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World Trade Organization (English)
Organisation mondiale du commerce (French)
Organización Mundial del Comercio (Spanish)

     WTO founder members (January 1, 1995)     WTO subsequent members
Formation January 1, 1995
Headquarters Centre William Rappard, Geneva, Switzerland
Membership 153 member states
Official languages English, French, Spanish[1]
Director-General Pascal Lamy
Budget .189 million Swiss francs (approx.^ The WTO budget is around US$83 million (105 million Swiss Francs) with individual contributions calculated on the basis of shares in the total trade conducted by WTO members.
  • The Structure of WTO 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.econ.iastate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

182 million USD) in 2009.[2]
Staff 625[3]
Website www.wto.int
.The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international organization designed by its founders to supervise and liberalize international trade.^ World Trade Organization (WTO) ruling on GMOs: what impact on nanotech?
  • Nanotechbuzz: World Trade Organization (WTO) ruling on GMOs: what impact on nanotech? 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.nanotechbuzz.com [Source type: News]

^ Jordan, Dumping and the world Trade Organization.
  • Jordan's Membership to the World Trade Organization (WTO) 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.mit.gov.jo [Source type: Academic]

^ What did the World Trade Organization do in an effort to promote international agreements?
  • World Trade Organization Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1947.
.The World Trade Organization deals with regulation of trade between participating countries; it provides a framework for negotiating and formalising trade agreements, and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements which are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their parliaments.^ China and Canada signed bilateral agreement on China's entry into World Trade Organization.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What did the World Trade Organization do in an effort to promote international agreements?
  • World Trade Organization Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

^ Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (1994).
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

[4][5] .Most of the issues that the WTO focuses on derive from previous trade negotiations, especially from the Uruguay Round (1986-1994).^ Trade negotiators will continue to negotiate at the WTO; that is, after all, what trade negotiators do.
  • The Vanishing WTO - Council on Foreign Relations 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cfr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Environmentalists first became concerned about trade issues during the Uruguay Round negotiations, which lasted from 1986 to 1994.
  • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The WTO was created through a series of trade negotiations, called rounds.
  • The World Trade Organization
    Why We Protest
    6 January 2010 8:26 UTC gbgm-umc.org [Source type: News]

.The organization is currently endeavouring to persist with a trade negotiation called the Doha Development Agenda (or Doha Round), which was launched in 2001 to enhance equitable participation of poorer countries which represent a majority of the world's population.^ Progress in negotiations on conclusion of the World Trade Organisation Doha Development Round, and fight against protectionism ...
  • Russia & CIS World Trade Organization News - International Trade News Today 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC trade.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Andean Countries-European Union: fourth round of trade negotiations .
  • SICE: What's New in SICE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.sice.oas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The WTO launched the ninth round of multilateral trade negotiations under the "Doha Development Agenda" (DDA or Doha Round) in 2001.

.However, the negotiation has been dogged by "disagreement between exporters of agricultural bulk commodities and countries with large numbers of subsistence farmers on the precise terms of a 'special safeguard measure' to protect farmers from surges in imports.^ After 2013, countries would have to enact safeguards against all exporters if they feel imports are hurting domestic industry -- a tariff measure the Bush administration tried with steel in 2002 but was forced to remove in 2003.
  • China readies to fight safeguard tariffs at WTO By Reuters 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.forexpros.com [Source type: News]

^ For example, the liberalization of the agricultural sector resulted in large increases in farmers’ incomes as well as a greater and more varied supply of food.

^ When the U.S. rejected demands by India and other developing countries for a "special safeguard mechanism" allowing them to protect domestic farmers against surges in imports, India and its allies threatened to abandon ship.
  • TRADE: A Lost Decade for the WTO? - IPS ipsnews.net 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

.At this time, the future of the Doha Round is uncertain."^ Decision time for the Doha trade round .
  • International Affairs Forum 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ia-forum.org [Source type: News]

^ Taipei Times Key WTO members meet tomorrow to discuss Doha Round .
  • WTO - Information, News and Pictures - WSJ.com 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC topics.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ The World Trade Organisation's Doha round of trade talks is coming to a head and the future of the world's poor hangs in the balance.
  • YouTube - the truth behind the WTO by War on Want 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.youtube.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.The WTO has 153 members,[7] representing more than 97% of total world trade[8] and 30 observers, most seeking membership.^ Palestinians seek observer status at WTO .
  • World Trade Organization - Blogrunner 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]
  • World Trade Organization - Blogrunner 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Understanding the WTO - what is the world trade organization?
  • World Trade Organization (WTO): [Page 2] - Business Exchange 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC bx.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World Trade Organization: WTO / GATT Home page more .
  • World Trade Organization (WTO): [Page 2] - Business Exchange 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC bx.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The WTO is governed by a ministerial conference, meeting every two years; a general council, which implements the conference's policy decisions and is responsible for day-to-day administration; and a director-general, who is appointed by the ministerial conference.^ The first day of the WTO meeting was canceled.
  • The WTO Effect « Publicola 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC publicola.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Decision of the [WTO] General Council of 30 August 2003.
  • Patent Exception for Exports for Health Needs 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cptech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Highest level: Ministerial Conference The topmost decision-making body of the WTO is the Ministerial Conference, which has to meet at least every two years.

.The WTO's headquarters is at the Centre William Rappard, Geneva, Switzerland.^ World Trade Organization Headquarters hotels in Geneva, Switzerland .
  • World Trade Organization Headquarters hotels in Geneva, Switzerland 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.expedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Close Caption U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk, seen, during a press conference after the closing ceremony of the 7th Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) at the International Conference Centre Geneva (CICG), in Geneva, Switzerland, Wednesday, Dec.
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  • World Trade Organization - News - Road Runner 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.rr.com [Source type: News]
  • World Trade Organization - News - Road Runner 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC websearch.timewarnercable.com [Source type: News]

^ Diplomats pledged to continue talking in Geneva, the WTO's headquarters, with a formal meeting to be held no later than December 15th.
  • World Trade Organization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.latter-rain.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

History

ITO and GATT 1947

.
Harry Dexter White (l) and John Maynard Keynes at the Bretton Woods Conference – Both economists had been strong advocates of a liberal international trade environment, and recommended the establishment of three institutions: the IMF (fiscal and monetary issues), the World Bank (financial and structural issues), and the ITO (international economic cooperation).
^ An institution created with the IMF at BRETTON WOODS in 1944 and opened in 1946.
  • Economics A-Z | Economist.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.economist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Bretton Woods Conference of 1944 proposed the creation of an International Trade Organization (ITO) to establish rules and regulations for trade between countries.

^ We both have a strong interest in Asia and in economic development and in trade policies.

[9]
.The WTO's predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), was established after World War II in the wake of other new multilateral institutions dedicated to international economic cooperation - notably the Bretton Woods institutions known as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.^ What did the World Trade Organization do in an effort to promote international agreements?
  • World Trade Organization Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

^ Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (1994).
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Council for Trade in Goods- The workings of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which covers international trade in goods, are the responsibility of the Council for Trade in Goods.

.A comparable international institution for trade, named the International Trade Organization was successfully negotiated.^ Although the book acknowledges...the focus is on how the World Trade Organization (WTO) can best resolve...China's quest to join the World Trade Organization , the multilateral institution...
  • World Trade Organization Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

^ The GATT functioned de facto as an organization, conducting eight rounds of talks addressing various trade issues and resolving international trade disputes.

^ The negotiation, however, encompasses industrial products, international services, intellectual property rights, government procurement, health and safety regulation, to name a few.
  • World Trade Organization not so far away 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ITO was to be a United Nations specialized agency and would address not only trade barriers but other issues indirectly related to trade, including employment, investment, restrictive business practices, and commodity agreements.^ "The Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMS) applies only to measures that affect trade in goods.
  • What's wrong with the WTO? WTO Treaties 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.speakeasy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement 11.
  • World Trade Organization - California Chamber of Commerce 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.calchamber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to its preamble, the purpose of the GATT is the "substantial reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers and the elimination of preferences, on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis."

.But the ITO treaty was not approved by the United States and a few other signatories and never went into effect.^ The curfew went into effect at 7 p.m.
  • Save the Redwoods - Boycott the Gap Tear-gassed at Seattle WTO Protests 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.gapsucks.org [Source type: News]

^ SEATTLE (CNN) -- A curfew went into effect late Tuesday, as Washington Governor Gary Locke called up unarmed units of the state's National Guard to help keep a lid on anti-World Trade Organization protests that turned violent.
  • CNN - Curfew in effect as Seattle struggles to control WTO protests - November 30, 1999 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ The United States started this trend, signing the controversial North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), pacts with Israel and Jordan, and several others.
  • The Vanishing WTO - Council on Foreign Relations 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cfr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10][11][12]
.In the absence of an international organization for trade, the GATT would over the years "transform itself" into a de facto international organization.^ Trade, which would later evolve into the World Trade Organization .
  • Russia & CIS World Trade Organization News - International Trade News Today 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC trade.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Until a few years ago, the WTO and its predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), have focused mostly on manufactured goods.
  • USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) — Forest Products 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.usda.gov [Source type: News]

^ That Round, which got underway at Punta del Este, Uruguay in September 1986, would ultimately culminate in the founding of the World Trade Organization almost a decade later.
  • Information, Commodification and the World Trade Organization - 66th IFLA Council and General Conference - Conference Programme and Proceedings 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Original source]

[13]

