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Stonehenge is part of the Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites UNESCO World Heritage Site

There are 28 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the United Kingdom.[1] The countries of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales together form the country and sovereign state of the United Kingdom. The UK is also responsible for the governance of 12 overseas territories, although they are not constitutionally part of the UK.[2] The constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (commonly referred to as UNESCO) was ratified in 1946 by 26 countries, including the UK. Its purpose was to provide for the "conservation and protection of the world’s inheritance of books, works of art and monuments of history and science".[3] The UK contributes £130,000 annually to the World Heritage Fund which finances the preservation of sites in developing countries.[4]

The UNESCO list contains seventeen designated properties in England (the Frontiers of the Roman Empire is shared with Germany), four in Scotland, three in Wales, one in Northern Ireland, and one in each of the overseas territories of Bermuda, the Pitcairn Islands, and Saint Helena. Some designated properties contain multiple sites that share a common geographical location or cultural heritage. World Heritage Site selection criteria i–iv are culturally related, and selection criteria vii–x are the natural criteria.[5] The first sites in the UK to be inscribed on the World Heritage List were Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast; Durham Castle and Cathedral; Ironbridge Gorge; Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey; Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites; and the Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd in 1986. The latest site to be inscribed was Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal in 2009.[6] The United Kingdom National Commission for UNESCO advises the British government, which is responsible for maintaining its World Heritage Sites, on policies regarding UNESCO.[7] In 2008, Andy Burnham – then Minister for Culture, Media, and Sport – voiced concerns over the worth of the designation of sites in the UK as World Heritage Sites and called for a review of the government's policy of putting forward new sites; this was partly due to rising costs and lower than expected income from visitors, few of which were aware of the World Heritage Site status of the sites they visited.[8]

Twenty-three properties are designated as "cultural", four as "natural", and one as "mixed".[note 1][1] The breakdown of sites by type was similar to the overall proportions; of the 890 sites on the World Heritage List, 77.4% are cultural, 19.8% are natural, and 2.8% are mixed.[9] St Kilda, Scotland, is the UK's only mixed WHS. Originally preserved for its natural habitats alone,[10] in 2005 the site was expanded to include the crofting community that once inhabited the archipelago; the site became one of only 25 mixed sites worldwide.[11] The natural sites are the Dorset and East Devon Coast; Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast; Gough and Inaccessible Islands; and Henderson Island. The rest are cultural.[1]

