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Woodrow Wilson


In office
March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921
Vice President Thomas R. Marshall
Preceded by William Howard Taft
Succeeded by Warren G. Harding

In office
January 17, 1911 – March 1, 1913
Preceded by John Franklin Fort
Succeeded by James Fairman Fielder

In office
1902–1910
Preceded by Francis L. Patton
Succeeded by John Aikman Stewart

Born December 28, 1856(1856-12-28)
Staunton, Virginia
Died February 3, 1924 (aged 67)
Washington, D.C.
Birth name Thomas Woodrow Wilson
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Ellen Axson Wilson
Edith Bolling Galt Wilson
Children Margaret Woodrow Wilson
Jessie Woodrow Wilson Sayre
Eleanor R. Wilson
Alma mater Princeton University (B.A)
Johns Hopkins University (PhD)
Profession Academic (History, Political science)
Religion Presbyterianism
Signature
.Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924)[1][2] was the 28th President of the United States.^ Thomas Woodrow Wilson ( December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States .

^ Wilson , Woodrow 1856-1924 Book article from: American Decades WILSON , WOODROW 1856-1924 President of the united...the outset of World War I President Woodrow Wilson believed that the United States had...Virginia, on 28 December 1856, Thomas Woodrow Wilson was named after his maternal grandfather...
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President of the United States, 1913-1921 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

A leading intellectual of the Progressive Era, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913. With Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft dividing the Republican Party vote, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912.
.In his first term, Wilson persuaded a Democratic Congress to pass the Federal Reserve Act,[3] Federal Trade Commission, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act and America's first-ever federal progressive income tax in the Revenue Act of 1913.^ On 23 December 1913 the president signed the Federal Reserve Act.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Early in his first term, he supported some cabinet appointees in introducing segregation in the federal workplace of several departments, a Democratic Congress to pass major legislation that included the Federal Trade Commission, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act, America’s first-ever federal progressive income tax in the Revenue Act of 1913 and most notably the Federal Reserve Act.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Wilson, in advocating the Federal Reserve Act, said: .
  • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Wilson brought many white Southerners into his administration, and tolerated their expansion of segregation in many federal agencies.^ Segregation, the practice of keeping people of different races separate from each other, had never been the practice in federal government offices in Washington, D.C. Faced with strong pressure from fellow Southerners, however, Wilson allowed segregation in the capital.

^ The segregation introduced into the federal workforce by the Wilson administration was kept in place by the succeeding Republican administrations and was not finally rescinded until the Truman Administration.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson's own view, as he expressed it to intimates, was that federal segregation was an act of kindness.
  • Woodrow Wilson's Legacy - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

[4][5]
.Narrowly re-elected in 1916, Wilson's second term centered on World War I.^ Reelected in 1916, his second term centered on World War I .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Re-elected narrowly in 1916, his second term centered on American entry into the war , fighting the war , and settling the postwar peace terms.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ After World War I, Wilson participated in negotiations with the stated aim of assuring statehood for formerly oppressed nations and an equitable peace.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

.He based his re-election campaign around the slogan "he kept us out of the war", but U.S. neutrality was challenged in early 1917 when the German government proposed to Mexico a military alliance in a war against the U.S., and began unrestricted submarine warfare, sinking without warning every American merchant ship its submarines could find.^ He tried to negotiate a peace in Europe but when Germany began unrestricted submarine warfare against American shipping he called on Congress to declare war.

^ He tried to negotiate a peace in Europe, but when Germany began unrestricted submarine warfare against American shipping, he called on Congress to declare war.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ Germany of a renewal of unrestricted submarine warfare.
  • Woodrow Wilson Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Woodrow Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilson in April 1917 asked Congress to declare war.^ Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany.
  • Woodrow Wilson Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Woodrow Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ISSN to Congress, January - April 1917.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.He focused on diplomacy and financial considerations, leaving the waging of the war primarily in the hands of the Army.^ He focused on diplomacy and financial considerations, leaving the waging of the war primarily in the hands of the military establishment.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He raised a massive army through conscription and gave command to General John J. Pershing, allowing Pershing a free hand as to tactics, strategy and even diplomacy.

^ He raised a massive army through conscription and gave command to General John J. Pershing , allowing Pershing a free hand as to tactics, strategy and even diplomacy.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.On the home front in 1917, he began the United States' first draft since the US civil war, raised billions in war funding through Liberty Bonds, set up the War Industries Board, promoted labor union growth, supervised agriculture and food production through the Lever Act, took over control of the railroads, enacted the first federal drug prohibition, and suppressed anti-war movements.^ He began the first effective draft in 1917, raised billions through liberty loans, imposed an income tax on the wealthy, set up the War Industries Board, promoted labor union growth, supervised agriculture and food production through the Lever act, took over control of the railroads, and suppressed anti-war movements including the left-wing of the Socialist Party and the IWW .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the home front he began the first effective draft in 1917, raised billions through Liberty loans , imposed an income tax on the wealthy, set up the War Industries Board , promoted labor union growth, supervised agriculture and food production through the Lever Act , took over control of the railroads, and suppressed left-wing anti-war movements.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States at War, 1917 – 1918 .
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.National women's suffrage was also achieved under Wilson's presidency.^ National women’s suffrage was achieved under Wilson’s presidency, but this egalitarian success was offset by the Wilson administration’s segregation of the federal government.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the president "rightly" interpreted the "national thought" and "boldly" insisted upon it, Wilson concluded, he would be politically "irresistible."

^ Wilson's words were repeatedly quoted in the film The Birth of a Nation , which has come under fire for racism.

.In the late stages of the war, Wilson took personal control of negotiations with Germany, including the armistice.^ In the late stages of the war he took personal control of negotiations with Germany, especially with the Fourteen Points and the Armistice that amounted to a German surrender.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ In the late stages of the war, Wilson took personal control of negotiations with Germany, including the armistice.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 and made a clumsy attempt to enlist Mexico as an ally (see Zimmermann Telegram ), Wilson took America into World War I as a war to make "the world safe for democracy."
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.He issued his Fourteen Points, his view of a post-war world that could avoid another terrible conflict.^ He issued his Fourteen Points, his view of a post-war world that could avoid another terrible conflict.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He then tried to frighten the opposition with predictions that the next world war would make World War I seem like "child's play" and concluded: "The issue is final.

^ Let's not forget that by Wilson also helped destroy the "racial equality" clause our then Japanese Allies favored post-World War One.
  • Woodrow Wilson's Legacy - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

.He went to Paris in 1919 to create the League of Nations and shape the Treaty of Versailles, with special attention on creating new nations out of defunct empires.^ He went to Paris in 1919 to create the League of Nations and shape the Treaty of Versailles, with special attention on creating new nations out of defunct empires.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He went to Paris in 1919 to create the League of Nations and shape the Treaty of Versailles .

^ League of Nations, 1919 February 14 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Largely for his efforts to form the League, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.^ For his efforts in this direction, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for peace in 1919.

^ Largely for his efforts to form the League, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Wilson was awarded the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize for his peacemaking efforts.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.In 1919, during the bitter fight with the Republican-controlled Senate over the U.S. joining the League of Nations, Wilson collapsed with a debilitating stroke.^ League of Nations, 1919 February 14 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ League of Nations, 1919 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ During the tour, Wilson's health collapsed.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.He refused to compromise, effectively destroying any chance for ratification.^ He refused to compromise with the Republicans who controlled Congress after 1918, effectively destroying any chance for ratification of the Versailles Treaty.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He refused to compromise with the Republicans who controlled Congress after 1918, effectively destroying any chance for ratification of the Treaty of Versailles.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.The League of Nations was established anyway, but the United States never joined.^ It went into effect anyway, but the U.S. never joined the League of Nations.

^ The League of Nations was established anyway, but the United States never joined.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The League of Nations went into operation anyway, but the U.S. never joined.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

A Presbyterian of deep religious faith, he appealed to a gospel of service and infused a profound sense of moralism into Wilsonianism. .Wilson's idealistic internationalism, now referred to as "Wilsonianism", which calls for the United States to enter the world arena to fight for democracy, has been a contentious position in American foreign policy, serving as a model for "idealists" to emulate and "realists" to reject ever since.^ It has been a highly controversial position in American foreign policy, serving as a model for "idealists" to emulate or "realists" to reject for the following century.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ It may be that the Wilsonian legacy is now only the conscience of American foreign policy.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A collection of essays on Wilson’s foreign policy.
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

[6]

Contents

Early life

Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia on December 28, 1856 as the third of four children of Reverend Dr. Joseph Ruggles Wilson (1822–1903) and Jessie Janet Woodrow (1826–1888).[1] .His ancestry was Scots-Irish and Scottish.^ His ancestry was Scots-Irish and Scottish.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ His ancestry was Scots-Irish.

His paternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland (now Northern Ireland), in 1807. His mother was born in Carlisle, England, the daughter of Rev. Dr. Thomas Woodrow, born in Paisley, Scotland and Marion Williamson from Glasgow.[7] .His grandparents' whitewashed house has become a tourist attraction in Northern Ireland.^ His paternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone , in modern-day Northern Ireland .
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ His grandparents immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone, in modern-day Northern Ireland .

Descendants of the Wilsons still live in the farmhouse next door to it.[8]
Wilson circa 1880s
.Wilson's father was originally from Steubenville, Ohio, where his grandfather published a newspaper, The Western Herald and Gazette, that was pro-tariff and abolitionist.^ Wilson's father was originally from Steubenville, Ohio where his grandfather had been an abolitionist newspaper publisher and his uncles were Republicans.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the pro column, Wilson’s tax policy (lower tariffs, higher income tax) was good and he did some good regulatory things.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Wilson's parents moved South in 1851 and identified with the Confederacy.^ Wilson’s parents moved South in 1851 and identified with the Confederacy.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But his parents moved South in 1851 and identified with the Confederacy.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson's was educated partly at home and partly at private schools in Augusta and, after 1870, in war-ravaged Columbia, South Carolina, to which the Wilsons moved.

.His father defended slavery, owned slaves and set up a Sunday school for them.^ His father defended slavery, owned slaves and set up a Sunday school for them.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They kept slaves and set up a Sunday school for them.

^ His father defended slavery and set up a Sunday school for them.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.They cared for wounded soldiers at their church.^ They cared for wounded soldiers at their church.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

.The father also briefly served as a chaplain to the Confederate Army.^ The father also briefly served as a Confederate army chaplain.

^ The father also briefly served as a chaplain to the Confederate army.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He ministered to the Confederate army one summer as a chaplain and used the Augusta church as a temporary hospital for Confederate soldiers.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

[10] .Woodrow Wilson's earliest memory, from the age of three, was of hearing that Abraham Lincoln had been elected and that a war was coming.^ His earliest memory, from age 3, was of hearing that Abraham Lincoln had been elected and that a war was coming.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Woodrow Wilson’s earliest memory, from the age of three, was of hearing that Abraham Lincoln had been elected and that a war was coming.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coming from "exactly the same sources" that had demonstrated their "disloyalty" before the war, Wilson again blamed "hyphenated" Americans.

.Wilson would forever recall standing for a moment at Robert E. Lee's side and looking up into his face.^ Wilson would forever recall standing for a moment at Robert E. Lee’s side and looking up into his face.
  • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson would forever recall standing for a moment at Robert E. Lee's side and looking up into his face.

^ Wilson would forever recall standing for a moment at Robert E. Lee 's side and looking up into his face.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.Wilson's father was one of the founders of the Southern Presbyterian Church in the United States (PCUS) after it split from the northern Presbyterians in 1861. Joseph R. Wilson served as the first permanent clerk of the southern church's General Assembly, was Stated Clerk from 1865–1898 and was Moderator of the PCUS General Assembly in 1879. Wilson spent the majority of his childhood, up to age 14, in Augusta, Georgia, where his father was minister of the First Presbyterian Church.^ Wilson’s father was one of the founders of the Southern Presbyterian Church in the United States (PCUS) after it split from the northern Presbyterians in 1861.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson spent the majority of his childhood, to age 14, in Augusta, Georgia , where his father was minister of the First Presbyterian Church.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also helped divide southern from northern Presbyterians.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

[11][12]
.Wilson was over ten years of age before he learned to read.^ He did not learn to read until he was about 12 years old.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson did not learn to read until he was about 12 years old.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Constitutionalist campaign faltered, Wilson, on 3 February 1914, lifted the arms embargo against the Constitutionalists that Taft had imposed a year before.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.His difficulty reading may have indicated dyslexia,[13] but as a teenager he taught himself shorthand to compensate.^ His difficulty reading may have indicated dyslexia or A.D.D. , but as a teenager he taught himself shorthand to compensate and was able to achieve academically through determination and self-discipline.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson's difficulty reading may have indicated dyslexia , but as a teenager he taught himself shorthand to compensate and was able to achieve academically through determination and self-discipline.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

[14] .He was able to achieve academically through determination and self-discipline.^ His difficulty reading may have indicated dyslexia or A.D.D. , but as a teenager he taught himself shorthand to compensate and was able to achieve academically through determination and self-discipline.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson's difficulty reading may have indicated dyslexia , but as a teenager he taught himself shorthand to compensate and was able to achieve academically through determination and self-discipline.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

.He studied at home under his father's guidance and took classes in a small school in Augusta.^ He studied at home under his father's guidance and took classes in a small school in Augusta.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He studied at home under his father's guidance and took classes in a small school for boys in Augusta.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson's was educated partly at home and partly at private schools in Augusta and, after 1870, in war-ravaged Columbia, South Carolina, to which the Wilsons moved.

[15] .During Reconstruction, Wilson lived in Columbia, South Carolina, the state capital, from 1870–1874, where his father was professor at the Columbia Theological Seminary.^ He lived in the state capital Columbia, South Carolina from 1870-1874, where his father was professor at the Presbyterian Theological Seminary .
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1870 the family moved to Columbia, South Carolina, where Dr. Wilson became a professor at the Theological Seminary and pastor of the First Presbyterian Church.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During Reconstruction he lived in Columbia , the state capital, from 1870-1874, where his father was professor at the Columbia Theological Seminary .
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.In 1873, he spent a year at Davidson College in North Carolina, then transferred to Princeton as a freshman, graduating in 1879, becoming a member of Phi Kappa Psi fraternity.^ In 1873 he entered Davidson College near Charlotte, North Carolina.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Princeton Undergraduate Years 1875-1879 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1873 he began studies at Davidson College in North Carolina, but stayed only for one year.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

.Beginning in his second year, he read widely in political philosophy and history.^ Beginning in his second year, he read widely in political philosophy and history.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He carried this interest to Princeton, where he studied and read extensively in history and politics.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wilson spent much of his time reading history and political science and working on an article on government.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wilson credited the British parliamentary sketch-writer Henry Lucy as his inspiration to enter public life.^ Inspired by the British parliamentary tradition, Wilson began to regard himself as a future statesman.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An admirer of the British Parliamentary system whereby the elected members control the Prime Minister, Wilson favored a parliamentary system.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ However, after he entered politics in 1910, Wilson worked to integrate new immigrants into the Democratic party, into the army, and into American life.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was active in the undergraduate American Whig-Cliosophic Society discussion club, and organized a separate Liberal Debating Society.^ He organized the Liberal Debating Club and drafted its parliamentary constitution.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was active in the undergraduate discussion club , and organized a separate Liberal Debating Society.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was active in the Whig Society , and organized a separate Liberal Debating Society, which broke up at his graduation.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

[17]
.In 1879, Wilson attended law school at the University of Virginia for one year.^ In 1879, Wilson attended law school at University of Virginia for one year but he never graduated.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout his years as a professor of history, politics, and constitutional law at Bryn Mawr College (1885 – 1888), Wesleyan University (1888 – 1890), and Princeton University (1890 – 1910; president, 1902 – 1910), Wilson paid close attention to developments in American politics.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Dixon, author of the novel The Clansman upon which the film is based, was one of Wilson's graduate school classmates at Johns Hopkins in 1883-1884.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.Although he never graduated, during his time at the University he was heavily involved in the Virginia Glee Club and the Jefferson Literary and Debating Society, serving as the Society's president.^ Here in Thomas Jefferson's Charlottesville, he joined the Jefferson Society, a debating and literary club.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After graduating from Princeton in 1879, Wilson returned to the south to attend law school at the University of Virginia; he passed the Georgia bar and briefly practiced law in Atlanta.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ At Davidson, he also was elected to the Eumenean Society, a college debating club, and he began his serious study of rhetoric and the great British orators.

[18] .His frail health dictated withdrawal, and he went home to Wilmington, North Carolina where he continued his studies.^ His frail health dictated withdrawal, and he went home to Wilmington , North Carolina where he continued his studies.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before finishing the academic year, however, the homesick student returned to his parents, who had moved to Wilmington, North Carolina, where his father had begun a new pastorate.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He continued to study law at home and in 1882 passed the Georgia bar exam.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

[19]
.In January 1882, Wilson started a law practice in Atlanta.^ In 1882 a classmate invited Wilson to become a partner in a new law practice in Atlanta.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1882, Wilson decided to start his first law practice in Atlanta , a city which was then growing in importance in the South.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1882, Wilson decided to start his first law practice in Atlanta .
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of his University of Virginia classmates, Edward Ireland Renick, invited him to join his new law practice as partner and Wilson joined him in May 1882. He passed the Georgia Bar.^ One of Wilson’s University of Virginia classmates, Edward Ireland Renick , invited Wilson to join his new law practice as partner.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson joined him there in May 1882.
  • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1882 a classmate invited Wilson to become a partner in a new law practice in Atlanta.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.On October 19, 1882, he appeared in court before Judge George Hillyer to take his examination for the bar, which he passed easily.^ On October 19 , 1882 he appeared in court before Judge George Hillyer to take his examination for the bar, which he passed with flying colors and he began work on his thesis Congressional Government in the United States .
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He continued to study law at home and in 1882 passed the Georgia bar exam.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

.Competition was fierce in the city with 143 other lawyers, and he found few cases to keep him occupied.^ Competition was fierce in the city with 143 other lawyers, so with few cases to keep him occupied, Wilson quickly grew disillusioned.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .Nevertheless, he found staying current with the law obstructed his plans to study government to achieve his long-term plans for a political career.^ After a disappointing year practicing law in Atlanta , he undertook doctoral studies in politics at Johns Hopkins University .

^ In 1883 Wilson abandoned his law career and entered the graduate school of The Johns Hopkins University to study history.

^ Long study of Anglo-American politics had convinced Wilson that party responsibility was the key to effective government in a democracy.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In April 1883, Wilson applied to the Johns Hopkins University to study for a doctorate in history and political science and began his studies there in the fall.^ After a disappointing year practicing law in Atlanta , he undertook doctoral studies in politics at Johns Hopkins University .

^ In 1883 Wilson abandoned his law career and entered the graduate school of The Johns Hopkins University to study history.

^ Abandoning law in 1883, but not his ambition to become a statesman, he entered Johns Hopkins University to study constitutional and political history.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

[20]

Personal life

.Wilson's mother was possibly a hypochondriac and Wilson himself seemed to think that he was often in poorer health than he really was.^ Wilson’s mother was probably a hypochondriac and Wilson seemed to think that he was often in poorer health than he really was.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "When I think of the obstacles you have encountered and overcome in this conflict for the national honor," one friend wrote to Wilson on 16 June 1914, "the victory seems colossal."
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, Loewen is I think more positive than Matt in his assessment of some of Wilson’s progressive achievements.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

He did suffer from hypertension at a relatively early age and may have suffered his first stroke at age 39.[21]
.In 1885, he married Ellen Louise Axson, the daughter of a minister from Rome, Georgia.^ In 1885, he married Ellen Louise Axson , the daughter of a minister from Rome, Georgia.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson had been engaged for several years to Ellen Louise Axson, daughter of a Georgia clergyman, and they were married in June 1885.

^ ALS, Wilson, Ellen Louise Axson, 1912 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.They had three daughters: Margaret Woodrow Wilson (1886–1944); Jessie Wilson (1887–1933); and Eleanor R. Wilson (1889–1967)[1].^ After forty-six ballots, they picked a relatively unknown candidate: the New Jersey governor with but two years of political experience, Thomas Woodrow Wilson.

^ Wilson, Margaret Woodrow, 1915-1918 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Photograph Wilson, Joseph Ruggles and Jessie Wilson, Woodrow .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Axson died in 1914, and the following year Wilson married Edith Galt, a direct descendant of the famous Native American Pocahontas.^ Wilson, Ellen Axson, 1860-1914.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wilson's first wife died in 1914.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the following year he met the Southern Edith Bolling Galt, the widow of a Washington jeweler.

[22] .Wilson is one of only three presidents to be widowed while in office.^ Since Wilson 's day, the presidency has become even more of a speech-making office, and we have come to expect presidents to "go public" to promote themselves and their policies.

^ The Woodrow Wilson Bridge is one of only nine bridges on the U.S. Interstate Highway System that contains a movable span.
  • Woodrow Wilson Bridge (I-495 and I-95) 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.roadstothefuture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By "nationwide accord," the Commission concluded, Wilson was now "recognized as one of America 's greatest presidents."

[23]
Wilson's Pierce Arrow, which is on display in his hometown of Staunton, Virginia.
.Wilson was an early automobile enthusiast, and he took daily rides while he was President.^ The final resting place of Woodrow Wilson at the Washington National Cathedral Wilson was an early automobile enthusiast, and he took daily rides while he was President.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The larger international relations issue throughout Wilson's early presidency was keeping the United States out of the European war .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Unable to cycle around Washington, D.C. as President, Wilson took to playing golf, although he played with more enthusiasm than skill.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His favorite car was a 1919 Pierce-Arrow, in which he preferred to ride with the top down.^ His favorite car was a 1919 Pierce-Arrow , in which he preferred to ride with the top down.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .His enjoyment of motoring made him an advocate of funding for public highways.^ His enjoyment of motoring made him an advocate of funding for public highways.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson's stroke left him physically incapacitated but his condition was not made public.

[25]
.Wilson was an avid baseball fan.^ Wilson was an avid baseball fan.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1915, he became the first sitting president to attend a World Series game.^ In 1916 he became the first sitting president to attend a World Series game.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the first President officially to throw out a first ball at a World Series.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A detailed and scholarly study that begins with the examination of Wilson’s views on China before he became president and ends with a study of the American economic role in China during Wilson’s first administration.
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

.Wilson had been a center fielder during his Davidson College days.^ Wilson had been a center fielder during his Davidson College days.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discouraged and lonely during the fall of 1880, and complaining of a cold, Wilson left the university on Christmas Day and returned home.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1873, Wilson attended Davidson College, a small Presbyterian school in North Carolina, of which his father was a trustee.

.When he transferred to Princeton he was unable to make the varsity team and so became the team's assistant manager.^ When he transferred to Princeton he was unable to make the varsity and so became the assistant manager of the team.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was the first President to throw out a first ball at a World Series game.^ He was the first President officially to throw out a first ball at a World Series.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1916 he became the first sitting president to attend a World Series game.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
.He cycled regularly, including several cycling vacations in the English Lake District.^ He cycled regularly, including several cycling vacations in the Lake District in Britain.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .Unable to cycle around Washington, D.C. as President, Wilson took to playing golf, although he played with more enthusiasm than skill.^ Perhaps more than any other figure of his era, Woodrow Wilson embodied this tension between the old and the new attitude toward public persuasion.

^ Wilson’s actions after 1912 weren’t an expression of the times, except as part of the slow progress of the southern racist effort to make the US more racist than it had been.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Young Wilson witnessed the war's devastation of the South even more here than he had earlier in Georgia.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

[28] .Wilson holds the record of all the presidents for the most rounds of golf,[28] over 1,000, or almost one every other day.^ It was actually one of Wilson's most courageous moves during his presidency.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Wilson Bridge did manage to outlast one other major structure built in 1961: the Berlin Wall.
  • Woodrow Wilson Bridge (I-495 and I-95) 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.roadstothefuture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson also accepted the advice of Louis D. Brandeis, progressive lawyer and economist of Boston, to the effect that all members of the Federal Reserve Board should be appointed by the president.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the winter, the Secret Service would paint golf balls with black paint so Wilson could hit them around in the snow on the White House lawn.^ During adolescence the younger Wilson could be found reciting great speeches in his father's empty church.

^ The White House announced a few days after Wilson's inauguration that the new "prime minister" would help to frame legislation and would confer frequently with Democratic leaders in Congress in the President's Room in the Capitol.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson told them that he thought black as well as white Americans benefited from separation between races.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

[29]

Academic career

.He began his graduate studies at Johns Hopkins University in 1883 and three years later he completed his doctoral dissertation, "Congressional Government: A Study in American Politics", and received a Ph.D. in history and political science.^ After a disappointing year practicing law in Atlanta , he undertook doctoral studies in politics at Johns Hopkins University .

