium sized felines. Wolf predation is recorded to reduce lynx populations wherever the two species are sympatric. Lynx populations in Slovakia plummeted during World War II, when large numbers of wolves entered the cat's range. Similarly, in Russia, lynx populations drop in areas with high wolf densities.[90] In the Rocky Mountains and adjacent mountain areas of North America, wolves are usually hostile toward cougars and will kill cubs if given the opportunity. A pack will on occasion appropriate the kills of adult cougars, which respond by increasing their kill rate. Both species have been recorded to kill each other.[77] National Park Service cougar specialist Kerry Murphy stated that the cougar usually is at an advantage on a one to one basis, considering it can effectively use its claws, as well as its teeth, unlike the wolf which relies solely on its teeth.[87] Yellowstone officials have reported that attacks between cougars and wolves are not uncommon. Multiple incidents of cougars taking wolves and vice versa have been recorded in Yellowstone National Park. Researchers in Montana have found that wolves regularly kill cougars in the area.[91] Similarly, large numbers of wolves have been reported to reduce leopard populations in Tibet.[92] However, the reverse is true for larger cats such as tigers. In areas where wolves and tigers share ranges, such as the Russian Far East, the two species typically display a great deal of dietary overlap, resulting in intense competition. Wolf and tiger interactions are well documented in Sikhote-Alin, which until the beginning of the 20th century, held very few wolves. It is thought by certain experts that wolf numbers increased in the region after tigers were largely eliminated during the Russian colonization in the late 1800s and early 1900s. This is corroborated by native inhabitants of the region claiming that they had no memory of wolves inhabiting Sikohte-Alin until the 1930s, when tiger numbers decreased.[93] Tigers depress wolf numbers, either to the point of localized extinction or to such low numbers as to make them a functionally insignificant component of the ecosystem. Wolves appear capable of escaping competitive exclusion from tigers only when human persecution decreases the latter's numbers.[94] Today wolves are considered scarce in tiger inhabited areas, being found in scattered pockets, and usually seen traveling as loners or in small groups. First hand accounts on interactions between the two species indicate that tigers occasionally chase wolves from their kills, while wolves will scavenge from tiger kills. Tigers are not known to prey on wolves, though there are four records of tigers killing wolves without consuming them.[93] This competitive exclusion of wolves by tigers has been used by Russian conservationists to convince hunters in the Far East to tolerate the big cats, as they limit ungulate populations less than wolves, and are effective in controlling the latter's numbers.[95]
Wolves may occasionally encounter Striped Hyenas in the Middle East and Central and South Asia, mostly in disputes over carcasses. Though hyenas usually dominate wolves on a one to one basis, wolf packs have been reported to displace lone hyenas from carcasses.[96] Wolf remains have been found in Cave Hyena den sites, though it is unknown if the wolves were killed or scavenged upon.[97] Unlike cave hyenas, which preferentially preyed on lowland animals such as horses, wolves relied more on slope-dwelling ibex and Roe Deer, thus minimising competition. Wolves and Cave Hyenas seem to display negative abundance relations over time, with wolf populations expanding their ranges as hyenas disappeared.[98]

Communication

Body language

The posture and facial expression of this Arabian wolf is defensive and gives warning to other wolves to be cautious.
This facial expression shows fear.
Wolves can communicate visually through a variety of expressions and moods ranging from subtle signals, such as a slight shift in weight, to more obvious ones, such as rolling on their backs to indicate complete submission.[99]
  • Dominance – A dominant wolf stands stiff legged and tall. The ears are erect and forward, and the hackles bristle slightly. Often the tail is held vertically and curled toward the back. This display asserts the wolf's rank to others in the pack. A dominant wolf may stare at a submissive one, pin it to the ground, "ride up" on its shoulders, or even stand on its hind legs.
  • Submission (active) – During active submission, the entire body is lowered, and the lips and ears are drawn back. Sometimes active submission is accompanied by muzzle licking, or the rapid thrusting out of the tongue and lowering of the hindquarters. The tail is placed down, or halfway or fully between the legs, and the muzzle often points up to the more dominant animal. The back may be partly arched as the submissive wolf humbles itself to its superior; a more arched back and more tucked tail indicate a greater level of submission.
  • Submission (passive) – Passive submission is more intense than active submission. The wolf rolls on its back and exposes its vulnerable throat and underside. The paws are drawn into the body. This posture is often accompanied by whimpering.
  • Anger – An angry wolf's ears are erect, and its fur bristles. The lips may curl up or pull back, and the incisors are displayed. The wolf may also arch its back, lash out, or snarl.
  • Fear – A frightened wolf attempts to make itself look small and less conspicuous; the ears flatten against the head, and the tail may be tucked between the legs, as with a submissive wolf. There may also be whimpering or barks of fear, and the wolf may arch its back.
  • Defensive – A defensive wolf flattens its ears against its head.
  • Aggression – An aggressive wolf snarls and its fur bristles. The wolf may crouch, ready to attack if necessary.
  • Suspicion – Pulling back of the ears shows a wolf is suspicious. The wolf also narrows its eyes. The tail of a wolf that senses danger points straight out, parallel to the ground.
  • Relaxation – A relaxed wolf's tail points straight down, and the wolf may rest sphinx-like or on its side. The wolf may also wag its tail. The further down the tail droops, the more relaxed the wolf is.
  • Tension – An aroused wolf's tail points straight out, and the wolf may crouch as if ready to spring.
  • Happiness – As dogs do, a wolf may wag its tail if in a joyful mood. The tongue may roll out of the mouth.
  • Hunting – A wolf that is hunting is tensed, and therefore the tail is horizontal and straight.
  • Playfulness – A playful wolf holds its tail high and wags it. The wolf may frolic and dance around, or bow by placing the front of its body down to the ground, while holding the rear high, sometimes wagged. This resembles the playful behavior of domestic dogs.

Howling and other vocalizations

Wolf howls, which can last from 0.5–11 seconds, typically have a frequency of 150-780 Hz.[15] Howling helps pack members keep in touch, allowing them to communicate effectively in thickly forested areas or over great distances. Howling also helps to call pack members to a specific location. Howling can also serve as a declaration of territory, as shown in a dominant wolf's tendency to respond to a human imitation of a "rival" wolf in an area the wolf considers its own. This behavior is stimulated when a pack has something to protect, such as a fresh kill. As a rule of thumb, large packs will more readily draw attention to themselves than will smaller packs. Adjacent packs may respond to each others' howls, which can mean trouble for the smaller of the two. Wolves therefore tend to howl with great care.[100] Wolves will also howl for communal reasons. Some scientists speculate that such group sessions strengthen the wolves' social bonds and camaraderie—similar to community singing among humans.[100] During such choral sessions, wolves will howl at different tones and varying pitches, making it difficult to estimate the number of wolves involved. This confusion of numbers makes a listening rival pack wary of what action to take. For example, confrontation could be disastrous if the rival pack gravely underestimates the howling pack's numbers. A wolf's howl may be heard from up to 16 kilometers (10 mi) away, depending on weather conditions. Observations of wolf packs suggest that howling occurs most often during the twilight hours, preceding the adults' departure to the hunt and following their return. Studies also show that wolves howl more frequently during the breeding season and subsequent rearing process.[101] The pups themselves begin howling soon after emerging from their dens and can be provoked into howling sessions easily over the following two months. Such indiscriminate howling usually is intended for communication, and does not harm the wolf so early in its life.[100] Howling becomes less indiscriminate as wolves learn to distinguish howling pack members from rival wolves. Wolves from the Middle East and Southern Asia are unusual as they are not known to howl, and have more doglike vocalisations consisting of short, sharp barks.[4][49]
Howling adult wolf at the UK Wolf Conservation Trust
Growling, while teeth are bared, is the most visual warning wolves use. Wolf growls have a distinct, deep, bass-like quality which can range from 250 to 1,500 Hz.[15] It is often used to threaten rivals, though not necessarily to defend themselves. Wolves also growl at other wolves while being aggressively dominant. Wolves bark when nervous or when alerting other wolves of danger but do so very discreetly and will not generally bark loudly or repeatedly as dogs do. Instead they use a low-key, breathy "whuf" sound which can measure from 320–904 Hz[15] to immediately get attention from other wolves. Wolves also "bark-howl" by adding a brief howl to the end of a bark. Wolves bark-howl for the same reasons they normally bark. Generally, pups bark and bark-howl much more frequently than adults, using these vocalizations to cry for attention, care, or food. A lesser known sound is the rally. Wolves will gather as a group and, amidst much tail-wagging and muzzle licking, emit a high-pitched wailing noise interspersed with something similar to (but not the same as) a bark. Rallying is often a display of submission to an alpha by the other wolves.[102] Wolves also whimper, a sound with a maximum range of 3,500 Hz,[15] usually when submitting to other wolves. Wolf pups whimper when they need a reassurance of security from their parents or other wolves.

