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Burj Khalifa, tallest man-made structure ever built, at 828 m (2,717 ft)

The world's tallest structure is the 828 m (2,717 ft) tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The building gained the official title of "Tallest Building in the World" at its opening on 4 January 2010. It is taller than any other man-made structure ever built.

The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, one organization that certifies buildings as the "World’s Tallest", recognizes a building only if at least fifty percent of its height is made up of floor plates containing habitable floor area.[1] Structures that do not meet this criterion, such as the CN Tower, are defined as "towers".

There are dozens of radio and television broadcasting towers which measure over 600 metres (about 2,000 ft) in height, and only the tallest are recorded in publicly available information sources.

Contents

Debate over definitions

When assessing the placings of structures, there is some debate about:

  • whether structures under construction should be included in the list
  • should a building or structure have to be officially opened before it is included on the list.
  • whether structures rising out of water should have their below-water height included.
  • what should be counted as a building or a tower, and what is being measured.
  • for towers, whether guy-wire-supported structures should be counted.

For buildings, there is debate over:

  • whether only habitable height is considered
  • whether communication towers with observation galleries should be considered "habitable" in this sense
  • whether rooftop antennas, viewing platforms or any other architecture that does not form floors, walls and rooms, ie not built as an occupiable room, should be considered towards height of building
  • what would stop a room built on top of a telecommunications or viewing tower from changing the tower's class to that of "building"
  • why a building that is not officially opened should be excluded from the ranks of tallest buildings
  • what counts as an official opening

Tallest structures

KVLY-TV mast, the height record holder from 1963–1974 and 1991–2008.
The CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, was the world's tallest freestanding structure on land from 1975 until Burj Khalifa surpassed it in 2007.

This category does not require the structure be "officially" opened.

The tallest man-made structure is Burj Khalifa, a skyscraper in Dubai that reached 828 m (2,717 ft) in height on 17 January 2009.[2] By 7 April 2008 it had been built higher than the KVLY-TV mast in North Dakota, USA.[3] That September it officially surpassed Poland's 646.38 m (2,120.7 ft) Warsaw radio mast, which stood from 1974 to 1991, to become the tallest structure ever built. Guyed lattice towers such as these masts had held the world height record since 1954.

The CN Tower in Toronto, Canada, standing at 553.3 m (1,815 ft), was formerly the world's tallest completed freestanding structure on land. Opened in 1976, it was surpassed in height by the rising Burj Khalifa on 12 September 2007.[4][5][6] It has the world's second highest public observation deck at 446.5 m (1,465 ft).

The Petronius Platform stands 610 m (2,000 ft) off the sea floor leading some, including Guinness World Records 2007, to claim it as the tallest freestanding structure in the world. However, it is debated whether underwater height should be discounted in the same manner as height below ground is ignored on buildings. The Troll A platform is 472 m (1,549 ft), without any part of that height being supported by wires. The tension-leg type of oil platform has even greater below-water heights with several examples more than 1,000 m (3,300 ft) deep. However, these platforms are not considered constant structures as the vast majority of their height is made up of the length of the tendons attaching the floating platforms to the sea floor. Despite this, Guinness World Records 2009 listed the Ursa tension leg platform as the tallest structure in the world with a total height of 1,306 m (4,285 ft). The Magnolia Tension-leg Platform in the Gulf of Mexico is even taller with a total height of 1,432 m (4,698 ft).

Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, was the world's tallest inhabited building in only one of the four main categories that are commonly measured: at 509.2 m (1,671 ft) as measured to its architectural height (spire). The height of its roof, 449.2 m (1,474 ft), and highest occupied floor, 439.2 m (1,441 ft), had been overtaken by the Shanghai World Financial Center with corresponding heights of 487 m (1,598 ft) and 474 m (1,555 ft) respectively. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) was highest in the final category: the greatest height to top of antenna of any building in the world at 527.3 m (1,730 ft).

Burj Khalifa broke the height record in all four categories for completed buildings by a wide margin. The Shanghai World Financial Center had the world's highest roof, highest occupied floor, and the world's highest public observation deck at 474.2 m (1,556 ft). It retains the latter record, as Burj Khalifa's official observation deck will be at 442 m (1,450 ft).

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Tallest structure by category

Due to the disagreements over how to measure height and classify structures, engineers have created various definitions for categories of buildings and other structures. One measure includes the absolute height of a building, another includes only spires and other permanent architectural features, but not antennas. The tradition of including the spire on top of a building and not including the antenna dates back to the rivalry between the Chrysler Building and 40 Wall Street. A modern-day example is that the antenna on top of Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) is not considered part of its architectural height, while the spires on top of the Petronas Twin Towers are counted.

Note: The following table is a list of the tallest structure in each of the categories below.There can only be one structure in each category, unless the title for the tallest is a draw.