^ In 1883 Wilson abandoned his law career and entered the graduate school of The Johns Hopkins University to study history.

^ He was graduated from Princeton University (1879), studied law at the University of Virginia (1879 – 1880), practiced law in Atlanta (1882 – 1883), and thereafter did graduate work in political science, history, and economics at The Johns Hopkins University, where he received the Ph.D. in 1886.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.He received academic appointments at Bryn Mawr College (1885–88) and Wesleyan University (1888–90).^ Throughout his years as a professor of history, politics, and constitutional law at Bryn Mawr College (1885 – 1888), Wesleyan University (1888 – 1890), and Princeton University (1890 – 1910; president, 1902 – 1910), Wilson paid close attention to developments in American politics.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson served on the faculties of Bryn Mawr College and Wesleyan University (where he also coached the football team) and founded the Wesleyan University debate team (which to this date is named the T. Woodrow Wilson debate team) before joining the Princeton faculty as professor of jurisprudence and political economy in 1890.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After three years on the faculty at Bryn Mawr and two more at Wesleyan University , Wilson returned to Princeton in 1890 as a professor of Jurisprudence and Political Economy.

[30]
.At Wesleyan, he also coached the football team and founded the debate team – it is still called the T. Woodrow Wilson debate team.^ At Wesleyan, Wilson was a successful lecturer, faculty leader, and football coach.

^ Wilson served on the faculties of Bryn Mawr College and Wesleyan University (where he also coached the football team) and founded the Wesleyan University debate team (which to this date is named the T. Woodrow Wilson debate team) before joining the Princeton faculty as professor of jurisprudence and political economy in 1890.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Woodrow Wilson Founding Father's Quotes on Banking (May contain some repeats from "Founding Father's Quotes" / Information tends to converge) .
  • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.He then joined the Princeton faculty as professor of jurisprudence and political economy in 1890. While there, he was one of the faculty members of the short-lived coordinate college, Evelyn College for Women.^ Wilson welcomed the opportunity in 1890 to return to Princeton as professor of jurisprudence and political economy.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Princeton, Faculty Member and President, 1890-1913 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Throughout his years as a professor of history, politics, and constitutional law at Bryn Mawr College (1885 – 1888), Wesleyan University (1888 – 1890), and Princeton University (1890 – 1910; president, 1902 – 1910), Wilson paid close attention to developments in American politics.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Additionally, Wilson became the first lecturer of Constitutional Law at New York Law School where he taught with Charles Evans Hughes.^ Additionally, Wilson became the first lecturer of Constitutional Law at New York Law School where he taught with Charles Evans Hughes .
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After graduating from Princeton in 1879, Wilson returned to the south to attend law school at the University of Virginia; he passed the Georgia bar and briefly practiced law in Atlanta.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ McAdoo, as secretary of the treasury, became a close associate of Wilson and later his son-in-law.

[31]
Wilson delivered an oration at Princeton's sesquicentennial celebration (1896) entitled "Princeton in the Nation's Service". This phrase became the motto of the University, later expanded to "Princeton in the Nation's Service and in the Service of All Nations".[32] In this speech, he outlined his vision of the university in a democratic nation, calling on institutions of higher learning "to illuminate duty by every lesson that can be drawn out of the past".[33]
.Wilson was annoyed that Princeton was not living up to its potential, complaining "There's a little college down in Kentucky which in 60 years has graduated more men who have acquired prominence and fame than has Princeton in her 150 years."^ Throughout his years as a professor of history, politics, and constitutional law at Bryn Mawr College (1885 – 1888), Wesleyan University (1888 – 1890), and Princeton University (1890 – 1910; president, 1902 – 1910), Wilson paid close attention to developments in American politics.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After graduating from Princeton in 1879, Wilson returned to the south to attend law school at the University of Virginia; he passed the Georgia bar and briefly practiced law in Atlanta.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After three years on the faculty at Bryn Mawr and two more at Wesleyan University , Wilson returned to Princeton in 1890 as a professor of Jurisprudence and Political Economy.

[34]

Writings on government and politics

Government systems

.Under the influence of Walter Bagehot's The English Constitution, Wilson saw the United States Constitution as pre-modern, cumbersome, and open to corruption.^ Under the influence of Walter Bagehot 's The English Constitution , Wilson saw the United States Constitution as pre-modern, cumbersome, and open to corruption.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a section of volume V of his "History of the American People", which reads as a paraphrase of essays written by Brooks Adams, Wilson claimed that United States is destined to command "the economic fortunes of the world" through the "Open Door" expansionism.
  • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Emulating Bagehot's realistic approach to British politics, Wilson portrayed how the U.S. Constitution actually worked in contrast to its framers' theories as expressed in the Federalist .
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

.An admirer of Parliament, Wilson favored a parliamentary system for the United States.^ An admirer of Parliament (though he first visited London in 1919), Wilson favored a parliamentary system for the United States.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson’s father was one of the founders of the Southern Presbyterian Church in the United States (PCUS) after it split from the northern Presbyterians in 1861.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Woodrow Wilson, 28th president of the United States (1913-1921), enacted significant reform legislation and led the United States during World War I (1914-1918).

Writing in the early 1880s:[35]
.
I ask you to put this question to yourselves, should we not draw the Executive and Legislature closer together?^ "I ask you to put this question to yourselves, should we not draw the Executive and Legislature closer together?
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Should we not, on the one hand, give the individual leaders of opinion in Congress a better chance to have an intimate party in determining who should be president, and the president, on the other hand, a better chance to approve himself a statesman, and his advisers capable men of affairs, in the guidance of Congress
.Wilson started Congressional Government, his best known political work, as an argument for a parliamentary system, but he was impressed by Grover Cleveland, and Congressional Government emerged as a critical description of America's system, with frequent negative comparisons to Westminster.^ Wilson started Congressional Government , his best known political work, as an argument for a parliamentary system, but Wilson was impressed by Grover Cleveland , and Congressional Government emerged as a critical description of America's system, with frequent negative comparisons to Westminster .
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the time Wilson finished Congressional Government , Grover Cleveland was President, and Wilson had his faith in the United States government restored.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long study of Anglo-American politics had convinced Wilson that party responsibility was the key to effective government in a democracy.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.He said, "I am pointing out facts—diagnosing, not prescribing remedies."^ Wilson himself claimed, "I am pointing out facts—diagnosing, not prescribing remedies.".
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]
.Wilson believed that America's intricate system of checks and balances was the cause of the problems in American governance.^ Wilson believed that America's intricate system of checks and balances was the cause of the problems in American governance.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson started Congressional Government , his best known political work, as an argument for a parliamentary system, but Wilson was impressed by Grover Cleveland , and Congressional Government emerged as a critical description of America's system, with frequent negative comparisons to Westminster .
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While promoting Pan-Americanism, Wilson used military force unilaterally in the Caribbean and Latin America.
  • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

.He said that the divided power made it impossible for voters to see who was accountable.^ He said that the divided power made it impossible for voters to see who was accountable for ill-doing.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I see," said Arthur, who didn't, "so what do you get for using the name of a perfectly innocent if slightly dull European country gratuitously in a Serious Screenplay?"
  • Woodrow Wilson's Legacy - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

If government behaved badly, Wilson asked:[37]
How is the schoolmaster, the nation, to know which boy needs the whipping? ... .Power and strict accountability for its use are the essential constituents of good government...^ Power and strict accountability for its use are the essential constituents of good government....
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is, therefore, manifestly a radical defect in our federal system that it parcels out power and confuses responsibility as it does.^ It is, therefore, manifestly a radical defect in our federal system that it parcels out power and confuses responsibility as it does.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main purpose of the Convention of 1787 seems to have been to accomplish this grievous mistake.^ The main purpose of the Convention of 1787 seems to have been to accomplish this grievous mistake.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The "literary theory" of checks and balances is simply a consistent account of what our Constitution makers tried to do; and those checks and balances have proved mischievous just to the extent which they have succeeded in establishing themselves.
Wilson singled out the United States House of Representatives for particular criticism:[38]
... divided up, as it were, into forty-seven seignories, in each of which a .Standing Committee is the court-baron and its chairman lord-proprietor.^ Power, Wilson wrote, "is divided up, as it were, into forty-seven signatories, in each of which a Standing Committee is the court baron and its chairman lord proprietor.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These petty barons, some of them not a little powerful, but none of them within reach [of] the full powers of rule, may at will exercise an almost despotic sway within their own shires, and may sometimes threaten to convulse even the realm itself.
.Wilson said that the Congressional committee system was fundamentally undemocratic in that committee chairs, who ruled by seniority, determined national policy although they were responsible to no one except their constituents; and that the it facilitated corruption.^ Wilson said that the committee system was fundamentally undemocratic, because committee chairs, who ruled by seniority, were responsible to no one except their constituents, even though they determined national policy.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to their undemocratic nature, Wilson also believed that the Committee System facilitated corruption.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one knew or could discover who the masked players were; no one could say whether they meant serious business or only innocent mischief; and the zest of the business lay in keeping the secret close.
  • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

[39]

Evolving views

.By the time Wilson finished Congressional Government, Grover Cleveland was President, and Wilson's faith in the United States government was restored.^ Wilson, Constitutional Government in the United States , 114.

^ President of the United States, 1913-1921 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ By the time Wilson finished Congressional Government , Grover Cleveland was President, and Wilson had his faith in the United States government restored.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When William Jennings Bryan captured the Democratic nomination from Cleveland's supporters in 1896, however, Wilson refused to support the ticket.^ When William Jennings Bryan captured the Democratic nomination from Cleveland's supporters in 1896, however, Wilson refused to stand by the ticket.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Wilson had to find a middle ground between those who supported the Aldrich Plan and those who opposed it, including the powerful agrarian wing of the party, led by William Jennings Bryan , which strenuously denounced banks and Wall Street.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His progressive policies made Wilson a good candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1912, and he won the nomination with the support and assistance of Edward M. House, William Jennings Bryan, and William Gibbs McAdoo.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Instead, he cast his ballot for John M. Palmer, the presidential candidate of the National Democratic Party, or Gold Democrats, a short-lived party that supported a gold standard, low tariffs, and limited government.^ Democratic Party presidential candidate 1912 , 1916 .
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, he cast his ballot for John M. Palmer , the presidential candidate of the National Democratic Party , or Gold Democrats, a short-lived party that supported a gold standard, low tariffs, and limited government.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June of 1912, the Democratic Party, badly divided between conservatives and progressives, met in Baltimore to select its presidential nominee.

[40]
.After experiencing the vigorous presidencies of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, Wilson no longer entertained thoughts of parliamentary government for the United States.^ President of the United States, 1913-1921 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Theodore Roosevelt (26th President of the United States) .
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After experiencing the vigorous presidencies from William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt , Wilson no longer entertained thoughts of parliamentary government at home.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his last scholarly work in 1908, Constitutional Government of the United States, Wilson said that the presidency "will be as big as and as influential as the man who occupies it". By the time of his presidency, Wilson merely hoped that Presidents could be party leaders in the same way British prime ministers were.^ By the time of his presidency, Wilson merely hoped that Presidents could be party leaders in the same way prime ministers were.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those powers are described in Wilson's Constitutional Government in the United States (1908) in what is perhaps the classic view of the modern presidency.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In lectures published in 1907 in Constitutional Government in the United States he stated that the president could be a national voice in affairs.

.Wilson also hoped that the parties could be reorganized along ideological, not geographic, lines.^ Wilson also hoped that the parties could be reorganized along ideological, not geographic, lines.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson's first cabinet reflected the geographical distribution of Democratic strength across the United States and the various factions of the party.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the time of his presidency, Wilson merely hoped that Presidents could be party leaders in the same way prime ministers were.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He wrote, "Eight words contain the sum of the present degradation of our political parties: No leaders, no principles; no principles, no parties."^ "Eight words," Wilson wrote, "contain the sum of the present degradation of our political parties: No leaders, no principles; no principles, no parties."
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]

Public administration

.Wilson also studied public administration, which he called "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself".[42] He believed that by studying public administration governmental efficiency could be increased.^ On the home front, the president exerted vigorous executive leadership, managing public opinion and mobilizing the economy; wartime measures gave the Wilson administration unprecedented powers over the daily life of Americans.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Perhaps more than any other figure of his era, Woodrow Wilson embodied this tension between the old and the new attitude toward public persuasion.

^ The WWB PLA Study in Part II. Executive Summary states that a PLA provides the most stable work environment and that a PLA eliminates small labor relations issues that impact work efficiency.
  • Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project Labor Agreement (PLA) Decision 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fhwa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43]
Wilson was concerned with the implementation of government. .He faulted political leaders who focused on philosophical issues and the nature of government and dismissed the critical issues of government administration as mere "practical detail". He thought such attitudes represented the requirements of smaller countries and populations.^ More concise than her biography of Brandeis above; focuses on Brandeis’s political thought.
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If he rightly interpret the national thought and boldly insist upon it, he is irresistible; and the country never feels the zest of action so much as when he is of such insight and calibre.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A leader among the school debaters Wilson, who believed in free trade, refused to defend the case for the government protection of domestic industry even as an exercise in argument.

.October 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] By his day, he thought, "it is getting to be harder to run a constitution than to frame one."^ Wilson trusted the moral judgment of the country and thought it needed nothing more than a channel for self-expression.

^ Vice President James S. Sherman died on October 30 , 1912 , less than a week before the election, leaving Taft without a running mate.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .He thought it time "to straighten the paths of government, to make its business less unbusinesslike, to strengthen and purify its organization, and it to crown its dutifulness".[45] He complained that studies of administration drew principally on the history of Continental Europe and an American equivalent was required.^ Examines how the Wilson administration significantly changed American foreign commercial policy and redefined business-government relationships.
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Wilson also thought a federal agency would make credit easier to get, thus stimulating business.

^ A detailed and scholarly study that begins with the examination of Wilson’s views on China before he became president and ends with a study of the American economic role in China during Wilson’s first administration.
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

.October 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] He summarized the growth of such foreign states as Prussia, France, and England, highlighting the events that led to advances in administration.^ Events thereafter led inexorably to war between the United States and Germany.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.By contrast, he thought American required greater compromise because of the diversity of public opinion and the difficulty of forming a majority opinion.^ In the ensuing skirmish more than 300 Mexicans and 90 Americans were killed or wounded, and afterward Mexican public opinion turned against the United States.

^ Like all of the ideas he championed at Paris , Wilson claimed that Article X embodied American ideals and public opinion.

Thus practical reform to the government is necessarily slow.[citation needed] Yet Wilson insisted that "administration lies outside the proper sphere of politics"[46] and that "general laws which direct these things to be done are as obviously outside of and above administration."[47] He likens administration to a machine that functions independent of the changing mood of its leaders.[citation needed]
Such a line of demarcation is intended to focus responsibility for actions taken on the people or persons in charge. .As Wilson put it, "public attention must be easily directed, in each case of good or bad administration, to just the man deserving of praise or blame.^ Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs You must enable JavaScript for full functionality of this site.
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Western tour might have been remembered as a lesson in failed presidential leadershipan illustration of Wilson 's own principle that public opinion "must not be outstripped" but "kept pace with."

^ Wilson once described the freed slaves as “a horde of dusky children untimely put out of school.” He was a bad man.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

.There is no danger in power, if only it be not irresponsible.^ Congress; there can be no doubt that the power of the lobbyist consists in great part, if not altogether, in the facility afforded him by the Committee system.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Framers] would be the first to admit that the only fruit of dividing power had been to make it irresponsible."
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If it be divided, dealt out in share to many, it is obscured..."[48] Essentially, the items under the discretion of administration must be limited in scope, as to not block, nullify, obfuscate, or modify the implementation of governmental decree made by the executive branch.[citation needed]

President of Princeton University

Prospect House, located in the center of Princeton's campus, was Wilson's home during his term as president of the university.
.The trustees promoted Professor Wilson to president of Princeton in 1902, replacing Francis Landey Patton, whom the Trustees perceived to be an inefficient administrator.^ Wilson was chosen president of Princeton in 1902.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1902, the trustees at Princeton elected Wilson the thirteenth president of the college.

^ President of Princeton University 1902 – 1910 .
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the school's endowment was barely $4 million, Wilson sought $2 million for a preceptorial system of teaching, $1 million for a school of science, and nearly $3 million for new buildings and salary increases.^ His troubles increased when Wilson proposed to build a new graduate school.

^ Although the school's endowment was barely $4 million, he sought $2 million for a preceptorial system of teaching, $1 million for a school of science, and nearly $3 million for new buildings and salary raises.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a long-term objective, Wilson sought $3 million for a graduate school and $2.5 million for schools of jurisprudence and electrical engineering , as well as a museum of natural history.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a long-term objective, Wilson sought $3 million for a graduate school and $2.5 million for schools of jurisprudence and electrical engineering, as well as a museum of natural history.^ After graduating from Princeton in 1879, Wilson returned to the south to attend law school at the University of Virginia; he passed the Georgia bar and briefly practiced law in Atlanta.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ His troubles increased when Wilson proposed to build a new graduate school.

^ As has been said, Wilson pushed adoption of a comprehensive program to provide to farmers long-term credit, educational and other assistance, and good roads.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[49] He achieved little of those ambitious plans because he was not a strong fund raiser, but he did increase the faculty from 112 to 174, most of whom he selected himself on the basis of their records as outstanding teachers. The curriculum guidelines he developed proved important progressive innovations in the field of higher education.[50]
.To emphasize the development of expertise, Wilson instituted academic departments and a system of core requirements where students met in groups of six with preceptors, followed by two years of concentration in a selected major.^ To enhance the role of expertise, Wilson instituted academic departments and a system of core requirements where students met in groups of six with preceptors, followed by two years of concentration in a selected major.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After forty-six ballots, they picked a relatively unknown candidate: the New Jersey governor with but two years of political experience, Thomas Woodrow Wilson.

^ At this celebration, Wilson delivered his famous speech, “Princeton in the Nation's Service,” in which he proposed the following ideal for the Princeton student: seek the education required to carry into the world a sense of duty and purpose for the nation.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.He tried to raise admission standards and to replace the "gentleman's C" with serious study.^ He demanded the raising of admission and achievement standards.

^ He tried to raise admission standards and to replace the "gentleman C" with serious study.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wilson aspired, as he told alumni, "to transform thoughtless boys performing tasks into thinking men".[51]
.In 1906–10, he attempted to curtail the influence of social elites by abolishing the upper-class eating clubs and moving the students into colleges, also known as quadrangles.^ In 1906-10, he attempted to curtail the influence of the elitist "social clubs" by moving the students into colleges.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson also attempted to abolish Princeton's eating clubs through his “Quadrangle Plan,” which eventually was defeated.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Posted by Anne @ 10:20 PM Mon, Jan 11, 2010 Do students at this school normally not eat lunch until after 1pm each day???

.Wilson's Quad Plan was met with fierce opposition from Princeton's alumni, most importantly Moses Taylor Pyne, the most powerful of Princeton's Trustees.^ Wilson also attempted to abolish Princeton's eating clubs through his “Quadrangle Plan,” which eventually was defeated.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The trustees rejected Wilson's plan for colleges in 1908, and then endorsed West's plans in 1909.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The trustees promoted Professor Wilson to president of Princeton in 1902.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilson refused any proposed compromises that stopped short of abolishing the clubs because he felt that to compromise "would be to temporize with evil".[52] In October 1907, due to the intensity of alumni opposition and Wilson's refusal to compromise, the Board of Trustees withdrew its support for the Quad Plan and instructed Wilson to withdraw it.^ Wilson felt that to compromise "would be to temporize with evil."
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson also attempted to abolish Princeton's eating clubs through his “Quadrangle Plan,” which eventually was defeated.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of Wilson's fear of becoming a lame duck president during the uncertainties of the war in Europe, he created a hypothetical plan where if Hughes were elected he would name Hughes secretary of state and then resign along with the vice-president to enable Hughes to become the president.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]
.Even more damaging to Wilson's administration of the University was his confrontation with Andrew Fleming West, Dean of the graduate school, and West's ally, former President Grover Cleveland, a trustee.^ The business school dean was Andrew F. West, a classics scholar.

^ Even more damaging was his confrontation with Andrew Fleming West, Dean of the graduate school, and West's ally, former President Grover Cleveland , a trustee.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So universal agreement that Wilson was the worst president?
  • Woodrow Wilson's Legacy - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wilson wanted to integrate the proposed graduate building into the same area with the undergraduate colleges.^ His troubles increased when Wilson proposed to build a new graduate school.

^ Wilson wanted to integrate the proposed graduate building into the same area with the undergraduate colleges; West wanted them separated.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They feared that those areas of Nicaragua favorable to the building of a new canal across the isthmus might fall into the hands of some European power.

.West wanted them to remain separate.^ Wilson wanted to integrate the proposed graduate building into the same area with the undergraduate colleges; West wanted them separated.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The trustees rejected Wilson's plan for colleges in 1908, and then endorsed West's alternative in 1909. The national press covered the confrontation as a battle of the elites represented by West versus democracy represented by Wilson.^ The trustees rejected Wilson's plan for colleges in 1908, and then endorsed West's plans in 1909.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The national press covered the confrontation as a battle of the elites (West) versus democracy (Wilson).
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The highlight of Wilson 's plan, however, was an idea that would become his consuming passion in the closing years of his life: a "general association of nations .

[54]
.Wilson served as president of the American Political Science Association in 1910. Around this time, Wilson decided to leave his post at Princeton.^ Wilson was chosen president of Princeton in 1902.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wilson was president of the American Political Science Association in 1910.
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^ Wilson, Woodrow, Princeton presidency .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.After considering an immediate resignation, he decided instead to take up invitations to enter New Jersey state politics.^ Wilson, after considering resignation, decided to take up invitations to move into New Jersey state politics.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Law: State of New Jersey, 1913 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After forty-six ballots, they picked a relatively unknown candidate: the New Jersey governor with but two years of political experience, Thomas Woodrow Wilson.

[55]

Governor of New Jersey

.In 1910 Wilson ran for Governor of New Jersey against the Republican candidate Vivian M. Lewis, the State Commissioner of Banking and Insurance.^ The Republicans nominated Associate Justice Charles Evans Hughes, former governor of New York.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After forty-six ballots, they picked a relatively unknown candidate: the New Jersey governor with but two years of political experience, Thomas Woodrow Wilson.

^ In the fall of 1910, the Democratic political bosses of New Jersey tapped Wilson as their candidate for governor, confident that they could control and manipulate such a political novice.

.Wilson's campaign focused on his independence from machine politics, and he promised that if elected he would not be beholden to party bosses.^ This campaign completed Wilson's break with the machine.

^ If the president "rightly" interpreted the "national thought" and "boldly" insisted upon it, Wilson concluded, he would be politically "irresistible."

^ After taking office, Wilson set in place his reformist agenda, ignoring what party bosses told him he was to do.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilson soundly defeated Lewis in the general election by a margin of more than 49,000 votes, although Republican William Howard Taft had carried New Jersey in the 1908 presidential election by more than 80,000 votes.^ After forty-six ballots, they picked a relatively unknown candidate: the New Jersey governor with but two years of political experience, Thomas Woodrow Wilson.

^ In the election Wilson ran against two major candidates, incumbent President William Howard Taft and former president Theodore Roosevelt , who broke with Taft and the Republican Party and created the Progressive Party .
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft dividing the Republican vote, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56]
.In the 1910 election the Democrats also took control of the General Assembly.^ During the New Jersey election of 1910, the Democrats took control of the state house and Wilson was elected governor.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the fall of 1910, the Democratic political bosses of New Jersey tapped Wilson as their candidate for governor, confident that they could control and manipulate such a political novice.

.The State Senate, however, remained in Republican control by a slim margin.^ The state senate, however, remained in Republican control by a slim margin.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Wilson failed to win Senate support for ratification and the United States never joined the League.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, Republicans controlled the Senate, and Wilson's implacable personal and political foe, Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, was chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.After taking office, Wilson set in place his reformist agenda, ignoring the demands of party machinery.^ After taking office, Wilson set in place his reformist agenda, ignoring what party bosses told him he was to do.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson (born in Virginia and raised in Georgia) was the first Southerner to be elected since 1848 ( Zachary Taylor ) and the first Southerner to take office since Andrew Johnson in 1865.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An ownership agreement and financial plan setting forth the manner in which this transfer will take place as the Project is being constructed was signed by all parties and approved by the U.S. Secretary of Transportation on September 7, 2001.
  • Woodrow Wilson Bridge (I-495 and I-95) 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.roadstothefuture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While governor, in a period spanning six months, Wilson established state primaries.^ While governor, in a period spanning six months, Wilson established state primaries.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After forty-six ballots, they picked a relatively unknown candidate: the New Jersey governor with but two years of political experience, Thomas Woodrow Wilson.