GATT rounds of negotiations

.The GATT was the only multilateral instrument governing international trade from 1948 until the WTO was established in 1995.[14] Despite attempts in the mid 1950s and 1960s to create some form of institutional mechanism for international trade, the GATT continued to operate for almost half a century as a semi-institutionalized multilateral treaty regime on a provisional basis.^ The WTO's precursor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), had been established in 1948.
  • CRS Report: RS20387 - The World Trade Organization (WTO) Seattle Ministerial Conference - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.ncseonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The WTO is the only international agency overseeing the rules of international trade.
  • BBC NEWS | Europe | Country profiles | Profile: World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ "The WTO was formally established in 1995 to replace the GATT and deal with its shortcomings.
  • WTO Special Page, witiger.com 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.witiger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]

From Geneva to Tokyo

.Seven rounds of negotiations occurred under the GATT. The first GATT trade rounds concentrated on further reducing tariffs.^ General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade The GATT completed 8 rounds of multilateral trade negotiations (MTNs).
  • World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peru-Japan: first round of trade negotiations .
  • SICE: What's New in SICE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.sice.oas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Costa Rica-China free trade negotiations: First round of negotiations .
  • SICE: What's New in SICE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.sice.oas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Then, the Kennedy Round in the mid-sixties brought about a GATT anti-dumping Agreement and a section on development.^ The WTO, established in January 1, 1995, is the outcome of the Uruguay Round of trade talks, held from 1986 to 1993 under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
  • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sections of agreements that work to the disadvantage of developing countries must be changed, including agriculture, TRIPS, textiles, and the dispute settlement system.
  • Foreign Policy in Focus | WTO and Developing Countries 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fpif.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historical Development of China's WTO Accession (1986~ September 2001) China was one of the 23 original signatories of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1948.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Tokyo Round during the seventies was the first major attempt to tackle trade barriers that do not take the form of tariffs, and to improve the system, adopting a series of agreements on non-tariff barriers, which in some cases interpreted existing GATT rules, and in others broke entirely new ground.^ General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade The GATT completed 8 rounds of multilateral trade negotiations (MTNs).
  • World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement 11.
  • World Trade Organization - California Chamber of Commerce 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.calchamber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GATT 1994: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, Apr.
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

.Because these plurilateral agreements were not accepted by the full GATT membership, they were often informally called "codes". Several of these codes were amended in the Uruguay Round, and turned into multilateral commitments accepted by all WTO members.^ Membership in these Committees shall be open to representatives of all Members.
  • Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.jurisint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But WTO members can choose to join or not join the agreements.
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^ There also are 12 other multilateral agreements, which are agreements signed by all of the WTO member governments: 1.
  • World Trade Organization - California Chamber of Commerce 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.calchamber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only four remained plurilateral (those on government procurement, bovine meat, civil aircraft and dairy products), but in 1997 WTO Members agreed to terminate the bovine meat and dairy agreements, leaving only two.^ The plurilateral agreements, which create obligations only for signatories, were also annexed to the WTO Agreement.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

^ It is plurilateral - only some WTO members have signed it so far.
  • What's wrong with the WTO? WTO Treaties 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.speakeasy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But WTO members can choose to join or not join the agreements.
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  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]

Uruguay Round

.
During the Doha Round, the US government blamed Brazil and India for being inflexible, and the EU for impeding agricultural imports.
^ Doha Round: what India’s new government needs to do .
  • WTO | East Asia Forum 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.eastasiaforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The future of World Trade Organization's Doha pact is under doubt, EU Trade Commissioner Peter Mandelson said Thursday, as talks between the United States, European Union, India and Brazil broke down.
  • World Trade Organization: News & Videos about World Trade Organization - CNN.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ At press briefings, the Ministers of the US, EU, Brazil, India, and Japan gave their versions of the collapse of the talks.
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  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, responded to the criticisms by arguing that progress would only be achieved if the richest countries (especially the US and countries in the EU) make deeper cuts in their agricultural subsidies, and further open their markets for agricultural goods.^ Therefore, the US would demand greater market openness from China.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tags : FINANCE , safeguard , tariff , World Bank , World Trade Organization Research articles 2008-08-18 Brazil's president consulting with US, China, India over WTO SAO PAULO AFP — Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva announced Saturday that he has launched consultations with the United States, China and India to salvage world trade talks that recently collapsed.
  • world trade organization Resources | BNET 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: News]

^ The United States has tried to convince the rest of the world to adopt a new set of trading rules for agriculture that would eliminate export subsidies, significantly reduce trade-distorting domestic agricultural support, and significantly increase market access for U.S. agricultural exports.
  • World Trade Organization not so far away 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.Well before GATT's 40th anniversary, its members concluded that the GATT system was straining to adapt to a new globalizing world economy.^ Bretton Woods System GATT IMF WORLD BANK The GATT had functioned as an international organization for many years even though it was never been formalized as such.
  • World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1980s WEF provided much of the input and impetuous to the Uruguay round of GATT which subsequently led to the formation of the WTO. The founder members include the world's 1000 foremost global companies.

^ And the increased reliance of these developing economies on First World corporations has meant some valuable new lessons for their populations in times of financial lack.
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[18][19] .In response to the problems identified in the 1982 Ministerial Declaration (structural deficiencies, spill-over impacts of certain countries' policies on world trade GATT could not manage etc.^ The WTO is responsible for monitoring national trading policies, handling trade disputes, and enforcing the GATT agreements, which are designed to reduce tariffs and other barriers to international trade and to eliminate discriminatory treatment in international commerce.
  • World Trade Organization Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: News]

^ Countries participating in this freer global trade environment help expand the world economy and increase their own citizens’ level of prosperity.
  • USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) — Forest Products 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.fas.usda.gov [Source type: News]

^ The discussions, Mari said, are a preliminary response, but if no solution is found, then “at the end, it will be taken to the World Trade Organization.” .
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), the eighth .GATT round — known as the Uruguay Round — was launched in September 1986, in Punta del Este, Uruguay.^ Launch at Punta del Este in September 1986 and concluded at Marrakesh in April 1994, the Uruguay Round in fact comprised a series of interrelated negotiations among the 125 member governments of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

^ That Round, which got underway at Punta del Este, Uruguay in September 1986, would ultimately culminate in the founding of the World Trade Organization almost a decade later.
  • Information, Commodification and the World Trade Organization - 66th IFLA Council and General Conference - Conference Programme and Proceedings 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The WTO Documents Online database contains documents from 1995 to the present and selected material for the period 1986-1994, including Uruguay Round documents and a small number of GATT documents.
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

[18]
.It was the biggest negotiating mandate on trade ever agreed: the talks were going to extend the trading system into several new areas, notably trade in services and intellectual property, and to reform trade in the sensitive sectors of agriculture and textiles; all the original GATT articles were up for review.^ "The original GATT did apply to agricultural trade, but it contained loopholes.
  • What's wrong with the WTO? WTO Treaties 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.speakeasy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agriculture , Multilateral negotiations , Trade .
  • WTO | East Asia Forum 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.eastasiaforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don’t agree with Fox News, but I’m not going to log into their network.
  • The WTO is making sense - Paul Krugman Blog - NYTimes.com 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC krugman.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

[19] .The Final Act concluding the Uruguay Round and officially establishing the WTO regime was signed during the April 1994 ministerial meeting at Marrakesh, Morocco, and hence is known as the Marrakesh Agreement.^ The 3rd WTO Ministerial Conference is the official WTO site for the meeting.
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^ The Uruguay Round agreements were signed on April 15, 1994, and went into force on January 1, 1995.
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Final Act is a "technical agreement" which instates the WTO as a World body.
  • WTO IMF FBI SWAT PR Y2K G7 MAI 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC mediafilter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.The GATT still exists as the WTO's umbrella treaty for trade in goods, updated as a result of the Uruguay Round negotiations (a distinction is made between GATT 1994, the updated parts of GATT, and GATT 1947, the original agreement which is still the heart of GATT 1994).^ General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade The GATT completed 8 rounds of multilateral trade negotiations (MTNs).
  • World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Since 1995, the updated GATT has become the WTO's umbrella agreement for trade in goods.
  • What's wrong with the WTO? WTO Treaties 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.speakeasy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WTO trade rounds .
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .GATT 1994 is not however the only legally binding agreement included via the Final Act at Marrakesh; a long list of about 60 agreements, annexes, decisions and understandings was adopted.^ The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 as specified in Annex 1A (hereinafter referred to as "GATT 1994") is legally distinct from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, dated 30 October 1947, annexed to the Final Act Adopted at the Conclusion of the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment, as subsequently rectified, amended or modified (herein­after referred to as "GATT 1947").
  • Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.jurisint.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Launch at Punta del Este in September 1986 and concluded at Marrakesh in April 1994, the Uruguay Round in fact comprised a series of interrelated negotiations among the 125 member governments of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

^ However, political leaders have a responsibility to act in the long-term interests of their populations rather than responding to every short-term demand with a quick fix.
  • Trade Obstacles Will Prolong the Economic Crisis - WSJ.com 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

The agreements fall into a structure with six main parts:

Ministerial conferences

First ministerial conference

The inaugural ministerial conference was held in Singapore in 1996. Disagreements between largely developed and developing economies emerged during this conference over four issues initiated by this conference, which led to them being collectively referred to as the "Singapore issues".

Second ministerial conference

.Was held in Geneva in Switzerland.^ Was held in Geneva in Switzerland.

Third ministerial conference

.The third conference in Seattle, Washington ended in failure, with massive demonstrations and police and National Guard crowd control efforts drawing worldwide attention.^ The third conference in Seattle, Washington ended in failure, with massive demonstrations and police and National Guard crowd control efforts drawing worldwide attention.

^ The conference itself ended in failure, with massive demonstrations and riots drawing worldwide attention.