Category Structure Country City Height (metres) Height (feet) Year Built Coordinates
Skyscraper - all categories Burj Khalifa United Arab Emirates Dubai 828 2,717 2009 25°11′50.0″N 55°16′26.6″E / 25.19722°N 55.274056°E / 25.19722; 55.274056 (Burj Dubai)
Guyed Mast KVLY-TV mast United States Blanchard, North Dakota 628.8 2,063 1963 47°20′31.85″N 97°17′21.13″W / 47.3421806°N 97.2892028°W / 47.3421806; -97.2892028 (KVLY-TV mast)
Concrete tower (Topped out) Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Tower China Guangzhou 610 2,001 2009 23°06′32.55″N 113°19′9.29″E / 23.1090417°N 113.3192472°E / 23.1090417; 113.3192472 (Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Tower)
Concrete tower CN Tower Canada Toronto 553.3 1,815 1976 43°38′33.22″N 79°23′13.41″W / 43.6425611°N 79.3870583°W / 43.6425611; -79.3870583 (CN Tower)
Tower for scientific research BREN Tower United States Nevada Test Site 462 1,516 1962 36°46′50.23″N 116°14′36.9″W / 36.7806194°N 116.243583°W / 36.7806194; -116.243583 (BREN-Tower)
Mast radiator Lualualei VLF transmitter United States Lualualei 458 1,503 1962 21°25′11.87″N 158°08′53.67″W / 21.4199639°N 158.1482417°W / 21.4199639; -158.1482417 (VLF transmitter Lualualei, Mast 1) ; 21°25′13.38″N 158°09′14.35″W / 21.4203833°N 158.1539861°W / 21.4203833; -158.1539861 (VLF transmitter Lualualei, Mast 2)
Twin towers Petronas Twin Towers Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 452 1,482 1998 3°09′27.45″N 101°42′40.7″E / 3.157625°N 101.711306°E / 3.157625; 101.711306 (Petronas Tower 1); 3°09′29.45″N 101°42′43.4″E / 3.1581806°N 101.712056°E / 3.1581806; 101.712056 (Petronas Tower 2)
Chimney GRES-2 Power Station Kazakhstan Ekibastusz 419.7 1,377 1987 52°1′26.3″N 75°28′34.5″E / 52.023972°N 75.47625°E / 52.023972; 75.47625 (GRES-2 Power Station)
Radar Dimona Radar Facility Israel Dimona 400 1,312 2008  ?
Guyed tubular steel mast Belmont transmitting station United Kingdom Donington on Bain 387.7 1,272 1965 53°20′9.07″N 0°10′19.11″W / 53.3358528°N 0.171975°W / 53.3358528; -0.171975 (Belmont TV Mast)
Lattice tower Kiev TV Tower Ukraine Kiev 385 1,263 1973 50°28′16.49″N 30°27′11.97″E / 50.4712472°N 30.453325°E / 50.4712472; 30.453325 (Kiev TV Tower)
Partially guyed tower Gerbrandy Tower Netherlands IJsselstein 366.8 1,203 1961 52°00′36.24″N 05°03′12.87″E / 52.0100667°N 5.053575°E / 52.0100667; 5.053575 (Gerbrandy Tower)
Electricity pylon Yangtze River Crossing, Jiangyin China Jiangyin 346.5 1,137 2004 31°57′4.77″N 120°02′53.94″E / 31.951325°N 120.0483167°E / 31.951325; 120.0483167 (Yangtze River Crossing, Jiangyin, Tower South) ; 31°58′17.71″N 120°03′12.4″E / 31.9715861°N 120.053444°E / 31.9715861; 120.053444 (Yangtze River Crossing, Jiangyin, Tower North)
Bridge pillar Millau Viaduct France Millau 342 1,122 2004 44°4′58.94″N 3°1′19.25″E / 44.0830389°N 3.0220139°E / 44.0830389; 3.0220139 (Viaduc de Millau)
Dam Nurek Dam Tajikistan Nurek 300 984[7] 1980 38°22′17.09″N 69°20′53.57″E / 38.3714139°N 69.3482139°E / 38.3714139; 69.3482139 (Nurek Dam)
Concrete dam Grande Dixence Dam Switzerland Val d'Hérens 285 935[8] 1965 46°4′49.89″N 7°24′13.13″E / 46.080525°N 7.4036472°E / 46.080525; 7.4036472 (Grande Dixence Dam)
Electricity pylon built of concrete Nanjing Yangtze River Crossing China Nanjing 257 843 1992 31°57′46.52″N 118°36′58.5″E / 31.9629222°N 118.61625°E / 31.9629222; 118.61625 (Nanjing Yangtze River Crossing, Tower North); 31°57′11.41″N 118°38′4.96″E / 31.9531694°N 118.6347111°E / 31.9531694; 118.6347111 (Nanjing Yangtze River Crossing, Tower South)
Clock tower NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building Japan Tokyo 240 790 2000 35°41′3.7″N 139°42′11.7″E / 35.684361°N 139.70325°E / 35.684361; 139.70325 (NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building)
Electricity pylon for DC Wuhan Yangtze River Crossing China Wuhan 229 751 2003 31°30′37.01″N 118°21′11.1″E / 31.5102806°N 118.353083°E / 31.5102806; 118.353083 (Wuhan Yangtze River Crossing, Tower West); 31°30′2.47″N 118°22′11.3″E / 31.5006861°N 118.369806°E / 31.5006861; 118.369806 (Wuhan Yangtze River Crossing, Tower East)
Minaret Hassan II Mosque Morocco Casablanca 210 689 1993 33°36′28.71″N 7°37′58.16″W / 33.607975°N 7.6328222°W / 33.607975; -7.6328222 (Hassan II Mosque)
Wind turbine Fuhrländer Wind Turbine Laasow Germany Laasow, Brandenburg 205 673 2006 51°43′16″N 14°6′22″E / 51.72111°N 14.10611°E / 51.72111; 14.10611 (Laasow Fuhrländer Wind Turbine)
Cooling tower Niederaussem Power Station Germany Niederaussem 200 656 2003 50°59′45.91″N 6°40′16.79″E / 50.9960861°N 6.6713306°E / 50.9960861; 6.6713306 (Niederaussem Power Station Cooling Tower)
Monument Gateway Arch United States St. Louis, Missouri 192 630 1965 38°37′28.62″N 90°11′5.87″W / 38.6246167°N 90.1849639°W / 38.6246167; -90.1849639 (Gateway Arch)
Masonry tower Anaconda Smelter Stack United States Anaconda, Montana 178.3 585 1919 46°06′36.53″N 112°54′48.8″W / 46.1101472°N 112.913556°W / 46.1101472; -112.913556 (Anaconda Smelter Stack)