^ During the New Jersey election of 1910, the Democrats took control of the state house and Wilson was elected governor.
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.This all but took the party bosses out of the presidential election process in the state.^ This all but took the party bosses out of the presidential election process in the state.
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^ When complete, the collection will include all of Taft’s published works as well as his presidential and state addresses and selected court opinions from his time as chief justice of the Supreme Court.
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During the New Jersey election of 1910, the Democrats took control of the state house and Wilson was elected governor.
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.He also revamped the public utility commission, and introduced worker's compensation.^ He also revamped the public utility commission, and introduced worker's compensation.
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[57]

Election of 1912

.Wilson's popularity as governor and his status in the national media gave impetus to his presidential campaign in 1912. He selected William Frank McCombs, a New York lawyer and a friend from college days, to manage his campaign.^ It's from the campaign of 1912, the Wilson's address to the New York Press Club on September 9.
  • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson, Woodrow, presidential campaign, 1912 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The New Freedom (1913) 1912 campaign speeches Wilson, Woodrow.
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.Much of Wilson's support came from the South, especially from young progressives in that region, especially intellectuals, editors and lawyers.^ Whereas Lansing was conservative in political outlook, Colby was an advanced progressive who had followed Roosevelt in 1912 and supported Wilson in 1916.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before long, even the most devoted treaty supporters gave up the fight, and Wilson 's great crusadeindeed, his "great political career"came to a "pitiful end."

^ Attracting support from progressives in both political parties, Wilson easily won the election and, as Governor, he continued to attack special interests and promote progressive reform.

Wilson managed to maneuver through the complexities of local politics. .For example, in Tennessee the Democratic Party was divided on the issue of prohibition.^ In June of 1912, the Democratic Party, badly divided between conservatives and progressives, met in Baltimore to select its presidential nominee.

^ The two parties differed mostly on regional issues (Republican Northern Protestants versus Democratic Catholics and Southern Protestants).
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

.Wilson was progressive and sober, but not a dry, and appealed to both sides.^ Attracting support from progressives in both political parties, Wilson easily won the election and, as Governor, he continued to attack special interests and promote progressive reform.

.They united behind him to win the presidential election in the state, but divided over state politics and lost the gubernatorial election.^ Political science -- United States.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, Wilson failed to win Senate support for ratification and the United States never joined the League.
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^ If General Huerta does not retire by force of circumstances, it will become the duty of the United States to use less useful peaceful means to put him out.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[58]
.The convention deadlocked for more than 40 ballots as no candidate could reach the two-thirds vote required to win the nomination.^ After forty-six ballots, they picked a relatively unknown candidate: the New Jersey governor with but two years of political experience, Thomas Woodrow Wilson.

^ You could say that the Democratic Party was on the level more actively racist than the Republicans before the civil rights era.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Says: December 11th, 2009 at 10:52 am Ha ha, Wilson won in 1912 with fewer votes than the two Republican candidates got.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

.A leading contender was House Speaker Champ Clark, a prominent progressive strongest in the border states.^ Main article: United States presidential election, 1912 Wilson made himself known at the Democratic Convention in 1912, again denouncing the party bosses by declaring his opponent Champ Clark, the Speaker of the House, as a party boss man.
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Other contenders were Governor Judson Harmon of Ohio, and Representative Oscar Underwood of Alabama. They lacked Wilson's charisma and dynamism. Publisher William Randolph Hearst, a leader of the left-wing of the party, supported Clark. .William Jennings Bryan, the nominee in 1896, 1900 and 1908, played a critical role in opposition to any candidate who had the support of "the financiers of Wall Street". He finally announced for Wilson, who won on the 46th ballot.^ However, Wilson had to find a middle ground between those who supported the Aldrich Plan and those who opposed it, including the powerful agrarian wing of the party, led by William Jennings Bryan , which strenuously denounced banks and Wall Street.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He then tried to frighten the opposition with predictions that the next world war would make World War I seem like "child's play" and concluded: "The issue is final.

^ He vigorously protested Germany ’s use of submarines as illegal, causing his Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan to resign in protest in 1915.
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[59]
.In the campaign Wilson promoted the "New Freedom", emphasizing limited federal government and opposition to monopoly powers—positions that he reversed on coming to office.^ The New Freedom (1913) 1912 campaign speeches Wilson, Woodrow.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As President, Wilson had remarkable success promoting his New Freedom reforms, including banking legislation, tariff reform, and new regulations on trade, monopolies, and agricultural production.

^ Wilson went again in person before a joint session of Congress on 23 June 1913: "I have come to you, as head of the Government and the responsible leader of the party in power, to urge action now."
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Wilson enjoyed the support of many black leaders including W.E.B. DuBois and William Monroe Trotter.^ But Wilson stood firm, and he enjoyed the full support of the Finance Committee, headed by Furnifold M. Simmons of North Carolina.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When William Jennings Bryan captured the Democratic nomination from Cleveland's supporters in 1896, however, Wilson refused to stand by the ticket.
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^ Wilson and his cabinet members fired many black Republican office holders, but also appointed a few black Democrats.
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Wilson's speeches and letters expressed the sentiments of a defender of the underprivileged.[4]
.In a bitter contest for the Republican nomination, President William Howard Taft defeated former president Theodore Roosevelt, but when Roosevelt walked out of the Republican convention and ran as a third party candidate, Wilson's success in the electoral college was assured.^ With Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft dividing the Republican vote, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912.
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^ And with the Republican Party divided, Wilson captured the presidency handily on November 5 .
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^ In the election Wilson ran against two major candidates, incumbent President William Howard Taft and former president Theodore Roosevelt , who broke with Taft and the Republican Party and created the Progressive Party .
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.He won 41.8% of the popular vote.^ Wilson won with just 41.8% of the votes, but he won 435 electoral votes.
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[60]

First term as President, 1913–1917

.Wilson is the only President to hold a Ph.D. degree and the only President to serve in a political office in New Jersey before election to the Presidency.^ After forty-six ballots, they picked a relatively unknown candidate: the New Jersey governor with but two years of political experience, Thomas Woodrow Wilson.

^ As President, Wilson had remarkable success promoting his New Freedom reforms, including banking legislation, tariff reform, and new regulations on trade, monopolies, and agricultural production.

^ If the president "rightly" interpreted the "national thought" and "boldly" insisted upon it, Wilson concluded, he would be politically "irresistible."

.He was the first person identified with the South to be elected President since Zachary Taylor and the first Southerner in the White House since Andrew Johnson left in 1868.[61] Wilson had a strong base of support in the South.^ Wilson (born in Virginia and raised in Georgia) was the first Southerner to be elected since 1848 ( Zachary Taylor ) and the first Southerner to take office since Andrew Johnson in 1865.
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^ Wilson was also the first Democrat elected to the presidency since Grover Cleveland in 1892.
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^ File:Woodrow Wilson at a parade, 1918.ogg Wilson tips his hat as he exits the White House on his way to a parade along Pennsylvania Avenue (1918).
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.He was the first president to deliver his State of the Union address before Congress personally since John Adams in 1799. Wilson was also the first Democrat elected to the presidency since Grover Cleveland in 1892 and only the second Democrat in the White House since the Civil War.^ State of the Union” to the Congress, 1916 December 5 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wilson was also the first Democrat elected to the presidency since Grover Cleveland in 1892.
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^ During the winter the Secret Service would paint some golf balls black so Wilson could hit them around in the snow on the White House lawn.
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Wilson addressing the U.S. Congress, April 8, 1913
.In resolving economic policy issues, he had to manage the conflict between two wings of his party, the agrarian wing led by Bryan and the pro-business wing.^ The two parties differed mostly on regional issues (Republican Northern Protestants versus Democratic Catholics and Southern Protestants).
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

With large Democratic majorities in Congress and a healthy economy, he promptly seized the opportunity to implement his agenda.[62] .Wilson experienced early success by implementing his "New Freedom" pledges of antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.^ Wilson experienced early success by implementing his " New Freedom " pledges of antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson laid out his program for reform, which he called the New Freedom, clearly and eloquently during the presidential campaign of 1912.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson uses tariff, currency and anti-trust laws to prime the pump and get the economy working in a 1913 political cartoon [ edit ] Antitrust .
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[63] .He held the first modern presidential press conference, on March 15, 1913, in which reporters were allowed to ask him questions.^ First reports told of a treacherous ambush by the Mexicans, and Wilson wrote an address in which he asked Congress for authority to occupy all of northern Mexico.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His first move — to hold regularly scheduled press conferences with the Washington press corps — was an innovation.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson appealed to the reporters assembled in the East Room of the White House for his first press conference, on 22 March 1913, to join him in partnership by interpreting the public opinion of the country to him.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

[64]
.Wilson's first wife Ellen died on August 6, 1914 of Bright's disease.^ Wilson's first wife died in 1914.
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^ In addition, Wilson, on 17 August 1914, appealed to his "fellow countrymen" to be "impartial in thought as well as in action."
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His first wife, Ellen , had died in 1914, so his second wife, Edith , served as his steward, selecting issues for his attention and delegating other issues to his cabinet heads.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1915, he met Edith Galt.^ In 1915, he met Edith Galt .
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^ Printed announcement of wedding of Wilson, Woodrow and Bolling Galt, Edith, Cogswell, Miss, 1915 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Galt, Edith Bolling and Wilson, Woodrow) and 1 rotogravure copy, 1915 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

They married later that year on December 18.

Federal Reserve 1913

.Wilson secured passage of the Federal Reserve system in late 1913. Wilson had tried to find a middle ground between conservative Republicans led by Senator Nelson W. Aldrich and those, especially the powerful left wing of the Democratic party led by William Jennings Bryan, who opposed all banking schemes and strenuously denounced private banks and Wall Street.^ However, Wilson had to find a middle ground between those who supported the Aldrich Plan and those who opposed it, including the powerful agrarian wing of the party, led by William Jennings Bryan , which strenuously denounced banks and Wall Street.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Federal Reserve 1913 .
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^ Wilson had to outmaneuver bankers and enemies of banks, North and South, Democrats and Republicans to secure passage of the Federal Reserve system in late 1913.
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.The later group wanted a government-owned central bank that could print paper money as Congress required.^ They wanted a government-owned central bank which could print paper money whenever Congress wanted.
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^ In 1917 Mexico had been in a state of civil war for seven years, and it wan’t until three years later that it had a government that could claim to control all territory.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, the war bond campaigns were set up so that ethnic groups could boast how much money they gave.
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.The compromise, based on the Aldrich Plan but sponsored by Democratic Congressmen Carter Glass and Robert Owen, allowed the private banks a certain influence over the new Federal Reserve, but appeased the populists by placing controlling interest in a central, public board.^ Wilson’s plan still allowed the large banks to have important influence, but Wilson went beyond the Aldrich plan and created a central board made up of persons appointed by the President and approved by Congress who would outnumber the board members who were bankers.
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^ The "capstone," as Wilson called it, would be the Federal Reserve Board, which would control the money supply, determine interest rates, and perform all the functions of a central bank.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before directors of the Federal Reserve Banks, 1914 October 21 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This Board of Governors included members appointed by the President and approved by Congress who would outnumber the board members selected by bankers.^ Wilson also accepted the advice of Louis D. Brandeis, progressive lawyer and economist of Boston, to the effect that all members of the Federal Reserve Board should be appointed by the president.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He appointed white southerners to his administration who introduced segregation into their previously unsegregated departments, including the postal service which was a major employer.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were also adamantly opposed to the Glass bill's stipulation that three of the nine members of the Federal Reserve Board should be bankers chosen by the regional banks.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, Wilson convinced Bryan's supporters that because Federal Reserve notes were obligations of the government, the plan met their demands.^ Bryan could not accept the Glass bill because it stipulated that Federal Reserve notes would be the obligation of the reserve banks, not of the federal government.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, Wilson convinced Bryan’s supporters that because Federal Reserve notes were obligations of the government, the plan fit their demands.
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^ Wilson’s plan also decentralized the Federal Reserve system into 12 districts.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilson's plan also organized the Federal Reserve system into 12 districts, a structure meant to weaken the influence of the powerful New York banks, a key demand of Bryan's allies in the South and West.^ Wilson’s plan also decentralized the Federal Reserve system into 12 districts.
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^ This was designed to weaken the influence of the powerful New York banks, a key demand of Bryan’s allies in the South and West.
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^ However, Wilson had to find a middle ground between those who supported the Aldrich Plan and those who opposed it, including the powerful agrarian wing of the party, led by William Jennings Bryan , which strenuously denounced banks and Wall Street.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This decentralization was a key factor in winning the support of Congressman Glass.^ This decentralization was a key factor in winning the support of Congressman Carter Glass (D-VA) although he objected to making paper currency a federal obligation.
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[65]
The final plan passed in December 1913. Some bankers felt it gave too much control to Washington, and some reformers felt it allowed bankers to maintain too much power. Several Congressmen claimed that New York bankers feigned their disapproval.[66]
.Wilson named Paul Warburg and other prominent bankers to direct the new system.^ Wilson named Warburg and other prominent bankers to direct the new system.
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^ He took a plan that had been designed by conservative Republicans—led by Nelson W. Aldrich and banker Paul M. Warburg —and passed it.
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^ The new twin-span Potomac River bridge has the same name as the original bridge, the Woodrow Wilson Memorial Bridge.
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.While power was supposed to be decentralized, the New York branch dominated the Fed as the "first among equals".[67] The new system began operations in 1915 and played a major role in financing the Allied and American war effort.^ The new system began operations in 1915 and played a major role in financing the Allied and American war efforts.
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^ Associated Press Luncheon, New York, 1915 April 20 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ New York: Penguin...analyst of power and privilege.
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[68]

Economic views

.In 1913, the Underwood tariff lowered the tariff.^ In 1913, the Underwood tariff lowered the tariff .
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The House accepted these changes, and Wilson signed the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act on 3 October 1913.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The revenue thereby lost was replaced by a new federal income tax (authorized by the 16th Amendment, which had been sponsored by the Republicans).^ The revenue thereby lost was replaced by a new federal income tax (authorized by the 16th Amendment , which had been sponsored by the Republicans).
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, in order to compensate for the anticipated decrease in customs receipts, the Underwood bill imposed a modest income tax, the first under the Sixteenth Amendment.
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^ At the same time, Wilson approved a Revenue Act that drastically increased taxes upon incomes and estates.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The "Seaman's Act" of 1915 improved working conditions for merchant sailors.^ The "Seaman's Act" of 1915 improved working conditions for merchant sailors.
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.A response to the RMS Titanic disaster, it also required all ships to be retrofitted with lifeboats.^ As response to the RMS Titanic disaster, it also required all ships to be retrofitted with lifeboats.
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.A series of programs were targeted at farmers.^ A series of programs were targeted at farmers.
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.The "Smith Lever" act of 1914 created the modern system of agricultural extension agents sponsored by the state agricultural colleges.^ The "Smith Lever" act of 1914 created the modern system of agricultural extension agents sponsored by the state agricultural colleges.
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^ He created the agriculture extension system.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even more important were the Agricultural Educational Act of that same year, which provided funds to place agents of land-grant colleges in every agricultural county in the United States; the Smith-Hughes Act of 1917, which provided for federal assistance to vocational and agricultural education in public schools; and the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1916, which was designed at first to benefit rural areas and later became the legislative authority for the construction of a nationwide system of modern highways.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The agents taught new techniques to farmers.^ The agents taught new techniques to farmers.
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.The 1916 "Federal Farm Loan Board" issued low-cost long-term mortgages to farmers.^ As has been said, Wilson pushed adoption of a comprehensive program to provide to farmers long-term credit, educational and other assistance, and good roads.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Houston supervised the establishment of the Federal Farm Loan system, created by the Rural Credits Act of 1916.
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[69]
.Child labor was curtailed by the Keating-Owen Act of 1916, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1918. No major child labor prohibition would take effect until the 1930s.^ Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916 .
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Soon after the adjournment of the Democratic National Convention, Wilson pushed the Keating-Owen child-labor bill and a measure for federal workmen's compensation through the Senate, where they had been stalled for months.
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^ Even so, he said that he hoped that no German aggressions against American ships would force the United States to take sterner measures of protection.
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[70]
.The railroad brotherhoods threatened in summer 1916 to shut down the national transportation system.^ The bridge even then was one of the busiest in the nation, and shutting it down for an extended time period would have been inconceivable.
  • Woodrow Wilson Bridge (I-495 and I-95) 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.roadstothefuture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilson tried to bring labor and management together, but when management refused he had Congress pass the "Adamson Act" in September 1916, which avoided the strike by imposing an 8-hour work day in the industry (at the same pay as before).^ At the same time, before he left office, Secretary of the Interior Lane was assured of passage of the Water Power and General Leasing acts by Congress in early 1920.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Labor and farm organizations and social reformers now increased their pressure upon Wilson and Congress for legislation to benefit special interests and protect disadvantaged groups.
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^ In late August and early September, he obtained quick passage of the Adamson Act, which established the eight-hour workday on interstate railroads, thus averting a disastrous nationwide rail strike.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.It helped Wilson gain union support for his reelection; the act was approved by the Supreme Court.^ It at once drew the fire of the leaders of the AF of L because it did not specifically exempt labor unions from prosecution for acts that the Supreme Court had said violated the Sherman Act.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the same time, Wilson approved a Revenue Act that drastically increased taxes upon incomes and estates.
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[71]
Wilson uses tariff, currency and anti-trust laws to prime the pump and get the economy working in a 1913 political cartoon

Antitrust

.Wilson broke with the big lawsuit tradition of his predecessors Taft and Roosevelt as Trustbusters, finding a new approach to encouraging competition through the Federal Trade Commission, which stopped unfair trade practices.^ Known as the Stevens bill, it outlawed all "unfair" competition and established the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to investigate alleged unfair trade practices; most important, the Stevens bill authorized the FTC to issue cease and desist orders, which would have the force of court injunctions, to alleged perpetrators of unfair competition.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (New York, 1931), is excellent on the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act and the Federal Tariff Commission Act.
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^ Federal Trade Commission, 1916January, 1916 March .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In addition, he pushed through Congress the Clayton Antitrust Act making certain business practices illegal (such as price discrimination, agreements prohibiting retailers from handling other companies' products, and directorates and agreements to control other companies).^ In addition, he pushed through Congress the Clayton Antitrust Act making certain business practices illegal (such as price discrimination, agreements forbidding retailers from handling other companies’ products, and directorates and agreements to control other companies).
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On a less minor point, Wilson was indeed terrible on ethnic issues, but he also helped to push the 19th Amendment through Congress.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress responded with the Transportation Act of 1920, which affirmed the principle of private ownership but also established comprehensive federal control over all aspects of the railroad business.
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.The power of this legislation was greater than previous anti-trust laws, because individual officers of corporations could be held responsible if their companies violated the laws.^ He made it possible for individual corporate executives to be held liable for antitrust violations, and he ended union liability under antitrust laws.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It made corporation officials personally and criminally liable for the acts of their companies, and it gave individuals and corporations the benefit of decisions in antitrust cases instituted by the government.
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.More importantly, the new laws set out clear guidelines that corporations could follow, a dramatic improvement over the previous uncertainties.^ More importantly, the new laws set out clear guidelines that corporations could follow, a dramatic improvement over the previous uncertainties.
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^ The power of this legislation was greater than previous anti-trust laws, because individual officers of corporations could be held responsible if their companies violated the laws.
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.This law was considered the "Magna Carta" of labor by Samuel Gompers because it ended union liability antitrust laws.^ Samuel Gompers called this particular act the Magna Carta of union legislation.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He made it possible for individual corporate executives to be held liable for antitrust violations, and he ended union liability under antitrust laws.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It at once drew the fire of the leaders of the AF of L because it did not specifically exempt labor unions from prosecution for acts that the Supreme Court had said violated the Sherman Act.
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.In 1916, under threat of a national railroad strike, he approved legislation that increased wages and cut working hours of railroad employees; there was no strike.^ You dismiss the fact that under him child labor was outlawed, and the work week (without overtime pay) was set at 40 hours.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson continued to work with the European nations to search for peace, even as he campaigned for reelection in 1916.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

[72]

War policy—World War I

.Wilson spent 1914 through the beginning of 1917 trying to keep America out of the war in Europe.^ Main article: World War I Wilson spent 1914 through the beginning of 1917 trying to keep America out of the war in Europe .
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^ When Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 and made a clumsy attempt to enlist Mexico as an ally (see Zimmermann Telegram ), Wilson took America into World War I as a war to make "the world safe for democracy."
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^ Wilson cried out in a speech on 30 June 1916: "Do you think the glory of America would be enhanced by a war of conquest?
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.He offered to be a mediator, but neither the Allies nor the Central Powers took his requests seriously.^ He offered to be a mediator, but neither the Allies nor the Central Powers took his requests seriously.
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^ Wilson was saved from this dilemma by Huerta's acceptance of an offer by the ABC powers — Argentina, Brazil, and Chile — to mediate the controversy.
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.Republicans, led by Theodore Roosevelt, strongly criticized Wilson's refusal to build up the U.S. Army in anticipation of the threat of war.^ Republicans, led by Theodore Roosevelt , strongly criticized Wilson’s refusal to build up the U.S. Army in anticipation of the threat of war.
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^ With Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft dividing the Republican vote, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912.
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^ Theodore Roosevelt would comment that the only thing different between Hughes and Wilson was a shave.
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.Wilson won the support of the U.S. peace element by arguing that an army buildup would provoke war.^ Wilson won the support of the U.S. peace element by arguing that an army buildup would provoke war.
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^ His statement announcing a "war to end all wars" meant that he wanted to build a basis for peace that would prevent future catastrophic wars and needless death and destruction.
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^ But how could he do this without making open war, which Congress and the American people would probably not support and which Carranza would probably resist?
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Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan, whose pacifist recommendations were ignored by Wilson, resigned in 1915.[73]
.On 18 December 1916 Wilson unsuccessfully offered to mediate peace.^ Wilson was saved from this dilemma by Huerta's acceptance of an offer by the ABC powers — Argentina, Brazil, and Chile — to mediate the controversy.
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^ Wilson sent Colonel House to Europe in early January 1916 to work out a plan for Anglo-American cooperation for peace.
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^ Soon after Ellen Wilson's death, the president met Edith Bolling Galt whom he married on 18 December 1915.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.As a preliminary he asked both sides to state their minimum terms necessary for future security.^ Nonetheless, Wilson and his secretaries of state deemed the stability of the area to be absolutely essential to the security of the United States and were prepared to take all measures necessary to guarantee that stability.
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.The Central Powers replied that victory was certain, and the Allies required the dismemberment of their enemies' empires.^ He offered to be a mediator, but neither the Allies nor the Central Powers took his requests seriously.
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^ Executive Order 2744 - Fixing Salary of, and Vesting Certain Power and Authority in, the Alien Property Custodian Appointed Under Trading with the Enemy Act .