^ While the majority were non-violent protestors, a small group started some violence and looting that led to the Seattle police and National Guard declaring a state of emergency (it was even termed as Martial Law by the Mayor of Seattle at one point).
  • WTO Protests in Seattle, 1999 — Global Issues 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fourth ministerial conference

.Was held in Doha In Persian Gulf nation of Qatar.^ Monday Mar 11, 2002 TWO NEW UNEP REPORTS ON TRADE, WTO AND THE ENVIRONMENT The United Nations Environment Programme's Economics and Trade Unit has released two new papers for the Fourth WTO Ministerial Conference, that was held in Doha, Qatar on 9 November 2001.

^ Doha Development Agenda (WTO) This page is a gateway to WTO information on the agenda set by the Ministerial Conference held in Doha, Qatar (November 2001).
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  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This WTO meeting agenda was very ambitious and held in the Persian Gulf state of Qatar — only 1,000 miles from the fighting in Afghanistan.
  • World Trade Organization - California Chamber of Commerce 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.calchamber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Doha Development Round was launched at the conference.^ It was considered vital if the four-year-old Doha Development Agenda negotiations were to move forward sufficiently to conclude the round in 2006.

^ This may be because many of the forces that surfaced in Seattle are still protagonists in the current impasse over the "Doha Round" of trade negotiations, launched in 2001 in the capital of Qatar.
  • TRADE: A Lost Decade for the WTO? - IPS ipsnews.net 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

^ Progress in negotiations on conclusion of the World Trade Organisation Doha Development Round, and fight against protectionism ...
  • Russia & CIS World Trade Organization News - International Trade News Today 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC trade.einnews.com [Source type: News]

.The conference also approved the joining of China, which became the 143rd member to join.^ China waited 30 days and officially became a member of the WTO on Tuesday, December 11, 2001.
  • World Trade Organization - California Chamber of Commerce 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.calchamber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On September 9, 2004, Cambodia completed the ratification of its invitation to join the WTO. It became a formal member of the organization on October 13, 2004.
  • World Trade Organization - California Chamber of Commerce 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.calchamber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mexico had insisted it must maintain measures against similar goods from China for up to 15 years after China became a member of WTO. .
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fifth ministerial conference

.The ministerial conference was held in Cancún, Mexico, aiming at forging agreement on the Doha round.^ The ministerial conference was held in Cancún, Mexico , aiming at forging agreement on the Doha round.

^ September 10 - September 14, 2003 - 5th ministerial conference in Cancún, Mexico aims at forging agreement on the Doha round.

^ Delegates attending the World Trade Organisation's first ministerial conference for four years will review the WTO's activities but take no decisions on its long-running Doha round, Director-General Pascal Lamy said.
  • World Trade Organization - Blogrunner 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]
  • World Trade Organization - Blogrunner 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

.An alliance of 22 southern states, the G20 developing nations (led by India, China[22] and Brazil), resisted demands from the North for agreements on the so-called "Singapore issues" and called for an end to agricultural subsidies within the EU and the US. The talks broke down without progress.^ The talks have been bogged down with differences between wealthy and developing nations.

^ An alliance of 22 southern states, the G20 (led by India, China and Brazil), resisted demands from the North for agreements on the so-called " Singapore issues" and called for an end to agricultural subsidies within the EU and the US. The talks broke down without progress.

^ EU's trade talks with China break down (3/31/00) .
  • seattlep-i.com: World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.seattlepi.com [Source type: News]

Sixth ministerial conference

.The sixth WTO ministerial conference was held in Hong Kong from 13 December – 18 December 2005. It was considered vital if the four-year-old Doha Development Agenda negotiations were to move forward sufficiently to conclude the round in 2006. In this meeting, countries agreed to phase out all their agricultural export subsidies by the end of 2013, and terminate any cotton export subsidies by the end of 2006. Further concessions to developing countries included an agreement to introduce duty free, tariff free access for goods from the Least Developed Countries, following the Everything But Arms initiative of the European Union — but with up to 3% of tariff lines exempted.^ The European Union, for instance, denied it had ever promised to get rid of export subsidies.
  • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WTO members have also agreed in principle to phase them out."
  • WTO & Trade Negotiation - Seattle Meeting, 1999 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC faculty.washington.edu [Source type: News]

^ China and the European Union (EU) held WTO talks in Beijing.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other major issues were left for further negotiation to be completed by the end of 2010.

Seventh ministerial conference

.The WTO General Council, on 26 May 2009, agreed to hold a seventh WTO ministerial conference session in Geneva from 30 November–3 December 2009. A statement by chairman Amb.^ Smash WTO - Geneva, November 28th, 2009 .
  • World Trade Organization - International Organizations - World - news 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.wikio.com [Source type: News]

^ Decision of the [WTO] General Council of 30 August 2003.
  • Patent Exception for Exports for Health Needs 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cptech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Seventh WTO Ministerial Conference will take place from 30 November to 2 December 2009, in Geneva, Switzerland .
  • SICE: What's New in SICE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.sice.oas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mario Matus acknowledged that the prime purpose was to remedy a breach of protocol requiring two-yearly "regular" meetings, which had lapsed with the Doha Round failure in 2005, and that the "scaled-down" meeting would not be a negotiating session, but "emphasis will be on transparency and open discussion rather than on small group processes and informal negotiating structures". The general theme for discussion is "The WTO, the Multilateral Trading System and the Current Global Economic Environment"[23]

Doha Round

The Doha Development Round started in 2001 and continues today.
.The WTO launched the current round of negotiations, the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) or Doha Round, at the fourth ministerial conference in Doha, Qatar in November 2001. The Doha round was to be an ambitious effort to make globalization more inclusive and help the world's poor, particularly by slashing barriers and subsidies in farming.^ The last time global negotiations collapsed like this was in Doha in 2001.
  • World Trade Organization - Blogrunner 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]
  • World Trade Organization - Blogrunner 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ Yes, this is a WTO summit at which negotiation is not on the agenda.
  • Eyes on Trade: WTO 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC citizen.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WTO Doha Ministerial: reports and analyses (Third World Network) .
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .The initial agenda comprised both further trade liberalization and new rule-making, underpinned by commitments to strengthen substantial assistance to developing countries.^ Developed Countries renege on their Doha commitments.
  • Patent Exception for Exports for Health Needs 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cptech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We remain committed to further trade liberalization.
  • Eyes on Trade: WTO 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC citizen.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further concessions to developing countries included an agreement to introduce duty free, tariff free access for goods from the Least Developed Countries, following the Everything But Arms initiative of the European Union - but with up 3% of tariff lines exempted.

[25]
.The negotiations have been highly contentious and agreement has not been reached, despite the intense negotiations at several ministerial conferences and at other sessions.^ The first ministerial conference, held in Singapore in December 1996, produced an agreement to reduce tariffs on computers, telecommunications equipment, and other information technology products.
  • WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ At the sixth ministerial conference, held in Hong Kong in December 2005, delegates reached agreement in principle on the abolition of agricultural export subsidies by 2013.
  • WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ The fifth ministerial conference, held in Cancún, Mexico, in September 2003, ended in acrimony when rich and poor nations were unable to reach consensus on agricultural policy.
  • WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

.Disagreements still continue over several key areas including agriculture subsidies.^ Agriculture: why the EU, US offers are not good enough (Third World Network) Though there are problems in all the critical areas of agriculture, the key questions are in the domestic subsidy of the developed countries.
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several hundred more continued a protest outside the King County Jail, calling for the release of more than 300 protesters still awaiting processing after arrest.
  • WTO (WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION) SEATTLE PROTEST 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

^ The gathering of 29 members of the World Trade Organization, including Canada, failed to find common ground on reducing agricultural subsidies.

[26]
GATT and WTO trade rounds[27]
Name Start Duration Countries Subjects covered Achievements
Geneva April 1947 7 months 23 Tariffs Signing of GATT, 45,000 tariff concessions affecting $10 billion of trade
Annecy April 1949 5 months 13 Tariffs Countries exchanged some 5,000 tariff concessions
Torquay September 1950 8 months 38 Tariffs Countries exchanged some 8,700 tariff concessions, cutting the 1948 tariff levels by 25%
Geneva II January 1956 5 months 26 Tariffs, admission of Japan $2.5 billion in tariff reductions
Dillon September 1960 11 months 26 Tariffs Tariff concessions worth $4.9 billion of world trade
Kennedy May 1964 37 months 62 Tariffs, Anti-dumping Tariff concessions worth $40 billion of world trade
Tokyo September 1973 74 months 102 Tariffs, non-tariff measures, "framework" agreements Tariff reductions worth more than $300 billion dollars achieved
Uruguay September 1986 87 months 123 Tariffs, non-tariff measures, rules, services, intellectual property, dispute settlement, textiles, agriculture, creation of WTO, etc .The round led to the creation of WTO, and extended the range of trade negotiations, leading to major reductions in tariffs (about 40%) and agricultural subsidies, an agreement to allow full access for textiles and clothing from developing countries, and an extension of intellectual property rights.^ Filed Under: brazil , intellectual property , trade agreements , wto .
  • Wto stories at Techdirt. 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ What the WTO drug agreement allows countries to do.
  • Patent Exception for Exports for Health Needs 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cptech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agriculture , Multilateral negotiations , Trade .
  • WTO | East Asia Forum 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.eastasiaforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Doha November 2001 ? 141 Tariffs, non-tariff measures, agriculture, labor standards, environment, competition, investment, transparency, patents etc The round is not yet concluded.