Inclined structure,
Stadium
Olympic Stadium Canada Montreal 175 574 1976 45°33′33.53″N 73°33′7.61″W / 45.5593139°N 73.5521139°W / 45.5593139; -73.5521139 (Montreal Olympic Stadium)
Obelisk San Jacinto Monument United States Deer Park, Texas 173.7 570 1939 29°44′59.46″N 95°04′50.52″W / 29.74985°N 95.0807°W / 29.74985; -95.0807 (San Jacinto Monument)
Church building Chicago Temple Building United States Chicago 173 568 1924 41°52′58.81″N 87°37′50.25″W / 41.8830028°N 87.630625°W / 41.8830028; -87.630625 (Chicago Temple Building)
Masonry building Mole Antonelliana Italy Torino 167 548 1889 45°04′8.45″N 7°41′35.62″E / 45.0690139°N 7.6932278°E / 45.0690139; 7.6932278 (Mole Antonelliana)
Masonry building Philadelphia City Hall United States Philadelphia 167 548 1901 39°57′9.79″N 75°09′48.72″W / 39.9527194°N 75.1635333°W / 39.9527194; -75.1635333 (Philadelphia City Hall)
Ferris wheel Singapore Flyer Singapore Singapore 165 541.3 2008 1°17′22.27″N 103°51′47.6″E / 1.2895194°N 103.863222°E / 1.2895194; 103.863222 (Singapore Flyer)
Church tower Ulm Minster Germany Ulm 162 530 1890 48°23′55″N 9°59′30.78″E / 48.39861°N 9.9918833°E / 48.39861; 9.9918833 (Ulm Minster)
Industrial hall Vehicle Assembly Building United States Kennedy Space Center 160 525 1966 28°35′9.64″N 80°39′2.11″W / 28.5860111°N 80.6505861°W / 28.5860111; -80.6505861 (Vehicle Assembly Building)
Memorial cross Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos Spain El Escorial 152.4 500 1957 40°38′31.46″N 4°9′19.6″W / 40.6420722°N 4.155444°W / 40.6420722; -4.155444 (Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos)
Roller coaster Kingda Ka United States Jackson, New Jersey 138.98 456 2005 40°08′26.54″N 74°25′59.83″W / 40.1407056°N 74.4332861°W / 40.1407056; -74.4332861 (Kingda Ka)
Tomb Great Pyramid of Giza Egypt Giza, Cairo 138.8 455.2 2560 BCE 29°58′44.93″N 31°08′3.09″E / 29.9791472°N 31.1341917°E / 29.9791472; 31.1341917 (Great Pyramid of Giza)
Dome St Peter's Basilica dome Vatican City Vatican City, Rome 136.57 448.06 1626 41°54′8.36″N 12°27′11.89″E / 41.9023222°N 12.4533028°E / 41.9023222; 12.4533028 (St Peter's Basilica dome)
Air traffic control tower Suvarnabhumi Airport control tower Thailand Bangkok 132.2 433.7 2006 13°41′47.05″N 100°44′58.8″E / 13.6964028°N 100.749667°E / 13.6964028; 100.749667 (Suvarnabhumi Airport control tower)
Flagpole, free-standing Ashgabat Flagpole Turkmenistan Ashgabat 133 436.4[9] 2008  ?
Statue (including pedestal) Ushiku Daibutsu Bronze Buddha Statue Japan Ushiku 120 394 1995 35°58′57.93″N 140°13′13.1″E / 35.9827583°N 140.220306°E / 35.9827583; 140.220306 (Ushiku Daibutsu)
Storage silo Henninger Turm Germany Frankfurt 120 394 1961 50°05′50.18″N 8°41′36.81″E / 50.0972722°N 8.6935583°E / 50.0972722; 8.6935583 (Henninger Turm)
Sculpture Spire of Dublin Ireland Dublin 120 393 2003 53°20′59.28″N 6°15′36.93″E / 53.3498°N 6.2602583°E / 53.3498; 6.2602583 (Spire of Dublin)
Wooden structure Gliwice Radio Tower Poland Gliwice 118 387 1935 50°18′48.12″N 18°41′20.26″E / 50.3133667°N 18.6889611°E / 50.3133667; 18.6889611 (Gliwice Radio Tower)
Aerial tramway support tower Pillar of third section of Gletscherbahn Kaprun Austria Kaprun 113.6 373 1966 47°11′58.62″N 12°41′16.96″E / 47.1996167°N 12.6880444°E / 47.1996167; 12.6880444 (Glacial Aerial Tramway Kaprun III Support Pillar)
Electricity pylon for single phase AC Bremen-Industriehafen Traction Current Powerline Crossing Germany Bremen 111 364  ? 53°07′38.17″N 8°39′56.2″E / 53.1272694°N 8.665611°E / 53.1272694; 8.665611 (Bremen-Industriehafen Traction Current Powerline Crossing, Tower North) ; 53°07′22.09″N 8°40′9.13″E / 53.1228028°N 8.6692028°E / 53.1228028; 8.6692028 (Bremen-Industriehafen Traction Current Powerline Crossing, Tower South)
Lighthouse Yokohama Marine Tower Japan Yokohama 106 348 1961 35°26′38.18″N 139°39′3.28″E / 35.4439389°N 139.6509111°E / 35.4439389; 139.6509111 (Yokohama Marine Tower)
Sphere Ericsson Globe Sweden Stockholm 85 279 1989 59°17′36.92″N 18°04′58.79″E / 59.2935889°N 18.0829972°E / 59.2935889; 18.0829972 (Yokohama Marine Tower)
Statue (not including pedestal) The Mamayev Monument Russia Volgograd 82 269 1967 48°44′32.49″N 44°32′13.48″E / 48.7423583°N 44.5370778°E / 48.7423583; 44.5370778 (The Mamayev Monument)
Brick lighthouse Torre della Lanterna Italy Genoa 77 253 1128 44°24′16.25″N 8°54′16.67″E / 44.4045139°N 8.9046306°E / 44.4045139; 8.9046306 (Torre della Lanterna)
Brick minaret Qutub Minar India Delhi 72.5 237.8 1386 28°31′27.93″N 77°11′7.37″E / 28.524425°N 77.1853806°E / 28.524425; 77.1853806 (Qutub Minar)
Electricity pylon, prefabricated concrete Pylon 310 of powerline Innertkirchen-Littau-Mettlen Switzerland Littau 59.5 195.2 1990 47°03′33.18″N 8°15′13.92″E / 47.0592167°N 8.2538667°E / 47.0592167; 8.2538667 (Pylon 310 of powerline Innertkirchen-Littau-Mettlen)