Contents

World Heritage Sites

The names in the tables below are the names of the properties as used on the website of UNESCO.[9]
Name Image Location Country Date UNESCO data[note 2] Description Ref(s)
Blaenavon Industrial Landscape Big Pit Mining Museum.jpg Blaenavon, Gwent
51°47′N 3°05′W / 51.78°N 3.08°W / 51.78; -3.08 (Blaenavon Industrial Landscape)
Wales 19th century 984; 2000;
iii, iv
In the 19th century, Wales was the world's foremost producer of iron and coal. Blaenavon is an example of the landscape created by the industrial processes associated with the production of these materials. The site includes quarries, public buildings, workers' housing, and a railway. [12]
Blenheim Palace Blenheim Palace 2006 cropped.jpg Woodstock, Oxfordshire
51°50′31″N 1°21′41″W / 51.841944°N 1.361389°W / 51.841944; -1.361389 (Bleheim Palace)
England 1705–1722 425; 1987;
ii, iv
Blenheim Palace – the residence of the John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough – was designed by architects John Vanbrugh and Nicholas Hawksmoor; the associated park was landscaped by Capability Brown. The palace celebrated victory over the French and is significant for establishing English Romantic Architecture as a separate entity from French Classical Architecture. [13]
Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church Canterbury Cathedral - Portal Nave Cross-spire.jpeg Canterbury, Kent
51°16′48″N 1°05′00″W / 51.28°N 1.083333°W / 51.28; -1.083333 (Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church)
England 11th century 496; 1988;
i, ii, vi
St Martin's Church is the oldest church in England. The church and St Augustine's Abbey were founded during the early stages of the introduction of Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons. The cathedral exhibits Romanesque and Gothic architecture, and is the seat of the Church of England. [14][15][16]
Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd Beaumaris, circular towers and moat, 2006.jpg Conwy, Isle of Anglesey and Gwynedd
53°08′23″N 4°16′37″W / 53.139722°N 4.276944°W / 53.139722; -4.276944 (Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd)
Wales 13th–14th century 374; 1986;
i, iii, iv
During the reign of Edward I (1272–1307), a series of castles were constructed in Wales with the purpose of subduing the population and establishing English colonies in Wales. The World Heritage Site covers many castles including Beaumaris, Caernarfon, Conwy, and Harlech. The castles of Edward I are considered the pinnacle of military architecture by military historians.[17] [18]
City of Bath Royal.crescent.aerial.bath.arp.jpg Bath, Somerset
51°22′51″N 2°21′37″W / 51.3809°N 2.3603°W / 51.3809; -2.3603 (City of Bath)
England 1st–19th century 428; 1987;
i, ii, iv
Founded by the Romans as a spa, an important centre of the wool industry in the medieval period, and a spa town in the 18th century, Bath has a varied history. The city is preserved for its Roman remains and Palladian architecture. [19]
Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape Crowns peh.jpg Cornwall and Devon
50°08′10″N 5°23′01″W / 50.136111°N 5.383611°W / 50.136111; -5.383611 (Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape)
England 18th and 19th centuries 1215; 2006;
ii, iii, iv
Tin and copper mining in Devon and Cornwall boomed in the 18th and 19th centuries, and at its peak the area produced two-thirds of the world's copper. The techniques and technology involved in deep mining developed in Devon and Cornwall were used around the world. [20]
Derwent Valley Mills Arkwright Masson Mills.jpg Derwent Valley, Derbyshire
53°01′13″N 1°29′59″W / 53.020278°N 1.499722°W / 53.020278; -1.499722 (Derwent Valley Mills)
England 18th and 19th centuries 1030; 2001;
ii, iv
The Derwent Valley Mills was the birthplace of the factory system; the innovations in the valley, including the development of workers' housing – such as at Cromford – and machines such as the water frame, were important in the Industrial Revolution. The Derwent Valley Mills influenced North America and Europe. [21][22]
Dorset and East Devon Coast Gad cliff dorset.jpg Dorset and Devon
50°42′20″N 2°59′24″W / 50.705556°N 2.989889°W / 50.705556; -2.989889 (Dorset and East Devon Coast)
England n/a 1029; 2001;
viii
The cliffs that make up the Dorset and Devon coast are an important site for fossils and provide a continuous record of life on land and in the sea in the area since 185 million years ago. [23]
Durham Castle and Cathedral Durham Cathedral and Castle.jpg Durham, County Durham
54°46′30″N 1°34′32″W / 54.77487°N 1.57558°W / 54.77487; -1.57558 (Durham Castle and Cathedral)
England 11th and 12th centuries 370; 1986;
ii, iv, vi
Durham Cathedral is the "largest and finest" example of Norman architecture in England and vaulting of the cathedral was part of the advent of Gothic architecture. The cathedral houses relics of St Cuthbert and Bede. The Norman castle was the residence of the Durham prince-bishops. [24]
Frontiers of the Roman Empire Hadrianswall2007.jpg Northern England and southern Scotland
54°59′33″N 2°36′04″W / 54.992611°N 2.601°W / 54.992611; -2.601 (Frontiers of the Roman Empire)
England and Scotland 2nd century 430; 1987 (modified in 2005 and 2008);