Taxonomy

The gray wolf is a member of the genus Canis, which comprises between 7 and 10 species. It is one of six species termed 'wolf', the others being the Red Wolf (Canis rufus), the Indian Wolf (Canis indica), the Himalayan Wolf (Canis himalayaensis), the Eastern Wolf (Canis lycaon), and the Ethiopian Wolf (Canis simensis), although there is still some uncertainty as to whether some of these should be considered subspecies of Canis lupus or species in their own right. Recent genetic research suggests that Indian Wolf populations in the Indian subcontinent may represent a distinct species. Similar results were obtained for the Himalayan Wolf, which is traditionally placed into the Tibetan Wolf (Canis lupus laniger).[103]
With respect to common names, spelling differences result in the alternative spelling grey wolf. As the first-named and most widespread of species termed "wolf", gray wolves are often simply referred to as wolves. It was one of the many species originally described by Carl Linnaeus in his eighteenth-century work, Systema Naturae, and it still bears its original classification, Canis lupus.[104] The binomial name is derived from the Latin Canis, meaning "dog", and lupus, "wolf".[105]
Timeline of canids including Canis lupus in red. (Tedford & Xiaoming Wang)
Desert dwelling grey wolf subspecies, such as this Arabian wolf, tend to be smaller than their more northern cousins.
Classifying gray wolf subspecies can be challenging. Although scientists have proposed a host of subspecies, wolf taxonomy at this level remains controversial.[106] Indeed, only a single wolf species may exist. Taxonomic modification will likely continue for years to come.

Evolution

Current theories propose that the gray wolf first evolved in Eurasia during the early Pleistocene. The rate of changes observed in DNA sequence date the Asiatic lineage to about 800,000 years, as opposed to the American and European lineages which stretch back only 150,000.[107] Early wolves probably resembled current desert dwelling wolves in the Middle East and Southern Asia, as evidenced by fossil wolves in Europe dating back half a million years ago being almost identical to extant Asian subspecies.[49] The gray wolf migrated into North America from the Old World, probably via the Bering land bridge, around 400,000 years ago. However, they did not become widespread until 12,000 years ago, when the native American megafauna began dying out. It is thought by certain experts that the wolf's Eurasian origin could account for its relative inability to modify its behaviour in light of human encroachment, compared to native American predators like black bears, cougars and coyotes which were under greater predation pressure from larger, now extinct predators.[68] The gray wolf then coexisted with the Dire Wolf (Canis dirus). Although more heavily built and possessing a stronger bite, the dire wolf's dentition was less adept at crushing bones than the grey wolf was.[22] The Dire Wolf ranged from southern Canada to South America until about 8,000 years ago when climate changes are thought to have caused it to become extinct. After that the gray wolf is thought to have become the prime canine predator in North America.

Subspecies

Skull of a European wolf
Skull of a Canadian wolf
At one point, up to 50 gray wolf subspecies were recognized. Though no true consensus has been reached, this list can be condensed to 13–15 general extant subspecies. Modern classifications take into account the DNA, anatomy, distribution, and migration of various wolf colonies. As of 2005, 37 subspecies are currently described, including the dingo and the domestic dog.[108] Wolves show a great deal of geographic variation in form. For example, North American wolves are, overall, generally the same size as European breeds, but have larger, rounder heads, broader, more obtuse muzzles, shorter legs and are usually more robust. European wolves on the contrary tend to have longer, more highly placed ears, narrower heads, more slender loins and coarser, less luxuriant fur.[109][110] However, wolves of different geographical locations can interbreed. The Zoological Gardens of London for example once successfully managed to mate a male European wolf to an Indian female, resulting in a cub bearing an almost exact likeness to its sire.[111] Geographical differences in behaviour are also apparent: wolves in the Middle East and Southern Asia tend to be less social than European and North American wolves,[49] and howl much less.[4] North American wolves tend to be less adaptable in the face of human advancement than their European counterparts: Southern European wolves successfully live in areas with much higher human densities than what North American wolves will tolerate.[112]

Relation to the dog

Much debate has centered on the relationship between the wolf and the domestic dog, though most authorities see the wolf as the dog's direct ancestor (see Origin of the domestic dog). Because canids have evolved recently and different species interbreed readily, untangling the relationships has been difficult. However, molecular systematics now indicate very strongly that domestic dogs and wolves are closely related, and the domestic dog is now normally classified as a subspecies of the wolf: Canis lupus familiaris. Additionally, breeding experiments in Germany with poodles, wolves, and later on with the resulting wolf-dogs showed unrestricted fertility, mating via free choice and no significant communication problems (even after a few generations). This contrasted with the hybrid offspring of poodles crossed with coyotes and jackals, which all showed a decrease in fertility and significant communication problems, as well as an increase in genetic diseases after three generations of interbreeding. The researchers therefore concluded that domestic dogs and grey wolf are the same species.[113] DNA evidence has demonstrated that canis lupus lupus and canis lupus familiaris are genetically very similar. Both have 39 chromosomes, representing roughly 19000 genes spread over 2.4 billion base pairs [114] In a 2005 study reported in Nature, genetic similarity was assessed within breed, between breeds, and between subspecies by measuring the frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The dogs studies were genetically most similar to others of the same breed (SNP frequency roughly 1/1600). The primary breed studied, the boxer, was also genetically similar to other breeds (SNP frequency roughly 1/900), although there was some variance depending on breed. For instance, the boxer was found to be significantly less similar to Alaskan Malamutes (SNP frequency roughly 1/750). The boxer was found to be least similar to other canids, including canis lupus lupus (SNP frequency roughly 1/580) and coyotes (SNP frequency roughly 1/400). From these analyses, it can be estimated that the variance between canis lupus lupus and canis lupus familiaris is roughly twice as great as the variance within the subspecies canis lupus familiaris, and four times as great as the variance within an individual breed.[114]

Domestication

There is a great deal of controversy surrounding the divergence of domestic dogs from wolves. The number of divergence events, the approximate date of these events, and the location of these events have not been conclusively determined. Archaeological evidence clearly shows that dogs diverged from wolves more than 15,000 years ago, but it could have been much earlier. Genetic studies suggest that dogs were domesticated in three or four events, including relatively small wolf populations, in East Asia upwards of 100,000 years ago. These studies, however, depend on assumptions that are likely to be violated; the date could be much earlier or later. Most archaeologists believe that dogs diverged from wolves between 15,000 and 35,000 years ago, and that domestication events were caused by human lifestyle changes (e.g., establishment of permanent towns). It is agreed that all domestication events occurred in Eurasia, and that domestic dogs likely entered North America with one of the subsequent waves of humans roughly 12,000 years ago. Thus, dogs are believed to have spread very quickly throughout the world.[115] Which exact subspecies of wolf gave rise to dogs is still debated. Some scientists point to the Tibetan wolf, noting that the uppermost part of the lower jaw is turned back as in the dog, though not so in other grey wolf subspecies, while others state that the Indian Wolf was more likely, due to its small size and more docile behaviour.[116] Certain experts favour an origin from Middle Eastern and Southern Asian wolves due to their more doglike vocalisations, their smaller size and docility compared to more northern subspecies.[49]

Physical and behavioural differences

Despite their close relationship, wolves and dogs show a number of physical and behavioural differences. Some experts cite these differences as a basis for rejecting the ancestral wolf hypothesis,[117] while others theorise that the lack of characteristics in some domestic dogs (e.g. regurgitating of food or strict pack structure) present in wolves is not a distinguishing feature between the two species, but a degeneration caused through irresponsible breeding or lack of knowledge as several domestic dogs (especially among those who reverted to the wild) show these characteristics while others do not.[113][118]
Although having no closer wolf-ancestry than other dogs, some dogs, like this Tamaskan look very much like wolves.
Certain instinctive and social behaviors displayed by wolves may not be expressed in dogs simply because the opportunity never arises in their captive social setting. However, even when dogs range freely in wild or semi-wild circumstances, they show marked divergences from their wild ancestors. In a comparative study on poodles and wolves, wolf biologist Eric Zimen and his colleagues recorded 362 specific behaviors displayed by wolves, 64% of which were displayed by poodles with little or no change, while 13% of wolf behaviors had vanished altogether. 23% of wolf-like mannerisms persisted but in markedly modified forms. In performing many of these modified wolf-like behaviors, the poodles lacked a seriousness of purpose, being indiscriminate and ineffectual in their choice of "prey", similar to young wolves at play. In the poodles, many of the subtle facial and body expressions characteristic of wolves were greatly simplified, while many were absent altogether. Aggressive and defensive postures were greatly muted, due to poodles being generally less fearful, less aggressive and more tolerant to invasions of personal space. Unlike adult wolves, which avoid physical contact with each other when sleeping, the poodles continued to frequently lie together through the age of eight months or older, even in hot weather when there was no conceivable reason for huddling to preserve body heat.[119] Dogs are much more accepting of strangers than adult wolves, which become increasingly xenophobic as they age. The fighting styles of wolves and dogs also differ significantly: while dogs typically limit themselves to attacking the head, neck and shoulder, wolves make greater use of body blocks, and attack the extremeties of their opponents, causing greater damage.[120]
Compared to equally sized wolves, dogs tend to have 20% smaller skulls and 10% smaller brains, as well as proportionately smaller teeth than other canid species.[13] The premolars and molars of dogs are much more crowded. Dog's teeth also have less complex cusp patterns, and their tympanic bulla is much smaller than in wolves.[121] As the brains of domestic dogs are smaller than those of wolves, they require fewer calories to survive. The dog's diet of human refuse in antiquity made the large brains and jaw muscles needed for hunting unnecessary. It is thought by certain experts that the dog's limp ears are a result of atrophy of the jaw muscles.[13] The paws of a dog are half the size of those of a wolf, and their tails tend to curl upwards, another trait not found in wolves.[4]