Tallest destroyed structures by category, not surpassed by existing structures

There are some destroyed architectural structures which were taller than the tallest existing structure of their type.

Category Structure Country City Height (metres) Height (feet) Coordinates Remarks
Guyed mast Warsaw Radio Mast Poland Gąbin 646.38 2,121 52°22′3.91″N 19°48′7.04″E / 52.3677528°N 19.8019556°E / 52.3677528; 19.8019556 (Konstantynow Radio Mast (destroyed)) completed in 1974, collapsed on 8 August 1991
Guyed tubular steel mast Shushi-Wan Omega Transmitter Japan Tsushima 389 1,276 34°36′53″N 129°27′13″E / 34.61472°N 129.45361°E / 34.61472; 129.45361 (Shushi-Wan Omega Transmitter (dismantled)) completed in 1973, dismantled in 1998
Structure for destructive scientific experiment Smoky Shot Tower United States Nevada Test Site 213 700 Guyed mast, which carried 44 kt yield nuclear bomb "Smoky" ( part of operation Plumbbob) on top until its explosion on August 31, 1957
Wooden structure Mühlacker Wood Radio Tower Germany Mühlacker 190 623 48°56′27.67″N 8°51′8.24″E / 48.9410194°N 8.8522889°E / 48.9410194; 8.8522889 (Mühlacker Wood Radio Tower (replaced by guyed mast)) completed in 1934, destroyed on April 6, 1945, by the Germans to prevent usage by the Allies, replaced by mast radiator
Masonry building Mole Antonelliana Italy Torino 167.5 549.5 45°04′8.45″N 7°41′35.62″E / 45.0690139°N 7.6932278°E / 45.0690139; 7.6932278 (Mole Antonelliana) spire destroyed by a tornado in 1953 (Rebuilt since then).
Pre-Industrial Era building Lincoln Cathedral England Lincoln 160 524 53°14′3.26″N 0°32′10.54″W / 53.2342389°N 0.5362611°W / 53.2342389; -0.5362611 (Lincoln Cathedral) completed in 1311, spire blown off in 1549
Lighthouse Lighthouse of Alexandria Egypt Alexandria 115-135 377-443 31°12′51″N 29°53′06″E / 31.21417°N 29.885°E / 31.21417; 29.885 (Lighthouse of Alexandria) completed in 279 BC, destroyed by an earthquake in 1323

Tallest building by function

Category Structure Country City Architectural top (metres) Architectural top (feet)
Mixed-Use* Burj Khalifa United Arab Emirates Dubai 828 2,717
Office Taipei 101 Taiwan Taipei 509 1,671
Hotel Rose Tower United Arab Emirates Dubai 333 1,093
Residential Q1 Australia Gold Coast 323 1,059
Educational Moscow State University Russia Moscow 240 787
Hospital Guy's Hospital United Kingdom London 143 468
Library Shanghai Library China Shanghai 106 348

* Mixed-Use is defined as having three or more real estate uses (such as retail, office, hotel, etc.) that are physically and functionally integrated in a single property and are mutually supporting.[10]

Tallest buildings

Up until 1998 the tallest building status was essentially uncontested. Counting buildings as structures with floors throughout, and with antenna masts excluded, Willis Tower (previously Sears Tower) in Chicago was considered the tallest. When the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were built, controversy arose because the spire extended nine metres higher than the roof of Willis Tower. Excluding the spire, the Petronas Towers are not taller than Willis Tower. At their convention in Chicago, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) reduced Willis Tower from world's tallest and pronounced it not second tallest, but third, and pronounced Petronas as world's tallest. This action caused a considerable amount of controversy, so CTBUH defined four categories in which the world's tallest building can be measured:[11]

  1. Height to Architectural Top (including spires and pinnacles, but not antennas, masts or flagpoles). This measurement is the most widely utilized and is used to define the rankings of the 100 Tallest Buildings in the World.
  2. Highest Occupied Floor
  3. Height to Top of Roof (omitted from criteria from November 2009 onwards)[12]
  4. Height to Tip

The height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance. At the time, the Willis Tower held first place in the second and third categories, the Petronas Towers held the first category and the original World Trade Towers held the fourth. Within months, however, a new antenna mast was placed on the Willis Tower, giving it hold of the fourth category. On April 20, 2004, Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, was completed. Its completion gave it the world record for the first three categories. On July 21, 2007 it was announced that Burj Khalifa had surpassed Taipei 101 in height, reaching 512 m (1,680 ft).

Since completed in early 2010, Burj Khalifa leads in all categories (the first building to do so). With a spire height of 828 m (2,717 ft), Burj Khalifa surpassed Taipei 101 as the tallest building to architectural detail and the Willis Tower as the tallest building to tip. It also leads in the category of highest occupied floor.

Before Burj Khalifa was completed, Willis Tower led in the fourth category with 527 m (1,729 ft), previously held by the World Trade Center until the extension of the Chicago tower's western broadcast antenna in 2000, over a year prior to the World Trade Center's destruction in 2001. Its antenna mast included, One World Trade Center measured 526 m (1,726 ft). The World Trade Center became the world's tallest buildings to be destroyed or demolished; indeed, its site entered the record books twice on September 11, 2001, in that category, replacing the Singer Building, which once stood a block from the WTC site.[citation needed]

Structures such as the CN Tower, the Ostankino Tower and the Oriental Pearl Tower are excluded from these categories because they are not "habitable buildings", which are defined as frame structures made with floors and walls throughout.[1]

History of record holders in each CTBUH category

Date (Event) Architectural top Highest occupied floor Roof Tip
2010: Burj Khalifa completed Burj Khalifa Burj Khalifa Burj Khalifa
2009: CTBUH omits Height to Roof category Taipei 101 Shanghai World Financial Center Willis Tower
2008: Shanghai World Financial Center completed Taipei 101 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai World Financial Center Willis Tower
2003: Taipei 101 completed Taipei 101 Taipei 101 Taipei 101 Willis Tower
2000: Willis Tower antenna extension Petronas Towers Willis Tower Willis Tower Willis Tower
1998: Petronas Towers completed Petronas Towers Willis Tower Willis Tower World Trade Center
1996: CTBUH defines categories Willis Tower Willis Tower Willis Tower World Trade Center

World's tallest freestanding structure on land

Freestanding structures include observation towers, monuments and other structures not generally considered to be "Habitable buildings", but excludes supported structures such as guyed masts and ocean drilling platforms. (See also history of tallest skyscrapers.)

The world's tallest freestanding structure on land is defined as the tallest self-supporting man-made structure that stands above ground. This definition is different from that of world's tallest building or world's tallest structure based on the percent of the structure that is occupied and whether or not it is self-supporting or supported by exterior cables. Likewise, this definition does not count structures that are built underground or on the seabed, such as the Petronius Platform in the Gulf of Mexico. Visit world's tallest structure by category for a list of various other definitions.