ii, iii, iv
Hadrian's Wall was built in 122 AD and the Antonine Wall was constructed in 142 AD to defend the Roman Empire from "barbarians". The World Heritage Site was previously listed as Hadrian's Wall alone, but was later expanded to include all the frontiers of the Roman Empire at its zenith in the 2nd century, ranging from Antonine's Wall in the north to Trajan's Wall in eastern Europe. [9][25]
Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast Causeway-code poet-4.jpg County Antrim
55°14′27″N 6°30′42″W / 55.240833°N 6.511667°W / 55.240833; -6.511667 (Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast)
Northern Ireland 60–50 million years ago 369; 1986;
vii, viii
The causeway is made up of 40,000 basalt columns projecting out of the sea. It was created by volcanic activity in the Tertiary period. Irish legends say that it was caused by the Irish giant, Finn McCool, hurling a rock (which apparently became the Isle of Man, and the hole left formed Lough Neagh) at a Scottish giant named Fingal, with the rocks falling onto the sea, like clods of dirt, from the rock, which formed the causeway. [26]
Gough and Inaccessible Island Gough island top view.png Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean
40°19′05″S 9°56′07″W / 40.3181°S 9.9353°W / -40.3181; -9.9353 (Gough and Inaccessible Island)
Saint Helena n/a 740; 1995 (modified in 2004);
vii, x
Together, the Gough and Inaccessible Islands preserve an ecosystem almost untouched by mankind, with many native species of plants and animals. [27]
Heart of Neolithic Orkney Orkney Skara Brae.jpg Orkney
58°59′46″N 3°11′19″W / 58.996056°N 3.188667°W / 58.996056; -3.188667 (Heart of Historic Orkney)
Scotland 3rd millennium BC 514; 1999;
i, ii, iii, iv
A collection of Neolithic sites with purposes ranging from occupation to ceremony. It includes the settlement of Skara Brae, the chambered tomb of Maes Howe and the stone circles of Stenness and Brodgar. [28]
Henderson Island HendersonISS004-E-6793.PNG Henderson Island, Pitcairn Islands, Pacific Ocean
24°21′00″S 128°19′00″W / 24.35°S 128.316667°W / -24.35; -128.316667 (Henderson Island)
Pitcairn Islands n/a 487; 1988;
vii, x
The island is an atoll in the south of the Pacific Ocean, the ecology of which has been almost untouched by man and its isolation illustrates the dynamics of evolution. There are ten plant and four animal species native to the island. [29]
Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications, Bermuda John Smith 1624 Bermuda map with Forts.jpg St George, Bermuda
51°22′51″N 2°21′37″W / 51.3809°N 2.3603°W / 51.3809; -2.3603 (City of Bath)
Bermuda 17th–20th centuries 983; 2000;
iv
Founded in 1612, St George is the oldest English town in the New World and an example of planned urban settlements established in the New World in the 17th century by colonial powers. The fortifications illustrate defensive techniques developed through the 17th to 20th centuries. [30]
Ironbridge Gorge Ironbridge002.JPG Ironbridge, Shropshire
52°37′35″N 2°29′10″W / 52.62646°N 2.486°W / 52.62646; -2.486 (Ironbridge Gorge)
England 18th century 371; 1986;
i, ii, iv, vi
Ironbridge Gorge contains mines, factories, workers' housing, and the transport infrastructure that was created in the gorge during the Industrial Revolution. The development of coke production in the area helped start the Industrial Revolution. The Iron Bridge was the world's first bridge built from iron and was architecturally and technologically influential. [31]
Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City Albert dock at night.jpg Liverpool, Merseyside
53°24′N 2°59′W / 53.40°N 2.99°W / 53.40; -2.99 (Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City)
England 18th and 19th centuries 1150; 2004;
ii, iii, iv
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Liverpool was one of the largest ports in the world. Its global connections helped sustain the British Empire, and it was a major port involved in the slave trade until its abolition in 1807, and a departure point for emigrants to North America. The docks were the site of innovations in construction and dock management. [32]
Maritime Greenwich Royal Naval College 2008.jpg Greenwich, London, Greater London
51°28′45″N 0°00′00″E / 51.4791°N 0°E / 51.4791; 0 (Maritime Greenwich)
England 17th and 18th centuries 795; 1997;
i, ii, iv, vi
As well as the presence of the first example of Palladian architecture in England, and works by Christopher Wren and Inigo Jones, the area is significant for the Royal Observatory where the understanding of astronomy and navigation were developed. [33]
New Lanark New Lanark buildings 2009.jpg New Lanark, South Lanarkshire
55°40′N 3°47′W / 55.66°N 3.78°W / 55.66; -3.78 (New Lanark)
Scotland 19th century 429; 2001;
ii, iv, vi
Prompted by Richard Arkwright's factory system developed in the Derwent Valley, the community of New Lanark was created to provide housing for workers at the mills. Philanthropist Robert Owen bought the site and turned it into a model community, providing public facilities, education, and supporting factory reform. [34]
Old and New Towns of Edinburgh Looking down Royal Mile, Edinburgh.jpg Edinburgh