No desire for peace or common ground existed, and the offer lapsed.[74]
.While German submarines were killing sailors and civilian passengers Wilson demanded that Germany stop, but he kept the U.S. out of the war.^ Repeated demonstrations for peace rocked the Democratic convention hall, and the Democrats adopted a platform plank that hailed Wilson because he had preserved national honor and "kept us out of war."
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bryan joined other Democrats in trumpeting the cry "He kept us out of war" through the Middle West, the Plains states, and the Far West.
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^ Finally, Wilson vetoed, on 27 May 1920, a joint resolution ending the war with Germany.
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.Britain had declared a blockade of Germany to prevent neutral ships from carrying contraband goods to Germany.^ While German submarines were sinking allied ships, Britain had declared a blockade of Germany, preventing neutral shipping carrying “contraband” goods to Germany.
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.Wilson protested some British violation of neutral rights, where no one was killed.^ Wilson protested this violation of neutral rights by London.
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^ Patrick Devlin, Too Proud to Fight: Woodrow Wilson's Neutrality (New York, 1974), is by an eminent British legal scholar.
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^ No one is saying Woodrow Wilson should have authored the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

His protests were mild, and the British knew America would not take action.[73]

Segregation in the federal government

.In 1912, "an unprecedented number"[5] of African Americans left the Republican Party to cast their vote for Democrat Wilson.^ Consequently, Wilson was incapable of giving leadership to his party, to Congress, and to the people during one of the most critical periods in American history.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The House Democratic caucus made the bill a party measure, and Underwood pushed it through the House by a vote of 281 to 139 on 8 May 1913.
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^ Wilson waited patiently as conservative Senate Republicans and obstructionist Democrats wore themselves out.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

They were encouraged by his promises of support for their issues. .The issue of segregation came up early in his presidency when, at an April 1913 cabinet meeting, Albert Burleson, Wilson's Postmaster General, complained about working conditions at the Railway Mail Service.^ Cabinet meetings, which usually took place once a week, were informal affairs at which Wilson would discuss current problems and seek, as he put it, "common counsel."
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^ When the treaty came up for a vote in the Senate on 19 November, Wilson commanded Democrats in the Senate to vote against ratification with reservations.
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^ Woodrow Wilson Book article from: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Woodrow Wilson (Thomas Woodrow Wilson ), 1856-1924, 28th President of the United States (1913-21), b.
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Offices and restrooms became segregated, sometimes by partitions erected between seating for white and African-American employees in Post Office Department offices, lunch rooms, and bathrooms, as well as in the Treasury and the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. It also became accepted policy for "Negro" employees of the Postal Service to be reduced in rank or dismissed. .And unlike his predecessors Grover Cleveland and Theodore Roosevelt, Wilson accommodated Southern opposition to the re-appointment of an African American to the position of Register of the Treasury and other positions within the federal government.^ Grover Cleveland and Theodore Roosevelt had African-Americans appointed to federal office, but Wilson did away with that.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson's hopes for the Pan-American pact were spoiled by the opposition of Chile, which had an old border dispute with Peru that it would not submit to arbitration.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A general history of the United States from the accession of Theodore Roosevelt to the presidency in 1901 to the end of Woodrow Wilson’s administration in 1920.
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

.This set the tone for Wilson's attitude to race throughout his presidency, in which the rights of African Americans were sacrificed, for what he felt would be the more important longer term progress of the common good.^ Throughout his years as a professor of history, politics, and constitutional law at Bryn Mawr College (1885 – 1888), Wesleyan University (1888 – 1890), and Princeton University (1890 – 1910; president, 1902 – 1910), Wilson paid close attention to developments in American politics.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Richard Hofstadter in his The American Polilitcal Tradition has very negative view of Wilson while one of his pupils, John Milton Cooper, has written a new book about Wilson that has more nuanced view of the president.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On 9 March, Wilson announced that the navy would place guns and gun crews on American merchantmen.
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[5][75]

Election of 1916

.Renominated in 1916, Wilson used as a major campaign slogan "He kept us out of the war", referring to his administration's avoiding open conflict with Germany or Mexico while maintaining a firm national policy.^ But he was determined to avoid general war with Mexico.
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^ Wilson desperately wanted to avoid war.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Main article: United States presidential election, 1916 Renominated in 1916, Wilson's major campaign slogan was "He kept us out of the war" referring to his administration's avoiding open conflict with Germany or Mexico while maintaining a firm national policy.
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.Wilson, however, never promised to keep out of war regardless of provocation.^ Wilson, however, never promised to keep out of war regardless of provocation.
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^ Recognizing, however, that the war might threaten U.S. interests, Wilson was anxious to negotiate a compromise peace.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, Wilson failed to win Senate support for ratification and the United States never joined the League.
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.In his acceptance speech on September 2, 1916, Wilson pointedly warned Germany that submarine warfare that took American lives would not be tolerated, saying "The nation that violates these essential rights must expect to be checked and called to account by direct challenge and resistance.^ In his acceptance speech on September 2, 1916, Wilson pointedly warned Germany that submarine warfare that took American lives would not be tolerated: .
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^ "The nation that violates these essential rights must expect to be checked and called to account by direct challenge and resistance.
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^ When Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 and made a clumsy attempt to enlist Mexico as an ally (see Zimmermann Telegram ), Wilson took America into World War I as a war to make "the world safe for democracy."
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.It at once makes the quarrel in part our own."^ It at once makes the quarrel in part our own."
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[76]
.Wilson narrowly won the election, defeating Republican candidate Charles Evans Hughes.^ Wilson won the election with the assistance of Democratic political bosses, but soon distanced himself from them with his progressive agenda as the people's advocate against special interests.
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^ Says: December 11th, 2009 at 10:52 am Ha ha, Wilson won in 1912 with fewer votes than the two Republican candidates got.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republicans nominated Associate Justice Charles Evans Hughes, former governor of New York.
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.As governor of New York from 1907–1910, Hughes had a progressive record, strikingly similar to Wilson's as governor of New Jersey.^ During the summer of 1910, Wilson accepted the Democratic nomination for Governor of New Jersey.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Addresses while Governor of New Jersey, 1910-1912 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wilson dismissed Lansing in early 1920 and appointed Bain-bridge Colby of New York to succeed him.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Theodore Roosevelt would comment that the only thing different between Hughes and Wilson was a shave.^ A general history of the United States from the accession of Theodore Roosevelt to the presidency in 1901 to the end of Woodrow Wilson’s administration in 1920.
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An examination of the differences between Wilson and Lansing regarding American policies toward Japan.
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It was Theodore Roosevelt's revivification of the presidential office that helped Wilson to come to his mature and definitive understanding of the potential powers of the chief executive.
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.However, Hughes had to try to hold together a coalition of conservative Taft supporters and progressive Roosevelt partisans and so his campaign never seemed to take a definite form.^ Whereas Lansing was conservative in political outlook, Colby was an advanced progressive who had followed Roosevelt in 1912 and supported Wilson in 1916.
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^ Even Roosevelt relied on Progressives to his left both for support, and to frighten the conservatives into supporting his more cautious plans.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

.Wilson ran on his record and ignored Hughes, reserving his attacks for Roosevelt.^ The people who ignored that part of Wilson’s legacy were misleading people, and the ones who paid attention to it were correcting the record.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tape Recording, "Recollections of Woodrow Wilson by Howard L. Hughes" AM 19398 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

When asked why he did not attack Hughes directly, Wilson told a friend to "Never murder a man who is committing suicide."[77]
The result was exceptionally close and the outcome was in doubt for several days. .Because of Wilson's fear of becoming a lame duck president during the uncertainties of the war in Europe, he created a hypothetical plan where if Hughes were elected he would name Hughes United States Secretary of State and then resign along with the vice-president to enable Hughes to become the president.^ President of the United States, 1913-1921 .
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^ The United States at War, 1917 – 1918 .
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^ With Edith Wilson's assistance, and that of his loyal private secretary Joseph P. Tumulty, the president managed to finish his term but could exercise only minimal leadership during the remaining months.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

The vote came down to several close states. .Wilson won California by 3,773 votes out of almost a million votes cast and New Hampshire by 54 votes.^ Wilson also won the presidency, and used his techniques of presidential leadership to gain the adoption of his New Freedom agenda.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

Hughes won Minnesota by 393 votes out of over 358,000. In the final count, Wilson had 277 electoral votes vs. Hughes 254. Wilson was able to win reelection in 1916 by picking up many votes that had gone to Teddy Roosevelt or Eugene V. Debs in 1912.[78]

Second term as President, 1917–1921

Decision for War, 1917

.Before entering the war in 1917, the U.S. had made a declaration of neutrality in 1914. During this time of neutrality, President Wilson warned citizens not to take sides in the war in fear of endangering wider U.S. policy.^ In a moving peroration, Wilson declared that the world had to be made "safe for democracy" and freed from the threat of German militarism.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson formally requested the advice of the cabinet on a specific issue only once — on 20 March 1917, on the question of whether he should ask Congress for a declaration of war against Germany.
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^ From the beginning, the Great War had threatened to entangle the United States in Europe despite Wilson's pursuit of neutrality, which he proclaimed on 4 August 1914.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In his address to congress in 1914, Wilson states, "Such divisions amongst us would be fatal to our peace of mind and might seriously stand in the way of the proper performance of our duty as the one great nation at peace, the one people holding itself ready to play a part of impartial mediation and speak the counsels of peace and accommodation, not as a partisan, but as a friend."^ Annual Address to Congress, 1914 December .
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^ I hope that some of their finer passions are in my own heart — some of the great conceptions and desires which gave birth to this Government and which have made the voice of this people a voice of peace and hope and liberty among the peoples of the world, and that, in speaking my own thoughts, I shall, at least in part, speak theirs also.
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^ Repeated demonstrations for peace rocked the Democratic convention hall, and the Democrats adopted a platform plank that hailed Wilson because he had preserved national honor and "kept us out of war."
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[79]
.The U.S. maintained neutrality despite increasing pressure placed on Wilson after the sinking of the British passenger liner RMS Lusitania with American citizens on board.^ Moreover, the cabinet and Wilson's advisers in the State Department were about evenly divided over a wise and proper response to the sinking of the Lusitania .
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the beginning, the Great War had threatened to entangle the United States in Europe despite Wilson's pursuit of neutrality, which he proclaimed on 4 August 1914.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ On 9 March, Wilson announced that the navy would place guns and gun crews on American merchantmen.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.This neutrality would deteriorate when Germany began to initiate its unrestricted submarine warfare threatening U.S. commercial shipping.^ On 18 January 1916 the secretary of state proposed to the Allies that they disarm their merchant ships in return for a pledge by Germany that submarines would sink merchantmen only after warning them and providing for the safety of their crews.
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.When Germany started unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917, despite the promises made in the Arabic pledge and the Sussex pledge, and attempted to enlist Mexico as an ally (see Zimmermann Telegram), Wilson took America into World War I as a war to make "the world safe for democracy". He did not sign a formal alliance with the United Kingdom or France but operated as an "associated" power.^ The United States at War, 1917 – 1918 .
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^ The "Zimmermann telegram" instructed the minister, in the event that the United States entered the war against Germany, to offer to the Mexican government an alliance by which Mexico would go to war against the United States and would receive in return "the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona."
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^ This, then, was the situation in Mexico when Woodrow Wilson took the oath of office on 4 March 1913.
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.He raised a massive army through conscription and gave command to General John J. Pershing, allowing Pershing a free hand as to tactics, strategy and even diplomacy.^ On the one hand, you had J.C. Calhoun, saying that slavery frees blacks from the horrors of Northern capitalism and that if slavery were abolished that raised the horrifying prospect of white enslavement.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

[80]
.Woodrow Wilson had decided by then that the war had become a real threat to humanity.^ Did liberals in the 50s or 70s really admire Woodrow Wilson?
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Arthur S. Link, Woodrow Wilson: Revolution, War, and Peace (Arlington Heights, Ill., 1979), presents Wilson as an anti-imperialist, decolonizer, and leader in the fight for world peace.
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^ Woodrow Wilson Foundation: World War I Reports .
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.Unless the U.S. threw its weight into the war, as he stated in his declaration of war speech on April 2, 1917,[81] western civilization itself could be destroyed.^ The United States at War, 1917 – 1918 .
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^ The Lusitania was a horrible thing, but our neutrality could have been preserved with by a credible THREAT to get into the war.
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^ Congress complied after a brief debate, and Wilson signed the war resolution on 6 April 1917.
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.His statement announcing a "war to end all wars" meant that he wanted to build a basis for peace that would prevent future catastrophic wars and needless death and destruction.^ He wanted nothing for the United States except a just peace that would endure and a world organization that could maintain peace in the future.
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^ Wilson responded as warmly as he thought prudent; when Britain and France rebuffed the pontiff, Wilson had to console himself with the thought that the Allies would be in his hands "financially" at the end of the war and that he could force them to accept his own peace terms.
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^ If a peace conference met and Germany refused to accept a "reasonable" settlement, the United States would probably enter the war on the Allied side.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.This provided the basis of Wilson's Fourteen Points, which were intended to resolve territorial disputes, ensure free trade and commerce, and establish a peacemaking organization.^ Even so, Wilson was able to vindicate most of his Fourteen Points.
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^ Wilson and his advisers acted quickly to establish formal neutrality and to meet the rude shocks caused by the total disorganization of world markets and trade.
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^ Secretary of Labor William Wilson in 1913 established an informal conciliation service that frequently settled labor disputes, whenever possible upon the basis of the recognition of the right of labor to organize and bargain collectively.
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Included in these fourteen points was the proposal of the League of Nations.[82]

War Message

.
President Wilson delivering his war message before Congress.
^ Congress complied after a brief debate, and Wilson signed the war resolution on 6 April 1917.
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^ Message to the Congress regarding: War , 1917 April 2 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ During the cold war, Wilson was taught as a flawed but important president because he started “liberal internationalism”, flanked before and after by isolationists.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

April 2, 1917.
.Woodrow Wilson delivered his War Message to Congress on the evening of April 2, 1917. Introduced to great applause, he remained intense and almost motionless for the entire speech, only raising one arm as his only bodily movement.^ Congress complied after a brief debate, and Wilson signed the war resolution on 6 April 1917.
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^ Message to the Congress regarding: War , 1917 April 2 .
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^ Shaw to Wilson, Woodrow, 1917 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

[83]
.Wilson announced that his previous position of "armed neutrality" was no longer tenable now that the Imperial German Government had announced that it would use its submarines to sink any vessel approaching the ports of Great Britain, Ireland or any of the Western Coasts of Europe.^ The announcement by the German government on 4 February 1915 that it would thereafter use its small submarine fleet to sink all Allied ships within a broad war zone without warning posed a grave threat to American neutrality, since the Germans also said that, because submarine commanders would sometimes find it impossible to discriminate between enemy and neutral ships, neutral ships would not be safe from torpedoes.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson, taking high humanitarian ground, addressed two appeals to the German government to abandon the entire submarine campaign, at least against unarmed and unresisting liners and merchantmen.
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^ The secretary of state announced on 15 February 1916 that the administration would follow customary rules and require submarines to warn defensively armed merchant ships before attacking them.
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.He advised Congress to declare that the recent course of action taken by the Imperial German Government constituted an act of war.^ To stamp out active opposition to the war effort, Congress adopted the Espionage Act of 15 June 1917 and the Sedition Act of 16 May 1918.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (June 9, 1998) (Bridge Act), Congress laid out a plan for transferring the Federal government's ownership of the Bridge to a regional authority or one or more of the jurisdictions in the region.
  • Woodrow Wilson Bridge (I-495 and I-95) 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.roadstothefuture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In his war message to Congress, Wilson had declared that the war aims of the United States were the same as the ones he had enunciated in his Peace Without Victory Address of 22 January 1917.
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.He proposed that the United States enter the war to "vindicate principles of peace and justice in the life of the world as against selfish and autocratic power". He also charged that Germany had "filled our unsuspecting communities and even our offices of government with spies and set criminal intrigues everywhere afoot against our national unity of counsel, our peace within and without our industries and our commerce". Furthermore, the United States had intercepted a telegram sent to the German ambassador in Mexico City that evidenced Germany's attempt to instigate a Mexican attack upon the U.S. The German government, Wilson said, "means to stir up enemies against us at our very doors". Wilson closed with the statement that the world must be again safe for democracy.^ The United States at War, 1917 – 1918 .
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^ There’s a difference between recognizing that growing up in different cultures gives us all different “default” settings (which themselves vary from individual to individual within a specific culture), and that history creates certain group resentments and alliances, versus thinking “the African cannot govern himself.” .
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At this celebration, Wilson delivered his famous speech, “Princeton in the Nation's Service,” in which he proposed the following ideal for the Princeton student: seek the education required to carry into the world a sense of duty and purpose for the nation.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

[84]
With 50 Representatives and 6 Senators in opposition, the declaration of war by the United States against Germany was passed by the Congress on April 4, 1917, and was approved by the President on April 6, 1917.

The Fourteen Points

Image of Wilson created by 21,000 soldiers at Camp Sherman, Chillicothe, Ohio, 1918
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.In a speech to Congress on January 8, 1918, Wilson articulated America's war aims.^ Thus, from the outset of American belligerency, Wilson dissociated his government from the secret treaties and war aims of the Allies and declared that the United States was an associated, not an Allied, power.
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^ For example, it is doubtful that any American, other than Wilson, could have so successfully united the people of the United States behind the great war effort of 1917 – 1918.
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^ To stamp out active opposition to the war effort, Congress adopted the Espionage Act of 15 June 1917 and the Sedition Act of 16 May 1918.
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It was the clearest expression of intention made by any of the belligerent nations. .The speech, authored principally by Walter Lippmann, translated Wilson's progressive domestic policies into comparably idealistic equivalents for the international arena: self-determination, open agreements, international cooperation.^ Both Wilson and Bryan were determined to make a new beginning in foreign policy in 1913.
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^ John Says: December 11th, 2009 at 12:59 pm Wilson seems to be loved by the foreign policy establishment, who seemed to have ignored his horrible domestic policies.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On foreign policy, Wilson had some very important ideas about international institutions and global governance.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

.Promptly dubbed the Fourteen Points, Wilson attempted to make them the basis for the treaty that would mark the end of the war.^ Even so, Wilson was able to vindicate most of his Fourteen Points.
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^ But how could he do this without making open war, which Congress and the American people would probably not support and which Carranza would probably resist?
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^ And if that had happened, Wilson would have killed the treaty himself by refusing to go through the process of ratification.
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.They ranged from the most generic principles like the prohibition of secret treaties to such detailed outcomes as the creation of an independent Poland with access to the sea.^ An independent Poland with access to the sea came back into the family of nations.
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^ The Soviets invaded Poland because they wanted a piece of Poland–and chunks of most of their other neighbors–but they did not want a world war.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This peace program, embodied in fourteen points, called for, among other things, an end to secret diplomacy, freedom of the seas, drastic reduction in armaments, an independent Poland, and a "general association of nations .
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[85]

Home front

.To counter opposition to the war at home, Wilson pushed the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 through Congress to suppress anti-British, pro-German, or anti-war opinions.^ For Puerto Rico, Wilson pushed through Congress, and signed on 2 March 1917, the second Jones Act.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States at War, 1917 – 1918 .
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To stamp out active opposition to the war effort, Congress adopted the Espionage Act of 15 June 1917 and the Sedition Act of 16 May 1918.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

He welcomed socialists who supported the war and pushed for deportation of foreign-born radicals.[86] .Citing the Espionage Act, the U.S. Post Office refused to carry any written materials that could be deemed critical of the U. S. war effort.^ To stamp out active opposition to the war effort, Congress adopted the Espionage Act of 15 June 1917 and the Sedition Act of 16 May 1918.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, it is doubtful that any American, other than Wilson, could have so successfully united the people of the United States behind the great war effort of 1917 – 1918.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

Some sixty newspapers were deprived of their second-class mailing rights.[87]
His wartime policies were strongly pro-labor. .He worked closely with Samuel Gompers and the AFL, while suppressing antiwar groups trying to impede the war effort.^ Throughout his tenure, William Wilson maintained a close alliance with Samuel Gompers, president of the AF of L. .
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.The American Federation of Labor, the railroad brotherhoods and other 'moderate' unions saw enormous growth in membership and wages during Wilson's administration.^ Consequently, Wilson was incapable of giving leadership to his party, to Congress, and to the people during one of the most critical periods in American history.
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^ Finally, the quiet academic David F. Houston led the Agriculture Department in the most important expansion of the activities of any single department during the Wilson administration.
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^ There were several changes in the cabinet during the Wilson administration.
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There was no rationing, so consumer prices soared. .As income taxes increased, white-collar workers suffered.^ At the same time, Wilson approved a Revenue Act that drastically increased taxes upon incomes and estates.
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Appeals to buy war bonds were highly successful, however. Bonds had the result of shifting the cost of the war to the affluent 1920s.[87]
.Wilson set up the first western propaganda office, the United States Committee on Public Information, headed by George Creel (thus its popular name, Creel Commission), which filled the country with patriotic anti-German appeals and conducted various forms of censorship.^ Thus, from the outset of American belligerency, Wilson dissociated his government from the secret treaties and war aims of the Allies and declared that the United States was an associated, not an Allied, power.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The American navy proceeded to pacify the country, to set up a puppet government, and to impose upon the Haitian Senate a treaty that made Haiti a protectorate of the United States.
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^ To persuade the public, still badly divided over the wisdom of participation, Wilson established the Committee on Public Information to undertake a nationwide program to convince Americans that they were fighting for justice, peace, democracy, and their own security in the world.
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[88] .In 1917, Congress authorized ex-President Theodore Roosevelt to raise four divisions of volunteers to fight in France- Roosevelt's World War I volunteers; Wilson refused to accept this offer from his political enemy.^ Wilson formally requested the advice of the cabinet on a specific issue only once — on 20 March 1917, on the question of whether he should ask Congress for a declaration of war against Germany.
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^ Wilson , Woodrow 1856-1924 Book article from: American Decades WILSON , WOODROW 1856-1924 President of the united...the outset of World War I President Woodrow Wilson believed that the United States had...Virginia, on 28 December 1856, Thomas Woodrow Wilson was named after his maternal grandfather...
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^ Theodore Roosevelt (26th President of the United States) .
  • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other areas of the war effort were incorporated into the government along with propaganda.^ For example, it is doubtful that any American, other than Wilson, could have so successfully united the people of the United States behind the great war effort of 1917 – 1918.
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.The War Industries Board headed by Bernard Baruch set war goals and policies for American factories.^ Robert D. Cuff, The War Industries Board: Business-Government Relations During World War I (Baltimore, 1973), places too much emphasis on voluntarism as the motif of American mobilization.
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^ Through various instrumentalities, but most notably the War Industries Board, Wilson maintained a steady supply of raw materials to war industries.
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.Future President Herbert Hoover was appointed to head the Food Administration which encouraged Americans to participate in "Meatless Mondays" and "Wheatless Wednesdays" to conserve food for the troops overseas.^ Indeed, Redfield took many of the initiatives in support of American business for which Herbert Hoover, as secretary of commerce from 1921 to 1928, is usually given credit.
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The Federal Fuel Administration run by Henry Garfield introduced daylight savings time and rationed fuel supplies such as coal and oil to keep the US military supplied. .These and many other boards and administrations were headed by businessmen recruited by Wilson for a dollar a day salary to make the government more efficient in the war effort.^ Wilson’s actions after 1912 weren’t an expression of the times, except as part of the slow progress of the southern racist effort to make the US more racist than it had been.
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^ These collections include letters to and from Wilson and others.
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^ Grayson kept Wilson on a regime of simple diet, exercise, and avoidance of stress, but the tasks of overseeing the American war effort blew Grayson's regimen to pieces.
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[87]

Other foreign affairs

.Between 1914 and 1918, the United States intervened in Latin America, particularly in Mexico, Haiti, Cuba, and Panama.^ The United States at War, 1917 – 1918 .
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^ From the beginning, the Great War had threatened to entangle the United States in Europe despite Wilson's pursuit of neutrality, which he proclaimed on 4 August 1914.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wilson's most important achievement at Paris was the creation of the League of Nations and the inclusion of its covenant in the Treaty of Versailles between the United States and the former Allies and Germany.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The U.S. maintained troops in Nicaragua throughout the Wilson administration and used them to select the president of Nicaragua and then to force Nicaragua to pass the Bryan-Chamorro Treaty.^ This Wilson did throughout his administration.
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^ The larger international relations issue throughout Wilson's early presidency was keeping the United States out of the European war .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Throughout his tenure, William Wilson maintained a close alliance with Samuel Gompers, president of the AF of L. .
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.American troops in Haiti, under the command of the federal government, forced the Haitian legislature to choose the candidate Wilson selected as Haitian president.^ Wilson appointed General John J. Pershing to take charge of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in Europe, and Congress passed the Selective Service Act giving the federal government the power to draft young men into the U.S. armed forces.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ No president in American history has used these media with such remarkable power and success as Wilson did.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In summation, Wilson was the parliamentary leader par excellence in the history of the American presidency.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.American troops occupied Haiti between 1915 and 1934.[89] Wilson ordered the military occupation of the Dominican Republic shortly after the resignation of its President Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra in 1916. The U.S. military worked in concert with wealthy Dominican landowners to suppress the gavilleros, a campesino guerrilla force fighting the occupation.^ American marines occupied the Dominican Republic until 1924 and Haiti until 1934.
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^ American military forces occupied Santo Domingo, the Dominican capital, on 15 May 1916, and established a military government in the following November.
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^ The United States had collected and disbursed the customs revenues of the Dominican Republic since 1905, but Wilson's warnings and Bryan's exhortations failed to prevent the same fatal cycle of revolutions in the Dominican Republic that had devastated Haiti.
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The occupation lasted until 1924, and was notorious for its brutality against those in the resistance.[90]
.After Russia left the war following the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, the Allies sent troops there to prevent a German or Bolshevik takeover of allied-provided weapons, munitions and other supplies, previously shipped as aid to the pre-revolutionary government.^ Wilson suspected, rightly, that the Allies wanted the United States and Japan to make war against the Bolshevik regime.
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^ The direct threat to the American and Allied cause in the spring of 1917 was the German submarine campaign, the results of which at first exceeded German expectations.
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^ Wilson was spurred to an independent peace campaign in response to the Bolshevik takeover in Russia in early November 1917.
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[91] .Wilson sent armed forces to assist the withdrawal of Czech and Slovak prisoners along the Trans-Siberian Railway, hold key port cities at Arkangel and Vladivostok.^ A force of seventy thousand Czechs, former Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war in Russia, had banded together in what was called the Czech Legion and were fighting to escape along a route from Russia proper to the Siberian port of Vladivostok.
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^ Thus, Wilson, while he sent only seven thousand men to Vladivostok, did his best to keep the Japanese contingent to the same size.
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^ Wilson, in August 1918, also sent four battalions from Pershing's force to Murmansk and Archangel in northern Russia to cooperate with British and Czech forces there to safeguard large munitions supplies against capture by the Germans.
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.Though not sent to engage the Bolsheviks, the U.S. forces engaged in several armed conflicts against forces of the new Russian government.^ Colby coupled the policy of noninterference with one of adamant refusal to recognize the Bolshevik government, on the ground that it did not represent the Russian people.
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^ Then Wilson sent a new ambassador to Mexico and, on 3 March, accorded de facto recognition to Carranza and the constitutional government that he had just established at Quer é taro.
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Despite the apparent innocuousness of Wilson's motives, revolutionaries in Russia resented the American intrusion. As Robert Maddox puts it, "The immediate effect of the intervention was to prolong a bloody civil war, thereby costing thousands of additional lives and wreaking enormous destruction on an already battered society."[92] Wilson withdrew most of the soldiers on April 1, 1920, though some remained until as late as 1922.
.In 1919 Wilson guided American foreign policy to "acquiesce" in the Balfour Declaration without supporting Zionism in an official way.^ But how could he do this without making open war, which Congress and the American people would probably not support and which Carranza would probably resist?
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^ Whatever their thoughts were about Latin American policy in general, Wilson and Bryan (and subsequent secretaries of state to 1921) regarded defense of the Caribbean area and of the Panama Canal as one of the main objectives of the foreign policy of the United States.
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^ It may be that the Wilsonian legacy is now only the conscience of American foreign policy.
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Wilson expressed sympathy for the plight of Jews, especially in Poland and in France.[93]
.In May 1920, after the Senate passed a resolution unanimously expressing sympathy for Armenia's suffering, Wilson sent a proposal to Congress to establish an American mandate over Armenia.^ Message to Congress, 1920 May[24] .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Consequently, Wilson was incapable of giving leadership to his party, to Congress, and to the people during one of the most critical periods in American history.
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^ Wilson established his leadership of the Democrats in Congress usually through sheer force of personality and moral leadership, by simply reminding them of their obligations to the country.
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.It failed in the Senate with only 23 votes for and 52 against.^ When the treaty came up for a vote in the Senate on 19 November, Wilson commanded Democrats in the Senate to vote against ratification with reservations.
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^ A second vote in the Senate, on 19 March 1920, failed to find two-thirds of the senators in favor of the treaty in any form.
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He later requested an appropriation to underwrite a loan to Armenia, but got no response from Congress.[94]