As of 12 May 2008, the tallest freestanding structure on land is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The building, which now stands at 828 m (2,717 ft), surpassed the height of the previous record holder, the 553.3 m (1,815 ft) CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, on September 12, 2007. It was completed in 2010, and was topped out at 828 m (2,717 ft) in January 2009.[2]

History

The following is a list of structures that have held the title as the tallest freestanding structure on land. (See also Timeline of three tallest structures in the world until Empire State Building).

tallest historical structures
record from record to Name and Location Constructed Height (metres) Height (feet) Coordinates Notes
c. 2700 BCE c. 2600 BCE Pyramid of Djoser, Egypt c. 2700 BCE 62 203 29°52′16.53″N 31°12′59.59″E / 29.8712583°N 31.2165528°E / 29.8712583; 31.2165528 (Pyramid of Djoser)  
c. 2600 BCE c. 2570 BCE Red Pyramid of Sneferu, Egypt c. 2600 BCE 105 345 29°48′31.39″N 31°12′22.49″E / 29.8087194°N 31.2062472°E / 29.8087194; 31.2062472 (Red Pyramid)  
c. 2570 BCE c. 1311 AD Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt c. 2570 BCE 146 481 29°58′44.93″N 31°08′3.09″E / 29.9791472°N 31.1341917°E / 29.9791472; 31.1341917 (Great Pyramid of Giza) By 1439, the Great Pyramid had eroded to a height of approximately 139 m (456 ft).
 1311 1549 Lincoln Cathedral in England 1092–1311 160 525 53°14′3.26″N 0°32′10.54″W / 53.2342389°N 0.5362611°W / 53.2342389; -0.5362611 (Lincoln Cathedral) The central spire was destroyed in a storm in 1549. While the reputed height of 525 ft (160 m) is doubted by A.F. Kendrick,[13] other sources agree on this height.
1549 1625 St. Olaf's Church in Tallinn, Estonia 1438–1519 159 522 59°26′29.07″N 24°44′51.09″E / 59.4414083°N 24.747525°E / 59.4414083; 24.747525 (St. Olaf's church, Tallinn) The spire burnt down after a lightning strike in 1625 and was rebuilt several times. The height is 123 m (404 ft) .
1625 1647 St. Mary's Church in Stralsund, Germany 1384–1478 151 495 54°18′36.01″N 13°5′14.81″E / 54.3100028°N 13.0874472°E / 54.3100028; 13.0874472 (St. Mary's church, Stralsund) The spire burnt down after a lightning strike in 1647. The height is 104 m (341 ft) .
1647 1874 Strasbourg Cathedral in France 1439 142 469 48°34′54.22″N 7°45′1.48″E / 48.5817278°N 7.7504111°E / 48.5817278; 7.7504111 (Strasbourg Cathedral)
1874 1876 St. Nikolai in Hamburg, Germany 1846–1874 147 483 53°32′50.94″N 9°59′26.12″E / 53.5474833°N 9.9905889°E / 53.5474833; 9.9905889 (St. Nikolai, Hamburg)
1876 1880 Cathédrale Notre Dame in Rouen, France 1202–1876 151 495 49°26′24.54″N 1°5′41.85″E / 49.44015°N 1.0949583°E / 49.44015; 1.0949583 (Rouen Cathedral)  
1880 1884 Cologne Cathedral in Germany 1248–1880 157 515 50°56′28.08″N 6°57′25.73″E / 50.9411333°N 6.9571472°E / 50.9411333; 6.9571472 (Cologne Cathedral, Tower South) ;50°56′29.11″N 6°57′25.85″E / 50.9414194°N 6.9571806°E / 50.9414194; 6.9571806 (Cologne Cathedral, Tower North)
1884 1889 Washington Monument in Washington D.C., United States 1884 169 555 38°53′22.08″N 77°2′6.89″W / 38.8894667°N 77.0352472°W / 38.8894667; -77.0352472 (Washington Monument)  
1889 1930 Eiffel Tower in Paris, France 1889 300 986 48°51′29.77″N 2°17′40.09″E / 48.8582694°N 2.2944694°E / 48.8582694; 2.2944694 (Eiffel Tower) First structure to exceed 300 metres in height. The addition of a telecommunications tower in the 1950s brought the overall height to 324 m (1,063 ft).
1930 1931 Chrysler Building in New York, United States 1928–1930 319 1,046 40°45′5.78″N 73°58′31.52″W / 40.7516056°N 73.9754222°W / 40.7516056; -73.9754222 (Chrysler Building)
1931 1967 Empire State Building in New York, United States 1930–1931 381 1,250 40°44′54.95″N 73°59′8.71″W / 40.7485972°N 73.9857528°W / 40.7485972; -73.9857528 (Empire State Building) First building with 100+ stories. The addition of a pinnacle and antennas later increased its overall height to 448.7 m (1,472 ft). This was subsequently lowered to 443.1 m (1,454 ft).
1967 1975 Ostankino Tower in Moscow, Russia 1963–1967 537 1,762 55°49′10.94″N 37°36′41.79″E / 55.8197056°N 37.6116083°E / 55.8197056; 37.6116083 (Ostankino Tower) Remains the tallest in Europe. Fire in 2000 led to extensive renovation.
1975 2007 CN Tower in Toronto, Canada 1973–1976 553 1,815 43°38′33.22″N 79°23′13.41″W / 43.6425611°N 79.3870583°W / 43.6425611; -79.3870583 (CN Tower) Remains the tallest in the Western Hemisphere
2007 present Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2004–2009 828 2,717 25°11′50.0″N 55°16′26.6″E / 25.19722°N 55.274056°E / 25.19722; 55.274056 (Burj Dubai) Holder of world's tallest freestanding structure. Topped out at 828 m (2,717 ft).
Diagram of the Principal High Buildings of the Old World, 1884.

Notable mentions include the Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria, built in the third century BCE and estimated between 115–135 m (383–440 ft). It was the world's tallest non-pyramidal building for many centuries. Another notable mention includes the Jetavanaramaya stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, which was built in the third century, and was similarly tall at 122 m (400 ft). These were both the world's tallest or second tallest non-pyramidal buildings for over a thousand years.

The tallest secular building between the collapse of the Pharos and the erection of the Washington Monument may have been the Torre del Mangia in Siena, which is 102 m (335 ft) tall, and was constructed in the first half of the fourteenth century, and the 97 m (318 ft) tall Torre degli Asinelli in Bologna, also Italy, built between 1109 and 1119.