55°56′51″N 3°11′30″W / 55.947572°N 3.191631°W / 55.947572; -3.191631 (Old and New Town of Edinburgh)
Scotland 11th–19th century 728; 1995;
ii, iv
The Old Town of Edinburgh was founded in the Middle Ages, and the New Town was developed in 1767–1890. It contrasts the layout of settlements in the medieval and modern periods. The layout and architecture of the new town, designed by luminaries such as William Chambers and William Playfair, influenced European urban design in the 18th and 19th centuries. [35]
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal WalesC0047.jpg Trevor, Wrexham
52°58′14″N 3°05′16″W / 52.97053°N 3.08783°W / 52.97053; -3.08783 (Pontcysyllte Aqueduct and Canal)
Wales/England 1795–1805 1303; 2009;
i, ii, iv
The aqueduct was built to carry the Ellesmere Canal over the Dee Valley. Completed during the Industrial Revolution and designed by Thomas Telford, the aqueduct made innovative use of cast and wrought iron, influencing civil engineering across the world. [36][37]
Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew Kew Gardens Palm House, London - July 2009.jpg Kew, Greater London
51°28′29″N 0°17′44″W / 51.474667°N 0.295467°W / 51.474667; -0.295467 (Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew)
England 18th–20th century 1084; 2003;
ii, iii, iv
Created in 1759, the influential Kew Gardens were designed by Charles Bridgeman, William Kent, Capability Brown, and William Chambers. The gardens were used to study botany and ecology and furthered the understanding of the subjects. [38]
St Kilda St Kilda Village Bay.jpg St Kilda
57°49′00″N 8°35′00″W / 57.816667°N 8.583333°W / 57.816667; -8.583333 (St Kilda)
Scotland n/a 387; 1987 (modified in 2005 and 2008);
ii, iii, iv
Although inhabited for over 2,000 years, the isolated archipelago of St Kilda has had no permanent residents since 1930. The islands' human heritage includes various unique architectural features from the historic and prehistoric periods. St Kilda is also a breeding ground for many important seabird species including the world's largest colony of gannets and up to 136,000 pairs of puffins. [39][40]
Saltaire Saltaire from Leeds and Liverpool Canal.jpg Saltaire, City of Bradford, West Yorkshire
53°50′14″N 1°47′25″W / 53.83717°N 1.79026°W / 53.83717; -1.79026 (Saltaire)
England 1853 1028; 2001;
ii, iv
Saltaire was founded by mill-owner Titus Salt as a model village for his workers. The site, which includes the Salts Mill, featured public buildings for the inhabitants and was an example of 19th century paternalism. [41]
Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites Stonehenge back wide.jpg Wiltshire
51°10′44″N 1°49′31″W / 51.178889°N 1.825278°W / 51.178889; -1.825278 (Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites)
England 4th–2nd millennia BC 373; 1986 (modified in 2008);
i, ii, iii
The Neolithic sites of Avebury and Stonehenge are two of the largest and most famous megalithic monuments in the world. They relate to man's interaction with his environment. The purpose of the henges has been a source of speculation, with suggestions ranging from ceremonial to interpreting the cosmos. "Associated sites" includes Silbury Hill, Beckhampton Avenue, and West Kennet Avenue. [42]
Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey Fountains Abbey view02 2005-08-27.jpg North Yorkshire
54°06′58″N 1°34′23″W / 54.116111°N 1.573056°W / 54.116111; -1.573056 (Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey)
England 1132 (abbey),
19th century (park)
372; 1986;
i, iv
Before the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the mid-16th century, Fountains Abbey was one of the largest and richest Cistercian abbeys in Britain and is one of only a few that survives from the 12th century. The later garden, which incorporates the abbey, survives to a large extent in its original design and influenced garden design in Europe. [43]
Tower of London Tower of London, Traitors Gate.jpg Tower Hamlets, Greater London
51°30′29″N 0°04′34″W / 51.508056°N 0.076111°W / 51.508056; -0.076111 (Tower of London)
England 11th century 488; 1988;
ii, iv
Begun by William the Conqueror in 1066 during the Norman conquest of England, the Tower of London is a symbol of power and an example of Norman military architecture that spread across England. Additions were made by Henry III and Edward I in the 13th century made the castle one of the most influential buildings of its kind in England. [44]
Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church Palace of Westminster.jpg Westminster, Greater London
51°29′59″N 0°07′43″W / 51.499722°N 0.128611°W / 51.499722; -0.128611 (Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church)
England 10th, 11th, and 19th centuries 426; 1987 (modified in 2008);
i, ii, iv
The site has been involved in the administration of England since the 11th century, and later the United Kingdom. Since the coronation of William the Conqueror, all English and British monarchs have been crowned at Westminster Abbey. Westminster Palace, home to the British Parliament, is an example of Gothic Revival architecture; St Margaret's Church is the palace's parish church, and although it pre-dates the palace and was built in the 11th century, it has been rebuilt since. [45][46][47]