Peace Conference 1919

.After World War I, Wilson participated in negotiations with the stated aim of assuring statehood for formerly oppressed nations and an equitable peace.^ With Wilson's blessing, Bryan, in 1913 and 1914, negotiated with thirty nations — including Great Britain, France, and Italy — treaties that established elaborate machinery to prevent war.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To persuade the public, still badly divided over the wisdom of participation, Wilson established the Committee on Public Information to undertake a nationwide program to convince Americans that they were fighting for justice, peace, democracy, and their own security in the world.
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^ Wilson participated personally in the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.On January 8, 1918, Wilson made his famous Fourteen Points address, introducing the idea of a League of Nations, an organization with a stated goal of helping to preserve territorial integrity and political independence among large and small nations alike.^ Wilson's great goal in Latin America was the negotiation of a pact to unite all the American republics in an alliance binding them to respect one another's territorial integrity, guarantee one another's political independence, and settle all disputes among themselves by peaceful methods.
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^ Ratification of the Treaty of Versailles would carry heavy new international responsibilities for the United States: Article 10 of the covenant guaranteed the political independence and territorial integrity of all member nations, and support of the covenant's peacekeeping machinery might well entail the risk of war.
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^ Even so, Wilson was able to vindicate most of his Fourteen Points.
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[citation needed]
.Wilson intended the Fourteen Points as a means toward ending the war and achieving an equitable peace for all the nations.^ Repeated demonstrations for peace rocked the Democratic convention hall, and the Democrats adopted a platform plank that hailed Wilson because he had preserved national honor and "kept us out of war."
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^ Even so, Wilson was able to vindicate most of his Fourteen Points.
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^ Grey adamantly refused, and Wilson abandoned all hope of peace through Anglo-American cooperation.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.He spent six months in Paris for the 1919 Paris Peace Conference (making him the first U.S. president to travel to Europe while in office).^ Peace Conference, Paris, 1919 January 25 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ France, Peace Conference, 1919 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Peace Conference, 1918–1919 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

He worked tirelessly to promote his plan. .The charter of the proposed League of Nations was incorporated into the conference's Treaty of Versailles.^ Wilson's most important achievement at Paris was the creation of the League of Nations and the inclusion of its covenant in the Treaty of Versailles between the United States and the former Allies and Germany.
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^ Moreover, the League was designated as the instrument to carry out the Versailles and other treaties concluded at Paris.
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^ Address to the Senate regarding: Peace treaty and League of Nations, 1919 July 10 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
Wilson returning from the Versailles Peace Conference, 1919.
.For his peace-making efforts, Wilson was awarded the 1919 Nobel Peace Prize,[95] however, he failed to even win US Senate support for ratification.^ Wilson participated personally in the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Transcript of Conference with Woodrow Wilson and Senate Committee (including senators Lodge, Borah, Knox, Hitchcock, et al), [1919-1920] .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Swem, Charles L. – Official business for Woodrow Wilson American Commission to Negotiate Peace, 1919 May 29 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The United States never joined the League.^ Wilson's most important achievement at Paris was the creation of the League of Nations and the inclusion of its covenant in the Treaty of Versailles between the United States and the former Allies and Germany.
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^ Address to the Senate of the United States: "A World League for Peace" .

.Republicans under Henry Cabot Lodge controlled the Senate after the 1918 elections, but Wilson refused to give them a voice at Paris and refused to agree to Lodge's proposed changes.^ Moreover, Republicans controlled the Senate, and Wilson's implacable personal and political foe, Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, was chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wilson waited patiently as conservative Senate Republicans and obstructionist Democrats wore themselves out.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Transcript of Conference with Woodrow Wilson and Senate Committee (including senators Lodge, Borah, Knox, Hitchcock, et al), [1919-1920] .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The key point of disagreement was whether the League would diminish the power of Congress to declare war.^ Address to a Joint Session of Congress Requesting a Declaration of War Against Germany .

.During this period, Wilson became less trustful of the press and stopped holding press conferences for them, preferring to use his propaganda unit, the Committee for Public Information, instead.^ The collection is rich in material prior to Wilson's presidential years, although it is not limited to this period; researchers will find materials documenting both the public and private life of Woodrow Wilson.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

[64]
A poll of historians in 2006 cited Wilson's failure to compromise with the Republicans on U.S. entry into the League as one of the 10 largest errors on the part of an American president.[96] The extensive restrictions in the Treaty of Versailles left the German populace with a resentment against the treaty and ultimately contributed to the rise of Adolf Hitler and World War II.
.When Wilson traveled to Europe to settle the peace terms, he visited Pope Benedict XV in Rome, making Wilson the first American President to visit the Pope while in office.^ Grey adamantly refused, and Wilson abandoned all hope of peace through Anglo-American cooperation.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No president in American history has used these media with such remarkable power and success as Wilson did.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In summation, Wilson was the parliamentary leader par excellence in the history of the American presidency.
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Post war: 1919–20

Wilson's administration did not plan for the process of demobilization at the war's end. .Though some advisers tried to engage the President's attention to what they called "reconstruction", his tepid support for a federal commission evaporated with the election of 1918. Republican gains in the Senate meant that his opposition would have to consent to the appointment of commission members.^ Wilson at first yielded gracefully and then championed their causes in 1916, in part because he would need the support of progressive Republicans in the presidential election of 1916 and in part because he was becoming increasingly convinced that federal authority alone could cope with some of the urgent social and economic problems of the day.
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^ Democrats tried to find some compromise, but Lodge would not budge on the all-important reservation to Article 10.
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^ Wilson presented the Versailles treaty to the Senate on 10 July 1919, in the supreme confidence that that body would not dare to refuse to give its consent to ratification.
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Instead, Wilson favored the prompt dismantling of wartime boards and regulatory agencies.[97]
Demobilization proved chaotic and violent. Four million soldiers were sent home with little planning, little money, and few benefits. A wartime bubble in prices of farmland burst, leaving many farmers bankrupt or deeply in debt after they purchased new land. .Major strikes in steel, coal, and meatpacking followed in 1919.[98] Serious race riots hit Chicago, Omaha and two dozen other cities.^ The new attorney general, Alexander Mitchell Palmer, on 8 November 1919, secured an injunction that prevented a nationwide coal strike by the United Mine Workers of America.
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[99] .As the election of 1920 approached, Wilson imagined that a deadlocked Democratic convention might turn to him as the only candidate who would make U.S. participation in the League of Nations the dominant issue.^ Re League of Nations, 1920 October 4 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Repeated demonstrations for peace rocked the Democratic convention hall, and the Democrats adopted a platform plank that hailed Wilson because he had preserved national honor and "kept us out of war."
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^ There are chorus numbers in the play for all students who would like to participate, even if you didn't already audition.

He imagined and sometimes pretended he was healthy enough for the effort, but several times admitted that he knew he could not survive a campaign. No one around the President dared tell him that he was incapable and that the campaign for the League was already lost. .At the Convention in late June, 1920, some Wilson partisans made efforts on his behalf and sent Wilson hopeful reports, but they were quashed by Wilson's wiser friends.^ Trustees Minutes (in part), including the report of the election of Wilson, Woodrow as president of Princeton University TD (Photostat), 2 pp., 1902 June 9 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "When I think of the obstacles you have encountered and overcome in this conflict for the national honor," one friend wrote to Wilson on 16 June 1914, "the victory seems colossal."
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^ Cummings”, 5 telegrams, by Cummings to Wilson, Woodrow, 1920 June .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

[100]

Incapacity

.
Woodrow Wilson's first posed photograph after his stroke.
^ Kassebaum, along with his cast...crew will be filming scenes of Wilson 's life as a student, professor...played the role of a young Ellen Wilson - Woodrow 's first wife.
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^ Also included is the Thackwell collection of correspondence between Woodrow family members and especially between Woodrow Wilson and his cousin, Harriet Woodrow, his first love, as well as photographs of both Woodrow and Wilson relatives.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ ALS (fragment) including photographs of Wilson, Eleanor R. and Wilson, Margaret Woodrow, 1907 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

.He was paralyzed on his left side, so his wife Edith holds a document steady while he signs.^ Then, on 2 October, after his return to Washington, Wilson suffered a devastating stroke that paralyzed his left side and for a time threatened his life.
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June 1920.
.The immediate cause of Wilson's incapacitation was the physical strain of the public speaking tour he undertook to obtain support for ratification of the Covenant of the League of Nations.^ Wilson's most important achievement at Paris was the creation of the League of Nations and the inclusion of its covenant in the Treaty of Versailles between the United States and the former Allies and Germany.
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^ Wilson set out upon a speaking tour in the Middle West in late January to stir up public support for his program.
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^ Saying that the enemies of the League were poisoning the wells of public opinion, Wilson set out upon a tour of the West in order to purify them.
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In Pueblo, Colorado, on September 25, 1919[101] he collapsed.[102]
.Then, on October 2, 1919, he suffered a serious stroke that almost totally incapacitated him, leaving him paralyzed on his left side and blind in his left eye.^ On 2 October 1919, back in Washington, he suffered a massive stroke.
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^ A healthy Wilson would almost certainly have found a high ground of compromise with pro-League Republicans and put the treaty across, probably by October 1919.
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^ Lansing, as the premier of the group, held unauthorized cabinet meetings on his own from October 1919 until Wilson dismissed him on 12 February 1920.
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[103] He was confined to bed for weeks, sequestered from nearly everyone but his wife and his physician, Dr. Cary Grayson.[104] For at least a few months, he used a wheelchair. Later, he could walk only with the assistance of a cane. The full extent of his disability was kept from the public until after his death on February 3, 1924.
.With few exceptions, Wilson was kept out of the presence of Vice President Thomas R. Marshall, his cabinet and Congressional visitors to the White House for the remainder of his term.^ The larger international relations issue throughout Wilson's early presidency was keeping the United States out of the European war .
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^ Review of Wilson Road to the White House by Link, Arthur S., TMs 29 pp.
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His wife, Edith, served as his steward, selecting issues for his attention and delegating other issues to his cabinet heads. Eventually, Wilson did resume his attendance at cabinet meetings, but his input there was perfunctory at best.[105] .This was one of the most serious cases of presidential disability in American history and was later cited as an argument for the 25th Amendment.^ Consequently, Wilson was incapable of giving leadership to his party, to Congress, and to the people during one of the most critical periods in American history.
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^ The Federal Reserve Act was the most important legislation of the Wilson era and one of the most important pieces of legislation in the history of the United States.
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^ With only recent British experience to guide him, Wilson led Congress, his administration, and the entire American people in one of the speediest and most successful mobilizations for war in history.
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[citation needed]

Administration and Cabinet and Supreme Court appointments

.Wilson's chief of staff ("Secretary") was Joseph Patrick Tumulty 1913–1921, but he was largely upstaged after 1916 when Wilson's second wife, Edith Bolling Wilson, assumed full control of Wilson's schedule.^ TLS by Tumulty, Joseph, and Measday, Walter, secretary and assistant secretary to Wilson .
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^ Wilson, Edith Bolling; 1933, 1951 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wilson, Edith Bolling, 1922 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

The most important foreign policy advisor and confidant was "Colonel" Edward M. House until Wilson broke with him in early 1919.[106]
The Wilson Cabinet
Office Name Term
President Woodrow Wilson 1913–1921
Vice President Thomas R. Marshall 1913–1921
Secretary of State William J. Bryan 1913–1915
Robert Lansing 1915–1920
Bainbridge Colby 1920–1921
Secretary of Treasury William G. McAdoo 1913–1918
Carter Glass 1918–1920
David F. Houston 1920–1921
Secretary of War Lindley M. Garrison 1913–1916
Newton D. Baker 1916–1921
Attorney General James C. McReynolds 1913–1914
Thomas W. Gregory 1914–1919
A. Mitchell Palmer 1919–1921
Postmaster General Albert S. Burleson 1913–1921
Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels 1913–1921
Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane 1913–1920
John B. Payne 1920–1921
Secretary of Agriculture David F. Houston 1913–1920
Edwin T. Meredith 1920–1921
Secretary of Commerce William C. Redfield 1913–1919
Joshua W. Alexander 1919–1921
Secretary of Labor William B. Wilson 1913–1921

[citation needed]
Supreme Court appointments
Wilson appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:
.
  • James Clark McReynolds in 1914. He served more than 26 years and established a consistent record in opposition to Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, the National Industrial Recovery Act and the Social Security Act.
  • Louis Dembitz Brandeis in 1916. He served almost 23 years and wrote landmark opinions in cases respecting free speech and the right to privacy.
  • John Hessin Clarke in 1916. He served just 6 years on the Court before resigning.^ Also included among the writings are notes taken of Wilson's course lectures by undergraduates, some of whom wrote down his words almost verbatim.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ At the heart of Wilson's peace program was the new League of Nations.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ BA Thesis “International Organization as Advocated and Advanced by Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Delano Roosevelt”, 1945 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    He thoroughly disliked his work as an Associate Justice.
Woodrow Wilson and his cabinet in the Cabinet Room

Civil Rights

Quotation from Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People as reproduced in the film The Birth of a Nation.

African Americans

.Wilson did not interfere with the well-established system of Jim Crow and backed the demands of Southern Democrats that their states be left alone to deal with issues of race and black voting without interference from the North, ensuring there would be no challenge to the raft of laws passed to disenfranchise African Americans across the region.^ After graduating from Princeton in 1879, Wilson returned to the south to attend law school at the University of Virginia; he passed the Georgia bar and briefly practiced law in Atlanta.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ By fostering governments friendly to the United States, he sought to exclude European influence and impose American control in the region.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wilson began his college career at Davidson near Charlotte, North Carolina, but after a year there and a further year under his father's tutelage came to Princeton University.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

[107]
While president of Princeton University, Wilson discouraged blacks from even applying for admission, preferring to keep the peace among white students than have black students admitted.[108]
Many black leaders supported Wilson in the 1912 election. However their rejoicing over Wilson's victory was short-lived as segregationist white Southerners took control of Congress and many executive departments.[4] .As President of the United States, Wilson ignored complaints that his cabinet officials had established official segregation in most federal government offices, in some departments for the first time since 1863. New buildings and facilities were built to house black workers separately.^ President of the United States, 1913-1921 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Memorabilia Series includes booklets, pamphlets, sheet music and other items from different eras of Wilson's life, documenting his undergraduate years at Princeton, his presidency of Princeton, his governorship and his presidency of the United States.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ From the beginning, the Great War had threatened to entangle the United States in Europe despite Wilson's pursuit of neutrality, which he proclaimed on 4 August 1914.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

[109] "His administration imposed full racial segregation in Washington and hounded from office considerable numbers of black federal employees."[110] Wilson and his cabinet members fired many black Republican office holders in political appointee positions, but also appointed a few black Democrats to such posts.
W. E. B. Du Bois, a leader of the NAACP, campaigned for Wilson and in 1918 was offered an Army commission in charge of dealing with race relations; DuBois accepted, but he failed his Army physical and did not serve.[111] Wilson drafted hundreds of thousands of blacks into the army, giving them equal pay with whites, but kept them in all-black units with white officers.[112] When a delegation of blacks protested the discriminatory actions, Wilson told them "segregation is not a humiliation but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you gentlemen." In 1914, he told The New York Times, "If the colored people made a mistake in voting for me, they ought to correct it."[113]
Wilson was highly criticized by African Americans for his actions. He was also criticized by such hard-line segregationists as Georgia's Thomas E. Watson, who believed Wilson did not go far enough in restricting black employment in the federal government. The segregation introduced into the federal workplace by the Wilson administration was kept in place by the succeeding presidents and not officially ended until the Truman Administration.[114]
.Woodrow Wilson's "History of the American People" explained the Ku Klux Klan of the late 1860s as the natural outgrowth of Reconstruction, a lawless reaction to a lawless period.^ A founder of the Woodrow Wilson Award, Life member of the American National Red Cross, 1917 September 1 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We found 342 people found that match Woodrow Wilson in the United States .
  • People Search & Directory Services Powered By Intelius 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.intelius.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The collection is rich in material prior to Wilson's presidential years, although it is not limited to this period; researchers will find materials documenting both the public and private life of Woodrow Wilson.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

Wilson noted that the Klan "began to attempt by intimidation what they were not allowed to attempt by the ballot or by any ordered course of public action".[115]

White ethnic groups

.Wilson had harsh words to say about immigrants in his history books, but after he entered politics in 1910, Wilson worked to integrate immigrants into the Democratic party, the army, and American life.^ During the summer of 1910, Wilson accepted the Democratic nomination for Governor of New Jersey.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A founder of the Woodrow Wilson Award, Life member of the American National Red Cross, 1917 September 1 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wilson won the election with the assistance of Democratic political bosses, but soon distanced himself from them with his progressive agenda as the people's advocate against special interests.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

During the war, he demanded in return that they repudiate any loyalty to enemy nations.[citation needed]
.Irish Americans were powerful in the Democratic party and opposed going to war as allies of their traditional enemy Great Britain, especially after the violent suppression of the Easter Rebellion of 1916. Wilson won them over in 1917 by promising to ask Great Britain to give Ireland its independence.^ A founder of the Woodrow Wilson Award, Life member of the American National Red Cross, 1917 September 1 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wilson won the election with the assistance of Democratic political bosses, but soon distanced himself from them with his progressive agenda as the people's advocate against special interests.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Woodrow Wilson Independent League, 1916 October 7 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

At Versailles, however, he reneged and the Irish-American community vehemently denounced him. Wilson, in turn, blamed the Irish Americans and German Americans for lack of popular support for the League of Nations, saying,
.
There is an organized propaganda against the League of Nations and against the treaty proceeding from exactly the same sources that the organized propaganda proceeded from which threatened this country here and there with disloyalty, and I want to say, I cannot say too often, any man who carries a hyphen about with him carries a dagger that he is ready to plunge into the vitals of this Republic whenever he gets ready.^ Address to the Senate regarding: Peace treaty and League of Nations, 1919 July 10 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Despite Wilson's work, the Senate rejected the treaty on 19 November 1919 and again on 19 March 1920, thereby preventing the United States from joining the League of Nations.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

[116]'
.Wilson refused to meet with Éamon de Valera, the President of Dáil Éireann (the revolutionary Irish Republic), during the latter's 1919 visit to the United States.^ President of the United States, 1913-1921 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Memorabilia Series includes booklets, pamphlets, sheet music and other items from different eras of Wilson's life, documenting his undergraduate years at Princeton, his presidency of Princeton, his governorship and his presidency of the United States.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ From the beginning, the Great War had threatened to entangle the United States in Europe despite Wilson's pursuit of neutrality, which he proclaimed on 4 August 1914.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
President Wilson nominated to the Supreme Court Louis Brandeis, the first Jewish American to ever hold this position. Wilson's appointment started a long line of Jewish justices who would serve on the nation's highest court in the future.

Death

The final resting place of Woodrow Wilson at the Washington National Cathedral
.In 1921, Wilson and his wife retired from the White House to a home in the Embassy Row section of Washington, D.C. Wilson continued going for daily drives and attended Keith's vaudeville theater on Saturday nights.^ Woodrow and Edith Wilson retired to their home in Washington on 4 March 1921 in relative obscurity.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Review of Wilson Road to the White House by Link, Arthur S., TMs 29 pp.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

Wilson was one of only two Presidents (Theodore Roosevelt was the first) to have served as president of the American Historical Association.[117]
.Wilson died in his S Street home on February 3, 1924. He was buried in Washington National Cathedral.^ He died at home in Washington on 2 February 1924.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Woodrow and Edith Wilson retired to their home in Washington on 4 March 1921 in relative obscurity.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

He is the only president buried in Washington, D.C.[118]
Mrs. Wilson stayed in the home another 37 years, dying on December 28, 1961. It was the day she was to be the guest of honor at the opening of the Woodrow Wilson Bridge near Washington, D.C. She died with her favorite dog, Rooter, at her bedside.
Mrs. Wilson left the home to the National Trust for Historic Preservation to be made into a museum honoring her husband. The Woodrow Wilson House opened as a museum. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966.[119]
Wilson on the $100,000 gold certificate
.The USS Woodrow Wilson (SSBN-624), a Lafayette-class ballistic missile submarine, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Wilson.^ From the beginning, the Great War had threatened to entangle the United States in Europe despite Wilson's pursuit of neutrality, which he proclaimed on 4 August 1914.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Woodrow Wilson is best known as the 28th president of the United States of America, founder of the League of Nations, governor of New Jersey, president of Princeton University, professor and historian.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The larger international relations issue throughout Wilson's early presidency was keeping the United States out of the European war .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

She later was converted into an attack submarine and redesignated SSN-624.
.The Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs was founded at Princeton in 1930, created in the spirit of Wilson's interest in preparing students for leadership in public and international affairs.^ Woodrow Wilson of Princeton proofs.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wilson, Woodrow, Princeton presidency .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ After graduating from Princeton in 1879, Wilson returned to the south to attend law school at the University of Virginia; he passed the Georgia bar and briefly practiced law in Atlanta.
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

In 1929, Wilson's image appeared on the $100,000 bill. .The bill, now out of print but still legal tender, was only used to transfer money between Federal Reserve banks.^ Before directors of the Federal Reserve Banks, 1914 October 21 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

[120][121]
In 1944, Darryl F. Zanuck of 20th Century Fox produced a film titled Wilson. It looked back with nostalgia to the commander-in-chief of World War I.