Functions

Among the various functions of the WTO, these are regarded by analysts as the most important:
.
  • It oversees the implementation, administration and operation of the covered agreements.^ Uruguay Round Trade Agreements, Text of Agreements, Implementing Bill, Statement of Administrative Action, and Required Supporting Statements: Message from the President of the United States Transmitting the Uruguay Round Trade Agreements, Texts of Agreements, Implementing Bill, Statement of Administrative Action and Required Supporting Statements.
    • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

    [28][29]
  • .
  • It provides a forum for negotiations and for settling disputes.^ This seems to be done by providing panels with guidance on what negotiators had intended in the texts - a negotiating history of sorts and notes to panels - but behind the backs of the parties to the dispute.
    • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Third, the WTO provides a forum for negotiations to reduce trade barriers.
    • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

    [30][31]
.Additionally, it is the WTO's duty to review and propagate the national trade policies, and to ensure the coherence and transparency of trade policies through surveillance in global economic policy-making.^ The economic and trade reforms pursued by Morocco since its previous Trade Policy Review in 2003 have contributed to the positive overall performance ...
  • WTO, World Trade Organization, WTO News, Global Trade Watch - Fibre2fashion 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.fibre2fashion.com [Source type: News]

^ Jump to full article: AP, 2006-03-20 Intro: America's open market remains a key engine of global economic growth, but the United States runs the risk of a backlash at home in favor of protectionism, the World Trade Organization said in a review of U.S. commerce policy.
  • Articles:Listing Wto 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is in conformity with the Marrakesh Declaration on the Contribution of the WTO to Achieving Greater Coherence in Global Economic Policymaking, requiring more effective coordination between the WTO and other international institutions.
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29][31] .Another priority of the WTO is the assistance of developing, least-developed and low-income countries in transition to adjust to WTO rules and disciplines through technical cooperation and training.^ Or another manifestation of asymmetries in WTO rules?
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thailand responded by saying its customs and fiscal laws were fully consistent with WTO rules, and it hoped to resolve the matter through bilateral talks.
  • Articles:Listing Wto 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flawed WTO drugs deal will do little to secure future access to medicines in developing countries.
  • Patent Exception for Exports for Health Needs 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cptech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
.The WTO is also a center of economic research and analysis: regular assessments of the global trade picture in its annual publications and research reports on specific topics are produced by the organization.^ Taiwan officially joined the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), marking a significant milestone in its participation in the global trading...
  • WTO, World Trade Organization, WTO News, Global Trade Watch - Fibre2fashion 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.fibre2fashion.com [Source type: News]

^ Consider that in 2006 a fifth of U.S. manufacturing jobs were generated by exports, directly or indirectly, according to the latest annual report of the U.S. Council of Economic Advisers.
  • Trade Obstacles Will Prolong the Economic Crisis - WSJ.com 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

^ WTO rules must accommodate trade-related measures to coordinate responses to global environmental challenges."
  • Eyes on Trade: WTO 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC citizen.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .Finally, the WTO cooperates closely with the two other components of the Bretton Woods system, the IMF and the World Bank.^ EU experience in WTO system: competitiveness improvement and cooperation opportunities - official languages: Ukrainian, English, Russian ( simultaneous translation) - additional networking events .
  • WTO - Home 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC ua-wto.com [Source type: News]

^ Those waging war are aiming to convert the whole world into one big business, with WTO, World Bank, IMF, OECD, and the President of the United States as the board of directors.
  • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I do think that the WTO was the greatest advance in multilateral governance since the Bretton Woods institutions were set up.
  • The man who built the WTO: an interview with Peter Sutherland | openDemocracy 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

[30]

Principles of the trading system

.The WTO establishes a framework for trade policies; it does not define or specify outcomes.^ Established by a treaty signed in April 1994, concluding the 8-year-long Uruguay Round of international trade negotiations, the WTO began operations on Jan.
  • WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ The WTO, established in January 1, 1995, is the outcome of the Uruguay Round of trade talks, held from 1986 to 1993 under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
  • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The very mechanics of the WTO, which are skewed in favor of corporations and trade, pre-ordain this outcome.
  • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

.That is, it is concerned with setting the rules of the trade policy games.^ Introduces the theory, rules and institutions that govern international trade and related areas, including development, investment, intellectual property, the environment, labor, and competition policy.
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

^ First, the governments of the member countries agree on a set of multilateral rules and principles for trade, which provide a stable and predictable basis for trade.
  • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In each instance the WTO has ruled such policies to be illegal trade barrier that must be eliminated or changed.
  • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

[34] Five principles are of particular importance in understanding both the pre-1994 GATT and the WTO:
  1. Non-Discrimination. .It has two major components: the most favoured nation (MFN) rule, and the national treatment policy.^ The EU negotiated a waiver for the Lome Convention for Uruguay Round Most Favored Nation (MFN) tariff requirements.
    • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ MFN - Any trade concession a nation offers to one member, it must offer to all National Treatment.
    • World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Another concern is the renewal of proposals for a transatlantic free market, which implies a particularly privileged access between two markets that might be denied to others, breaching the most favoured nation principle , which is fundamental to the multilateral system.
    • The man who built the WTO: an interview with Peter Sutherland | openDemocracy 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Both are embedded in the main WTO rules on goods, services, and intellectual property, but their precise scope and nature differ across these areas.^ WTO also broke new ground, adding a number of trade sectors and issues not addressed by the GATT GATT to WTO The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) adds services Trade in Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) adds copyrights, and patents Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMs) sets rules for Foreign Direct Investment.
    • World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Introduces the theory, rules and institutions that govern international trade and related areas, including development, investment, intellectual property, the environment, labor, and competition policy.
    • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ For the first time, agriculture, services, intellectual property rights, trade-related investment measures, and textile and apparel trade were brought under the discipline of multilateral rules.
    • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

    The MFN rule requires that a WTO member must apply the same conditions on all trade with other WTO members, i.e. a WTO member has to grant the most favorable conditions under which it allows trade in a certain product type to all other WTO members.[34] ."Grant someone a special favour and you have to do the same for all other WTO members."^ By January 2007, with the admission of Vietnam after 12 years of negotiation, WTO membership had increased to 150, including the U.S. and nearly all the world's other industrialized nations.
    • WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Of course, national sources for other WTO member states will also be relevant.
    • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The Guidelines for Scheduling GATS Commitments, adopted by WTO Members in 2001, states: “Article XVII [National Treatment] applies to subsidies in the same way that it applies to all other measures.
    • Eyes on Trade: WTO 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC citizen.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [35] .National treatment means that imported goods should be treated no less favorably than domestically-produced goods (at least after the foreign goods have entered the market) and was introduced to tackle non-tariff barriers to trade (e.g.^ "Non-tariff barrier" is jargon for any law or policy that is not a tariff but affects trade.
    • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Its markets are no freer than its press.
    • Globalization--Palast's Armed Madhouse 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC skeptically.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Internationalization means trade between nations.
    • The WTO: Inside, Outside, All Around The World 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.co-intelligence.org [Source type: Original source]

    technical standards, security standards et al. discriminating against imported goods).[34]
  2. Reciprocity. .It reflects both a desire to limit the scope of free-riding that may arise because of the MFN rule, and a desire to obtain better access to foreign markets.^ WTO judges are not chosen because of their expertise in the subject they are ruling on, but for adherence to the tenets of free trade.
    • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ During negotiation in 1996, the EU continued to ask for better offer from China in terms of market access, subsidy and tariff.
    • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The battle over agricultural free trade and fair access to open markets has just begun.
    • WTO | Center for Global Food Issues 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: News]

    .A related point is that for a nation to negotiate, it is necessary that the gain from doing so be greater than the gain available from unilateral liberalization; reciprocal concessions intend to ensure that such gains will materialise.^ Core Principles of WTO Non - Discrimination Reciprocity of Trade Concessions Trade Liberalization Transparency and predictability in import and export rules and regulations .
    • World Trade Organization 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the WTO negotiation, China made unilateral concessions.
    • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some of these (data are not available on how many) work more than 8 hours a day and/or under dangerous conditions, such as in poorly ventilated factories.
    • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

    [36]
  3. Binding and enforceable commitments. .The tariff commitments made by WTO members in a multilateral trade negotiation and on accession are enumerated in a schedule (list) of concessions.^ Agriculture , Multilateral negotiations , Trade .
    • WTO | East Asia Forum 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.eastasiaforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Multilateral negotiations , Trade .
    • WTO | East Asia Forum 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.eastasiaforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the WTO negotiation, China made unilateral concessions.
    • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These schedules establish "ceiling bindings": a country can change its bindings, but only after negotiating with its trading partners, which could mean compensating them for loss of trade.^ These new actors place another way of approaching trade issues and negotiations at the forefront.
    • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Other poor countries spent more time moaning about their grievances over earlier trade rounds than they did in negotiating the new one.
    • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When these were pointed out then, the response of trade diplomats was that they could be attended to in the legal-scrutiny stage.
    • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

    .If satisfaction is not obtained, the complaining country may invoke the WTO dispute settlement procedures.^ WTO critics are also very concerned about the dispute settlement procedures.
    • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Uruguay Round also established the WTO and strengthened the dispute settlement procedure.
    • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the index to the first BISD series, dispute settlement is indexed under "conciliation" and names of WTO/GATT bodies.
    • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

    [35][36]
  4. Transparency. .The WTO members are required to publish their trade regulations, to maintain institutions allowing for the review of administrative decisions affecting trade, to respond to requests for information by other members, and to notify changes in trade policies to the WTO. These internal transparency requirements are supplemented and facilitated by periodic country-specific reports (trade policy reviews) through the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM).^ These trade policy reviews are for transparency purposes only, and do not mean that the WTO is prohibiting countries from taking a certain course of action.
    • Eyes on Trade: WTO 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC citizen.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Its aim is to enhance the transparency of the trade policies of the member states.
    • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The Dispute Settlement Reports of the World Trade Organization (WTO) include Panel and Appellate Body reports, as well as arbitration awards, in disputes concerning the rights and obligations of WTO Members under the provisions of the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization. These are the only authorized paginated reports in English.
    • Series - Cambridge University Press 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: General]

    [37] .The WTO system tries also to improve predictability and stability, discouraging the use of quotas and other measures used to set limits on quantities of imports.^ First, the governments of the member countries agree on a set of multilateral rules and principles for trade, which provide a stable and predictable basis for trade.
    • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The WTO's provisions set limits on the strength of countries' food safety laws and the comprehensiveness of product labeling policies.
    • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]
    • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The WTO is trying to increase world trade by removing tariffs, subsidies and other barriers impeding that goal.