Tentative list

A "tenative list" is a list of important heritage and natural sites that a state part is considering applying to become World Heritage Sites. It is a prerequisite to becoming a World Heritage Site.[48] The UK's tentative list of sites was last updated on 19 January 2006. There are 15 properties on the list.[49]

Name Image Location Country Date UNESCO data[note 3] Description Ref(s)
Cairngorm Mountains Braeriach.jpg Scottish Highlands
57°06′45″N 3°38′08″W / 57.1125°N 3.635556°W / 57.1125; -3.635556 (Cairngorm Mountains)
Scotland n/a 1322; 1999;
vii, viii, ix
Although the Cairngorm Mountains include some of the highest peaks in Scotland and the largest area of land above 1,000 ft (300 m), the proposed site includes varied habitats including glens and moors. [50]
Chatham Naval Dockyard Chatham Gannet1878-001.JPG Chatham, Kent
51°23′53″N 0°32′20″W / 51.398056°N 0.538889°W / 51.398056; -0.538889 (Chatham Dockyard)
England n/a 1309; 1999;
ii, iii, iv
Chatham Dockyard was used to maintain the Royal Navy – an important aspect of Britain's influence through trade and empire – and has remained almost unchanged since it was founded. [51][52]
Darwin's Home and Workplace: Down House and Environs ONBDOWNhouse.jpg Downe, Greater London
51°20′10″N 0°03′35″E / 51.336111°N 0.059722°E / 51.336111; 0.059722 (Darwin's Home and Workplace: Down House and Environs)
England 18th century 1311; 1999;
iii, vi
Charles Darwin lived in Down House from 1842 until his death in 1882; in it, he wrote The Origin of Species. Today the building houses a museum. [53][54]
The Flow Country Sutherland Flow Country.jpg Caithness and Sutherland
58°20′53″N 4°00′33″W / 58.348056°N 4.009167°W / 58.348056; -4.009167 (Flow Country)
Scotland n/a 1323; 1999;
x
The Flow Country is the largest area of peat bog in the world. Supporting a varied ecosystem, the area is the habitat of many rare species of bird. [50]
The Forth Railway Bridge Forthrailbridgefromsouthqueensferry.jpg Between Edinburgh and Fife
56°00′04″N 3°23′23″W / 56.001111°N 3.389722°W / 56.001111; -3.389722 (Forth Railway Bridge)
Scotland 19th century 1324; 1999;
i, ii, iv
The Forth Bridge provides rail links between Edinburgh and Fife; spanning the River Forth, it was the first major bridge in Europe to be constructed of steel. It has been described as "the one internationally recognised Scottish landmark". [55][56]
Foundation Cavern, Anguilla   Anguilla
18°14′48″N 63°01′58″W / 18.246667°N 63.032778°W / 18.246667; -63.032778 (Foundations Cavern, Anguilla)
Anguilla n/a 1328; 1999;
i, ii, iii
The focus of National Park, Foundation Cavern is considered the most important archaeological site in Anguilla. The limestone cavern contains Amerindian glyphs carved into the rock. [57]
Great Western Railway: Paddington–Bristol (selected parts) GWR broad gauge locomotives.jpg London, Greater London, to Bristol
50°52′43″N 1°36′01″W / 50.878611°N 1.600278°W / 50.878611; -1.600278 (Great Western Railway: Paddington-Bristol)
England n/a 1319; 1999;
i, ii, iv, vi
Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel and fully opened in 1841, the Great Western Railway ran from London in the east to Bristol in the west. Most of the railway and its structures are still in use today. Five parts of the railway are proposed: Paddington station, Temple Meads station, the line of bridges over Bristol Harbour, the Box Tunnel, and sections of the line in Bath and Swindon. [58]
Lake District Keswick Panorama - Oct 2009.jpg Cumbria
55°01′09″N 3°14′14″W / 55.019167°N 3.237222°W / 55.019167; -3.237222 (Lake District)
England n/a 703; 1996;
[note 4]
Covering an area of 2,280 square kilometres (880 sq mi), the mountainous region has many lakes and a varied ecosystem. The landscape has inspired the works of William Wordsworth and the Lake Poets. [59]
New Forest New Forest scene 01.jpg Hampshire and Wiltshire
50°52′43″N 1°36′01″W / 50.878611°N 1.600278°W / 50.878611; -1.600278 (New Forest)
England n/a 1318; 1999;
[note 5]
The New Forest has both a rich natural history and its archaeological record bears testament to the human intervention in the area for thousands of years. The area has been used as a hunting ground and to provide timber for the Royal Navy. [60]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A mixed site is one that falls under both natural and cultural criteria.
  2. ^ The UNESCO specific information is the site reference number, the year the site was inscribe on the World Heritage List, and the criteria it was listed under.
  3. ^ The UNESCO specific information is the site reference number, the year the site was nominated, and the criteria it was proposed under.
  4. ^ The Lake District is proposed as a mixed site, meaning it would be covered under both natural and cultural criteria; however the UNESCO website does not state which criteria it has been submitted under.
  5. ^ The New Forest is proposed as a mixed site, meaning it would be covered under both natural and cultural criteria; however the UNESCO website does not state which criteria it has been submitted under.