Interspecific hybridization

A wolf-dog hybrid with malamute ancestry.
Wolves can interbreed with domestic dogs and produce fertile offspring. Wolf-dog hybrids are generally said to be naturally healthy animals, and are affected by less inherited diseases than most breeds of dog. Wolfdogs are usually healthier than either parent due to heterosis.[122] According to the National Wolfdog Alliance, 40 U.S. states effectively forbid the ownership, breeding and importation of wolfdogs, while others impose some form of regulation upon ownership.[123] Most European nations, as well as many U.S. counties and municipalities, also either outlaw the animal entirely or put restrictions on ownership.[124] Although wolves in the wild will usually kill dogs, matings of dogs and wild wolves has been confirmed in some populations through genetic testing. As the survival of some continental wolf packs is severely threatened, scientists fear that the creation of wolf-dog hybrid populations in the wild is a threat to the continued existence of some isolated wolf populations. Hybridization in the wild usually occurs near human habitations where wolf density is low and dogs are common. However, extensive wolf-dog hybridization is not supported by morphological evidence, and analyses of mtDNA sequences have revealed that such matings are rare.[8] In some cases, the presence of dewclaws is considered a useful, but not absolute indicator of dog gene contamination in wild wolves. Dewclaws are the vestigial fifth toes of the hind legs common in domestic dogs but thought absent from pure wolves, which only have four hind toes.[11] Observations on wild wolf hybrids in the former Soviet Union indicate that wolf hybrids in a wild state may form larger packs than pure wolves, and have greater endurance when chasing prey.[6] Genetic research from the University of California, Los Angeles revealed that wolves with black pelts owe their distinctive coloration to a mutation that first arose in domestic dogs.[16]
The Red Wolf has been shown through various genetic testing techniques to be a wolf/coyote hybrid.[125]
Wolves and coyotes can interbreed and produce fertile offspring, a fact which calls into question their status as two separate species.[126] The offspring, known as a coywolf, is generally intermediate in size to both parents, being larger than a pure coyote, but smaller than a pure wolf. A study showed that of 100 coyotes collected in Maine, 22 had half or more wolf ancestry, and one was 89 percent wolf. A theory has been proposed that the large eastern coyotes in Canada are actually hybrids of the smaller western coyotes and wolves that met and mated decades ago as the coyotes moved toward New England from their earlier western ranges.[127] The Red Wolf is thought by certain scientists to be in fact a wolf/coyote hybrid rather than a unique species. Strong evidence for hybridization was found through genetic testing which showed that red wolves have only 5% of their alleles unique from either grey wolves or coyotes. Genetic distance calculations have indicated that red wolves are intermediate between coyotes and grey wolves, and that they bear great similarity to wolf/coyote hybrids in southern Quebec and Minnesota. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA showed that existing Red Wolf populations are predominantly coyote in origin.[125]

Current and historical status

Present distribution of the various wolf subspecies
The Gray Wolf was once the world's most widely distributed mammal, living north of 15°N latitude in North America and 12°N in Eurasia.[128] Though once abundant, the gray wolf inhabits a very small portion of its former range because of widespread destruction of its habitat, human encroachment of its habitat, and the resulting human-wolf encounters that sparked broad extirpation.[128] This reduction has been greatest in developed areas of Europe, Asia, Mexico and the United States because of poisoning and deliberate persecution.[128]
In 1982 through 1994, the grey wolf was listed as vulnerable to extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Changes in legal protections, land-use and population shifts to urban areas have stopped the decline in wolf population.[128] Additionally, recolonization and reintroduction programs have increased wolf populations in Western Europe and the western United States.[128] As a result, in 1996, the IUCN reduced the risk status of the gray wolf to being of least concern.[128] Today, the conservational status of wolves varies greatly. They are protected in some areas, hunted for sport in others, or may be subject to extermination as perceived threats to livestock and pets.
Despite not being at risk for extinction, local populations of wolves are still threatened. One such threat is genetic bottlenecking caused by population fragmentation.[129] Human populations have isolated small pockets of animals, which then suffer the effects of inbreeding. Studies have shown that the reproduction rate in wolves is strongly related to genetic diversity.[130] Isolated wolf populations are greatly affected by the introduction of the alleles of even a single additional wolf.[129] A small, isolated group of wolves on Isle Royale is believed to be suffering from the effects of reduced genetic variability. In 1991, the population was reduced from 50 to 12 wolves. Studies have shown that this reduction has coincided with a 50% loss of allozyme heterozygosity.[131]
Wolves tend to have difficulty adapting to change, and are often referred to as an indicator species; a species delineating an ecoregion or indicating an environmental condition such as a disease outbreak, pollution, species competition, or climate change. Wolves do not seem to be able to adapt as readily to expanding civilization the way coyotes do. While human expansion has seen an increase in the latter's numbers, it has caused a drop in those of the former.[13]

Relationships with humans

In folklore and mythology

Humans historically have had a complex and varied viewpoint of wolves. In many parts of the world, wolves were respected and revered, while in others they were feared and held in distaste. The latter viewpoint was notably accentuated in European folklore beginning in the Christian era, though wolves did feature as heraldic animals on the arms and crests of numerous noble families. Many languages have given names (almost universally masculine) meaning "wolf", examples including the Scandinavian Ulf, Albanian "Ujk", German and Yiddish Wolf/Volf, Hebrew Ze'ev, Hungarian Farkas, Serbian Vuk, Ukrainian Vovk[citation needed], Romanian Lupu, Lupescu/Lupulescu, and Bulgarian Vǎlko. Wolves also figure prominently in proverbs. Many Chinese proverbs use wolves as a description towards any ill-willed person with a hidden agenda like Wolf hearted (狼子野心) which could also connote to the impossibility of taming bad people, while Wolf heart; dog lungs (狼心狗肺) refers to an ungrateful person who later betrays someone who previously helped them. The Kazakh language has up to 20 proverbs referring to wolves, while the Russian language has 253.[6]

Attacks on humans

One of four photographs taken by Chris van Gelder of Todd Svarckopf fending off an aggressive wolf on November 4, 2005, four days before the Kenton Joel Carnegie wolf attack.
Wild wolves are typically timid around humans, though how they react to people generally depends on prior experiences with humans rather than inherent behaviour.[68][132] When they have sufficient habitat and food and are occasionally hunted, wolves will usually try to avoid contact with people, to the point of even abandoning their kills when an approaching human is detected.[71] However, there are several circumstances in which wolves have been recorded to act aggressively toward humans, including provocation, habituation, rabies, mistaken identity, teaching cubs how to hunt, hybridization with dogs and seasonal prey scarcity.[34][133] Unprovoked attacks by non-rabid wolves are rare. Historically, the majority of predatory attacks occurred in the June–July period, with victims being predominantly women and children.[34][69][134] Predatory attacks by wolves against humans tend to be clustered in space and time, indicating that human-killing is not a normal wolf behavior, but a specialized behavior that single wolves or packs develop and maintain until killed.[135] However, compared to other carnivorous mammals known to attack humans, the frequency with which wolves have been recorded to kill people is rather low, indicating that though potentially dangerous, wolves are among the least threatening of their size and predatory potential.[34] Wolf attacks were an occasional but widespread feature of life in pre-20th century Europe.[135] In France alone, historical records indicate that in the period 1580–1830, 3,069 people were killed by wolves, of whom 1,857 were killed by non-rabid wolves.[136] The case of the Beast of Gevaudan is well documented, though whether the culprit was a wolf or a wolf-like animal is still debated.[34] There are numerous documented accounts of wolf attacks in the Asian continent, with three Indian states reporting a large number of non-rabid attacks in recent decades. These attacks were well documented by trained biologists.[34][70] In Hazaribagh, Bihar for example, 100 children were injured and 122 killed from 1980 to 1986.[70] Russia also records numerous attacks, particularly in pre-revolutionary times and after WWII. Between 1840 and 1861, 273 non-rabid attacks resulting in the deaths of 169 children and 7 adults occurred throughout Russia,[137] while between 1944 and 1950, 22 children between the ages of 3 and 17 were killed by wolves in the Kirov Oblast (see Kirov wolf attacks).[138] North America has fewer cases of verified wolf attacks than Europe and Asia. In many sections of the United States, there was a propaganda campaign to garner support for state-sponsored bounties for killed wolves, resulting in an economic incentive to overstate the effects of wolf depredation; this likely led to false or exaggerated claims of wolf attacks. Many of these accounts have been shown to be factually incorrect.[4] However, more aggressive encounters were recorded as humans increasingly encroached on North American wolf habitat. Retired wolf biologist Mark McNay compiled 80 events in Alaska and Canada where wolves closely approached or attacked people, finding 39 cases of aggression by apparently healthy wolves, and 29 cases of fearless behavior by nonaggressive wolves.[139]