    [35]
  5. Safety valves. .In specific circumstances, governments are able to restrict trade.^ During the Uruguay Round, governments undertook Specific Commitments on telecommunications as a trade sector in its own right (as opposed to as a mode of supply, which is covered by the annex discussed above).

    .There are three types of provisions in this direction: articles allowing for the use of trade measures to attain noneconomic objectives; articles aimed at ensuring "fair competition"; and provisions permitting intervention in trade for economic reasons.^ There are 2 major objectives for this article.
    • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In times of economic crisis, governments face pressure to adopt measures which may restrict trade and there are real dangers that such pressures, if n...
    • WTO, World Trade Organization, WTO News, Global Trade Watch - Fibre2fashion 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.fibre2fashion.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The annex lays down principles requiring governments to allow foreign service suppliers access to and use of public networks on a reasonable and nondiscriminatory basis.

    [37] .Exceptions to the MFN principle also allow for preferential treatment of developing countries, regional free trade areas and customs unions.^ The Third World countries, said Castro, have been losing everything: custom tariffs that protected their emerging industries and produced revenues; agreements on commodities; producers' associations; price indexation; preferential treatment; and any instrument protecting their export value and contributing to their development.
    • World Trade Organization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.latter-rain.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Preferential Treatment Based on a developing country status, China will benefit from the preferential treatment in free trade, especially in tariff reduction, allowing higher subsidies on agricultural products.
    • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Trade experts with experience of the GATT system, like Mr. Bhagirath Lal Das, are now suggesting this, and developing countries should pay serious attention to this.
    • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

    [citation needed]

Organizational Structure

.The General Council has multiple bodies which oversee committees in different areas.^ The General Council should give guidelines to the panels and Appellate Body in respect of the interpretations of the agreements.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

^ The Trade Policy Review Body (TPRB) (which is actually the General Council, i.e., the full membership, under a different name) conducts each review on the basis of a policy statement submitted by the member state and a report prepared by economists in the Secretariat's Trade Policy Review Division.
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Appellate Body has been given no such right; the right of authoritative interpretation is vested exclusively in the Ministerial Conference and/or the General Council.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

Council for Trade in Goods
There are 11 committees under the jurisdiction of the Goods Council each with a specific task. .All members of the WTO participate in the committees.^ Canada's trade minister, David Emerson, deplored the failure despite the enormous efforts by all WTO members to reach an accord.

^ And answers himself: "if it were so, all 153 member countries and in particular, the wide majority of developing countries should be the main actors in the WTO negotiations."
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The WTO agreement strengthens the Commission=s hand (e.g., it negotiated for all 15 member countries), but it is not a cause of European liberalization.

.The Textiles Monitoring Body is separate from the other committees but still under the jurisdiction of Goods Council.^ Under compulsory licensing, governments require patent holders to license drugs or other goods to competing manufacturers in exchange for royalty payments to the drug's developer.
  • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That index lists subjects, country names, articles of the agreements, and names of councils and other subsidiary bodies, but not document symbols.
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

.The body has its own chairman and only ten members.^ Members not to make any determination of their own about violations, but to do so only through recourse to the DSU. There is specific mention of Art.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

The body also has several groups relating to textiles.[38]
Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
.Information on intellectual property in the WTO, news and official records of the activities of the TRIPS Council, and details of the WTO’s work with other international organizations in the field.^ The negotiation, however, encompasses industrial products, international services, intellectual property rights, government procurement, health and safety regulation, to name a few.
  • World Trade Organization not so far away 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, the growing influence of the could even make it easier for other international institutions, such as the World Intellectual Property Organization or plurilateral bodies like the Group of Seven, the OECD, and the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation to cut market-enhancing deals.

^ It has been aggressively promoting prompt adoption of this policy by other countries and international organizations.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]
Council for Trade in Services
.The Council for Trade in Services operates under the guidance of the General Council and is responsible for overseeing the functioning of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).^ This was confirmed in its annual report to the Council for Trade in Services (S/CSC/2, dated 26 November 1997, paragraph 3) and then endorsed by the Council for Trade in Services (S/C/M/21, dated 12 January 1998, paragraphs 4-6).
  • Trade in Services Database 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC tsdb.wto.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The General Council of the World Trade Organization on 17 December agreed to extend a deadline for accepting an amendment to the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement by two years.
  • World Trade Organization - Blogrunner 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]
  • World Trade Organization - Blogrunner 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.blogrunner.com [Source type: News]

^ The WTO, established in January 1, 1995, is the outcome of the Uruguay Round of trade talks, held from 1986 to 1993 under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
  • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is open to all WTO members, and can create subsidiary bodies as required.^ WTO critics strongly oppose such confidentiality requirements, which, they argue, contribute to panel decisions that do not reflect the concerns of all of society.
  • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One provision requires that WTO Members protect agribusiness ownership over plant varieties, including seeds.
  • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The TRIPs Agreement requires WTO Member countries to have in place 20-year IPR protections for pharmaceutical prices by 2005.
  • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

[40]
.The Service Council has three subsidiary bodies: financial services, domestic regulations, GATS rules and specific commitments.^ See, e.g., Second [GATS] Protocol: Revised Schedules of Commitments on Financial Services, 1995; Third [GATS] Protocol: Schedules of Specific Commitments relating to Movement of Natural Persons, 1995; Fourth [GATS] Protocol: Schedules of Specific Commitments concerning Basic Telecommunications, 1997; Fifth [GATS] Protocol: Schedules of Specific Commitments and Lists of Exemptions from Article II concerning Financial Services, 1998.
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The new organizational structure of the WTO reflects these outcomes; the three regimes are administered by corresponding bodies---the Council for TRIPs, the Council for Trade in Goods, and the Council for Trade in Services---each of which is broken down into a series of subsidiary groups focusing on specific issues or sectors.

^ Financial services is a sector that countries can commit under the GATS, and over 100 countries did so for this market access obligation - including the US and EU. You can see what deregulators would like this provision: .
  • Eyes on Trade: WTO 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC citizen.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]

Other committees

.The General council has several different committees, working groups, and working parties.^ The General Council should be requested to pronounce that these interpretations will not guide the future work of the dispute settlement process.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

^ Its main functions are to provide administrative and technical support to the WTO's councils, committees, working parties, and negotiating groups; to provide technical support to developing countries; to undertake trade policy analysis of individual member countries; to provide legal assistance in the resolution of trade disputes; and to assist in accession negotiations for potential new members.
  • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the "Accession Package" which consists of Report of Working Party, Protocol of Accession and the Schedule of Concessions and Commitments on Goods and Services are finalized, the Accession Package will be forwarded to the WTO General Council or the Ministerial Conference for approval.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]
Committees on
  • Trade and Environment
  • Trade and Development (Subcommittee on Least-Developed Countries)
  • Regional Trade Agreements
  • Balance of Payments Restrictions
  • Budget, Finance and Administration
Working parties on
  • Accession
Working groups on
  • Trade, debt and finance
  • Trade and technology transfer

Trade Negotiations Committee

.The Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC) is the committee that deals with the current trade talks round.^ The WTO, established in January 1, 1995, is the outcome of the Uruguay Round of trade talks, held from 1986 to 1993 under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
  • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other poor countries spent more time moaning about their grievances over earlier trade rounds than they did in negotiating the new one.
  • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WTO members have been bitterly divided over the scope of the three-year round of trade talks ministers are trying to launch in Seattle.
  • WTO (WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION) SEATTLE PROTEST 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

.The chair is WTO’s director-general.^ WTO Director-General, Pascal Lamy, and a number of WTO members celebrated the moment as an important step towards the completion of the Doha Round of trade negotiations.
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and WTO Director General Mike Moore were also scheduled to talk at the opening ceremonies.
  • WTO (WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION) SEATTLE PROTEST 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

^ The process begins with bilateral consultations, in which the Director General of the WTO may offer his or her "good offices" in an effort to mediate.

.The committee is currently tasked with the Doha Development Round.^ We are determined to seek an ambitious and balanced conclusion to the Doha Development Round in 2010...
  • Eyes on Trade: WTO 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC citizen.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trade: Reclaiming development in WTO Doha Round (Third World Network) The recent proposals by some major Developed countries in the WTO threaten the developmental content of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) and it is thus timely to reclaim the Development content of the Round, nine developing countries said in a submission to the WTO Committee on Trade and Development.
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Doha Round: an examination of where the Development Round is headed (Council on Hemispheric Affairs) The World Trade Organization is currently facing an unprecedented challenge in its attempt to galvanize the stagnant Doha Development Round, which has been dragging on since 2001.
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]

Voting system

.The WTO operates on a one country, one vote system, but actual votes have never been taken.^ He called on developing countries, who form the majority in the WTO, to unite so that they can use their vote to turn the WTO into an instrument for a better world.
  • World Trade Organization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.latter-rain.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not one country of the 135 member-states of the WTO has held a plebiscite to see if its people support the WTO mandate.
  • The WTO: Inside, Outside, All Around The World 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.co-intelligence.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For it is not in accord with the actual facts of the negotiations on the TRIMs, Subsidies and other WTO agreements that took place mostly in private, among small groups of countries.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

.Decision making is generally by consensus, and relative market size is the primary source of bargaining power.^ Wind-powered generators are one of the most compelling renewable sources in the US and abroad.