Media

See also


Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Woodrow (Thomas) Wilson". Genealogy@jrac.com. http://genweb.jrac.com/genweb.php?DB=presidents&ID=I1735&query=LookupInternal. 
  2. ^ Wilson's biography at Nobelprize.org
  3. ^ White, William Allen (2007). Woodrow Wilson - The Man, His Times and His Task. Read Books. p. 294. ISBN 1406776858. 
  4. ^ a b c Nancy J. Weiss, "The Negro and the New Freedom: Fighting Wilsonian Segregation", Political Science Quarterly 1969 84(1): 61-79, in JSTOR
  5. ^ a b c Wolgemuth, Kathleen L. (April 1, 1959). "Woodrow Wilson and Federal Segregation". The Journal of Negro History (Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc.) 44 (2): 158–173. doi:10.2307/2716036. ISSN 00222992. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2716036?seq=1. 
  6. ^ John Morton Blum, Woodrow Wilson and the Politics of Morality (1956); Richard M. Gamble, "Savior Nation: Woodrow Wilson and the Gospel of Service", Humanitas Volume: 14. Issue: 1. 2001. pp 4+; Cooper, Woodrow Wilson (2009) p 560.
  7. ^ Genealogy of President Woodrow Wilson
  8. ^ "President Wilson House, Dergalt". Northern Ireland - Ancestral Heritage. Northern Ireland Tourist Board. http://www.geographia.com/northern-ireland/ukiher01.htm#Tyrone. 
  9. ^ Walworth 1958 p. 4
  10. ^ a b "Woodrow Wilson — 28th President, 1913–1921". PresidentialAvenue.com. http://www.presidentialavenue.com/ww.cfm. 
  11. ^ White, William Allen. "Chapter II: The Influence of Environment". Woodrow Wilson - The Man, His Times and His Task. http://books.google.com/books?id=pXYqVxLyRrwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Woodrow+Wilson:+The+Man,+His+Times+and+His+Task#PPA28,M1. 
  12. ^ White, William Allen. "Chapter II: The Influence of Environment". Woodrow Wilson - The Man, His Times and His Task. http://books.google.com/books?id=pXYqVxLyRrwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Woodrow+Wilson:+The+Man,+His+Times+and+His+Task#PPA28,M1. 
  13. ^ "Wilson: A Portrait". American Experience, PBS Television. 2001. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/wilson/portrait/wp_wilson.html. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  14. ^ "Woodrow Wilson, Episode One: He Was a Quiet Man (transcript)". American Experience, PBS Television. 2001. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/wilson/filmmore/fm_trans1.html. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  15. ^ Link Road to the White House pp. 3–4.
  16. ^ Walworth ch 1
  17. ^ Link, Wilson I:5–6; Wilson Papers I: 130, 245, 314
  18. ^ The World's Work: A History of our Time, Volume IV: November 1911-April 1912. Doubleday. 1912. pp. 74–75. 
  19. ^ Cranston 1945
  20. ^ a b Mulder, John H. (1978). Woodrow Wilson: The Years of Preparation. Princeton. pp. 71–72. 
  21. ^ "Health of Woodrow Wilson"
  22. ^ "Interesting Wilson Facts". Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library. http://www.woodrowwilson.org/learn_sub/learn_sub_show.htm?doc_id=362639. Retrieved February 27, 2010. 
  23. ^ Watson, Robert P. (2000). The Presidents' Wives: Reassessing the Office of First Lady. Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 261. ISBN 1555879489. 
  24. ^ "The Pierce Arrow Limousine", Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library
  25. ^ Weingroff, Richard F., "President Woodrow Wilson – Motorist Extraordinaire", Federal Highway Administration
  26. ^ "By the Numbers" – 1915, CNNSI, October 17, 2002, Retrieved February 27, 2010
  27. ^ Wilson, Andrew (1996), A President's Love Affair with the Lake District: Woodrow Wilson's 'Second Home, Lakeland Press Agency
  28. ^ a b Van Natta, Don Jr. (2003), First Off the Tee: Presidential Hackers, Duffers, and Cheaters from Taft to Bush PublicAffairs
  29. ^ Weinstein, Edwin A. (1981), Woodrow Wilson: A Medical and Psychological Biography, Princeton
  30. ^ Walworth, v. 1; Link (1947)
  31. ^ "Beyond FitzRandolph Gates", Princeton Weekly Bulletin June 22, 1998.
  32. ^ "Princeton in the Nation's Service" Commemorative Address delivered October 21, 1896
  33. ^ The college he was referring to was Centre College. Link (1947)
  34. ^ The Politics of Woodrow Wilson, 41–48
  35. ^ Wilson Congressional Government 1885, p. 205.
  36. ^ Wilson Congressional Government 1885, pp. 186–187.
  37. ^ Wilson Congressional Government 1885, p. 76.
  38. ^ Wilson Congressional Government 1885, p. 132.
  39. ^ David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito, "Gold Democrats and the Decline of Classical Liberalism, 1896–1900", Independent Review 4 (Spring 2000), 555–75.
  40. ^ Frozen Republic, 145
  41. ^ Wilson 3
  42. ^ "The Study of Administration" in Political Science Quarterly, June 1887
  43. ^ Wilson, 4
  44. ^ Wilson 5
  45. ^ Wilson, 10
  46. ^ Wilson, 11
  47. ^ Wilson, 12
  48. ^ Walworth v. 1
  49. ^ Walworth v. 1; Bragdon, Woodrow Wilson: The Academic Years (1967)
  50. ^ Bragdon, Woodrow Wilson: The Academic Years; Walworth v. 1; Link (1947)
  51. ^ Walworth 1:109
  52. ^ Bragdon, Woodrow Wilson: The Academic Years, 326–327.
  53. ^ Around 1910 Wilson engaged in long meetings in Bermuda with socialite Mary Hulbert Peck; historians are unsure whether there was an affair. There is no evidence but Wilson did send very personal letters, and ugly rumors were circulated by his political enemies in 1912. Cooper (2009) pp. 99-101.
  54. ^ Walworth v 1 ch 6, 7, 8
  55. ^ Biography of Woodrow Wilson (PDF), New Jersey State Library.
  56. ^ Shenkman, Richard. p. 275. Presidential Ambition. New York, New York. Harper Collins Publishing, 1999. First Edition. 0-06-018373-X
  57. ^ Arthur S. Link, "Democratic Politics and the Presidential Campaign of 1912 in Tennessee", East Tennessee Historical Society's Publications 1979 51: 114-137
  58. ^ Arthur S. Link, "The Baltimore Convention of 1912", American Historical Review 1945 50(4): 691-713 in JSTOR
  59. ^ Lewis L. Gould, Four Hats in the Ring: The 1912 Election and the Birth of Modern American Politics (2008); Link (1947)
  60. ^ Arthur S. Link, "Woodrow Wilson: The American as Southerner", Journal of Southern History, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Feb., 1970), pp. 3-17 in JSTOR Andrew Johnson was not elected; he moved from vice president to president after Lincoln's death in 1865.
  61. ^ Clements, Presidency ch. 3
  62. ^ a b Rouse, Robert (March 15, 2006). "Happy Anniversary to the first scheduled presidential press conference - 93 years young!". American Chronicle. http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/6883. 
  63. ^ Link (1954) pp 43-53
  64. ^ Clements, Presidency pp 40–44
  65. ^ Keleher, Robert (1997-03). "The Importance of the Federal Reserve". Joint Economic Committee. US House of Representatives. http://www.house.gov/jec/fed/fed/fed-impt.htm. 
  66. ^ Link, Wilson: The New Freedom (1956) pp. 199–240
  67. ^ Clements, Presidency ch 4
  68. ^ H.D. Hindman Child labor: an American history (2002)
  69. ^ K. Austin Kerr, "Decision For Federal Control: Wilson, McAdoo, and the Railroads, 1917", Journal of American History, Vol. 54, No. 3 (Dec., 1967), pp. 550–560 in JSTOR
  70. ^ Ramírez, Carlos D.; Eigen-Zucchi, Christian (2001), "Understanding the Clayton Act of 1914: An Analysis of the Interest Group Hypothesis", Public Choice 106 (1–2): 157–181, doi:10.1023/A:1005201409149 
  71. ^ a b Clements, Presidency ch. 7
  72. ^ John Keegan, The First World War (Hutchinson, London 1998), p. 345.
  73. ^ Blumenthal, Henry (January 1963). "Woodrow Wilson and the Race Question". The Journal of Negro History (Association for the Study of African-American Life and History, Inc.) 48 (1): 1–21. doi:10.2307/2716642. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2716642?seq=1. 
  74. ^ Woodrow Wilson: Speech of Acceptance
  75. ^ The American Presidency Project Wilson quote
  76. ^ William M. Leary, Jr. "Woodrow Wilson, Irish Americans, and the Election of 1916", The Journal of American History, Vol. 54, No. 1. (Jun., 1967), pp. 57–72. in JSTOR
  77. ^ "Primary Documents: U.S. Declaration of Neutrality, August 19, 1914". January 7, 2002.
  78. ^ Edward M. Coffman, The war to end all wars (1968) ch 3
  79. ^ Declaration of war speech (FirstWorldWar.com)
  80. ^ Clements, Presidency ch 7–8
  81. ^ Baker, Ray Stannard, Woodrow Wilson Life and Letters (Garden City, NY, 1937)
  82. ^ [http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/ww18.htm "Woodrow Wilson's War Message"
  83. ^ President Wilson's Fourteen Points
  84. ^ Avrich, Paul, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background, Princeton University Press, 1991
  85. ^ a b c Clements, Presidency ch 8
  86. ^ Records of the Committee on Public Information from the National Archives
  87. ^ Clements, Presidency 103–6
  88. ^ Brown, Isabel Zakrzewski (1999), Culture and Customs of the Dominican Republic, Greenwood Press 
  89. ^ George F. Kennan, Russia Leaves the War, p. 472, et passim. 1956, repr. 1989, ISBN 0-691-00841-8.
  90. ^ Robert J. Maddox, The Unknown War with Russia (San Rafael, CA: Prisidio Press, 1977), 137.
  91. ^ Walworth (1986) 473–83, esp. p. 481; Melvin I. Urofsky, American Zionism from Herzl to the Holocaust, (1995) ch. 6; Frank W. Brecher, Reluctant Ally: United States Foreign Policy toward the Jews from Wilson to Roosevelt. (1991) ch 1–4.
  92. ^ Cooper, Woodrow Wilson 564, 575
  93. ^ Woodrow Wilson bio sketch from NobelFoundation.org
  94. ^ CTV.ca U.S. historians pick top 10 presidential errors
  95. ^ David M. Kennedy, Over Here: The First Wold War and American Society (NY: Oxford University Press, 2004) 249-50
  96. ^ Leonard Williams Levy and Louis Fisher, Encyclopedia of the American Presidency, Simon and Schuster: 1994, p. 494. ISBN 0-13-275983-7
  97. ^ Ann Hagedorn, Savage Peace: Hope and Fear in America, 1919-1920 (NY: Simon & Schuster, 2007), 196-7, 302-7, 312-9, 376-80
  98. ^ David Pietrusza, 1920: The Year of Six Presidents (NY: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2007), 191-2, 198-200, 253
  99. ^ Primary Documents: President Woodrow Wilson's Address in Favor of the League of Nations, September 25, 1919 (FirstWorldWar.com)
  100. ^ Wilson had long-standing arterial hypertension, a condition for which little could be done in the early 1900s. Timeline for Hypertension Treatment History, accessed September 14, 2009. During his presidency, he had repeated episodes of unexplained arm and hand weakness, and his retinal arteries were said to be abnormal on fundoscopic examination.The Health & Medical History of President Woodrow Wilson, accessed 9-11-2009. He developed severe headaches, diplopia (double vision), and evanescent weakness of the left arm and leg. In retrospect, those problems likely represented the effects of cerebral transient ischemic attacks. Weinstein EA, Woodrow Wilson: A Medical & Psychological Biography (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1981), pp. 260–270
  101. ^ This was a cataclysmic "cerebrovascular accident" (stroke) that left him with a dense and permanent paralysis of the left side of his body (hemiplegia), as well as hemianopsia. Park BE, The Impact of Illness of World Leaders (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1986), pp. 3–76
  102. ^ Grayson CT, Woodrow Wilson: An Intimate Memoir (NY: Holt, Rhinehart, & Winston, 1960), pp. 96–110
  103. ^ Hoover H., The Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1958), pp. 271–278
  104. ^ Arthur Walworth, "Considerations on Woodrow Wilson and Edward M. House", Presidential Studies Quarterly 1994 24(1): 79–86. ISSN: 0360-4918
  105. ^ Douglas A. Blackmon, Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II, Anchor Books 2009, pp. 357–58.
  106. ^ Arthur Link, Wilson:The Road to the White House (Princeton University Press, 1947) 502
  107. ^ Dixiecrats Triumphant: The menacing Mr. Wilson Charles Paul Freund (December 18, 2002) Reason Magazine
  108. ^ Foner, Eric. "Expert Report Of Eric Foner". The Compelling Need for Diversity in Higher Education. University of Michigan. http://www.umich.edu/%7eurel/admissions/legal/expert/foner.html. 
  109. ^ Ellis, Mark. "'Closing Ranks' and 'Seeking Honors': W. E. B. Du Bois in World War I" Journal of American History, 1992 79(1): 96–124. ISSN 0021-8723
  110. ^ James J. Cooke, The All-Americans at War: The 82nd Division in the Great War, 1917-1918 (1999)
  111. ^ "President Resents Negro's Criticism". New York Times: pp. 1. November 13, 1914. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9C01E0DC1738E633A25750C1A9679D946596D6CF. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  112. ^ Executive Order 9980, July 26, 1948
  113. ^ Woodrow Wilson, A History of the American People (1931) V:59.
  114. ^ American Rhetoric, "Final Address in Support of the League of Nations", Woodrow Wilson, delivered September 25, 1919 in Pueblo, Colorado. John B. Duff, "German-Americans and the Peace, 1918–1920", American Jewish Historical Quarterly 1970 59(4): 424–459. and Duff, "The Versailles Treaty and the Irish-Americans", Journal of American History, 1968 55(3): 582–598. ISBN 0021-8723
  115. ^ David Henry Burton. Theodore Roosevelt, American Politician, p.146. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8386-3727-2
  116. ^ John Whitcomb, Claire Whitcomb. Real Life at the White House, p.262. Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0-415-93951-8
  117. ^ "Woodrow Wilson House", National Park Service Website, accessed 12 Jan 2009
  118. ^ Ask Yahoo! November 10, 2005
  119. ^ The $100,000 bill Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

References

Secondary sources

.
  • Ambrosius, Lloyd E., "Woodrow Wilson and George W. Bush: Historical Comparisons of Ends and Means in Their Foreign Policies", Diplomatic History, 30 (June 2006), 509–43.
  • Bailey; Thomas A. Wilson and the Peacemakers: Combining Woodrow Wilson and the Lost Peace and Woodrow Wilson and the Great Betrayal (1947)
  • Bennett, David J., He Almost Changed the World: The Life and Times of Thomas Riley Marshall (2007)
  • Brands, H. W. Woodrow Wilson 1913–1921 (2003)
  • Clements, Kendrick, A. Woodrow Wilson : World Statesman (1999)
  • Clements, Kendrick A. The Presidency of Woodrow Wilson (1992)
  • Clements, Kendrick A. "Woodrow Wilson and World War I", Presidential Studies Quarterly 34:1 (2004).^ American history/20th century American history/Gilded Age, Populism, Progressivism Princeton University World War I .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ TLsS to Woodrow, James Wilson, 1901 July30, 1902 June30, 1908 November21, 1918 June 24 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Photographs Oversize: Photograph of Inaugural of President Wilson at Washington, D.C., 1913 March 4 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    pp 62+
  • Cooper, John Milton. .Woodrow Wilson: A Biography (2009)
  • Cranston, Ruth (1945).^ BA Thesis “International Organization as Advocated and Advanced by Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Delano Roosevelt”, 1945 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Address at the Presentation of a portrait-bust of president Woodrow Wilson in Nassau Hall, November 7, 1945” TMs, 5pp, incl.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Biography of Woodrow Wilson .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .The Story of Woodrow Wilson: Twenty-Eighth President of the United States, Pioneer of World Democracy.^ Regarding The True Story of Woodrow Wilson by Lawrence, David, serialized in the Ohio State Journal, Columbus, 1924 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Wilson, Woodrow, U.S. presidency .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Presidents' spouses -- United States -- 20th century.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Simon and Schuster. 
  • Davis, Donald E. and Eugene P. Trani; The First Cold War: The Legacy of Woodrow Wilson in U.S.-Soviet Relations (2002)
  • Freud, Sigmund and Bullitt, William C. Woodrow Wilson: A Psychological Study (1966).
  • Greene, Theodore P. Ed.^ ACS to Wilson, Woodrow, Gibbs McAdoo, William (Mrs.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ TL (copy) by Wilson, Woodrow and Bryan, William Jennings with ANS by Bryan, 1911 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Also included is the Thackwell collection of correspondence between Woodrow family members and especially between Woodrow Wilson and his cousin, Harriet Woodrow, his first love, as well as photographs of both Woodrow and Wilson relatives.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Wilson at Versailles (1957)
  • Hofstadter, Richard.^ Notes from a diary written while in France with Woodrow Wilson, Transcript of Letter to “Dear Johnny” Lamb, Albert Richard, 1957 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ."Woodrow Wilson: The Conservative as Liberal" in The American Political Tradition (1948), ch.^ A founder of the Woodrow Wilson Award, Life member of the American National Red Cross, 1917 September 1 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Sound Filmstrip, "Woodrow Wilson: Idealism and American Democracy," AM 19449 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Swem, Charles L. – Official business for Woodrow Wilson American Commission to Negotiate Peace, 1919 May 29 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .10.
  • Knock, Thomas J. To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order (1995)
  • N. Gordon Levin, Jr., Woodrow Wilson and World Politics: America's Response to War and Revolution (1968)
  • Link, Arthur S. "Woodrow Wilson" in Henry F. Graff ed., The Presidents: A Reference History (2002) pp 365–388
  • Link, Arthur Stanley.^ Review of Wilson Road to the White House by Link, Arthur S., TMs 29 pp.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Series 10: Papers of Others About Woodrow Wilson, 1837-1986 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ TL (copy) by Smith, Albridge C., Jr., to Wilson, Woodrow, 1907 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910–1917 (1972) standard political history of the era
  • Link, Arthur Stanley.^ Shaw to Wilson, Woodrow, 1917 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Link, Arthur Stanley, ed.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ TL (cartoon) fragment by Wilder to Wilson, Woodrow, 1910 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Wilson: The Road to the White House (1947), first volume of standard biography (to 1917); Wilson: The New Freedom (1956); Wilson: The Struggle for Neutrality: 1914–1915 (1960); Wilson: Confusions and Crises: 1915–1916 (1964); Wilson: Campaigns for Progressivism and Peace: 1916–1917 (1965), the last volume of standard biography
  • Link, Arthur S.; Wilson the Diplomatist: A Look at His Major Foreign Policies (1957)
  • Link, Arthur S.; Woodrow Wilson and a Revolutionary World, 1913–1921 (1982)
  • Livermore, Seward W. Woodrow Wilson and the War Congress, 1916–1918 (1966)
  • Malin, James C. The United States after the World War (1930)
  • May, Ernest R. The World War and American Isolation, 1914–1917 (1959)
  • Saunders, Robert M. In Search of Woodrow Wilson: Beliefs and Behavior (1998)
  • Trani, Eugene P. "Woodrow Wilson and the Decision to Intervene in Russia: A Reconsideration". Journal of Modern History (1976).^ Moors to Wilson, Woodrow, and others, 1921 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ State of the Union” to the Congress, 1916 December 5 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ United States Congress on currency and banking, 1913 June 13 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    48:440–61. in JSTOR
  • Walworth, Arthur (1958). Woodrow Wilson, Volume I. Longmans, Green. .http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24215014. 
  • Walworth, Arthur; Wilson and His Peacemakers: American Diplomacy at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919
  • Princeton University (1956).^ American history/20th century American history/Gilded Age, Populism, Progressivism Princeton University World War I .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Peace Conference, Paris, 1919 January 25 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ France, Peace Conference, 1919 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Woodrow Wilson - Catalogue of an Exhibition in the Princeton University Library February 18 through April 15, 1956 Commemorating the Centennial of His Birth.^ Regarding Centennial of Wilson, Woodrow's birth, 1956 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Woodrow Wilson of Princeton proofs.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Wilson, Woodrow, Princeton presidency .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    XVII. The Princeton University Library Chronicle. 

Primary sources

.
  • August Heckscher, ed., The Politics of Woodrow Wilson: Selections from his Speeches and Writings (1956)
  • Link, Arthur S. (editor).^ Review of Wilson Road to the White House by Link, Arthur S., TMs 29 pp.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Woodrow Wilson: A Selected Bibliography.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Writings – unpublished MS. Of book on Wilson, Woodrow, and other writings .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .The Papers of Woodrow Wilson.^ Series 10: Papers of Others About Woodrow Wilson, 1837-1986 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Turnbull, Laura, Curator of the Woodrow Wilson Collection, Woodrow Wilson: A Selected Bibliography of his Writings, Addresses, and Public Papers .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Writings Series includes addresses, articles, and essays by Woodrow Wilson as well as proofs of Ray Stannard Baker and William E. Dodd's The Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson Series.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .http://www.pupress.princeton.edu/catalogs/series/pw.html.
      Complete in 69 volumes at major academic libraries.^ Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library 65 Olden Street Princeton, New Jersey 08540 USA Phone: 609-258-6345 Fax: 609-258-3385 mudd@princeton.edu http://www.princeton.edu/~mudd Published on May 29, 2007.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These materials have been indexed in the Princeton University Library online catalog using the following terms.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Finding Aids Home New Search Help Permanent URL: http://arks.princeton.edu/ark:/88435/st74cq46s .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Annotated edition of all of Wilson's correspondence, speeches and writings.
  • Tumulty, Joseph P. (1921).^ TLS by Tumulty, Joseph, and Measday, Walter, secretary and assistant secretary to Wilson .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bibliography of Wilson, Woodrow writings and addresses by Clemons, Harry; Clemons, George; Drown, Dobbin; Leach, Howard S. including correspondence to Leach .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Patten, Thomas Gedney to Tumulty, Joseph P., 3 pp, 1921 April 11 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Woodrow Wilson as I Know Him. .http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext05/8wwik10.txt. .^ "Wilson, Woodrow"; http://www.anb.org/articles/06/06-00726.html ; American National Biography Online Feb.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Memoir by Wilson's chief of staff.
  • The New Freedom by Woodrow Wilson at Project Gutenberg 1912 campaign speeches
  • Wilson, Woodrow (1917).^ Shaw to Wilson, Woodrow, 1917 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Wilson, Woodrow, presidential campaign, 1912 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Woodrow Wilson in 1900-1912” TMs (carbon) 11pp.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Why We Are at War. .http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext04/whwar10h.htm.  Six war messages to Congress, January – April 1917.
  • Wilson, Woodrow.^ ALsS to Woodrow, Hattie; Wilson, Woodrow, 1881 January 15and 1881 April 22 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Tumulty to Wilson, Woodrow), TLS, 1917 September 17 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ TLS (carbons) by Shaw to Wilson, Woodrow, 1917-1918 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Selected Literary & Political Papers & Addresses of Woodrow Wilson.  3 volumes, 1918 and later editions.
  • Woodrow Wilson, compiled with his approval by Hamilton Foley; Woodrow Wilson's Case for the League of Nations, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1923; contemporary book review.
  • Wilson, Woodrow.^ Wilson, Margaret Woodrow, 1915-1918 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ League of Nations, 1918 March 23 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 1966.
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Messages & Papers of Woodrow Wilson 2 vol (ISBN 1-135-19812-8)
  • Wilson, Woodrow.^ Series 10: Papers of Others About Woodrow Wilson, 1837-1986 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Transcripts of 2 spirit messages to Ingle by Wilson, Woodrow, Ingle, Edith, 1971, 1973 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ TL (copy), message of congratulations by Marshall to Wilson, Woodrow, 1916 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    The New Democracy. .Presidential Messages, Addresses, and Other Papers (1913–1917) 2 vol 1926 (ISBN 0-89875-775-4
  • Wilson, Woodrow.^ Moors to Wilson, Woodrow, and others, 1921 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Shaw to Wilson, Woodrow, 1917 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Wilson, Woodrow, presidential campaign, 1912 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points (1918).