World's highest observation deck

Timeline of development of world's highest observation deck since inauguration of Eiffel Tower.

Held record Name and Location Constructed Height above ground (m) Height above ground (ft) Notes
From To
 1889  1931 Eiffel Tower, Paris, France  1889 275 902 Two further observation decks at 57 m (187 ft) and 115 m (377 ft).
 1931  1973 Empire State Building, New York City, USA  1931 369[14] 1211 A second observation deck is located on the 86th floor at 320 m (1,050 ft).
 1973  1976 World Trade Center, New York City, USA  1973 420 1378 Destroyed during the September 11, 2001 attacks
 1976  2008 CN Tower, Toronto, Canada  1976 446.5 1464.9 Two further observation decks at 342 m (1,122 ft) and 346 m (1,135 ft).
 2008  present Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China  2008 474 1555 Other observation decks are at 423 m (1,388 ft) and 439 m (1,440 ft).
Note: Burj Khalifa, opened on 4 January 2010, has the world's highest outdoor observation deck at 442 m (1,450 ft).

Higher observation decks have existed on mountain peaks or cliffs, rather than on tall structures. For example, the Royal Gorge Bridge in Cañon City, Colorado, USA, was constructed in 1929 spanning the Royal Gorge at a height of 321 m (1,053 ft) above the Arkansas River.

Timeline of guyed structures on land

As most of the tallest structures are guyed masts and the absolute height record of architectural structures on land is since 1954 kept by them, here is a timeline of world's tallest guyed masts, since the beginning of radio technology.

As many large guyed masts were destroyed at the end of World War II, the dates for the years between 1945 and 1950 may be incorrect. If Wusung Radio Tower survived World War II, it was the tallest guyed structure shortly after World War II.

Held record Name and Location Constructed Height (m) Height (ft) Coordinates Notes
From To
 1913  1920 Central mast of Eilvese transmitter, Eilvese, Germany  1913 250 820 52°31′40″N 9°24′24″E / 52.52778°N 9.40667°E / 52.52778; 9.40667 (Eilvese transmitter ( demolished)) Mast was divided in 145 m by an insulator, demolished in 1931
 1920  1923 Central masts of Nauen Transmitter Station, Nauen, Germany  1920 260 853 52°38′56″N 12°54′30″E / 52.64889°N 12.90833°E / 52.64889; 12.90833 (Nauen transmitter) 2 masts, demolished in 1946
 1923  1933 Masts of Ruiselede transmitter, Ruiselede, Belgium  1923 287 942 51°4′44″N 3°20′6.9″E / 51.07889°N 3.33525°E / 51.07889; 3.33525 (Zendmast Ruiselede (destroyed) ( location unclear))? 8 masts, destroyed in 1940
 1933  1939 Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary  1933 314 1,031 47°22′23.45″N 19°0′17.21″E / 47.3731806°N 19.0047806°E / 47.3731806; 19.0047806 (Lakihegy Radio Tower) Blaw-Knox Tower, insulated against ground, destroyed in 1945, afterwards rebuilt
 1939  1946 Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster, Herzberg (Elster), Germany  1939 335 1,099 51°42′59.76″N 13°15′51.5″E / 51.7166°N 13.264306°E / 51.7166; 13.264306 (Deutschlandsender III ( dismantled)) Insulated against ground, dismantled 1946/1947
 1946  1948 Lakihegy Tower, Lakihegy, Hungary  1946 314 1,031 47°22′23.45″N 19°0′17.21″E / 47.3731806°N 19.0047806°E / 47.3731806; 19.0047806 (Lakihegy Radio Tower) Blaw-Knox Tower, Insulated against ground, rebuilt after destruction in 1945
 1948  1949 WIVB-TV Tower, Colden, New York, USA  1948 321.9 1,056 42°39′33.19″N 78°37′33.91″W / 42.6592194°N 78.6260861°W / 42.6592194; -78.6260861 (WIVB-TV Tower)
 1949  1950 Longwave transmitter Raszyn, Raszyn, Poland  1949 335 1,099 52°4′21.72″N 20°53′2.15″E / 52.0727°N 20.8839306°E / 52.0727; 20.8839306 (Raszyn Radio Mast) Insulated against ground
 1950  1954 Forestport Tower, Forestport, New York, USA  1950 371.25 1,218 43°26′41.9″N 75°5′9.55″W / 43.444972°N 75.0859861°W / 43.444972; -75.0859861 (Forestport Tower ( demolished)) Insulated against ground, demolished
 1954  1959 Griffin Television Tower Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA  1954 480.5 1,576 35°32′58.59″N 97°29′50.27″W / 35.5496083°N 97.4972972°W / 35.5496083; -97.4972972 (Griffin Television Tower Oklahoma)  
 1956  1959 KOBR-TV Tower, Caprock, New Mexico, USA  1956 490.7 1,610 33°22′31.31″N 103°46′14.3″W / 33.3753639°N 103.770639°W / 33.3753639; -103.770639 (KOBR-TV Tower) Collapsed in 1960, afterwards rebuilt
 1959  1960 WGME TV Tower, Raymond, Maine, USA  1959 495 1,624 43°55′28.43″N 70°29′26.72″W / 43.9245639°N 70.4907556°W / 43.9245639; -70.4907556 (WGME TV Tower)
 1960  1962 KFVS TV Mast, Cape Girardeau County, Missouri, USA  1960 511.1 1,677 37°25′44.5″N 89°30′13.84″W / 37.429028°N 89.5038444°W / 37.429028; -89.5038444 (KFVS TV Mast)
 1962  1963 WTVM/WRBL-TV & WVRK-FM Tower, Cusseta, Georgia, USA  1962 533 1,749 32°19′25.09″N 84°46′45.07″W / 32.3236361°N 84.7791861°W / 32.3236361; -84.7791861 (WTVM/WRBL-TV & WVRK-FM Tower)
 1963  1963 WIMZ-FM-Tower, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA  1963 534.01 1,752 36°08′05.49″N 83°43′28.01″W / 36.1348583°N 83.7244472°W / 36.1348583; -83.7244472 (WIMZ-FM-Tower)
 1963  1974 KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA  1963 628.8 2,063 47°20′31.85″N 97°17′21.13″W / 47.3421806°N 97.2892028°W / 47.3421806; -97.2892028 (KVLY-TV mast)
 1974  1991 Warsaw Radio Mast, Gąbin, Poland  1974 646.4 2,121 52°22′3.91″N 19°48′7.04″E / 52.3677528°N 19.8019556°E / 52.3677528; 19.8019556 (Konstantynow Radio Mast (destroyed)) Mast radiator insulated against ground, collapsed in 1991
 1991   KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, USA  1963 628.8 2,063 47°20′31.85″N 97°17′21.13″W / 47.3421806°N 97.2892028°W / 47.3421806; -97.2892028 (KVLY-TV mast)

Tallest structures, freestanding structures, and buildings

Burj Khalifa compared to some other well-known tall structures.