Livestock and pet predation

Waiting for a Chinook, by Charles Marion Russell, depicting wolves harassing a steer.
Wolf depredations on livestock tend to increase in September and October when females teach their cubs how to hunt. Wolves usually attack livestock when they are grazing, though it is not uncommon for some wolves to break into fenced enclosures.[6] Sheep are the most frequently recorded victims in Europe, in India it is goats, in Mongolia it is horses, and in North America, wolves have a greater tendency to attack cattle and turkeys.[8] Wolves usually disregard size or age on medium sized prey such as sheep and goats.[140] According to Theodore Roosevelt, the small wolves of the Southern Plains rarely attack full grown cattle or steers, preferring instead young or sick animals, while the large wolves of the northern Rockies can kill fully grown steers unaided.[141] Injuries may include a crushed skull, severed spine, disembowelment and massive tissue damage. Wolves will also kill sheep by attacking the throat, similar to the manner in which coyotes kill sheep. Wolf kills can be distinguished from coyote kills by the far greater damage to the underlying tissue. Surplus killing often occurs when within the confines of human made livestock shelters.[140] One specimen known as the "Aquila Wolf" in Arizona was known to have killed 65 sheep in one night and 40 at another time.[78] Sometimes, the animals survive, but are left with severe mutilations, sometimes warranting euthanasia.[78] Livestock with prior experience of a wolf attack may develop behavioural problems, with some animals having been reported to run through barbed wire fences upon hearing wolves, or refusing to go out into pastures, causing severe weight loss.[6] They may also become more aggressive toward both human handlers and herding dogs.[37] It is often difficult to confirm kills, seeing as wolves often eat all of the animal they have killed if it is below the size of a calf.[78] In some cases, wolves do not need to physically attack livestock in order to negatively affect them; the stress livestock experiences in being vigilant for wolves may result in miscarriages, decreased weight gain, and a decrease in meat quality.[37] Some non- or less-lethal methods of protecting livestock from wolves have been under development for the past decade. Such methods include rubber ammunition and use of guard animals.[142] Recorded wolf howls have also been shown to be effective in at least one incident.[23]
The extent of livestock losses to wolves vary regionally; from being statistically insignificant, to having critical effects on local economies. In North America, loss of livestock by wolves makes up only a small percentage of total losses. In the United States, wolf predation is low compared to other human or animal sources of livestock loss.[143] Although wolf predation on livestock is a relatively minor issue to North American livestock industries overall, it can be a serious problem for some individual livestock producers who graze their stock in wolf inhabited areas.[144] Since the state of Montana began recording livestock losses due to wolves back in 1987, only 1,200 sheep and cattle have been killed. 1,200 killings in twenty years is not very significant when in the greater Yellowstone region 8,300 cattle and 13,000 sheep die from natural causes. According to the International Wolf Center, a Minnesota-based organization:
To put depredation in perspective, in 1986 the wolf population was at about 1,300–1,400, there were an estimated 232,000 cattle and 16,000 sheep in Minnesota's wolf range. During that year 26 cattle, about 0.01% of the cattle available, and 13 sheep, around 0.08% of the sheep available, were verified as being killed by wolves. Similarly, in 1996 an estimated 68,000 households owned dogs in wolf range and only 10, approximately 0.00015% of the households, experienced wolf depredation.

Wolf Depredation, International Wolf Center, Teaching the World about Wolves[145]

Furthermore, Jim Dutcher, a film maker who raised a captive wolf pack observed that wolves are very reluctant to try meat that they have not eaten or seen another wolf eat before possibly explaining why livestock depredation is unlikely except in cases of desperation.[146]
The results however differ in Eurasia. Greece for example reports that between April 1989 and June 1991, 21000 sheep and goats plus 2729 cattle were killed. In 1998 it was 5894 sheep and goats, 880 cattle and very few horses.[88] A study on livestock predation taken in Tibet showed that the wolf was the most prominent predator, accounting for 60% of the total livestock losses, followed by the snow leopard (38%) and lynx (2%). Goats were the most frequent victims (32%), followed by sheep (30%), yak (15%), and horses (13%). Wolves killed horses significantly more and goats less than would be expected from their relative abundance.[147] In 1987, Kazakhstan reported over 150,000 domestic livestock losses to wolves, with 200,000 being reported a year later.[6]
In some areas, dogs are a major food source for wolves. Reports from Croatia indicate that dogs are killed more frequently than sheep. Wolves in Russia apparently limit feral dog populations. In Wisconsin, more compensation has been paid for dog losses than livestock.[8] Some wolf pairs have been reported to predate on dogs by having one wolf lure the dog out into heavy brush where the second animal waits in ambush.[6] In some instances, wolves have displayed an uncharacteristic fearlessness of humans and buildings when attacking dogs, to an extent where they have to be beaten off or killed.[148] Specially bred Livestock guardian dogs have been used to repel wolves from pastures, though their primary function has more to do with intimidating the wolves rather than fighting them.[149]

Wolf hunting

A 19th century painting depicting the conclusion of a wolf hunt
Wolf fur coat
Wolves are usually hunted for sport, for their skins, to protect livestock, and in some rare cases to protect humans. Historically, the hunting of wolves was a huge, capital and manpower intensive operation, requiring miles of netting, specialized net-carts and big drying sheds for storing and drying nets. The threat wolves posed to both livestock and people was significant enough to warrant the conscription of whole villages under threat of punishment, despite the disruption of economic activities and reduced taxes.[68] Some cultures, such as the Apache, would hunt wolves as a rite of passage.[150] Wolves are usually hunted in heavy brush and are considered especially challenging to hunt, due to their elusive nature and sharp senses.[151] Wolves are notoriously shy and difficult to kill, having been stated to be almost as hard to hunt as cougars, and being far more problematic to dispatch with poison, traps or hounds. However, wolves generally do not defend themselves as effectively as cougars or bears.[141] Some wolves will evade capture for very long periods of time and display great cunning. One specimen nicknamed "Three Toes of Harding County" in South Dakota eluded its pursuers for 13 years before finally being caught.[78] Another wolf nicknamed "Rags the digger" near Meeker, Colorado would deliberately ruin trap lines by digging up traps without tripping them.[152] In sport hunting, wolves are usually taken in late autumn and early winter, when their pelts are of the highest quality and because the heavy snow makes it easier for the wolves to be tracked.[151] Wolves have occasionally been hunted for food, the meat having been variously described as being tough and tasting like chicken.[153]
The hunting of grey wolves, while originally actively endorsed in many countries, has become a controversial issue in some nations. Opponents see it as cruel, unnecessary and based on misconceptions, while proponents argue that it is vital for the conservation of game herds and as pest control.[154]

Reintroduction

Gray wolf endangered species sheet.
Wolf reintroduction involves the artificial reestablishment of a population of wolves into areas where they had been previously extirpated. Wolf reintroduction is only considered where large tracts of suitable wilderness still exist and where certain prey species are abundant enough to support a predetermined wolf population. In North America, debate about wolf reintroduction is ongoing and often heated, both where reintroduction is being considered and where it has already occurred. Where wolves have been successfully reintroduced, as in the greater Yellowstone area and Idaho, reintroduction opponents continue to cite livestock predation, surplus killing, and economic hardships caused by wolves.[155] Opponents in prospective areas echo these same concerns. These reintroductions were the culmination of over two decades of research and debate. Ultimately, the economic concerns of the local ranching industry were dealt with when Defenders of Wildlife decided to establish a fund that would compensate ranchers for livestock lost to wolves, shifting the economic burden from industry to the wolf proponents themselves.[156] In March 1998, another reintroduction campaign began with the releasing of three packs into the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in Arizona. Today, there may be up to 50 wild Mexican wolves in Arizona and New Mexico. The final goal for Mexican wolf recovery is a wild, self-sustaining population of at least 100 individuals.[157]

As pets and working animals

Wolves have on occasion been kept as pets and as working animals, though not without difficulty, as they require much more early socialisation than dogs do,[13] and lack any alteration of their genetically encoded predatory behavior.[158] Though wolves are trainable, unless properly motivated, they lack the same degree of tractability seen in dogs.[159]

In urban areas

Wolves will occasionally dwell in human dominated lands, examples of such having been recorded in Europe, the Middle East, Asia and increasingly in some North American cities.[85]
Black & grey female wolf in road near Lamar River bridge
In Romania, wolves inhabit the streets of Braşov, as well as its municipal garbage dump and a shopping mall. Italian wolves have denned 25 miles (40 km) from Rome.[160] In Russia, wolves often strolled the streets of Kirov until the end of WWII, namely, Khlinovskaya, Vodoprovodnaya, and Gorbacheva streets.[161] They are often sighted in large numbers on the outskirts of Moscow.[162]
In North America, wolves are reportedly visiting the outskirts of large cities in Minnesota, Montana and Wisconsin.[85]