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b c United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/gb, retrieved 2009-08-16  
  2. ^ FCO global network, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/fco-in-action/global-network/, retrieved 2009-08-17  
  3. ^ UNESCO Constitution, UNESCO, http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=15244&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html, retrieved 2009-08-17  
  4. ^ Funding, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, http://www.culture.gov.uk/ukwhportal/funding.htm, retrieved 2009-08-17  
  5. ^ The Criteria for Selection, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/criteria/, retrieved 2009-07-27  
  6. ^ Aqueduct crowned world 'wonder', BBC Online, 27 June 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/north_east/8115190.stm, retrieved 2009-08-17  
  7. ^ About us, The United Kingdom National Commission for UNESCO, http://www.unesco.org.uk/About_Us.htm, retrieved 2009-08-17  
  8. ^ Andy Burnham launches debate on the future designation of World Heritage Sites in the UK, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 2 December 2008, http://www.culture.gov.uk/reference_library/media_releases/5640.aspx, retrieved 2009-08-17  
  9. ^ a b c World Heritage List, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list, retrieved 2009-07-27  
  10. ^ New publication spotlights St Kilda, Scottish Natural Heritage, 9 December 2004, http://www.snh.org.uk/nnr-scotland/news_detail.asp?newsID=12, retrieved 2009-08-16  
  11. ^ Dual World Heritage Status For Unique Scottish Islands, National Trust for Scotland, 14 July 2005, http://www.kilda.org.uk/frame26.htm, retrieved 2009-08-16  
  12. ^ Blaenavon Industrial Landscape, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/984, retrieved 2009-07-28  
  13. ^ Blenheim Palace, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/425, retrieved 2009-07-27  
  14. ^ Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/496, retrieved 2009-08-15  
  15. ^ Church of St Martin, Images of England, http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=441523, retrieved 2009-08-16  
  16. ^ St Augustine's Abbey, Pastscape, http://www.pastscape.org.uk/hob.aspx?hob_id=464466&sort=2&type=&rational=a&class1=None&period=None&county=None&district=None&parish=None&place=&recordsperpage=10&source=text&rtype=monument&rnumber=464629, retrieved 2009-08-16  
  17. ^ Liddiard (2005), p. 9.
  18. ^ Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/374, retrieved 2009-08-12  
  19. ^ City of Bath, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/428, retrieved 2009-07-29  
  20. ^ Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/488, retrieved 2009-08-12  
  21. ^ Derwent Valley Mills, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1030, retrieved 2009-07-27  
  22. ^ Derwent Valley Mills Partnership (2000), pp. 30–31, 96.
  23. ^ Dorset and East Devon Coast, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1029, retrieved 2009-07-29  
  24. ^ Durham Castle and Cathedral, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/370, retrieved 2009-07-27  
  25. ^ Frontiers of the Roman Empire, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/488, retrieved 2009-07-28  
  26. ^ Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/369, retrieved 2009-07-28  
  27. ^ Gough and Inaccessible Island, UNESCO, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/740, retrieved 2009-08-12  
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Biliography
  • Benvie, Neil (2000), Scotland's Wildlife, London: Aurum Press  
  • Derwent Valley Mills Partnership (2000), Nomination of the Derwent Valley Mills for inscription on the World Heritage List, Derwent Valley Mills Partnership  
  • Keay, J; Keay, J (1994), Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland, London: Harper Collins, ISBN 0-00-255082-2  
  • Liddiard, Robert (2005), Castles in Context: Power, Symbolism and Landscape, 1066 to 1500, Macclesfield: Windgather Press Ltd, ISBN 0-9545575-2-2  
  • Thornbury, Walter (1878), "St Margaret's Westminster", Old and New London (Victoria County History) 3, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=45176#s2  

External links

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