^ But this cannot happen in the WTO because of the "undemocratic" consensus decision-making system and the negative-consensus requirement at the DSB. .
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

^ Concentrating power in distant international organizations, as the trade pacts do, tends to remove critical decision-making from citizen control.
  • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

.The advantage of consensus decision-making is that it encourages efforts to find the most widely acceptable decision.^ But this cannot happen in the WTO because of the "undemocratic" consensus decision-making system and the negative-consensus requirement at the DSB. .
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

^ But most of the NGOs from the South, and even development NGOs of the North, have been focusing on and looking at the problem from the perspective of development, democratic decision-making and transparency of the WTO processes (of rule-making and administration).
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, many of the ITU's institutional procedures have been adjusted to actively solicit the participation of a wide variety of the private firms in its work and decision-making.

.Main disadvantages include large time requirements and many rounds of negotiation to develop a consensus decision, and the tendency for final agreements to use ambiguous language on contentious points that makes future interpretation of treaties difficult.^ When "The Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations" was enacted April 15th, 1994, in Marrakech, it was recorded as a 550-page agreement that was then sent to Congress for ratification.
  • The WTO: Inside, Outside, All Around The World 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.co-intelligence.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the majority of other WTO members are developing countries from Africa, Asia/Pacific and Latin America, many of them have little to say in decisions that are taken at WTO meetings.
  • What is the WTO? | Greenpeace International 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

^ Yet the panels and Appellate Body continue to talk of the "treaty interpreter's" authority and duty to harmoniously interpret and reconcile contradictory language in agreements.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.In reality, WTO negotiations proceed not by consensus of all members, but by a process of informal negotiations between small groups of countries.^ The WTO came into existence after a long series of negotiations that took place between countries from 1986 to 1994.
  • What is the WTO? | Greenpeace International 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

^ AFL-CIO President John Sweeney signed on to support Clinton's WTO negotiating agenda, which called for the establishment of a working group on labor standards.
  • WTO (WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION) SEATTLE PROTEST 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

^ Between July 1996 and February 1997, nine meetings were held to clarify the outstanding issues and build consensus, again accompanied by informal rump group sessions and intensive bilateral negotiations over the schedules.

.Such negotiations are often called "Green Room" negotiations (after the colour of the WTO Director-General's Office in Geneva), or "Mini-Ministerials", when they occur in other countries.^ But bringing these countries into the EU also means doubling the number of EU farmers eligible for CAP payments, and they simply do not have the money to extend such generous subsidies to so many relatively productive farmers.
  • WTO | Center for Global Food Issues 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: News]

^ AFL-CIO President John Sweeney signed on to support Clinton's WTO negotiating agenda, which called for the establishment of a working group on labor standards.
  • WTO (WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION) SEATTLE PROTEST 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

^ Letter from developing country generic manufacturers' associations to WTO Delegates.
  • Patent Exception for Exports for Health Needs 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cptech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These processes have been regularly criticised by many of the WTO's developing country members which are often totally excluded from the negotiations.^ WTO member countries' total basic telecom services revenues): .

^ WTO member countries' total basic telecom services revenues) .

^ WTO member countries' total satellite services revenues) .

[citation needed]
.Richard Harold Steinberg (2002) argues that although the WTO's consensus governance model provides law-based initial bargaining, trading rounds close through power-based bargaining favouring Europe and the United States, and may not lead to Pareto improvement.^ WTO trade rounds .
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Witness the United States in 2002.
  • WTO | Center for Global Food Issues 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: News]

^ The collapse of an effort to launch a new round of global trade talks left the United States and 134 other nations searching for answers Saturday over what went wrong and how to fix it.
  • WTO (WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION) SEATTLE PROTEST 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

[43]

Dispute settlement

.In 1994, the WTO members agreed on the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU) annexed to the "Final Act" signed in Marrakesh in 1994.[44] Dispute settlement is regarded by the WTO as the central pillar of the multilateral trading system, and as a "unique contribution to the stability of the global economy".[45] WTO members have agreed that, if they believe fellow-members are violating trade rules, they will use the multilateral system of settling disputes instead of taking action unilaterally.^ First, the governments of the member countries agree on a set of multilateral rules and principles for trade, which provide a stable and predictable basis for trade.
  • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The WTO can review and penalize any act of any government that in any way compromises trade rules.
  • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ WTO critics are also very concerned about the dispute settlement procedures.
  • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

[46]
.The operation of the WTO dispute settlement process involves the DSB panels, the Appellate Body, the WTO Secretariat, arbitrators, independent experts and several specialized institutions.^ Some of the Canadian suggestions concern the WTO's dispute settlement body.

^ Only the treaty copies are authentic and in case of dispute settlement they would be the basis on which a panel would assess the scope, the extent and the dates of the commitments.
  • Trade in Services Database 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC tsdb.wto.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The Dispute Settlement Reports of the World Trade Organization (WTO) include Panel and Appellate Body reports, as well as arbitration awards, in disputes concerning the rights and obligations of WTO Members under the provisions of the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization. These are the only authorized paginated reports in English.
  • Series - Cambridge University Press 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: General]

[47]

Accession and membership

.The process of becoming a WTO member is unique to each applicant country, and the terms of accession are dependent upon the country's stage of economic development and current trade regime.^ The distinctive characteristics of the WTO accession are that the accession requirement on an applicant depends on the terms agreed between the applicant and other WTO members.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are currently 146 member countries of the WTO. .
  • What is the WTO? | Greenpeace International 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

^ Although the majority of other WTO members are developing countries from Africa, Asia/Pacific and Latin America, many of them have little to say in decisions that are taken at WTO meetings.
  • What is the WTO? | Greenpeace International 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

[48] .The process takes about five years, on average, but it can last more if the country is less than fully committed to the process or if political issues interfere.^ Yet contrary to this rosy scenario, after nearly five years of the WTO, the share of the pie for most of the world's population living in developing countries got smaller, and that smaller portion was divided even less equally among individuals.
  • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, the developing countries have to take some actions on their own to utilize the system in a more effective way.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

^ It is, after all, the most significant bilateral trade arrangement in the world; two-way trade in goods and services amounted to more than CAD700 billion in 2006, an average of about CAD1.3 million in trade per minute across the border.

[49] .As is typical of WTO procedures, an offer of accession is only given once consensus is reached among interested parties.^ WTO Members Reach Consensus On Cheaper Drugs to Poor Nations.
  • Patent Exception for Exports for Health Needs 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cptech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]

Accession process

Status of WTO negotiations:      members (including dual-representation with the European Union)      Draft Working Party Report or Factual Summary adopted      Goods and/or Services offers submitted      Memorandum on Foreign Trade Regime submitted      observer, negotiations to start later or no Memorandum on FTR submitted      frozen procedures or no negotiations in the last 3 years      no official interaction with the WTO
.A country wishing to accede to the WTO submits an application to the General Council, and has to describe all aspects of its trade and economic policies that have a bearing on WTO agreements.^ What the WTO drug agreement allows countries to do.
  • Patent Exception for Exports for Health Needs 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cptech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antitrust law Competition, unfair Customs administration Developing countries--foreign economic relations Environmental law, international--economic aspects Financial services industry Foreign trade regulation Free trade General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Intellectual property International economic relations International trade International trade--environmental aspects Non-tariff trade barriers Services industries Tariff--law and legislation Uruguay Round World Trade Organization A current list of WTO publications is available on the WTO website .
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the Uruguay Round Agreements Act, Congress directed the U.S. Trade Representative to seek adoption of procedures that will ensure broader application of the principle of transparency by the WTO Ministerial Conference, the General Council, the dispute settlement bodies, and the Appellate Body.
  • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

[51] .The application is submitted to the WTO in a memorandum which is examined by a working party open to all interested WTO Members.^ The Working Party is open to all WTO contracting parties.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the information provided in the WTO web page, the process of WTO accession commences when an applicant submits a formal request to the Director General of the WTO expressing its desire to accede to the WTO under Article XII. The General Council would then consider the application and establish a Working Party to examine the application for accession to the WTO under Article XII and to submit to the General Council recommendation, which may include a draft Protocol of Accession.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Accession Package" also consists of a Report of the working party summarizing the discussions in the working party meetings and a Protocol of Accession containing the terms of accession agreed by the applicant and members of working party.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]
.After all necessary background information has been acquired, the working party focuses on issues of discrepancy between the WTO rules and the applicant's international and domestic trade policies and laws.^ The WTO has ruled that the "Byrd amendment" is illegal under international law.

^ The Working Party is open to all WTO contracting parties.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WTO judges are not chosen because of their expertise in the subject they are ruling on, but for adherence to the tenets of free trade.
  • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The working party determines the terms and conditions of entry into the WTO for the applicant nation, and may consider transitional periods to allow countries some leeway in complying with the WTO rules.^ What the WTO drug agreement allows countries to do.
  • Patent Exception for Exports for Health Needs 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cptech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The terms and conditions would cover commitments to observe WTO rules and disciplines, and the transition period granted for the applicant to align its policy with WTO disciplines.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the information provided in the WTO web page, the process of WTO accession commences when an applicant submits a formal request to the Director General of the WTO expressing its desire to accede to the WTO under Article XII. The General Council would then consider the application and establish a Working Party to examine the application for accession to the WTO under Article XII and to submit to the General Council recommendation, which may include a draft Protocol of Accession.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.The final phase of accession involves bilateral negotiations between the applicant nation and other working party members regarding the concessions and commitments on tariff levels and market access for goods and services.^ Finally, GATS Article XVIII allows members to undertake Additional Commitments with regard to services measures not covered by Market Access and National Treatment, including on issues of qualifications, standards, and licensing.