See also: Timeline of three tallest structures in the world

The list categories are:

  • The structures (supported) list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type that might use some external support constructions like cables and are fully built in air. Only the three tallest are listed, as more than fifty US TV masts have stated heights of 600-610 metres (1969–2000 ft).
  • The structures (media supported) list uses pinnacle height and includes architectural structures of any type that are not totally built in the air but are using support from other, denser media like salt water. All structures greater than 500 metres (1,640 ft) are listed.
  • The freestanding structures list uses pinnacle height and includes structures over 400 metres (1,312 ft) that do not use guy-wires or other external supports. This means truly free standing on its own or, in similar sense, non-supported structures.
  • The building list uses architectural height (excluding antennas) and includes only buildings, defined as consisting of habitable floors. Both of these follow CTBUH guidelines. All supertall buildings (300 m and higher) are listed.

Notes:

  • Seven buildings appear on the freestanding structures category list with different heights than of another category. This is due to the different measurement specifications of those lists.
  • Only current heights and where reasonable target heights are listed. Historical heights of structures that no longer exist, for example, for having collapsed, are excluded.
Rank Name and location Year
completed
Architectural top[15]
(metres)
Architectural top
(feet)
Floors
Structures (supported)
1 KVLY-TV mast, Blanchard, North Dakota, United States 1963 629 2,064
2 KXJB-TV mast, Galesburg, North Dakota, United States 1998 628 2,060
3 KXTV/KOVR Tower, Walnut Grove, California, United States 2000 625 2,051
Structures (media supported)
1 Petronius Platform, Gulf of Mexico 2000 610 2,000
2 Baldpate Platform, Gulf of Mexico 1998 580 1,900
3 Bullwinkle Platform, Gulf of Mexico 1989 529 1,736
Freestanding structures
1 Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2010 828 2,717 160
2 Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Tower, Guangzhou, China (topped out) 2009 610 2,000
3 CN Tower, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 1976 553 1,814
4 Ostankino Tower, Moscow, Russia 1967 540 1,770
5 Willis Tower, Chicago, United States 1974 527 1,729 108
6 Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan 2003 509 1,670 101
7 Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China 2008 492 1,614 101
8 Oriental Pearl Tower, Shanghai, China 1996 468 1,535
9 John Hancock Center, Chicago, United States 1969 457 1,499 100
10 Petronas Tower I, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 452 1,483 88
Petronas Tower II, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 452 1,483 88
12 Nanjing Greenland Financial Center, Nanjing, China 2009 450 1,480 89
13 Empire State Building, New York City, United States 1931 443 1,453 102
14 Milad Tower, Tehran, Iran 2007 435 1,427
15 Kuala Lumpur Tower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1995 421 1,381
16 Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China 1998 421 1,381 88
17 Chimney of GRES-2 Power Station, Ekibastuz, Kazakhstan 1987 420 1,380
18 Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong 2003 415 1,362 88
19 Tianjin Radio and Television Tower, Tianjin, China 1991 415 1,362
20 Central TV Tower, Beijing, China 1992 405 1,329
Buildings
1 Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2010 828 2,717 160
2 Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan 2003 509 1,670 101
3 Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China 2008 492 1,614 101
4 Petronas Tower I, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 452 1,483 88
Petronas Tower II, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 452 1,483 88
6 Nanjing Greenland Financial Center, Nanjing, China 2009 450 1,480 89
7 Willis Tower, Chicago, United States 1974 442 1,450 108
8 Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China 1998 421 1,381 88
9 Two International Finance Centre, Hong Kong 2003 415 1,362 88
10 CITIC Plaza, Guangzhou, China 1997 391 1,283 80
11 Shun Hing Square, Shenzhen, China 1996 384 1,260 69
12 Empire State Building, New York City, United States 1931 381 1,250 102
13 Central Plaza, Hong Kong 1992 374 1,227 78
14 Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong 1990 367 1,204 70
15 Bank of America Tower, New York City, United States 2008 366 1,201 54
16 Almas Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2008 360 1,180 74
17 Emirates Office Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2000 355 1,165 54
18 Tuntex Sky Tower, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 1997 348 1,142 85
19 Aon Center, Chicago, United States 1973 346 1,135 83
20 The Center, Hong Kong 1998 346 1,135 73
21 John Hancock Center, Chicago, United States 1969 344 1,129 100
22 Rose Tower, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2007 333 1,093 72
Shimao International Plaza, Shanghai, China 2006 333 1,093 60
24 Minsheng Bank Building, Wuhan, China 2007 331 1,086 68
25 Ryugyong Hotel, Pyongyang, North Korea (topped out) 1992 330 1,080 105
China World Trade Center Tower 3, Beijing, China 2008 330 1,080 74
27 Q1, Gold Coast, Australia 2005 323 1,060 78
28 Burj Al Arab, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 1999 321 1,053 60
29 Chrysler Building, New York City, United States 1930 319 1,047 77
Nina Tower I, Hong Kong 2007 319 1,047 80
New York Times Building, New York City, United States 2007 319 1,047 52
32 Bank of America Plaza, Atlanta, United States 1992 312 1,024 55
33 Kingdom Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 2000 311 1,020 41
34 U.S. Bank Tower, Los Angeles, United States 1989 310 1,020 73
35 Menara Telekom, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2001 310 1,020 55
36 Jumeirah Emirates Towers Hotel, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2000 309 1,014 56
37 One Island East, Hong Kong 2008 308 1,010 70
38 AT&T Corporate Center, Chicago, United States 1989 307 1,007 60
39 The Address Downtown Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 2008 306 1,004 63
40 JPMorgan Chase Tower, Houston, United States 1982 305 1,001 75