See also

Notes and references

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  123. ^ "NWA". Wolfdogalliance.org. http://www.wolfdogalliance.org/legislation/statelaws.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  124. ^ "National Wolf Dog Alliance". Wolfdogalliance.org. http://www.wolfdogalliance.org/legislation/statelaws.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  125. ^ a b "The red wolf (Canis rufus) – hybrid or not?" (PDF). Montana State University. http://www.montana.edu/~wwwbi/staff/creel/bio480/The%20red%20wolf.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  126. ^ "The decline, fall and return of the red wolf - life - 23 February 2008". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/channel/life/mg19726441.900-the-decline-fall-and-return-of-the-red-wolf.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  127. ^ "Eastern Coyotes Are Becoming Coywolves". David Zimmerman. Caledonian record. http://www.caledonianrecord.com/pages/local_news/story/fef373e9d. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  128. ^ a b c d e f ""IUCN Red List - Canis Lupus"". http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/3746/0/full. 
  129. ^ a b Carles Vilà, Anna-Karin Sundqvist, Øystein Flagstad, Jennifer Seddon, Susanne Björnerfeldt, Ilpo Kojola, Adriano Casulli, Håkan Sand, Petter Wabakken, Hans Ellegren (2003). "Rescue of a severely bottlenecked wolf (Canis lupus) population by a single immigrant". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 270. 
  130. ^ "Olof Liberg et al." (2005). Biology letters title="Severe inbreeding depression in a wild wolf (Canis lupus) population". 
  131. ^ Wayne, R.K., et al. (1991). "Conservation Genetics of the Endangered Isle Royale Gray Wolf". Conservative Biology 5: 41. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.1991.tb00386.x. 
  132. ^ STEVEN H. FRITTS, ROBERT O. STEPHENSON, ROBERT D. HAYES, and LUIGI BOITANI. 2003. Wolves and Humans in L. D. Mech, and L. Boitani, editors. Wolves behavior, ecology and conservation. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. USA.
  133. ^ Mader, TR. "Wolf attacks on humans". Abundant Wildlife Society of North America. http://www.aws.vcn.com/wolf_attacks_on_humans.html. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  134. ^ (Italian)Cagnolaro L., M. Comencini, A. Martinoli, A. Oriani, 1996. Dati storici sulla presenza e su casi di antropofagia del lupo nella Padania centrale. In F. Cecere (ed.) 1996, Atti del Convegno "Dalla parte del lupo", serie atti e studi de WWF Italia n° 10, 83:99.
  135. ^ a b "Is the fear of wolves justified? A Fennoscandian perspective." (PDF). Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 2003, Volumen 13, Numerus 1. http://www.lcie.org/Docs/Regions/Baltic/Linnell%20AZL%20Wolf%20attacks%20in%20Fennoscandia.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  136. ^ (French)Moriceau, Jean-Marc (2007). Histoire du méchant loup : 3 000 attaques sur l'homme en France. Paris: Fayard. p. 623. ISBN 2213628807. 
  137. ^ Korytin, S. A. 1997 Sex and age structure of people attacked by wolves in different seasons. Proceedings of the scientific conference [Issues of applied ecology, game management and fur farming], 27–28 May 1997, Kirov p-143-146
  138. ^ "“The Danger of Wolves to Humans” by Mikhail P. Pavlov (pp 136-169) (Translated from Russian by Valentina and Leonid Baskin, and Patrick Valkenburg. Edited by Patrick Valkenburg and Mark McNay)" (PDF). http://wolfcrossing.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/appendix-a-pavlov.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  139. ^ "A Case History of Wolf-Human Encounters in Alaska and Canada" (PDF). Alaska Department of Fish and Game Wildlife Technical Bulletin. http://www.wildlife.alaska.gov/pubs/techpubs/research_pdfs/techb13p1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-17. 
  140. ^ a b "Ranchers' Guide to Wolf Depredation". Montana state university. http://animalrangeextension.montana.edu/articles/wildlife/wolf_depredation.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-24. 
  141. ^ a b "Hunting the Grisly and Other Sketches". Theodore Roosevelt. http://www.fullbooks.com/Hunting-the-Grisly-and-Other-Sketches3.html. Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  142. ^ Naughton, Lisa, Adrian Treves, Rebecca Grossberg, and David Wilcove. "Summary Report: 2004/2005 Public Opinion Survey: Wolf Management in Wisconsin" (PDF). Living with Wolves. UW-Madison Geography. http://www.geography.wisc.edu/livingwithwolves/reports/2004_Survey_Results_Executive_Summary.pdf. Retrieved 2005-08-30. 
  143. ^ "Wolf Predation Plays Small Role in Livestock Losses in 2005". Defenders of Wildlife. http://www.defenders.org/wildlife/new/wolves/loss.html. Retrieved 2006-08-30. 
  144. ^ Relative risks of predation on livestock posed by individual wolves, black bears, mountain lions and coyotes in Idaho Mark Collinge, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, Boise, Idaho
  145. ^ "Wolf Depredation". International Wolf Center. August 2005. http://www.wolf.org/wolves/learn/intermed/inter_mgmt/depstat.asp. 
  146. ^ Dutcher, Jim and Jamie (2002). Wolves at our door. Touchstone. http://books.google.com/books?id=JKgJIERzPzUC&dq=Wolves+at+our+door&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=rHpGOahrJg&sig=yrH9BPYRoblQHWccDVOlUW_fo9E. Retrieved 2007-02-27. 
  147. ^ ""Carnivore-Caused Livestock Mortality in Trans-Himalaya"". Springerlink.com. http://www.springerlink.com/content/42567458h670u205/. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  148. ^ "Wolf at my door". BBC. Archived from the original on 2005-04-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20050406160542/http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/animals/features/145big.shtml. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  149. ^ "Livestock Guarding Dogs - Protecting Sheep from Predators". United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/companimals/guarddogs/guarddogs.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-20. 
  150. ^ Geronimo, Geronim His Own Story: The Autobiography of a Great Patriot Warrior, Plume, ISBN 0452011558
  151. ^ a b "Alberta Canada Wolf & Coyote Hunts with Alberta Bush Adventures Hunting Guides". Alberta Bush Adventures. http://www.albertabushadventures.com/wolf_hunting.html. Retrieved 2007-09-27. 
  152. ^ "Legends of the "Outlaw Wolves"" (PDF). International Wolf Centre. http://www.internationalwolf.net/wolves/news/iwmag/2000/winter/outlaw_wolves.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  153. ^ Civilization.ca - Canadian Arctic Expedition - Food
  154. ^ "Game board says yes to aerial shooting of wolves" (PDF). alaskawolves.org. 2000. http://alaskawolves.org/Blog/DF21F183-DA44-432D-8F73-D9C8DC0BE859_files/Alaska%20Peninsula%20wolf%20control,%20FDNM,%20ADN.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  155. ^ Vanderpool, Tim (2002-06-20). "Politics of the Wolf". Tucson Weekly. http://www.tucsonweekly.com/gbase/Currents/Content?oid=oid%3A45520. Retrieved 2006-08-27. 
  156. ^ "The Bailey Wildlife Foundation Wolf Compensation Trust". Defenders of Wildlife. http://www.defenders.org/wolfcomp.html. Retrieved 2006-08-27. 
  157. ^ "USFWS". Mexican Grey Wolf Fact Sheet. Archived from the original on 2006-05-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20060524172229/http://www.fws.gov/ifw2es/mexicanwolf/pdf/MexicanWolfFactSheet2006.pdf. Retrieved May 4, 2006. 
  158. ^ "Of Wolves, Wolf Hybrids and Children". Wolf Park. http://www.wolfpark.org/wolfdogs/children_and_wolfdogs.html. Retrieved 2008-10-28. 
  159. ^ "Wolf Training and Socialisation: Example #1". Wolf Park. http://www.wolfpark.org/training/Example-1.html. Retrieved 2008-10-30. 
  160. ^ Binder, David (2000-03-14). "Wolves: From Brink of Extinction to the Edge of the City". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E02E7D9133BF937A25750C0A9669C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  161. ^ “The Wolf in Game Management” Author: Mikhail P. Pavlov, Date of Publication: First edition 1982, 2nd edition 1990, Publisher: Agropromizdat, Moscow, Chapter 12, “The Danger of Wolves to Humans” (pp 136-169), (Translated from Russian by Valentina and Leonid Baskin, and Patrick Valkenburg. Edited by Patrick Valkenburg and Mark McNay)
  162. ^ (Russian)"Волки: серое нашествие". Аргументы и факты. http://gazeta.aif.ru/online/aif/1102/07_02. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Wolves article)

From Wikiquote

Wolves (Canis lupus) are quadrupedal carnivorous mammals. Wolves feature in folklore and mythology of cultures ancient to modern across the northern hemisphere; from the Norse legend of the giant Fenrir to more sympathetic depictions in Central Asia and the suckling of Romulus and Remus in the foundation of Rome. More familiar still are the fairy tales where the wolf appears as a villain such as Little Red Riding Hood and the Three Little Pigs. Wolf legends have also given rise to the popular horror figure of the werewolf.