^ This will ensure a finality to disputes between parties, but without creating new rights and obligations for the Members as a whole, a preserve to be left for clear and unambiguous decision of Members by amendments or agreed interpretations.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, the third major component of the GATS is the National Schedules in which governments inscribe their Specific Commitments on market access, national treatment, and additional commitments for each services sector or sub-sector according to the four modes of supply.

.The new member's commitments are to apply equally to all WTO members under normal non-discrimination rules, even though they are negotiated bilaterally.^ These and other issues and questions raise the further question of whether changes in the DSU should be a precondition, even ahead of addressing issues pertaining to the implementation of the existing WTO agreements, for the launch of any new round of trade negotiations.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

^ The panel's final opinion was that even though the measure was permissible under one agreement, it could not be allowed as it violated another agreement.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

^ Under this difficult situation, China failed to become the founding member of the WTO. .
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]
.When the bilateral talks conclude, the working party sends to the general council or ministerial conference an accession package, which includes a summary of all the working party meetings, the Protocol of Accession (a draft membership treaty), and lists ("schedules") of the member-to-be's commitments.^ The "Accession Package" also consists of a Report of the working party summarizing the discussions in the working party meetings and a Protocol of Accession containing the terms of accession agreed by the applicant and members of working party.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the General Council approved to adopt the package (i.e.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the information provided in the WTO web page, the process of WTO accession commences when an applicant submits a formal request to the Director General of the WTO expressing its desire to accede to the WTO under Article XII. The General Council would then consider the application and establish a Working Party to examine the application for accession to the WTO under Article XII and to submit to the General Council recommendation, which may include a draft Protocol of Accession.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once the general council or ministerial conference approves of the terms of accession, the applicant's parliament must ratify the Protocol of Accession before it can become a member.^ We instruct the Council for TRIPS to find an expeditious solution to this problem and to report to the General Council before the end of 2002.
  • Patent Exception for Exports for Health Needs 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cptech.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "Accession Package" also consists of a Report of the working party summarizing the discussions in the working party meetings and a Protocol of Accession containing the terms of accession agreed by the applicant and members of working party.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before becoming a WTO member, Russia must also reach bilateral trade accords with the U.S., Brazil, Argentina and Australia.

[52]

Members and observers

.The WTO has 153 members (almost all of the 123 nations participating in the Uruguay Round signed on at its foundation, and the rest had to get membership).^ The WTO, established in January 1, 1995, is the outcome of the Uruguay Round of trade talks, held from 1986 to 1993 under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
  • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chrtien says it's time for rich nations to wake up to the reality that while we live in a global economy, that economy must contribute to the welfare of all of its members.

^ WTO members have been bitterly divided over the scope of the three-year round of trade talks ministers are trying to launch in Seattle.
  • WTO (WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION) SEATTLE PROTEST 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

[53] .The 27 states of the European Union are represented also as the European Communities.^ Pettigrew said he remains concerned about the high levels of subsidies in wheat production by the European Union and the United States.

^ The agricultural programs of the United States and the European Union are being blamed for the ills of the world right now, and cotton is getting the most direct focus.
  • World Trade Organization not so far away 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The issue to be settled is a United States and European Union dispute over access to the Chinese insurance market.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.WTO members do not have to be full sovereign nation-members.^ Of course, national sources for other WTO member states will also be relevant.
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It's not inapt to compare the pointed lawlessness of the anarchists with the carefully considered ability of the WTO to flout laws of sovereign nations.
  • The WTO: Inside, Outside, All Around The World 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.co-intelligence.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the applicant indicated its acceptance of the "Accession Package" by signing the Protocol of Accession, the applicant becomes a full member of the WTO in thirty days.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead, they must be a customs territory with full autonomy in the conduct of their external commercial relations.^ With weak trade linkages in their external economy, they are likely to suffer irreparable damage by the time they get full remedy.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

.Thus Hong Kong (as "Hong Kong, China" since 1997) became a GATT contracting party, and the Republic of China (ROC) (commonly known as Taiwan, whose sovereignty has been disputed by the People's Republic of China or PRC) acceded to the WTO in 2002 under the name of "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu" (Chinese Taipei).^ China's accession to the WTO and its relationship to the Chinese Taipei accession and to Hong Kong and Macau, China .
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The WTO, established in January 1, 1995, is the outcome of the Uruguay Round of trade talks, held from 1986 to 1993 under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
  • ZNet - WTO Derailed 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.zmag.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is known that the GATT secretariat had toyed with the idea of drawing up a negotiating history (as was done for the Tokyo Round of multilateral trade negotiations under GATT 1947, a provisional treaty) but eventually decided against it since it was clear its version of the negotiating history may be challenged.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

[54]
.A number of non-members (30) are observers at WTO proceedings and are currently negotiating their membership.^ An important distinction here is between giving NGOs a vote in WTO decisions, and accepting or soliciting input from NGO experts on non-trade issues, and acting as observers at WTO proceedings.
  • CRS Report: RL30521 - The World Trade Organization: The Debate in the United States - NLE 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC ncseonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The WTO is currently negotiating an agreement that would eliminate tariffs on wood products, which would increase the demand for timber and escalate deforestation.
  • WTO (WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION) SEATTLE PROTEST 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

^ Randy was a credentialed WTO delegate, which meant he could join the proceedings as an observer.
  • The WTO: Inside, Outside, All Around The World 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.co-intelligence.org [Source type: Original source]

.As observers, Iran, Iraq and Russia are not yet members.^ Putin has made WTO membership a priority, as Russia is one of the biggest nations not yet a member.

.With the exception of the Holy See, observers must start accession negotiations within five years of becoming observers.^ Phase 4: China Changed Negotiation Attitude (1995 ~ Mar 1996) Following the failure to become a founding member of the WTO, China's accession progress slowed down.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China will eliminate its tendering requirements for non-government purchases of construction equipment within 2 years of accession.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November of the same year, the GATT had decided to start the process of negotiations on China's request.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some international intergovernmental organizations are also granted observer status to WTO bodies.^ You can talk to your city council representative but not some faceless international trade bureaucrat at the WTO in Geneva.
  • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the Canadian suggestions concern the WTO's dispute settlement body.

^ This is curious, since the WTO financial rules both require deregulation and, unlike other international bodies, actually have binding and enforceable dispute settlement.
  • Eyes on Trade: WTO 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC citizen.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55] 14 states and 2 territories so far have no official interaction with the WTO.

Agreements

.The WTO oversees about 60 different agreements which have the status of international legal texts.^ The legal texts are also available on the WTO website .
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

^ International Business Times reports that Canadian trade lawyers are beginning to grumble about these new environmental measures possibly violating NAFTA and the WTO. .
  • Eyes on Trade: WTO 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC citizen.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What was approved was an Agreement that gives the WTO the ability to overrule or undermine international conventions, acts, treaties, and agreements.
  • The WTO: Inside, Outside, All Around The World 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.co-intelligence.org [Source type: Original source]

.Member countries must sign and ratify all WTO agreements on accession.^ But WTO members can choose to join or not join the agreements.
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China and India signed a bilateral WTO agreement.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chrtien says it's time for rich nations to wake up to the reality that while we live in a global economy, that economy must contribute to the welfare of all of its members.

[56] .A discussion of some of the most important agreements follows.^ For the U.S. the most important ceiling under the 1994 agreement was established at $19 billion per year.
  • World Trade Organization not so far away 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While most police officers followed orders, some got carried away.
  • WTO (WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION) SEATTLE PROTEST 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

^ For most of the developing countries, while some obligations kicked in from day one, the full range of obligations of the WTO and its annexed agreements became effective only from 1 January 2000.
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

Agreement on Agriculture (AoA)

.The Agreement on Agriculture came into effect with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of 1995. The AoA has three central concepts, or "pillars": domestic support, market access and export subsidies.^ The United States has tried to convince the rest of the world to adopt a new set of trading rules for agriculture that would eliminate export subsidies, significantly reduce trade-distorting domestic agricultural support, and significantly increase market access for U.S. agricultural exports.
  • World Trade Organization not so far away 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the same month, Australia and China signed an agreement to liberalize access to the Chinese market when China joins the WTO. The agreement covers 1,000 product categories across agricultural and manufacturing exports as well as key service sectors.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Uruguay Round Agriculture Agreement prohibited numerous internal support programs and import controls that developing countries typically use to protect small producers and encourage self-sufficiency in food production while permitting continuing export subsidies.
  • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)

.The General Agreement on Trade in Services was created to extend the multilateral trading system to service sector, in the same way the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provides such a system for merchandise trade.^ Created on January 1, 1995, it is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was operative from 1948 to 1994.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GATT 1994: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, Apr.
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Launch at Punta del Este in September 1986 and concluded at Marrakesh in April 1994, the Uruguay Round in fact comprised a series of interrelated negotiations among the 125 member governments of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

The Agreement entered into force in January 1995

Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (TRIPs)

.The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation.^ Filed Under: brazil , intellectual property , trade agreements , wto .
  • Wto stories at Techdirt. 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ Third, a new regime on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPs) was established.

^ The negotiation, however, encompasses industrial products, international services, intellectual property rights, government procurement, health and safety regulation, to name a few.
  • World Trade Organization not so far away 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994.

Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) Agreement

The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures - also known as the SPS Agreement was negotiated during the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and entered into force with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of 1995.
.Under the SPS agreement, the WTO sets constraints on members' policies relating to food safety (bacterial contaminants, pesticides, inspection and labelling) as well as animal and plant health (imported pests and diseases).^ But WTO members can choose to join or not join the agreements.
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Choike - World Trade Organization - WTO 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.choike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dispute Settlement Reports of the World Trade Organization (WTO) include Panel and Appellate Body reports, as well as arbitration awards, in disputes concerning the rights and obligations of WTO Members under the provisions of the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization. These are the only authorized paginated reports in English.
  • Series - Cambridge University Press 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: General]

^ The WTO Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) explicitly restricts the actions that governments can take relating to food and agriculture policy, including laws to protect food safety or to protect the environment, human, plant or animal health.
  • The WTO Five years of reasons to resist corporate globalization 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)

.The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade is an international treaty of the World Trade Organization.^ WTO Agreement: Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Apr.
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

^ China and Canada signed bilateral agreement on China's entry into World Trade Organization.
  • International Economics - Topics 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their original focus on the World Trade Organization has now been mixed with allegations against police.
  • WTO (WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION) SEATTLE PROTEST 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

It was negotiated during the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and entered into force with the establishment of the WTO at the end of 1994.
The object ensures that technical negotiations and standards, as well as testing and certification procedures, do not create unnecessary obstacles to trade".[57]

Agreement on Customs Valuation

.The Agreement on Customs Valuation, formally known as the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of GATT, prescribes methods of customs valuation that Members are to follow.^ They will likely take several years and even then, as we’ve seen with other WTO agreements, members will dissemble and stall in the implementation of the new rules.
  • WTO | Center for Global Food Issues 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.cgfi.org [Source type: News]

^ The other sections are indexes by subject, articles of the agreements, product name, country name, and GATT/WTO body.
  • Features - WTO/GATT Research | LLRX.com 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.llrx.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Member shall apply any TRIM that is inconsistent with the provisions of Article III or Article XI of GATT 1994."
  • The World Trade Organization and its Dispute Settlement System 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.twnside.org.sg [Source type: Original source]

Chiefly, it adopts the "transaction value" approach.
Criticism...

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ General Information on Recruitment in the World Trade Organization, World Trade Organization
  2. ^ "WTO Secretariat budget for 2008". World Trade Organization. http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/secre_e/budget08_e.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  3. ^ Overview of the WTO Secretariat All WTO staff are based in Geneva.
  4. ^ Understanding the WTO - what is the World Trade Organization?, World Trade Organization
  5. ^ "World Trade Organization". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
  6. ^ European Commission The Doha Round
  7. ^ Members and Observers WTO official site
  8. ^ The WTO in Brief 2 WTO official site
  9. ^ A.E. Eckes Jr., US Trade History, 73
    * A. Smithies, Reflections on the Work of Keynes, 578-601
    * N. Warren, Internet and Globalization, 193
  10. ^ P. van den Bossche, The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization, 80
  11. ^ Palmeter-Mavroidis, Dispute Settlement, 2
  12. ^ Fergusson, Ian F. (9 May 2007). "The World Trade Organization: Background and Issues" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. pp. 4. http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/98-928.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  13. ^ It was contemplated that the GATT would be applied for several years until the ITO came into force. However, since the ITO was never brought into being, the GAT T gradually became the focus for international governmental cooperation on trade matters (P. van den Bossche, The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization, 81; J.H. Jackson, Managing the Trading System, 134).
  14. ^ a b The GATT Years: from Havana to Marrakesh, World Trade Organization
  15. ^ M.E. Footer, Analysis of the World Trade Organization, 17
  16. ^ B.S. Klapper, With a "Short Window"
  17. ^ Lula, Time to Get Serious about Agricultural Subsidies
  18. ^ a b c P. Gallagher, The First Ten Years of the WTO, 4
  19. ^ a b The Uruguay Round, World Trade Organization
  20. ^ http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/04-wto_e.htm
  21. ^ Overview: a Navigational Guide, World Trade Organization. For the complete list of "The Uruguay Round Agreements", see WTO legal texts, World Trade Organization, and Uruguay Round Agreements, Understandings, Decisions and Declarations, WorldTradeLaw.net
  22. ^ Five Years of China WTO Membership. EU and US Perspectives about China's Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism
  23. ^ WTO to hold 7th Ministerial Conference on 30 November-2 December 2009 WTO official website
  24. ^ The Economist, In the twilight of Doha, 65
  25. ^ The Doha Development Agenda, European Commission
  26. ^ Fergusson, Ian F. (2008-01-18). "World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RL32060.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-26. 
  27. ^ a)The GATT years: from Havana to Marrakesh, World Trade Organization
    b)Timeline: World Trade Organization – A chronology of key events, BBC News
    c)Brakman-Garretsen-Marrewijk-Witteloostuijn, Nations and Firms in the Global Economy, Chapter 10: Trade and Capital Restriction
  28. ^ Functions of the WTO, IISD
  29. ^ a b Main Functions, World Trade Organization
  30. ^ a b A Bredimas, International Economic Law, II, 17
  31. ^ a b C. Deere, Decision-making in the WTO: Medieval or Up-to-Date?
  32. ^ WTO Assistance for Developing Countries, World Trade Organization
  33. ^ Economic research and analysis, World Trade Organization
  34. ^ a b c B. Hoekman, The WTO: Functions and Basic Principles, 42
  35. ^ a b c Principles of the Trading System, World Trade Organization
  36. ^ a b B. Hoekman, The WTO: Functions and Basic Principles, 43
  37. ^ a b B. Hoekman, The WTO: Functions and Basic Principles, 44
  38. ^ a b "Fourth level: down to the nitty-gritty". World Trade Organization. http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/org1_e.htm#fourth. Retrieved 2008-08-18. 
  39. ^ Intellectual property - overview of TRIPS Agreement
  40. ^ "The Services Council, its Committees and other subsidiary bodies". World Trade Organization. http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/serv_e/s_coun_e.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  41. ^ "WTO organization chart". World Trade Organization. http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/org2_e.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  42. ^ "The Trade Negotiations Committee". World Trade Organization. http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dda_e/tnc_e.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  43. ^ Steinberg, Richard H. "In the Shadow of Law or Power? Consensus-based Bargaining and Outcomes in the GATT/WTO." International Organization. Spring 2002. pp. 339-374.
  44. ^ Stewart-Dawyer, The WTO Dispute Settlement System, 7
  45. ^ S. Panitchpakdi, The WTO at ten, 8.
  46. ^ Settling Disputes:a Unique Contribution, World Trade Organization
  47. ^ WTO Bodies involved in the dispute settlement process, World Trade Organization
  48. ^ a b Accessions Summary, Center for International Development
  49. ^ The shortest accession negotiation was that of the Kyrgyz Republic, while the longest was that of the People's Republic of China (P. Farah, Five Years of China's WTO Membership, 263-304). Russia, having first applied to join GATT in 1993, is still in negotiations for membership. Recently, it secured a bilateral trade agreement with the EU and US (Accessions: Russian Federation, World Trade Organization; Factsheet on U.S. – Russia WTO Bilateral Market Access Agreement, Office of the United Stated Trade Representative; Russia - WTO: EU-Russia Deal Brings Russia a Step Closer to WTO Membership, European Commission). Moldova and Georgia are the remaining two nations that Russia must make agreements with to enter the WTO (A. Aslund, Russia's WTO Accession; V. Novostei, USA OKs Russia’s Entry into WTO, Pravda. Ru).
  50. ^ a b C. Michalopoulos, WTO Accession, 64
  51. ^ a b Membership, Alliances and Bureaucracy, World Trade Organization
  52. ^ How to Become a Member of the WTO, World Trade Organization
  53. ^ For an updated list of WTO members, see Members and Observers, World Trade Organization
  54. ^ J.H. Jackson, Sovereignty, 109
  55. ^ International Intergovernmental Organizations Granted Observer Status to WTO Bodies, World Trade Organization
  56. ^ http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/legal_e.htm
  57. ^ A Summary of the Final Act of the Uruguay Round

External links

Official WTO pages

Government pages on the WTO

Media pages on the WTO

Non-governmental organization pages on the WTO


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.The World Trade Organization is an international organisation designed by its founders to supervise and liberalise international capital trade.^ Jordan, Dumping and the world Trade Organization.
  • Jordan's Membership to the World Trade Organization (WTO) 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.mit.gov.jo [Source type: Academic]

^ World Trade Organization Meeting 1999 World Trade Organization Meeting 1999 .
  • World Trade Organization Meeting 1999 6 January 2010 8:26 UTC www.zaimoni.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Understanding the WTO - what is the world trade organization?
  • World Trade Organization (WTO): [Page 2] - Business Exchange 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC bx.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sourced

.
  • Empirical evidence tends to show that trade liberalisation may entail non-trivial adjustment costs for certain groups.^ A trading system should tend toward more freedom, that is, toward fewer trade barriers (tariffs and non-tariff barriers).

    ^ Reports that China may be considering backing away from certain provisions of the April 8 document show the importance of locking in Chinese commitments to prevent backsliding.
    • 1999 June 16 - Business Coalition for US-China Trade 2 February 2010 18:018 UTC www.uscib.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ While you may hear gurus telling you to trade the news, were going to explain why you should invest in VONs non-news.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is a largeinternational group to regulate trade that was established in 1995. As at the 15th of December, 2005, there were 153 member countries. In the WTO, agreements are made on trade between countries. The “GATT” agreement means that countries have to lower barriers to international trade, such as tax on goods crossing borders. This means that businesses can operate in many different countries.

Member countries sign agreements

There are about 30 such agreements. Based on these agreements, the member countries trade with each other. They sell items to each other and follow a set of rules. They have to give a special job to the other country. The phrase used (for such and many alike items) is to give the other country a special job – this is known as to give the other country a most favored country job. From 2004, if a member sells any item to another member country, the same type of item should be offered to all other member countries.

While it is highly regarded, from its beginning the WTO has also received criticism.krc:Дуния сатыу-алыу организация


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on World Trade Organization, which are similar to those in the above article.








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