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Wolfenbüttel
Coat of arms of Wolfenbüttel
Wolfenbüttel is located in Germany
Wolfenbüttel
Coordinates 52°09′44″N 10°32′13″E / 52.16222°N 10.53694°E / 52.16222; 10.53694
Administration
Country Germany
State Lower Saxony
District Wolfenbüttel
Town subdivisions 10 districts
Mayor Thomas Pink (CDU)
Basic statistics
Area 78.46 km2 (30.29 sq mi)
Elevation 77 m  (253 ft)
Population 54,124  (31 December 2006)
 - Density 690 /km2 (1,787 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate WF
Postal codes 38300, 38302, 38304
Area code 05331
Website www.wolfenbuettel.de

Wolfenbüttel is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, located on the Oker river about 13 kilometres south of Brunswick. It is the seat of the District of (Landkreis) Wolfenbüttel and of the bishop of the Protestant Lutheran State Church of Brunswick. It is also the southernmost of the 172 towns in northern Germany whose names end in büttel, meaning "residence" or "settlement."

History

It is not known when Wolfenbüttel was founded, but it was first mentioned in 1118 as Wulferisbutle. The first settlement was probably restricted to a tiny islet in the Oker river.

Wolfenbüttel's Schloss.

Wolfenbüttel became the residence of the dukes of Brunswick in 1432. Over the following three centuries it grew to be a centre of the arts, and personages such as Michael Praetorius, Johann Rosenmüller, Gottfried Leibniz, and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing lived there. The ducal court eventually returned to Braunschweig in 1753 and Wolfenbüttel subsequently lost in importance.

The Battle of Wolfenbüttel, part of the Thirty Years' War, was fought here in June 1641, when the Swedes under Wrangel and the Count of Königsmark defeated the Austrians under Archduke Leopold of Habsburg.

In the late eighteenth century, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing directed the ducal library, the Herzog-August-Bibliothek, and established one of the first lending libraries in Enlightenment Europe.[1]

Main sights

The portal above the entrance to the HAB
The residence of Gotthold Lessing when he was librarian at the HAB
Wolfenbüttel's former armory now houses part of the HAB
  • The baroque Schloss (castle). In 1866 the castle became the Anna-Vorwerk-School for girls. Today part of the building is used as a high school; it also houses a great example of Baroque state apartments, which are open to the public as a museum.
  • Herzog August Bibliothek (HAB), the ducal library, has one of the largest and best-known collections of ancient books in the world. It is especially rich in bibles, incunabula, and books of the Reformation period, with some 10,000 manuscripts. It was founded in 1572 and rehoused in an interpretation of the Pantheon in 1723, built facing the castle; the present library building was constructed in 1886. Leibniz and Lessing worked in this library, Lessing as librarian. The Codex Carolinus in the library is one of the few remaining texts in Gothic. The library also houses the bible of Henry the Lion, a book preserved in near mint condition from the year 1170.

The town is also the location of the former Northampton Barracks, which housed units of the British Army of the Rhine until 1993 (postcode: BFPO 33).

Today Wolfenbüttel is smaller than the neighbouring cities of Braunschweig, Salzgitter, and Wolfsburg, but, because it was largely undamaged by the war, its downtown is rich in half-timber buildings, many dating several centuries back, and it still retains its historical character. Wolfenbüttel is located on the German Framework Road.

Culture

Wolfenbüttel is home of several departments of the University of Applied Sciences Brunswick/Wolfenbütteland the Lessing-Akademie, an organisation for the study of Lessing's works. It is also home to the Niedersächsische Staatsarchiv, the state archives of Lower Saxony.

The herb liqueur Jägermeister is distilled in Wolfenbüttel and the headquarters is still located there. During the second world war, the town was home to an anti-aircraft defence unit under the command of Oberstleutnant Wolfgang Von Mulhallganger. Legend has it that the act of 'Jäger-bombing' coined its name after the Lieutenant-Colonel advised his men to try some of the local spirits to keep up morale with the advancing 94th aerial bombardment group flying towards Braunschweig.

Wolfenbüttel hosted the three day International German Bus Pulling Championships in May 2009, where five-person teams pull a 16-ton bus 30 meters.[2][3]

Twin cities

A bridge in Wolfenbüttel is named after each of these cities.

People

See also

References

  1. ^ Horn Melton, James Van, The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe (Cambridge University Press, 2001), p106
  2. ^ page 22 March 2009 Forbes
  3. ^ [heetp://www.buspulling.de Bus Pulling Germany website]
  • (German) Grunow, Heinz and Wessel, Wolfgang. Wolfenbüttel: ein Bildband. Grenzland-Verlag Rock & Co., Wolfenbüttel. 1977

External links








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