Sourced

Now the hungry lion roars, and the
wolf behowls the moon.
  • There are, of course, several things in Ontario that are more dangerous than wolves. For instance, the step-ladder.
    • J.W. Curran, The Canadian Wildlife Almanac, 1981
  • It is popularly believed that there is no written record of a healthy wolf ever having killed a person in North America. Those making the claim ignore Eskimoes and Indians who have been killed and are careful to rule out rabid wolves....
    Ernest Thompson Seton believed that wolves attacked and killed people before the coming of guns and poisons, especially during the Winter months when food was scarce, and Native American oral history supports this.
    • Excerpt from Of Wolves and Men (1978) by Barry Lopez.
  • Historically wolves were severely and effectively prosecuted in North America by a well-armed population, which kept wolves rare and shy. Add the urban population's estrangement from nature, the rise of environmentalism (with a rosy vision of wilderness and a "let it be" philosophy), and a distorted vision of predation is the logical outcome...
    ...none of the above apply to Russia. Peasants were systematically disarmed to keep them from rebelling effectively against their masters.
    • Excerpt from Valerius Geist's introduction to Wolves in Russia (2007) by Will Graves.
  • In reviewing earlier the historical material pertaining to wolf attacks on humans I discovered some very striking ironies, the most striking being that while North American wolf biologists vehemently opposed the wolf image portrayed in Grimm's fairy tale Little Red Riding Hood, and failed to research and develop an understanding of when wolves became dangerous to people and when not, their colleagues studying coyotes did just that! Biologists studying urban coyotes developed a sound understanding predicting when coyotes living in cities would attack children. The biologists studying coyotes were not in a state of political denial. And they put nobody at risk. Quite the contrary! As I have shown, wolves signal impending attacks on people a long time before it happens. They act very much like their smaller cousin, the coyote. Yet the vehemence with which the myth of the "benign wolf" is defended by environmental groups, but also individuals claiming to be scientists studying wolves, transcends reason.
    • "Statement by Valerius Geist pertaining to the death of Kenton Carnegie", September 29, 2007, p. 11. [1]
  • “They are an effective, widespread, and basic predator. They are not very good adapting to change. Wolves are often referred to as an indicator species, which means that any little deterioration of their habitat causes immediate drop in their numbers in that habitat. They don’t seem to be able to adjust to expanding civilization the way coyotes do. The coyote’s range is increasing in the face of human expansion, while the wolf’s is decreasing.”
    • Raymond Coppinger and Lorna Coppinger 2001. Dogs. Scribner New York. pp. 23 Speaking of wolves
  • Wolves housed in cages which are far too small, are still among the most pitiful of all caged animals.
    • Conrad Lorenz, King Solomon's Ring, 1952
  • Inescapably, the realization was being borne in upon my preconditioned mind that the centuries-old and universally accepted human concept of wolf character was a palpable lie. On three separate occasions in less than a week I had been completely at the mercy of these 'savage killers'; but far from attempting to tear me limb from limb, they had displayed a restraint verging on contempt, even when I invaded their home and appeared to be posing a direct threat to the young pups.
    • Farley Mowat, Never Cry Wolf
  • On the ragged edge of the world I'll roam, and the home of the wolf shall be my home.
    • Robert Service, The Nostomaniac
  • It never troubles the wolf how many the sheep may be.
  • No sheep can be a king in the empire of wolves, but any wolf can be an emperor in the kingdom of sheep! Paw is the key to the throne.
  • The story of Romulus and Remus being suckled by a wolf is not a meaningless fable. The founders of every State which has risen to eminence have drawn their nourishment and vigor from a similar wild source. It was because the children of the Empire were not suckled by the wolf that they were conquered and displaced by the children of the Northern forests who were.

Unsourced

The wolf's clear, intelligent eyes brushed mine. The wolf is gentle-hearted. Not noble, not cowardly, just non-fighting. ~ Lois Crisler
  • We listened for a voice crying in the wilderness. And we heard the jubilation of wolves!
    • Durwood L. Allen
  • I've always said that the best wolf habitat resides in the human heart. You have to leave a little space for them to live.
    • Ed Bangs
  • Wolves are not our brothers; they are not our subordinates, either. They are another nation, caught up just like us in the complex web of time and life.
    • Henry Beston
  • The timber wolves will be our friends We'll stay up late and howl, At the moon, till nighttime ends, Before going on the prowl
  • The wolf's clear, intelligent eyes brushed mine. The wolf is gentle-hearted. Not noble, not cowardly, just non-fighting.
    • Lois Crisler, 1958
  • Speak of the wolf and you will see its teeth.
    • Unknown
  • Wolf is the Grand Teacher. Wolf is the sage, who after many winters upon the sacred path and seeking the ways of wisdom, returns to share new knowledge with the tribe. Wolf is both the radical and the traditional in the same breath. When the Wolf walks by you - you will remember.
    • Robert Ghost Wolf
We humans fear the beast within the wolf because we do not understand the beast within ourselves. ~ Gerald Hausman
  • We humans fear the beast within the wolf because we do not understand the beast within ourselves.
    • Gerald Hausman
  • The caribou feeds the wolf, but it is the wolf who keeps the caribou strong.
    • Keewation (Inuit) proverb
  • For the strength of the Pack is the Wolf, and the strength of the Wolf is the Pack.
    • Rudyard Kipling
  • Only a mountain has lived long enough to listen objectively to the howl of a wolf.
    • Aldo Leopold
  • To look into the eyes of a wolf is to see your own soul - hope you like what you see.
    • Aldo Leopold
  • We reached the old wolf in time to watch the fierce green fire dying in her eyes... There was something new to me in those eyes-- something known only to her and the mountains. I was young then, and full of trigger-itch. I thought that because fewer wolves more deer that no wolves would mean hunter's paradise, but after seeing the green fire die, I sensed that neither the wolf nor the mountain agreed with such a view.
    • Aldo Leopold
  • The gaze of the wolf reaches into our soul.
    • Barry Lopez
  • Throughout the centuries we have projected on to the wolf the qualities we most despise and fear in ourselves.
    • Barry Lopez
  • Wolves may feature in our myths, our history and our dreams, but they have their own future, their own loves, their own dreams to fulfil.
    • Anthony Miles
The wolf is neither man's competitor nor his enemy. He is a fellow creature with whom the earth must be shared. ~ L. David Mech
  • The wolf is neither man's competitor nor his enemy. He is a fellow creature with whom the earth must be shared.
    • L. David Mech
  • If the wolf is to survive, the wolf haters must be outnumbered. They must be outshouted, out financed, and out voted. Their narrow and biased attitude must be outweighed by an attitude based on an understanding of natural processes.
    • L. David Mech
  • We have doomed the Wolf not for what it is, but for what we have deliberately and mistakenly perceived it to be.. the mythologized epitome of a savage, ruthless killer.. which is, in reality no more than a reflexed image of ourself.
    • Farely Mowat
  • Throw me to the wolves because there's order in the pack.
    • Red Hot Chili Peppers, 'Easily'
  • They say the wolf bestows its happy spirit to help people. Women who obtain this spirit become skilled in creative endeavours and experience a strengthening of the senses. I would like to think there is some truth to this in my own life.
    • Judi Rideout
  • The wolf is kept fed by its feet.
    • Russian Proverb
Anyone who has ever heard it when the land was covered with a blanket of snow and elusively lighted by shimmering moonlight, will never forget the strange, trembling wolf cry. ~ Unknown
  • Anyone who has ever heard it when the land was covered with a blanket of snow and elusively lighted by shimmering moonlight, will never forget the strange, trembling wolf cry.
    • Unknown
  • How lonely is the night without the howl of a wolf.
    • Unknown
  • Perhaps it was the eyes of the wolf, measured, calm, knowing.
    Perhaps it was the intense sense of family.
    After all, wolves mate for life, are
    loyal partners, create hunting communities
    and demonstrate affectionate patience in pup rearing.
    Perhaps it was the rigid hierarchy of the packs.
    Each wolf had a place in the whole and yet retained his individual personality.
    Perhaps it was their great, romping, ridiculous sense of fun.
    Perhaps it was some celestial link with thw winter night skies
    that prompted the wolf to lay his song on the icy air.
    For the native people who lived with the wolves,
    and the wolves once ranged from the Arctic to the sub-tropics,
    there was much to learn from them.
    Is it any wonder that the myths of many tribes characterize the wolves
    not as killers but as teachers?
    • Unknown
  • A mountain with a wolf on it stands a little bit higher.
    • Russian Proverb
  • A gentleman is simply a patient wolf.
    • Lana Turner
  • If you live among wolves you have to act like a wolf.
    • Nikita Khrushchev
  • A society of sheep must in time beget a government of wolves.
    • Bertrand de Jouvenal
  • There are nights when the wolves are silent and only the moon howls.
    • George Carlin
  • Majority rule only works if you're also considering individual rights. Because you can't have five wolves and one sheep voting on what to have for supper.
    • Larry Flynt
  • Fear makes the wolf bigger than he is.
    • German Proverb
  • A wolf will walk a thousand miles to eat people: a dog half way to heaven will still eat dung.
    • Chinese proverb
No matter how much you feed a wolf, he keeps looking at the forest. ~Ilse Lehiste
  • No matter how much you feed the wolf, he keeps looking at the forest.
    • Ilse Lehiste
  • He who company with wolves learns to howl.
    • Spanish Proverb
  • Last night I dreamed I was chasing a pack of wolves, trying to belong.
    • Edgar Cayce
  • Flattery looks like friendship, just as a wolf looks like a dog.
    • Norse Proverb
  • A female is a person who screams at the mouse and smiles at the wolf.
    • Shyam Kapoor
  • All dogs bark at a wolf.
    • Yesugi (father of Genghis Khan)

External links

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents
Wolf is in St. Louis County, Northeastern Minnesota.

Get out

This article is an outline and needs more content. .It has a template, but there is not enough information present.^ The livestock producer operating in the area discovered several additional carcasses, but there was not enough evidence present to determine why the animals had died.

Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Wolf article)

From Wikisource

The Wolf
disambiguation
This is a disambiguation page, which lists works which share the same title. If an article link referred you here, please consider editing it to point directly to the intended page.