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
William Howard Taft
President of the United States
March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921
Succeeded by
Warren G. Harding
Preceded by
John Franklin Fort
Governor of New Jersey
January 17, 1911– March 1, 1913
Succeeded by
James Fairman Fielder
(Acting)
Party political offices
Preceded by
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic Party presidential candidate
1912, 1916
Succeeded by
James M. Cox
Preceded by
Frank S. Katzenbach
Democratic Nominee for Governor of New Jersey
1910
Succeeded by
James Fairman Fielder
Academic offices
Preceded by
Francis L. Patton
President of Princeton University
1902–1910
Succeeded by
John A. Stewart (Acting)
John Grier Hibben
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Giulio Gatti-Casazza
Cover of Time Magazine
12 November 1923
Succeeded by
Erich Ludendorff

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.
Sometimes people call me an idealist.
^ Sometimes people call me an idealist.
  • Woodrow Wilson quotes, quotations, phrases, words 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: General]
  • Woodrow Wilson Quotations 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.memorablequotations.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Idealist "Sometimes people call me an idealist.
  • Woodrow Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Jump to: navigation , search Sometimes people call me an idealist.
  • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Well, that is the way I know I am an American.^ Well, that is the way I know I am an American .
  • Woodrow Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, that is the way I know I am an American.
  • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson quotes, quotations, phrases, words 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.icelebz.com [Source type: General]

America is the only idealistic nation in the world.
Dr. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (28 December 18563 February 1924) was the 45th state Governor of New Jersey (1911–1913) and later the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). .He was the second Democrat to serve two consecutive terms in the White House, after Andrew Jackson.^ He was the second Democrat to serve two consecutive terms in the White House ( Andrew Jackson was the first).
  • The Ultimate Woodrow Wilson - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson - Haiti 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC haiti.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was the second Democrat to serve two consecutive terms in the White House, after Andrew Jackson .
  • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An ideological rift developed between the two men during their first term, leading Wilson to limit Marshall's influence in the administration, and his brand of humor caused Wilson to move Marshall's office away from the White House.
  • Woodrow Wilson - US President | Juggle.com 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Sourced

.
Power consists in one's capacity to link his will with the purpose of others, to lead by reason and a gift of cooperation.
  • It has never been natural, it has seldom been possible, in this country for learning to seek a place apart and hold aloof from affairs. It is only when society is old, long settled to its ways, confident in habit, and without self-questioning upon any vital point of conduct, that study can affect seclusion and despise the passing interests of the day.^ Make Me Move is a free and easy way to tell others the price you'd be willing to sell your home for, without actually putting it on the market.
    • 7987 Woodrow Wilson Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90046 - Zillow 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zillow.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Cafepress ships products world wide (we live in Australia and have bought numerous items without any problems) and they have a thirty day full refund so it is a safe place to purchase some pretty cool gifts / presents (for yourself or others!
    • Woodrow Wilson American Ideal Liberty Man : Famous Art Science Quotes Poster T-Shirt Gift Shop 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cafepress.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It is seldom possible to pass a measure over his veto, and no President has hesitated to use the veto when his own judgment of the public good was seriously at issue with that of the houses.
    • Constitutional Government Chapter 3 by Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC teachingamericanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The object of education is not merely to draw out the powers of the individual mind: it is rather its right object to draw all minds to a proper adjustment to the physical and social world in which they are to have their life and their development: to enlighten, strengthen and make fit.
    • "Princeton In The Nation's Service" (21 October 1896)
  • Nothing is easier than to falsify the past.^ "Princeton in the Nation’s Service," delivered at Princeton’s Sesquicentennial, 1896 October 21 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Princeton In The Nation's Service" (21 October 1896) The object of education is not merely to draw out the powers of the individual mind: it is rather its right object to draw all minds to a proper adjustment to the physical and social world in which they are to have their life and their development: to enlighten, strengthen and make fit.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Princeton In The Nation's Service" (21 October 1896) Nothing is easier than to falsify the past.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    Lifeless instruction will do it. .If you rob it of vitality, stiffen it with pedantry, sophisticate it with argument, chill it with unsympathetic comment, you render it as dead as any academic exercise.
    The safest way in all ordinary seasons is to let it speak for itself: resort to its records, listen to its poets and to its masters in the humbler art of prose.^ If you rob it of vitality, stiffen it with pedantry, sophisticate it with argument, chill it with unsympathetic comment, you render it as dead as any academic exercise.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Let the historical record speak for itself.
    • Woodrow Wilson News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The safest way in all ordinary seasons is to let it speak for itself: resort to its records, listen to its poets and to its masters in the humbler art of prose.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Your real and proper object, after all, is not to expound, but to realize it, consort with it, and make your spirit kin with it, so that you may never shake the sense of obligation off.^ Your real and proper object, after all, is not to expound, but to realize it, consort with it, and make your spirit kin with it, so that you may never shake the sense of obligation off.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Make Me Move is a free and easy way to tell others the price you'd be willing to sell your home for, without actually putting it on the market.
    • 7987 Woodrow Wilson Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90046 - Zillow 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zillow.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sometimes you really set me off with your quixotic and meaningless views.
    • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    .In short, I believe that the catholic study of the world's literature as a record of spirit is the right preparation for leadership in the world's affairs, if you undertake it like a man and not like a pedant.^ In short, I believe that the catholic study of the world's literature as a record of spirit is the right preparation for leadership in the world's affairs, if you undertake it like a man and not like a pedant.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Maybe you're right, like the black albinos in The Omega Man.
    • Woodrow Wilson's Legacy - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our leader during World War I. A nice summary of our President during World War I. Wilson was the son of a preacher, and believed of his ability to make the right decisions.
    • Amazon.com: Woodrow Wilson (9780805069556): H. W. Brands, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • "Princeton In The Nation's Service" (21 October 1896)
  • The white men were roused by a mere instinct of self-preservation … until at last there had sprung into existence a great Ku Klux Klan, a veritable empire of the South, to protect the Southern country.^ Ku Klux Klan quote .
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Princeton in the Nation’s Service," delivered at Princeton’s Sesquicentennial, 1896 October 21 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ South were aroused by the mere instinct of self-preservation [...
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • A History of the American People (1901), describing the Klan as a brotherhood of politically disenfranchised white men.^ A History of the American People (1901), describing the Klan as a brotherhood of politically disenfranchised white men.
      • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People explained the Ku Klux Klan of the late 1860s as the natural outgrowth of Reconstruction , a lawless reaction to a lawless period.
      • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]
      • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Woodrow Wilson’s History of the American People explained the Ku Klux Klan of the late 1860s as the natural outgrowth of Reconstruction, a lawless reaction to a lawless period.
      • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Quoted in The Birth of a Nation
  • Since trade ignores national boundaries and the manufacturer insists on having the world as a market, the flag of his nation must follow him, and the doors of the nations which are closed must be battered down … Concessions obtained by financiers must be safeguarded by ministers of state, even if the sovereignty of unwilling nations be outraged in the process.^ Wilson's early views on international affairs and trade were stated in his Columbia University lectures of April 1907 where he said: "Since trade ignores national boundaries and the manufacturer insists on having the world as a market, the flag of his nation must follow him, and the doors of the nations which are closed must be battered down…Concessions obtained by financiers must be safeguarded by ministers of state, even if the sovereignty of unwilling nations be outraged in the process.
    • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Quoted in The Birth of a Nation Since trade ignores national boundaries and the manufacturer insists on having the world as a market, the flag of his nation must follow him, and the doors of the nations which are closed must be battered down … Concessions obtained by financiers must be safeguarded by ministers of state, even if the sovereignty of unwilling nations be outraged in the process.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Since trade ignores national boundaries and the manufacturer insists on having the world as a market, the flag of his nation must follow him, and the doors of the nations which are closed against him must be battered down.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Colonies must be obtained or planted, in order that no useful corner of the world may be overlooked or left unused.^ Colonies must be obtained or planted, in order that no useful corner of the world may be overlooked or left unused."
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Colonies must be obtained or planted, in order that no useful corner of the world may be overlooked or left unused"(28).
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Colonies must be obtained or planted, in order that no useful corner of the world may be overlooked or left unused".
    • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Lecture, Columbia University (15 April 1907)
  • Most men are individuals no longer so far as their business, its activities, or its moralities are concerned. They are not units but fractions; with their individuality and independence of choice in matters of business they have lost all their individual choice within the field of morals.^ They are not units but fractions; with their individuality and independence of choice in matters of business they have lost all their individual choice within the field of morals.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In a series of lectures at Columbia University in April of 1907, he was even more forthright: .
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Most men are not untrue, but they are afraid.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Annual address, American Bar Association, Chattanooga (31 August 1910)
.
If my convictions have any validity, opinion ultimately governs the world.
  • Liberty is its own reward.
    • Speech in New York City (9 September 1912)
  • Liberty has never come from the government.^ Liberty never came from government.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Liberty has always come from the subjects of the government.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Speech in New York City (9 September 1912) Liberty has never come from the government.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Liberty has always come from the subjects of the government.^ Liberty has always come from the subjects of the government.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Liberty has never come from Government.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Liberty has always come from the subjects of government.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The history of liberty is a history of resistance.^ The history of liberty is a history of resistance.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Woodrow Wilson Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The history of liberty is the history of resistance.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The history of liberty is a history of the limitation of governmental power, not the increase of it.^ The history of liberty is a history of the limitation of governmental power, not the increase of it.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The history of liberty is a history of limitations of governmental power, not the increase of it.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Woodrow Wilson Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Speech at New York Press Club (9 September 1912), in The papers of Woodrow Wilson, 25:124
  • Mr. House is my second personality. He is my independent self. .His thoughts and mine are one.^ His thoughts and mine are one.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .If I were in his place I would do just as he suggested.^ If I were in his place I would do just as he suggested.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • As quoted in The Intimate Papers of Colonel House, vol.^ The Intimate Papers of Colonel House.
      • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ The papers of Wilson's confidant, Edward Mandell House, The Intimate Papers of Colonel House, arranged by Charles Seymour (4 vols., 1926-1928), provide intimate glimpses of Wilson.
      • Woodrow Wilson Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Woodrow Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Charles Seymour, ed., The Intimate Papers of Colonel House , 4 vols.
      • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

      .I
      (Houghton Mifflin) by Charles Seymour, p.^ I (Houghton Mifflin) by Charles Seymour , p.
      • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      114-115. Also referenced here. .(1912)
  • Power consists in one's capacity to link his will with the purpose of others, to lead by reason and a gift of cooperation.
  • I am going to teach the South American republics to elect good men.^ Power consists in one's capacity to link his will with the purpose of others, to lead by reason and a gift of cooperation.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He once remarked, "I am going to teach the South American Republics to elect good men!"
    • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From a letter to Mary A. Hulbert (21 September 1913) I am going to teach the South American republics to elect good men.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Statement to British envoy William Tyrrell (November 1913), explaining his policy on Mexico
  • The United States must be neutral in fact as well as in name...We must be impartial in thought as well as in action.^ Statement to British envoy William Tyrrell (November 1913), explaining his policy on Mexico The United States must be neutral in fact as well as in name...We must be impartial in thought as well as in action.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ President of the United States, 1913-1921 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "The United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name impartial in thought, as well as action."
    • Call Me Unaccountable: Woodrow Wilson and George Bush - by Paul Craig Roberts 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Message to the Senate (19 August 1914)
  • Segregation is not humiliating but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you gentlemen.^ When a delegation of blacks protested his discriminatory actions, Wilson told them that "segregation is not a humiliation but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you gentlemen."
    • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Message to the Senate (19 August 1914) Segregation is not humiliating but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you gentlemen.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When a delegation of blacks protested the discriminatory actions, Wilson told them that "[S]egregation is not a humiliation but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you gentlemen."
    • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Conference with members of the National Association for Equal Rights (November 1914), defending the resegregation of federal offices
  • You deal in the raw material of opinion, and, if my convictions have any validity, opinion ultimately governs the world.
    • Address to the Associated Press (20 April 1915)
  • No nation is fit to sit in judgment upon any other nation.
    • Speech in New York City (20 April 1915)
  • There is such thing as a man being too proud to fight.^ Associated Press Luncheon, New York, 1915 April 20 .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Speech in New York City (9 September 1912) Liberty has never come from the government.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Free Press, 1982.
    • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

    • Address to Foreign-Born Citizens (10 May 1915)
.
The flag is the embodiment, not of sentiment, but of history...
  • We are constantly thinking of the great war … which which we think to-day as a war which saved the Union, and it did indeed save the Union, but it was a war that did a great deal more than that.^ More than 180 days .
    • 7875 WOODROW WILSON Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90046 | MLS# F1828528 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.redfin.com [Source type: General]
    • 8010 WOODROW WILSON Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90046 | MLS# 09-411799 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.redfin.com [Source type: General]

    ^ More than 45 days .
    • 7875 WOODROW WILSON Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90046 | MLS# F1828528 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.redfin.com [Source type: General]
    • 8010 WOODROW WILSON Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90046 | MLS# 09-411799 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.redfin.com [Source type: General]

    ^ More than 60 days .
    • 7875 WOODROW WILSON Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90046 | MLS# F1828528 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.redfin.com [Source type: General]
    • 8010 WOODROW WILSON Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90046 | MLS# 09-411799 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.redfin.com [Source type: General]

    .It created in this country what had never existed before — a national consciousness.^ It created in this country what had never existed before — a national consciousness.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If he rightly interpret the national thought and boldly insist upon it, he is irresistible; and the country never feels the zest of action so much as when he is of such insight and calibre.
    • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If he rightly interpret the national thought and boldly insist upon it, he is irresistible; and the country never feels the zest of action so much as when its President is of such insight and calibre.
    • Constitutional Government Chapter 3 by Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC teachingamericanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

    It was not the salvation of the Union, it was the rebirth of the Union. .
    • Memorial Day Address (31 May 1915)
  • The flag is the embodiment, not of sentiment, but of history. It represents the experiences made by men and women, the experiences of those who do and live under that flag.^ This is a red-letter day and history will be made.

    ^ To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured.
    • Why is the Woodrow Wilson Memorial Bridge Named after Woodrow Wilson? -Ask the Rambler - Highway History - FHWA 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fhwa.dot.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In his first inaugural address, Wilson declared that the U.S. government "has too often been made use of for private and selfish purposes, and those who used it had forgotten the people."
    • Call Me Unaccountable: Woodrow Wilson and George Bush - by Paul Craig Roberts 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Address (14 June 1915)
  • We have stood apart, studiously neutral.^ Address (14 June 1915) We have stood apart, studiously neutral.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Message to Congress (7 December 1915)
  • America cannot be an ostrich with its head in the sand.^ Message to Congress (7 December 1915) America cannot be an ostrich with its head in the sand.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ By June 9, 1915, it was clear to Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan that Wilson was heading America to war.
    • Call Me Unaccountable: Woodrow Wilson and George Bush - by Paul Craig Roberts 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Speech at Des Moines (1 February 1916)
  • I have long enjoyed the friendship and companionship of Republicans, because I am by instinct a teacher and I would like to teach them something.^ Speeches made during a trip through the mid-west, 1916 January-February .
    • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Wilsons remedy was to reorganize the campus on the basis of residential quadrangles, which would function something like the system of residential houses at Harvard.

    • Speech to the World's Salesmanship Congress (10 July 1916)
The supreme test of the nation has come. .We must all speak, act, and serve together!
  • The question upon which the whole future peace and policy of the world depends is this: Is the present war a struggle for a just and secure peace, or only for a new balance of power? If it be only a struggle for a new balance of power, who will guarantee, who can guarantee, the stable equilibrium of the new arrangement?^ If it be only a struggle for a new balance of power, who will guarantee, who can guarantee the stable equilibrium of the new arrangement?

    ^ If it be only a struggle for a new balance of power, who will guarantee, who can guarantee, the stable equilibrium of the new arrangement?
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We must all speak, act, and serve together!
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Only a tranquil Europe can be a stable Europe.^ Only a tranquil Europe can be a stable Europe.

    ^ As Wilson put it: The world can be at peace only if it is stable and there can be no stability where the will is in rebellion, where there is not tranquility of the spirit and a sense of justice.

    .There must be, not a balance of power, but a community of power; not organized rivalries, but an organized common peace.
    • Address to the Senate (22 January 1917)
  • It must be a peace without victory... Victory would mean peace forced upon the loser, a victor's terms imposed upon the vanquished.^ On January 22, 1917, in an address to the Senate, he appealed for a peace without victory.

    ^ There must be, not a balance of power but a community of power; not organized rivalries but an organized, common peace.

    ^ "There must be, not a balance of power, but a community of power; not organized rivalries, but an organized common peace."
    • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It would be accepted in humiliation, under duress, at an intolerable sacrifice, and would leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest, not permanently, but only as upon quicksand.^ It would be accepted in humiliation, under duress, at an intolerable sacrifice, and would leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest, not permanently but only as upon quicksand.

    ^ It would be accepted in humiliation, under duress, at an intolerable sacrifice, and would leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest, not permanently, but only as upon quicksand.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Woodrow Wilson Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And to reject the League now would not only diminish their sacrifice but tarnish their memory.

    .Only a peace between equals can last.^ Only a peace between equals can last.

    ^ Only a peace between equals can last, only a peace the very principle of which is equality and a common participation in a common benefit.
    • Woodrow Wilson Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Only a peace the very principle of which is equality and a common participation in a common benefit.

    .
    • Address to the Senate (22 January 1917)
  • A little group of willful men, representing no opinion but their own, have rendered the great Government of the United States helpless and contemptible.^ Address to the Senate (22 January 1917) A little group of willful men, representing no opinion but their own, have rendered the great Government of the United States helpless and contemptible.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The United States at War, 1917 – 1918 .
    • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Address to the Senate (22 January 1917) It must be a peace without victory...
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Statement (4 March 1917) on the successful filibuster by anti-war Senators against a bill to arm merchant ships
  • The supreme test of the nation has come.^ Statement (4 March 1917) on the successful filibuster by anti-war Senators against a bill to arm merchant ships The supreme test of the nation has come.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is a war against all nations.

    ^ However, with increased pressure, the United States entered the conflict with a formal declaration of war against Germany on April 6 , 1917 .
    • Woodrow Wilson - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Woodrow Wilson? What is Woodrow Wilson? Where is Woodrow Wilson? Definition of Woodrow Wilson. Meaning of Woodrow Wilson. 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .We must all speak, act, and serve together!^ We must all speak, act, and serve together!
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is the greatest question of all, and to this statesmen must address themselves with an earnest determination to serve the long future and the true liberties of men.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Sometimes people call me an idealist.^ Jump to: navigation , search Sometimes people call me an idealist.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Proclamation to the American People (15 April 1917) Sometimes people call me an idealist.
    • Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "To expose a 15 Trillion dollar ripoff of the American people by the stockholders of the 1000 largest corporations over the last 100 years will be a tall order of business."
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Well, that is the way I know I am an American.^ Well, that is the way I know I am an American.
    • Woodrow Wilson Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    .America is the only idealistic nation in the world.
    • Address at Sioux Falls (8 September 1919)
  • Is there any man here...^ America is the only idealistic nation in the world.
    • Woodrow Wilson Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For, I tell you, my fellow citizens, I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it."
    • Blame Wilson - by Scott Horton 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He held only a few afterward — one in September 1916, a few in late 1916 and early 1917, and the final one on 10 July 1919.
    • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    who does not know that the seed of war in the modern world is industrial and commercial rivalry? ... This war, in its inception, was a commercial and industrial war. It was not a political war.
    • St. Louis (11 September 1919)
  • I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it.
  • The highest and best form of efficiency is the spontaneous cooperation of a free people. .
    • From Bernard Baruch's American Industry at War: A Report of the War Industries Board (March 1921)
  • Of course, like every other man of intelligence and education I do believe in organic evolution.^ Industrial and military mobilization toward war production went rapidly, guided by such executives as Bernard Baruch and future president Herbert Hoover (1929-1933).

    ^ He charged Bernard Baruch with running the War Industries Board , which would endeavor to control all industry in service to the state.
    • Woodrow Wilson: America’s Worst and First Fascist President « Conservative Colloquium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC conservativecolloquium.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Others argue Wilson felt he had been tricked by Dixon and in public statements claimed he did not like the film; Wilson blocked its showing during the war.
    • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It surprises me that at this late date such questions should be raised.
    • Letter to Winterton C. Curtis (29 August 1922)
  • The great malady of public life is cowardice.^ Wilson's great personal achievement was passage of the Naval Appropriations Act, signed by him on 29 August 1916.
    • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    Most men are not untrue, but they are afraid. .Most of the errors of public life, if my observation is to be trusted, come not because men are morally bad, but because they are afraid of somebody.^ He achieved little of that because he was not a strong fund raiser, but he did increase the faculty from 112 to 174 men, most of them personally selected as outstanding teachers.
    • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
    • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Soviets invaded Poland because they wanted a piece of Poland–and chunks of most of their other neighbors–but they did not want a world war.
    • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some of the biggest men in the United States, in the field of commerce and manufacture, are afraid of somebody, are afraid of something.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .God knows why they should be: it is generally shadows they are afraid of.
    • As quoted in American Chronicle (1945) by Ray Stannard Baker, quoted on unnumbered page opposite p.^ Ray Stannard Baker (Wilson’s biographer) .
      • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Why, Wilson asked, "should they pray to God to bless me?

      ^ Ray Stannard Baker, an ex-muckraker who had reported to Wilson about British public opinion, continued to be a close adviser.

      .1.
  • If I am to speak ten minutes, I need a week for preparation; if fifteen minutes, three days; if half an hour, two days; if an hour, I am ready now.
    • As quoted in The Wilson Era; Years of War and After, 1917–1923 (1946) by Josephus Daniels, p.^ After forty-six ballots, they picked a relatively unknown candidate: the New Jersey governor with but two years of political experience, Thomas Woodrow Wilson.

      ^ As a long-term objective, Wilson sought three million for a graduate school and two and a half million for schools of jurisprudence and electrical engineering , as well as a museum of natural history.
      • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Wilson implemented the 8 hour work day, the FTC, and stiffened anti-trust laws....
      • Amazon.com: Woodrow Wilson (9780805069556): H. W. Brands, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

      624. Referenced in "Bartleby.com"

The New Freedom (1913)

The New Freedom : A Call For the Emancipation of the Generous Energies of a People (Full text online)
.
  • I have not written a book since the campaign.^ Wilson himself in his Preface to the collection of genuine material indicates "I have not written a book since the campaign.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I did not write this book at all.^ I did not write this book at all.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Wilson most likely did not make the statement, "It is like writing history with lightning, my only regret is that it is all so terribly true."

    It is the result of the editorial literary skill of Mr. William Bayard Hale, who has put together here in their right sequences the more suggestive portions of my campaign speeches.
    And yet it is not a book of campaign speeches. It is a discussion of a number of very vital subjects in the free form of extemporaneously spoken words. I have left the sentences in the form in which they were stenographically reported. .I have not tried to alter the easy-going and often colloquial phraseology in which they were uttered from the platform, in the hope that they would seem the more fresh and spontaneous because of their very lack of pruning and recasting.^ He then tried to frighten the opposition with predictions that the next world war would make World War I seem like "child's play" and concluded: "The issue is final.

    ^ The Allies, instead, would not have felt as bold as they did in 1918 and would have tried to seek an armistice.
    • Woodrow Wilson's Legacy - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many students derive benefit from the review NOT because they "get" the material that much better, but because they feel more prepared for the test.

    .
    • Preface
  • In most parts of our country men work, not for themselves, not as partners in the old way in which they used to work, but generally as employees,—in a higher or lower grade,—of great corporations.^ All the peoples of the world are in effect partners in this interest, and for our own part we see very clearly that unless justice be done to others it will not be done to us.

    ^ Our statesmen of the earlier generations quoted no one so often as Montesquieu, and they quoted him always as a scientific standard in the field of politics.
    • Constitutional Government Chapter 3 by Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC teachingamericanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And, working with the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, the project team used inert debris from the old bridge to create new fish reefs in the Chesapeake Bay.
    • Woodrow Wilson Bridge (I-495 and I-95) 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.roadstothefuture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .There was a time when corporations played a very minor part in our business affairs, but now they play the chief part, and most men are the servants of corporations.
  • Since I entered politics, I have chiefly had men's views confided to me privately.^ Since I entered politics, I have chiefly had men's views confided to me privately.
    • Woodrow Wilson Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In this same work, Wilson also wrote the below: Since I entered politics, I have chiefly had men's views confided to me privately.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They are, in his view, not necessarily political officers at all.
    • Constitutional Government Chapter 3 by Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC teachingamericanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Some of the biggest men in the United States, in the field of commerce and manufacture, are afraid of somebody, are afraid of something.^ Some of the biggest men in the United States, in the field of commerce and manufacture, are afraid of somebody, are afraid of something.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the next 18 months the United States built an army of 4 million men by conscription, sent 2 million men overseas to France, and united the entire population behind the war effort.
    • World War One Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If there are men in this country big enough to own the government of the United States, they are going to own it.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .They know that there is a power somewhere so organized, so subtle, so watchful, so interlocked, so complete, so pervasive, that they had better not speak above their breath when they speak in condemnation of it.

    They know that America is not a place of which it can be said, as it used to be, that a man may choose his own calling and pursue it just as far as his abilities enable him to pursue it; because to-day, if he enters certain fields, there are organizations which will use means against him that will prevent his building up a business which they do not want to have built up; organizations that will see to it that the ground is cut from under him and the markets shut against him.^ They know that there is a power somewhere so organized, so subtle, so watchful, so interlocked, so complete, so pervasive, that they had better not speak above their breath when they speak in condemnation of it.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ She well knows that by once enlisting under other banners than her own, were they even the banners of foreign independence, she would involve herself beyond the power of extrication, in all the wars of interest and intrigue, of individual avarice, envy, and ambition, which assume the colors and usurp the standard of freedom.
    • Blame Wilson - by Scott Horton 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "There is an organized propaganda against the League of Nations and against the treaty proceeding from exactly the same sources that the organized propaganda proceeded from which threatened this country here and there with disloyalty, and I want to say--I cannot say too often--any man who carries a hyphen about with him carries a dagger that he is ready to plunge into the vitals of this Republic whenever he gets ready."
    • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For if he begins to sell to certain retail dealers, to any retail dealers, the monopoly will refuse to sell to those dealers, and those dealers, afraid, will not buy the new man's wares.
  • Because the laws of this country do not prevent the strong from crushing the weak.
  • No country can afford to have its prosperity originated by a small controlling class. The treasury of America lies in those ambitions, those energies, that cannot be restricted to a special favored class.^ They feared that those areas of Nicaragua favorable to the building of a new canal across the isthmus might fall into the hands of some European power.