Source: Emporis

Under construction

Numerous supertall skyscrapers are in various stages of proposal, planning, or construction. Each of the following are under construction and, depending on the order of completion, could become the world's tallest building or structure in at least one category:

  • The Tokyo Sky Tree under construction in Tokyo's Sumida district, is expected to be 634 m (2,080 ft) tall. It will be a broadcasting tower to replace the old Tokyo Tower. Construction began in 2008 and completion is expected in 2011, with public access in the spring of 2012.
  • The Shanghai Tower, under construction in Shanghai, next to the Shanghai World Financial Center and the Jin Mao Building, is expected to be 632 m (2,073 ft). Completion is expected in 2014.
  • The Pentominium, under construction in Dubai, is expected to be 516 m (1,693 ft) tall and have 120 floors. If completed, it would be the tallest all-residential building in the world. Construction began in 2007 and completion is expected in 2013.
  • Incheon Tower is a 151-floor, 610 m (2,000 ft) twin tower under construction in Incheon, South Korea. If completed, it will stand as the tallest twin towers in the world, surpassing the Petronas Twin Towers. It is estimated to be completed in 2012.
  • The Guangzhou TV & Sightseeing Tower, under construction in Guangzhou, China, is topped-out at 610 m (2,000 ft). Construction began in November 2005 and completion is expected in 2010.
  • The Chicago Spire (formerly Fordham Spire), under construction in Chicago, is expected to be 609.6 m (2,000 ft) and have 150 floors. If completed, it would surpass the CN Tower as the tallest freestanding building in North America,[16] and would be the tallest all-residential building in the world. Construction began in June 2007 and completion is expected in early 2012, however, construction is on hold.[17]
  • The Abraj Al Bait Towers are under construction in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The tallest tower is expected to be 595 m (1,952 ft) tall when completed in 2010, becoming second-tallest building in the world when completed. It will also be the largest building in the world with a floor area of 1,500,000 m2 (1.61E+7 sq ft) and the tallest hotel in the world.
  • The Jakarta Tower (Menara Jakarta) is on-hold in Jakarta, Indonesia. It is expected to be 558 m (1,831 ft) tall up to the antenna, thus may be tallest concrete tower. It was expected to be completed in 2012, but has been put on hold.[18]
  • One World Trade Center, currently under-construction in New York City, will be the tallest buildings in the United States and the Western Hemisphere. Further it will become the world´s tallest all office building. Its spire will top out at 541 m (1,775 ft).
  • The Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower, under construction in Hanoi, Vietnam is expected to be 336 m (1,102 ft) tall. It will be completed on time in 2010 to celebrate Hanoi's 1000 anniversary.
  • The Federation Tower East, under construction in Moscow's International Business Centre, is expected to be 242 m (794 ft) tall. Construction began in 2003 and completion is expected in 2010.
  • The Burj Mubarak al-Kabir in Kuwait will be the tallest building in the world upon it's completion in 2016. It will be the height of 1,001 meters high.

Proposed

Many proposed structures have not yet been built, and many probably never will be built. See proposed tall buildings and structures for structures that have been or are being proposed.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "CTBUH Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. http://www.ctbuh.org/HighRiseInfo/TallestDatabase/Criteria/tabid/446/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 
  2. ^ a b "Burj Dubai all set for 09/09/09 soft opening". Emirates Business24/7. http://www.business24-7.ae/articles/2009/1/pages/01182009_63dc3a90c9a848219058be301f3f7ded.aspx. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  3. ^ Emaar. "Burj Dubai surpasses KVLY-TV mast to become the world’s tallest man-made structure". Press release. http://www.emaar.ae/MediaCenter/PressReleases/2008April07.asp. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  4. ^ "CN Tower dethroned by Dubai building". cbc.ca (CBC News). 2007-09-12. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2007/09/12/cntower-surpassed.html?ref=rss. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  5. ^ Emaar Properties PJSC (2007-09-13). "Burj Dubai scales 150 storeys and is the world’s tallest free-standing structure". Press release. http://www.emaar.com/MediaCenter/PressReleases/2008September01.asp. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  6. ^ "Dubai building surpasses CN Tower in height". CTV.ca (CTVglobemedia). 2007-09-13. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20070913/cn_tower_070913/20070913?hub=TorontoHome. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  7. ^ "Highest Dams (World and U.S.)" (chart). 1998 ICOLD World Register of Dams. http://npdp.stanford.edu/damhigh.html. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  8. ^ Guinness World Records - Science & Technology - Structures - World's Highest Concrete Dam[1]. Retrieved 1 August 2008.
  9. ^ "Flag of Turkmenistan". Official Homepage of the Republic of Turkmenistan. July 3, 2008. http://turkmenistan.gov.tm/_eng/2008/07/03/flag_of_turkmenistan_at_the_tallest_flagpole_in_the_world.html. 
  10. ^ Schwanke D. et al. (2003). Mixed-use Development Handbook, 2nd edition. Washington: Urban Land Institute ISBN 978-0874208887
  11. ^ - CTBUH Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings
  12. ^ "CTBUH changes height criteria, Burj Khalifa height increases". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 17 November 2009. http://www.ctbuh.org/NewsMedia/PR_091117_ChangeHeightCriteria/tabid/1273/language/en-US/Default.aspx. Retrieved 18 November 2009. 
  13. ^ A.F.K.. "The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Cathedral Church Of LINCOLN, by A.F. KENDRICK, B.A". Gwydir.demon.co.uk. http://gwydir.demon.co.uk/PG/BellsLincoln/BellsLincoln.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  14. ^ "The Empire State Building". Wired New York. http://wirednewyork.com/landmarks/esb/. Retrieved 2007-12-23. 
  15. ^ height for inhabited buildings with floors; does not include TV towers and antennas
  16. ^ "Chicago Business News, Analysis & Articles | Calatrava tower to drop spire | Crain's". Chicagobusiness.com. 2006-12-06. http://chicagobusiness.com/cgi-bin/news.pl?id=23109. Retrieved 2009-11-28. 
  17. ^ Shelbourne Development. (2008, April 06). The Chicago Spire Achieves 30 Percent Sales. Retrieved June 14, 2008 from http://www.shelbournedevelopment.com/press_release.php?id=96
  18. ^ http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=208756&page=19

External links


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