The Wolf may refer to:

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.WOLF (Canis lupus), the common English name for any wild member of the typical section of the genus Canis (see Carnivora).^ Canis lupus irremotus Taxonomy - 2 (DRAFT) - Taxonomy Species WOLF, GRAY Species Id ESIS059001 Date 14 MAR 96 Goldman, Jour.
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An historical look at the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) in early Arizona Territory and since statehood.
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That wolf Canis lupus irremotus should have been allowed to recover under the ESA.The Canadian wolf is larger in size 90-160# while the Rocky Mt.
  • Northern Rockies Gray Wolf Delisted | Peter Metcalf | NewWest.Net 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.newwest.net [Source type: Original source]

.Excluding some varieties of domestic dogs, wolves are the largest members of the genus, and have a wide geographical range, extending over nearly the whole of Europe and Asia, and North America from Greenland to Mexico, but are not found in South America or Africa, where they are replaced by other members of the family.^ A perspective on the taxonomy of wolves in North America.
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gray wolves (Canis lupus) are the largest wild members of Canidea, the dog family.
  • The Recovery of the Gray Wolf Under the Endangered Species Act 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In North America their range spanned from as far north as Alaska, Canada, and Greenland, to as far south as Southern Mexico.
  • The Recovery of the Gray Wolf Under the Endangered Species Act 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.They present great diversities of size, length and thickness of fur, and coloration, although resembling each other in all important structural characters.^ They are all such great gifts that you know the recipient will be scraping the bottom of the jar!

^ How else might the journey from wolf to sled dog—and all the other diverse forms dogs take—have begun?
  • NOVA | Transcripts | Dogs and More Dogs | PBS 9 February 2010 15:22 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Be that as it may, the ranching industry as a whole seems to have this perception that their interests trump all others, and they should somehow be beyond reproach.
  • Northern Rockies Gray Wolf Delisted | Peter Metcalf | NewWest.Net 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.newwest.net [Source type: Original source]

.These differences have given rise to a supposed multiplicity of species, expressed by the names C. lycaon (Central Europe), C. laniger and C. niger (Tibet), the C. occidentalis, C. nubilus, C. mexicanus, &c., of North America, and the great blackish-brown Alaskan C. pambasileus, the largest of them all.^ These rates are in the bottom 10% of all moose populations in North America and significantly lower than pregnancy rates reported by Houston (1968) for the Jackson moose herd in the 1960s, which averaged over 95%.
  • Wyoming Gray Wolf Management Plan 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC wolfology1.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All these years had passed and still the black-armored soldiers of Dan Trex, the warlord of the largest slave army of the world, ruled the southern desert.
  • The Gray Wolf by Michael E. Shea 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC mikeshea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Endangered Species Act protections given to an introduced exotic subspecies, the MacKenzie Valley phenotype of the grey wolf, from a species found through out Asia, Europe and North America and hardly endangered, has worked.
  • Northern Rockies Gray Wolf Delisted | Peter Metcalf | NewWest.Net 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.newwest.net [Source type: Original source]

.But it is doubtful whether these should be regarded as more than local varieties.^ NO dog, of any breed, should be left alone with a small child, but the Siberian is no more a threat to small children than any other medium-sized, high energy breed.
  • Siberian Husky Dogs - Born To Run 10 January 2010 6:10 UTC www.thedogsbone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So long as these fools are permitted to buy and use weapons, civilization is threatened more by them than by imperialists like Dick Cheney...
  • Northern Rockies Gray Wolf Delisted | Peter Metcalf | NewWest.Net 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.newwest.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To successfully monitor the genetic diseases and health of the dogs, a breeder really should not produce more than one litter per year.

.In North America there is a second distinct smaller species, called the coyote or prairie-wolf (Canis latrans), and perhaps the Japanese wolf (C. hodophylax) may be distinct, although, except for its smaller size and shorter legs, it is scarcely distinguishable from the common species.^ The coyote (C. latrans) competes with the wolf for many prey species.
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Distinguishable from coyote (Canis latrans) by larger size, broader snout, relatively shorter ears, and proportionately larger brain case.
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although it is impossible to know exactly how many wolves existed before European settlers came to North America, it is thought that there were as many as 400,000 of them.
  • The Recovery of the Gray Wolf Under the Endangered Species Act 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.The wolf enters the N.W. corner of India, but in the peninsula is replaced by the more jackal-like C. pallipes, which is probably a member of the jackal group, and not a wolf at all.^ Although the Siberian Husky is a dog that is a domestic dog, it really does show a lot of its wolf like traits, more so than other dogs do.
  • Siberian Husky for Sale, Breeders 10 January 2010 6:10 UTC www.animaroo.com [Source type: General]

^ The session ended with a group howl as all the kids became like a wolf pack, howling at an imaginary moon.
  • The Making of The Snow Wolves 20 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.kued.org [Source type: General]

^ By HAL 9000, 3-04-08 I fall more or less on the pro-wolf side, but I'm getting tired of all the hype on both sides of this issue.
  • Northern Rockies Gray Wolf Delisted | Peter Metcalf | NewWest.Net 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.newwest.net [Source type: Original source]

.The ordinary colour of the wolf is yellowish or fulvous grey, but almost pure white and entirely black wolves are known.^ Black, grey and white.
  • Siberian Husky dog breeders 10 January 2010 6:10 UTC www.wellbredpets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shadow is an almost pure black wolf with beautiful yellow eyes.
  • The Making of The Snow Wolves 20 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.kued.org [Source type: General]

^ The wolves are pure white, gentle and friendly.
  • The Making of The Snow Wolves 20 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.kued.org [Source type: General]

.In northern countries the fur is longer and thicker, and the animal generally larger and more powerful than in the southern portion of its range.^ Likewise, the northern populations of wolves in the U.S. were mostly transients from Canada and consisted of the southern-most range limit of the Canadian populations.
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main difference for our purposes, is the fat content; white meats having generally much less fat, and are of a more polyunsaturated nature than the red meats.

^ According to Wyoming Statute 23-1-304 and interpretation of said statute by the Wyoming Attorney Generals Office, wolves located outside these areas will be classified as predatory animals as long as there are more than 7 packs outside the Parks and Parkway.
  • Wyoming Gray Wolf Management Plan 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC wolfology1.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its habits are similar everywhere and it is still, and has been from time immemorial, especially known to man in all the countries it inhabits as the devastator of sheep flocks.^ It is so neat to feel like people still care about what has happened to me and are still praying for me after all this time.

^ Similar to football, we all have things that probably take up too much of our precious time.

^ At that time, when the winter range is inhabited by dogs, cats, kids, llamas, horses, goats, sheep, what have you, and lots of cross fencing, the wildlife value is gone.
  • Northern Rockies Gray Wolf Delisted | Peter Metcalf | NewWest.Net 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.newwest.net [Source type: Original source]

.Wolves do not catch their prey by lying in ambush, or stealing up close and making a sudden spring, but by fairly running it down in open chase, which their speed and remarkable endurance enable them to do.^ Permitting natural fires to run their course is essential to providing browse for the ungulate prey of the wolves here.
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I slipped down to the treeline and started filming making certain that I wasn't too close.
  • The Making of The Snow Wolves 20 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.kued.org [Source type: General]

^ The wolf's capacity for cooperative hunting enables it to locate and kill larger prey animals than a single wolf might usually be able to catch safely and efficiently.
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Except during summer when the young families of cubs are being separately provided for by their parents, they assemble in troops or packs, often in relays, and by their combined and persevering efforts are able to overpower and kill deer, antelopes and wounded animals of all sizes.^ Your Siberian, regardless of whether he is to sleep inside or outside, should be provided with his own place to sleep, and separate bedding from other members of the family.

^ In fact, every time project staff aerially located Mollie’s Pack on a kill during the spring, summer, and fall of 2002, at least one grizzly was in the area, or more commonly, at the kill.

^ While no single method will be suited to all packs, the Department will consider all methods, including new methods as they are developed.
  • Wyoming Gray Wolf Management Plan 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC wolfology1.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is singular that such closely allied species as the domestic dog and the Arctic fox are among the favourite prey of wolves, and, as is well known, children and even full-grown people are not infrequently the objects of their attack when pressed by hunger.^ Cattle and domestic DOGS have killed more children than wolves have!
  • Northern Rockies Gray Wolf Delisted | Peter Metcalf | NewWest.Net 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.newwest.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When you click on the description you will see even more information as well as a very nice sized color picture of each of the dogs for sale.