    ^ Posted by Beat them more @ 2:38 PM Tue, Jan 12, 2010 @ Give Woodrow - keep those cookies coming specially with this new development.

    ^ No bloated Pentagon to gut the treasury and torpedo the social welfare state in this country.
    • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    It depends upon the inventions of unknown men, upon the originations of unknown men, upon the ambitions of unknown men. .Every country is renewed out of the ranks of the unknown, not out of the ranks of those already famous and powerful and in control.^ In this famous speech, he outlined his vision of the university in a democratic nation, calling on institutions of higher learning "to illuminate duty by every lesson that can be drawn out of the past".
    • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In this famous speech, he outlined his vision of the university in a democratic nation, calling on institutions of higher learning "to illuminate duty by every lesson that can be drawn out of the past."
    • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Section I : The Old Order Changeth
  • All that progressives ask or desire is permission — in an era when "development," "evolution," is the scientific word — to interpret the Constitution according to the Darwinian principle; all they ask is recognition of the fact that a nation is a living thing and not a machine.^ Living political constitutions must be Darwinian in structure and in practice.
    • Constitutional Government Chapter 3 by Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC teachingamericanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Worst of all, they make me agree with liberals on a few things.
    • Woodrow Wilson's Legacy - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, take it away from them, and all the great fortunes like mine will disappear and they ought to disappear, for this would be a happier and better world to live in.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Section II : What Is Progress?
  • A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit.^ A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "A great industrial nation is controlled by it's system of credit.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Max424 Says: December 11th, 2009 at 12:22 pm “A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit.
    • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Our system of credit is privately concentrated.
    The growth of the nation, therefore, and all our activities are in the hands of a few men who, even if their action be honest and intended for the public interest, are necessarily concentrated upon the great undertakings in which their own money is involved and who necessarily, by very reason of their own limitations, chill and check and destroy genuine economic freedom.^ The growth of the nation, therefore, and all our activities are in the hands of a few men.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The growth of the Nation, therefore, and all our activities are in the hands of a few men...
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .This is the greatest question of all, and to this statesmen must address themselves with an earnest determination to serve the long future and the true liberties of men.^ It seems to be all over the internet so it must be true...
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Joining hands with them, the men of America gave the greatest of all gifts - the gift of life and the gift of spirit.
    • Woodrow Wilson Quotes :: Quoteland :: Quotations by Author 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.quoteland.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Section VIII : Monopoly, Or Opportunity?; Note that this remark has been used as the basis for a fake quotation discussed below.
  • Let me say again that I am not impugning the motives of the men in Wall Street.^ Posted by DISD Retired Admin @ 12:22 PM Sat, Jan 09, 2010 Let's use reason over emotion, so then let's discuss the specifics.

    ^ Maryland notes that the PLA contains in Article VIII, Section 3, short time limits to resolve procedures and Article VII, Section 3( b) places limits on the authority of the arbitrator.
    • Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project Labor Agreement (PLA) Decision 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fhwa.dot.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    They may think that that is the best way to create prosperity for the country. .When you have got the market in your hand, does honesty oblige you to turn the palm upside down and empty it?^ And when a man or woman does something for humanity I say go to him and shake him by the hand and say 'I'm for you.'"
    • The Ultimate Woodrow Wilson - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Woodrow Wilson - Haiti 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC haiti.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ BTW, I don't know you or your daughter, but the way I read the comment is that your girl turned out to be a success.

    .If you have got the market in your hand and believe that you understand the interest of the country better than anybody else, is it patriotic to let it go?^ Why don’t you go back to ranting ad nauseam about something I don’t care about again, like your favorite Scandinavian countries.
    • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So which of you ladies is going to call Roger Staubach and suggest that he cancel the event because you are going to lose your parking spot or you don't like the principal?

    ^ Just because you have no desire to go to war doesn’t mean you don’t hedge your bets, and not to have a plan just in case was just plain idiotic.
    • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    I can imagine them using this argument to themselves.
    .The dominating danger in this land is not the existence of great individual combinations, — that is dangerous enough in all conscience, — but the combination of the combinations, — of the railways, the manufacturing enterprises, the great mining projects, the great enterprises for the development of the natural water-powers of the country, threaded together in the personnel of a series of boards of directors into a "community of interest" more formidable than any conceivable single combination that dare appear in the open.^ She well knows that by once enlisting under other banners than her own, were they even the banners of foreign independence, she would involve herself beyond the power of extrication, in all the wars of interest and intrigue, of individual avarice, envy, and ambition, which assume the colors and usurp the standard of freedom.
    • Blame Wilson - by Scott Horton 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And Medicaid and Medicare did more damage to the country than 10 Vietnams would have.
    • Woodrow Wilson's Legacy - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See Bosworth’s Italy, Least of the Great Powers for more detail.
    • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Section VIII Monopoly, Or Opportunity?
  • We are at the parting of the ways. .We have, not one or two or three, but many, established and formidable monopolies in the United States.^ Historians have suspected that he suffered perhaps as many as three strokes--two minor and one more serious--during the 1890s.
    • World War One Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Wilson’s father was one of the founders of the Southern Presbyterian Church in the United States (PCUS) after it split from the northern Presbyterians in 1861.
    • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Federal Reserve Act was the most important legislation of the Wilson era and one of the most important pieces of legislation in the history of the United States.
    • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .We have, not one or two, but many, fields of endeavor into which it is difficult, if not impossible, for the independent man to enter.^ Historians have suspected that he suffered perhaps as many as three strokes--two minor and one more serious--during the 1890s.
    • World War One Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

    We have restricted credit, we have restricted opportunity, we have controlled development, and we have come to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated, governments in the civilized world — no longer a government by free opinion, no longer a government by conviction and the vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and the duress of small groups of dominant men.
    • Section IX Benevolence, Or Justice?

Address to Congress on War (1917)

Address asking for a declaration of war (2 April 1917)
.
  • Armed neutrality is ineffectual enough at best.
  • The world must be made safe for democracy.^ The world, he declared, "must be made safe for democracy."

    ^ He proclaimed that "the world must be made safe for democracy."
    • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The world must be made safe for democracy."
    • World War One Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty.
  • It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance.^ This, as all school children presumably know, caused the German Government to turn on the printing presses, leading to terrible hyperinflation and the complete destruction of the German economy.
    • Blame Wilson - by Scott Horton 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC antiwar.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I hope that some of their finer passions are in my own heart — some of the great conceptions and desires which gave birth to this Government and which have made the voice of this people a voice of peace and hope and liberty among the peoples of the world, and that, in speaking my own thoughts, I shall, at least in part, speak theirs also.
    • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His statement announcing a "war to end all wars" meant that he wanted to build a basis for peace that would prevent future catastrophic wars and needless death and destruction.
    • Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Woodrow Wilson" 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC pelagos.fasterlight.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
    • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

    .But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts — for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free.^ They were more than peace terms; they were terms for a better world.
    • World War One Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If she stands for one thing more than another it is for the sovereignty of self-governing people.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Liberty has always come from the subjects of government.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured.^ Democratic political bosses saw him as a candidate who might transcend the party's divisions, collaborating with them but also attracting support from those favoring progressive reforms.
    • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He says that this is a war "for the things which we have always carried nearest to our hearts - for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own government."

    ^ It leaves even those of us who have no axe to grind against Vail (never met her, never seen her, don't even know anyone who knows her!

    God helping her, she can do no other.

The Fourteen Points Speech (1918)

The Fourteen Points Speech (8 January 1918)
  • All the peoples of the world are in effect partners in this interest, and for our own part we see very clearly that unless justice be done to others it will not be done to us.
  • 1. Open covenants of peace must be arrived at.
  • 2. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war.
  • 5. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims.
  • 14. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.

Unsourced

  • "To make a person as unlike his father as possible."
- Wilson on his opinion of Universities
  • "No man has ever risen to the real stature of spiritual manhood until he has found that it is finer to serve somebody else than it is to serve himself."

Misattributed

.
  • It is like writing history with lightning.^ Wilson most likely did not make the statement, "It is like writing history with lightning, my only regret is that it is all so terribly true."

    ^ There is debate about whether Wilson made the statement, "It is like writing history with lightning; my only regret is that it is all so terribly true.", or whether it was invented by a film publicist.
    • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .And my only regret is that it is all so terribly true.^ Wilson most likely did not make the statement, "It is like writing history with lightning, my only regret is that it is all so terribly true."

    ^ Wilson is widely alleged to have praised the notoriously racist movie Birth of a Nation (based on a book by his former classmate Thomas Dixon ), saying: "It is like writing history with lightning, and my only regret is that it is all so true."
    • Woodrow Wilson - Haiti 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC haiti.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is debate about whether Wilson made the statement, "It is like writing history with lightning; my only regret is that it is all so terribly true.", or whether it was invented by a film publicist.
    • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Attributed by playwright Thomas Dixon after White House screening of The Birth of a Nation, which was based on Dixon's The Clansman.^ Thomas Dixon, author of the novel The Clansman upon which the film is based, was one of Wilson's graduate school classmates at Johns Hopkins in 1883-1884.

      ^ Thomas Dixon , author of the novel The Clansman upon which the film is based, was one of Wilson's graduate school classmates at Johns Hopkins in 1883-1884.
      • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Wilson is widely alleged to have praised the notoriously racist movie Birth of a Nation (based on a book by his former classmate Thomas Dixon ), saying: "It is like writing history with lightning, and my only regret is that it is all so true."
      • Woodrow Wilson - Haiti 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC haiti.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

      .Wilson later said that he disapproved of the "unfortunate film."^ In fact, Wilson felt he had been tricked by Dixon and publicly said he did not like the film; Wilson blocked its showing during the war.

      The President was entirely unaware of the nature of the play before it was presented and at no time has expressed his approbation of it.
      • Wilson aide Joseph Tumulty, in a letter to the Boston branch of the NAACP
      .
  • I am a most unhappy man.^ However, "I am a most unhappy man.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "I am a most unhappy man.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The quote "I am a most unhappy man.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I have unwittingly ruined my country.^ I have unwittingly ruined my country"?
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I have unwittingly ruined my country."
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The second includes "I have unwittingly ruined my country" in front.
    • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit.… We have come to be one of the worst ruled … Governments in the civilized world.…
    • Attributed in Aaron Russo (2006), America: Freedom to Fascism and elsewhere as an expression of regret for creating the Federal Reserve.^ Willis was one of the drafters of the Federal Reserve System.
      • Bibliography — Woodrow Wilson (1856 - 1924) - Miller Center of Public Affairs 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC millercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ The Federal Reserve Act created a banking system under governmental control.
      • Woodrow Wilson Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Woodrow Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Below is what one can actually derive from connecting together two passages from The New Freedom : A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit.
      • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .The quotation is fabricated from remarks Wilson made on separate occasions and two leading sentences that have no clear source.^ Quotation – No man can serve two masters … facsimile (original at St. Paul’s School, Concord, New Hampshire) .
      • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

      ^ They had made no clear analysis of the matter in their own thoughts; it has not been the habit of English politicians, or indeed of Englishspeaking politicians on either side of the water, to be clear theorists.
      • Constitutional Government Chapter 3 by Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC teachingamericanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ No president in American history has used these media with such remarkable power and success as Wilson did.
      • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

      .
      • I have ruined my country.^ I have unwittingly ruined my country"?
        • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

        ^ I have unwittingly ruined my country."
        • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

        ^ I have unwittingly ruined my country.
        • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

        .
        • No known source from Wilson, but possibly a misattribution of remarks by Sidney Sonnino at the Paris Peace Conference (1919), criticizing Wilson's treaty framework as unfair to Italy.^ Peace Conference, Paris, 1919 January 25 .
          • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

          ^ France, Peace Conference, 1919 .
          • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

          ^ Peace Conference, 1918–1919 .
          • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

          .See Margaret Macmillan (2002), Paris 1919.
      • A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit.…
        • "Monopoly, Or Opportunity?"^ A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit.
          • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

          ^ "A great industrial nation is controlled by it's system of credit.
          • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

          ^ Max424 Says: December 11th, 2009 at 12:22 pm “A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit.
          • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

          .(1912), criticizing the credit situation before the Federal Reserve was created.
      • We have come to be one of the worst ruled… Governments….^ "As soon as Mr. Roosevelt took office, the Federal Reserve began to buy government securities at the rate of ten million dollars a week for 10 weeks, and created one hundred million dollars in new [checkbook] currency, which alleviated the critical famine of money and credit, and the factories started hiring people again."
        • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

        ^ We have come to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated, governments in the civilized world—no longer a government by free opinion, no longer a government by conviction and the vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and the duress of small groups of dominant men.
        • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Nevertheless, McAdoo and Carter Glass, a congressman from Virginia, engineered the passage of a bill creating the Federal Reserve System in 1914.

        • "Benevolence, Or Justice?" .(1912)
    • The quotation has been analyzed in Andrew Leonard (2007-12-21), "The Unhappiness of Woodrow Wilson" Salon:
      • I can tell you categorically that this is not a statement of regret for having created the Federal Reserve.^ Woodrow Wilson, after signing the Federal Reserve into existence .
        • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

        ^ Wilson, Woodrow, presidential campaign, 1912 .
        • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

        ^ Wilson most likely did not make the statement, "It is like writing history with lightning, my only regret is that it is all so terribly true."

        Wilson never had any regrets for having done that. .It was an accomplishment in which he took great pride.^ His ambassador to Great Britain, Walter Hines Page, took pride in his Southern ancestors, admired the British upper classes, and assumed that their cause favored democracy.

        • John M. Cooper, professor of history and author of several books on Wilson, as quoted by Andrew Leonard
The following quotes are from 'Woodrow Wilson, The New Freedom, A Call for the Emancipation of the Generous Energies of a People'.  This is a collection of extracts from Woodrow Wilson's 1912 campaign addresses edited by William Bayard Hale, originally published in 1913.  Mr. Hale included about a quarter of Wilson's 1912 speeches, but also added material from other Wilson addresses. .William Bayard Hale was authorized to follow and recorded Wilson's speeches during his 1912 campaign.^ The New Freedom (1913) 1912 campaign speeches Wilson, Woodrow.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilson, Woodrow, presidential campaign, 1912 .
  • Woodrow Wilson Collection, 1837-1986 (bulk 1883-1924): Preliminary Finding Aid 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC diglib.princeton.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the result of the editorial literary skill of Mr. William Bayard Hale, who has put together here in their right sequences the more suggestive portions of my campaign speeches."
  • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.The quote "A great industrial nation is now controlled by its system of credit."^ "A great industrial nation is controlled by it's system of credit.
  • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit.
  • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Max424 Says: December 11th, 2009 at 12:22 pm “A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit.
  • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

is from Chapter 8, Monopoly, or Opportunity, pp. .111-112. The quote "We are no longer a government by free opinion...."^ "In a free government founded on public opinion," he wrote, the "great principles" of governance had to be "worked out cautiously, step by step."

^ We have come to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated, governments in the civilized world—no longer a government by free opinion, no longer a government by conviction and the vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and the duress of small groups of dominant men.
  • Talk:Woodrow Wilson - Wikiquote 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After experiencing the vigorous presidencies from William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt , Wilson no longer entertained thoughts of parliamentary government at home.
  • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

is from Chapter 9, Benevolence, or Justice p. .122. You should be able to find a copy of The New Freedom in your public library or a university library.  The Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library uses a 1961 copy with an introduction and notes by William E. Leuchtenburg, published by Prentice-Hall.^ I'm sure you can find it in a Woodrow directory.

^ What was Woodrow Wilson's first public office?
  • Woodrow Wilson Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Woodrow Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The New Freedom (1913) 1912 campaign speeches Wilson, Woodrow.
  • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Quotes about Wilson

.
  • Wilson's principles survived the eclipse of the Versailles system and that they still guide European politics today: self-determination, democratic government, collective security, international law, and a league of nations. Wilson may not have gotten everything he wanted at Versailles, and his treaty was never ratified by the Senate, but his vision and his diplomacy, for better or worse, set the tone for the twentieth century.^ Wilson applied the principle of national self-determination with caution against the defeated enemy.
    • Woodrow Wilson - a knol by Admin 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Wilson's principles survived the eclipse of the Versailles system and that they still guide European politics today: self-determination, democratic government, collective security, international law, and a league of nations.
    • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Wilson may not have gotten everything he wanted at Versailles, and his treaty was never ratified by the Senate, but his vision and his diplomacy, for better or worse, set 7 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia the tone for the twentieth century.
    • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .France, Germany, Italy, and Britain may have sneered at Wilson, but every one of these powers today conducts its European policy along Wilsonian lines.^ Wilson may have bungled the execution of his peace policy, but at least he had one.
    • Matthew Yglesias » The Strange Case of Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC yglesias.thinkprogress.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ France, Germany, Italy, and Britain may have sneered at Wilson, but every one of these powers today conducts its European policy along Wilsonian lines.
    • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
    • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nothing ever went right for poor little Wilson, which is leaving this world for good today after antagonizing nearly every single one of the billions and billions of drivers who crossed during its 45 traffic-choked years.
    • Woodrow Wilson Bridge (I-495 and I-95) 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.roadstothefuture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .What was once dismissed as visionary is now accepted as fundamental.^ What was once dismissed as visionary is now accepted as fundamental.
    • Woodrow_Wilson 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Woodrow Wilson - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
    • Woodrow Wilson (1856)/Biography - Familypedia 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This was no mean achievement, and no European statesman of the twentieth century has had as lasting, as benign, or as widespread an influence.
  • "I do not know how to avoid the conclusion that a man who is capable of taking the illusions of religion so literally and is so sure of a special personal intimacy with the Almighty is unfitted for relations with ordinary children of men." (about Wilson's phrase: “Remember that God ordained that I should be the next president of the United States. Neither you nor any other mortal or mortals could have prevented this.”)

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.WOODROW WILSON (1856-), American educationist, was born in Staunton, Virginia, on the 28th of December 1856. He graduated at Princeton in 1879, studied law at the University of Virginia in 1879-1880, practised law in Atlanta in 1882-1883, and received the degree of Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins University in 1886, his thesis being on Congressional Government (1885; and often reprinted).^ Born: December 28, 1856, in Staunton, Virginia .
  • US Presidents - Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.bearsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thomas Woodrow Wilsonborn on 28 December 1856 at Staunton, Va.graduated from Princeton Uni versity in 1879 before attending University of Virginia Law School.

^ School(s) attended: Princeton University, University of Virginia Law School, Johns Hopkins University Wife: Ellen Wilson, first wife.

.He was associate professor of history and political economy at Bryn Mawr in1885-1888and at Wesleyan University in 1888-1890; professor of jurisprudence and political economy at Princeton in 1890-1895, of jurisprudence in 1895-1897, and subsequently of jurisprudence and politics; and in 1902 he became president of Princeton University, being the first layman to hold that office.^ Throughout his years as a professor of history, politics, and constitutional law at Bryn Mawr College (1885 – 1888), Wesleyan University (1888 – 1890), and Princeton University (1890 – 1910; president, 1902 – 1910), Wilson paid close attention to developments in American politics.
  • Wilson, Woodrow – FREE Wilson, Woodrow information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Wilson, Woodrow research 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1902 he was unanimously elected as president of Princeton.
  • CQ Press: Book: Woodrow Wilson , Kendrick A. Clements , Eric A. Cheezum 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cqpress.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1890, he was appointed a professor at Princeton, a position he held until 1902.

.He retired in 1910, and was elected Democratic governor of New Jersey.^ After his resignation in 1910, he was elected governor of New Jersey as a Democrat, serving in 1911 and 1912.
  • New Georgia Encyclopedia: Woodrow Wilson in Georgia 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.georgiaencyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then in 1911, Wilson was elected as the Governor of New Jersey.
  • Woodrow Wilson Biography - Twenty-Eighth President of the United States 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC americanhistory.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He successfully ran for governor of New Jersey.
  • Thomas W. Wilson - Woodrow Wilson - Ohio History Central - A product of the Ohio Historical Society 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ohiohistorycentral.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His administration of the University was marked by the introduction of the "preceptorial" system, by the provision of dormitories and college eating-halls for members of the lower classes, and by the development of the graduate school.^ His administration of the University was marked by the introduction of the "preceptorial" system, by the provision of dormitories and college eating-halls for members of the lower classes, and by the development of the graduate school.
  • Woodrow Wilson - LoveToKnow 1911 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Illness forced him to drop out of college at one point, but he fought back to graduate 38th in his class from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University).
  • SPECTRUM Biographies - Woodrow Wilson 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.incwell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite several bouts of ill-health he graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1879, earned a law degree from the University of Virgina Law School, and a PhD from John Hopkins University in 1886.
  • Woodrow Wilson@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 2:10 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Woodrow Wilson@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

He wrote: The State: Elements of Historical and Practical Politics, Sketch of Institutional History and Administration (1889); The State and Federal Government of the United States (1891); Division and Reunion, 1829-1889 (1893) in the "Epochs of American History" series; An Old Master and Other Political Essays (1893); Mere Literature and Other Essays (1893); George Washington (1896), an excellent biography; the popular History of the American People (1902); Constitutional Government in the United States (1908), being Columbia University Lectures; and in the seventh volume of the Cambridge Modern History the chapter on "State Rights, 1850-1860."


Simple English

Thomas Woodrow Wilson

28th President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1913 – March 3, 1921
Vice President Thomas R. Marshall
Preceded by William Howard Taft
Succeeded by Warren G. Harding

Born December 28, 1856
Staunton, Virginia
Died February 3, 1924
Washington, D.C.
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Spouse Ellen Axson Wilson
Edith Galt Wilson

Dr. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was born in Virginia and grew up in Georgia.[1][2] He was the president of the United States of America between 1913 and 1921.[2] In 1917, after the USA had been neutral, they got involved with the First World War. Because of Wilson, the League of Nations was founded.[3] Therefore, he received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1919.[1] Between 1890 and 1902, Wilson worked as professor for law at the Princeton University.[4][5]

He was one of the initiators of the League of Nations, which was something he liked a lot.[6]

Life

Woodrow Wilson, son of Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Janet "Jessie" Woodrow Wilson, was born in Staunton, Virginia, United States. Wilson's father was a Presbyterian Minister. Wilson had one brother and two sisters.[6] He studied from 1875 to 1879 at the University of Princeton in New Jersey. Between 1879 and 1883, Wilson studied law at the University of Virginia.[5] In 1885, he did a doctorate at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. His dissertation was about the "Congressional Government". In the same year, Wilson got married with Ellen Louise Axson.[5]

Wilson started to teach political science at the Princeton University in 1886.[2][7] He became the director of the Princeton University in 1902. Wilson kept in this position until 1910. Wilson's goal was to change the pedagogical system, the social system and the style of the campus.[1]

Political career

He was elected to be the Governor of New Jersey for the Democratic Party in 1911.[4] On 4 November 1912, Wilson became the 28th President of the United States.[5] He won with 42% against the incumbent president William Howard Taft. His time being president started in March 1913.

In 1914, his wife Ellen died of Bright's Disease.[8] His doctor, Cary Grayson introduced him to a girl named Edith Galt, whose husband was also dead. After 2 months they fell in love and got married. For a long time he focused on her instead of his job as President. But soon, he got back to work.

In 1917, Wilson entered the country in World War One. World War One was a war against the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire) and the Allied Powers (England, France, and Italy). America was on the Allies side. The Allies won the war a year later.

Wilson took a ship to Europe to talk with the leaders of the other Allies about what to do with Germany. They came up with the Treaty of Versailles. A part of the Treaty of Versailles said that there will be a group of countries called the League of Nations. A lot of people in America did not like the League of Nations because they thought that it was none of America's business to mess with other countries problems.

Wilson's political enemy, Senator Henry Lodge, from Massachusetts made a different version of the Treaty of Versailles. Even though Wilson was very sick, he traveled around the country asking people to like the Treaty and the League. Wilson ended up having a stroke. it was the first time he had one. It was very bad and Wilson was not able to run the country as best he could. His thinking also was not great because of the stroke. But, he stayed President and told Congress not to vote for Henry Lodge's new treaty. Congress listened but also said no to Wilson's treaty.

Wilson received criticism for many of his decisions. Theodore Roosevelt criticized him for entering the war too late. Overall, for his leadership during World War I, and for his plans for peace after the war, historians consider him a great president.

References

English Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
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