^ Wolves mostly prey on medium to large mammals, including elk, deer, and moose, although they have been known to eat small mammals, birds, and large invertebrates.
  • The Recovery of the Gray Wolf Under the Endangered Species Act 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

.Notwithstanding the proverbial ferocity of the wolf in a wild state, many instances are recorded of animals taken when quite young becoming tame and attached to the person who has brought them up, when they exhibit many of the ways of a dog.^ JAMES SERPELL (University of Pennsylvania) : We have abundant evidence from anthropological accounts, ethnographic accounts, of hunter-gatherers in different parts of the world, capturing and taming young wild animals and then bringing them home and keeping them as pets.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | Dogs and More Dogs | PBS 9 February 2010 15:22 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Don't get angry at these Koreans because they treat dogs this way and eat their flesh.
  • The Dog - Man's Best Friend? - Not for Everyone! - All Creatures Animal Exploitation Photo Gallery 9 February 2010 15:22 UTC www.all-creatures.org [Source type: General]

^ That's not to say they personally counted 1500 wolves, but rather they used the number they counted along with educated calculations based on natural wolf densities, to come up with an estimation.
  • Northern Rockies Gray Wolf Delisted | Peter Metcalf | NewWest.Net 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.newwest.net [Source type: Original source]

They can, however, rarely be trusted by strangers.
.The history of the wolf in the British Isles, and its gradual extirpation, has been thoroughly investigated by Mr J. E. Harting in his work on Extinct British Animals, from which the following account is abridged.^ In winter, when snow slows down bigger animals, a wolf pack tends to work together, bringing down an elk every other day or so.
  • Wolves and the Balance of Nature in the Rockies | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following is a short account for each subspecies: Eastern timber wolf (C. l.
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To judge by the osteological remains which the researches of geologists have brought to light, there was perhaps scarcely a county in England or Wales in which, at one time or another, wolves did not abound, while in Scotland and Ireland they must have been still more numerous.^ One more time.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | Dogs and More Dogs | PBS 9 February 2010 15:22 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Captain Emlyn Hughes lifted the trophy for the first time in his distinguished career, and Wolves joined the small band of teams to win the League Cup on more than one occasion.
  • WOLVES at TOFFS 20 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.toffs.com [Source type: General]

^ By allowing hundreds of wolves to be killed outside the park, the lawsuit claimed, populations would be cut off from one another, and inbreeding would eventually weaken them, making them more vulnerable to disease, drought and other perils.
  • Wolves and the Balance of Nature in the Rockies | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazine 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fossil remains which have been discovered in Britain are not larger than, nor in any way to be distinguished from, the corresponding bones and teeth of European wolves of the present day.^ I'd rather have wolves than cattle any day.
  • Northern Rockies Gray Wolf Delisted | Peter Metcalf | NewWest.Net 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.newwest.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After months of trying hard to photograph the wild wolves, they had given us a present in a single day.
  • The Making of The Snow Wolves 20 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.kued.org [Source type: General]

^ In general, the literature on wolves indicates that wolves are adaptable and adjust their activities more to enhance hunting success than to satisfy any inner, time-of-day preferences of their own.
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wolf-hunting was a favourite pursuit of the ancient Britons as well as of the Anglo-Saxons.^ This adaptive management approach will assure adequate prey abundance to sustain a wolf population, as well as the hunting and trapping tradition enjoyed by many in Wyoming.
  • Wyoming Gray Wolf Management Plan 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC wolfology1.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Athelstan's reign these animals abounded to such an extent in Yorkshire that a retreat was built by one Acehorn, at Flixton, near Filey, wherein travellers might seek refuge if attacked by them.^ If you kept that up generation after generation, in theory, you would create an animal fundamentally different from these wolves, one with tameness in its genes.
  • NOVA | Transcripts | Dogs and More Dogs | PBS 9 February 2010 15:22 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.As is well known, great efforts were made by King Edgar to reduce the number of wolves in the country, but, notwithstanding the annual tribute of 300 skins paid to him during several years by the king of Wales, he was not altogether so successful as has been commonly imagined.^ Studies of wolves' territoriality and home ranges exist for several areas where adequate numbers of wolves have persisted (44,62, 71,72).
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Personnel from YNP have demonstrated that the use of helicopters during the winter when packs are more visible and accessible can increase the number of wolves that are collared over a shorter time frame, which greatly reduces the personnel time required when using traditional trapping techniques.
  • Wyoming Gray Wolf Management Plan 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC wolfology1.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following is a synopsis of known wolf mortalities in the state of Montana during calender year 2002 that were investigated by USFWS special agents.

In the reign of Henry III. wolves were sufficiently numerous in some parts of the country to induce the king to make grants of land to various individuals upon the express condition of their taking measures to destroy these animals wherever they could be found. .In Edward II.'s time, the king's forest of the Peak, in Derbyshire, is especially mentioned as infested with wolves, and it was not until the reign of Henry VII.^ Generalizations about the amount of time it took wolves to habituate to RAG boxes should not be made until further monitoring has been conducted.

^ DISTRIBUTION The reintroduction of wolves into the GYA focused on the large tracts of public lands in the region, especially YNP and the surrounding U.S. Forest Service wilderness areas.
  • Wyoming Gray Wolf Management Plan 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC wolfology1.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(1485-1509) that wolves appear to have become finally extinct in England. .This, however, is rather a matter of inference from the cessation of all mention of them in local records than from any definite evidence of their extirpation.^ Starbucks is definitely the easiest to find, but I have come to adore Peet’s coffee more than all the rest!

^ However, this is not because of habitat preference; rather it is because wolves were extirpated from other habitats (11).
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Their last retreat was probably in the desolate wolds of Yorkshire. .In Scotland, as might be supposed from the nature of the country, the wolf maintained its hold for a much longer period.^ But how much recovery is enough for the wolf to be considered no longer endangered under the ESA § 3(6)?
  • The Recovery of the Gray Wolf Under the Endangered Species Act 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, if prey vulnerability is low for a prolonged period, wolf numbers will decline and cannot be maintained at high densities (11).
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is a well-known story of the last of the race being killed by Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel in 1680, but there is evidence of wolves having survived in Sutherlandshire and other parts into the following century (perhaps as late as 1743), though the date of their final extinction cannot be accurately fixed.^ No calves were killed in pastures protected by RAG boxes and there was no indication that wolves were habituating to the boxes.

^ For example, a livestock owner might be less inclined to object to wolves being reintroduced into her area if she knows that special rules can be made that will allow her to kill a wolf seen attacking her animals.
  • The Recovery of the Gray Wolf Under the Endangered Species Act 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.animallaw.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Wolves are good swimmers and do not hesitate to wade or swim across rivers and lakes; they sometimes follow prey into water even in winter (40).
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Ireland, in Cromwell's time, wolves were particularly troublesome, and said to be increasing in numbers, so that special measures were taken for their destruction, such as the offering of large rewards for their heads, and the prohibition (in 1652) of the exportation of "wolf-dogs," the large dogs used for hunting the wolves.^ Of all the factors that affect the existence of the remaining wild wolves, those that significantly affect the welfare of the wolves' prey base, particularly the ungulates, are indirect factors that will affect wolf populations.
  • http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/esis/lists/e059001.htm 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC fwie.fw.vt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the new owner has problems at any time in the future – such as obedience or training issues – the breeder will help out or take the dog back.

^ The wolves posed for us time and time again and became more used to our presence.
  • The Making of The Snow Wolves 20 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.kued.org [Source type: General]

.The active measures taken then and later reduced their numbers greatly, so that towards the end of the century they became scarce, but, as in the case of the sister island, the date of their final disappearance cannot now be ascertained.^ In conclusion, to reduce the chances of you or your pet becoming ill through worms, the following measures can be taken: .

^ Instead, they keep the puppy themselves, sell it later as an adult dog, or possibly even breed it in the future as an additional step towards breed improvement.

^ Without adequate food supply wolf numbers would be reduced until an adequate supply of elk--or deer--or mice--or hares--or cattle--or sheep became available.
  • Northern Rockies Gray Wolf Delisted | Peter Metcalf | NewWest.Net 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.newwest.net [Source type: Original source]

It has been placed, upon the evidence of somewhat doubtful traditions, as late as 1766.
.It is owing to their position that the British Islands have been able to clear themselves of these formidable and destructive animals, for France, with no natural barriers to prevent their incursions from the continent to the east, is liable every winter to visits from numbers of these animals.^ People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) claims that “some stores have been caught killing unsold dogs on the premises,” and there is no law preventing them from doing so.

^ A couple thousand animals died the winter BEFORE introduction (winter kill), and several thousand more in the next couple of winters before wolves were in sufficient numbers to have much of an effect.
  • Northern Rockies Gray Wolf Delisted | Peter Metcalf | NewWest.Net 3 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.newwest.net [Source type: Original source]

^ An extensive forest fire burned most of the winter range in 2000 and contributed to changes in animal numbers and distribution on the Big Creek winter range.

(W. H. F.; R. L.*)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also wolf

Contents

German

Etymology

Pronunciation

Noun

Wolf m. (genitive Wolfs or Wolfes, plural Wölfe)
  1. wolf

Declension

Proper noun

Wolf
.
  1. A male given name, short form of Germanic compound names beginning with the element Wolf- , particularly Wolfgang.
  2. A surname derived from the given name, or as a nickname from the animal.^ They should be given ample outdoor time and interaction with other animals and people, particularly after four weeks of age.

    ^ There is a strict hierarchy in wolf packs, beginning with the alpha pair and descending through the middle ranks (both male and female) to the lowest ranked wolf, the omega.
    • THE "WHOLLY SEPARATE" TRUTH: DID THE YELLOWSTONE WOLF REINTRODUCTION VIOLATE SECTION 10(J) OF THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT? 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.bc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many Germanic personal names used to include "wolf" as an element (e.g., Wulfstan).

    Variant: Wolff.

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

Heb. zeeb, frequently referred to in Scripture as an emblem of treachery and cruelty. Jacob's prophecy, "Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf" (Gen 49:27), represents the warlike character of that tribe (see Judg. 19-21). Isaiah represents the peace of Messiah's kingdom by the words, "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb" (Isa 11:6). The habits of the wolf are described in Jer 5:6; Hab 1:8; Zeph 3:3; Ezek 22:27; Mt 7:15; 10:16; Acts 20:29. Wolves are still sometimes found in Palestine, and are the dread of shepherds, as of old.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Siberian Husky, which are similar to those in the above article.








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