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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following tables list the main events which happened during World War I.

Legend
Western Theater Eastern Theater Italian Theater
Caucasian Theater Middle East Theater Balkan Theater
Colonial Theater Naval Theater Diplomacy and politics

Contents

1914

Dates Events
June 28 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, presumptive heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, who is killed in Sarajevo along with his wife, Archduchess Sophie. Details
July 23 Austria-Hungary sends an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbian response is seen as unsatisfactory. Details
July 28 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. Russia mobilizes. The Great War begins.
July 31 Germany enjoins Russia to stop mobilizing. Russia says mobilization is against Austria-Hungary only.
August 1 Germany declares war on Russia and mobilizes.
Italy declares its neutrality.
Germany and the Ottoman Empire sign a secret alliance treaty.
August 2 Germany invades Luxembourg. Details
August 3 Belgium refuses German ultimatum.
Germany declares war on France.
August 4 Germany invades Belgium to outflank the French army.
Britain protests the violation of Belgian neutrality, guaranteed by a treaty;
German Chancellor replies that the treaty is just a chiffon de papier (a scrap of paper).
The United Kingdom declares war on Germany.
August 5 Montenegro declares war on Austria-Hungary.
The Ottoman Empire closes the Dardanelles.
August 5–August 16 The Germans besiege and then capture the fortresses of Liège, Belgium. Details
August 6 Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.
Serbia declares war on Germany.
August 7 The British Expeditionary Force arrives in France. Details
August 9 Montenegro declares war on Germany.
August 11 France declares war on Austria-Hungary.
August 12 The United Kingdom declares war on Austria-Hungary.
August 14–August 24 Battle of the Frontiers. The Germans obtain a victory against the British Expeditionary Force and France's Fifth Army. Details
August 16–August 19 The Serbs defeat the Austro-Hungarians at the Battle of Cer. Details
August 17 The Russian army enters East Prussia. Battle of Stalluponen. Details
August 20 The Germans attack the Russians in East Prussia. The attack is a failure in addition to being a violation of the Schlieffen Plan. Details
August 17–September 2 Battle of Tannenberg: the Russian army undergoes a heavy defeat by the Germans. Details
August 20 The Germans occupy Brussels.
August 22 Austria-Hungary declares war on Belgium.
August 23 Japan declares war on Germany.
August 23–August 25 Battle of Kraśnik. The Austro-Hungarian First Army defeats the Russian Fourth Army Details
August 24–September 7 The Germans siege and capture the Maubeuge Fortress. Details
August 25 Japan declares war on Austria-Hungary.
August 26 British and French forces invade Togoland, a German protectorate in West Africa. Details
August 26–August 27 Battle of Le Cateau. Allied retreat. Details
August 26–September 11 Battle of Lemberg. The Russians capture Lviv. Details
August 27–November 7 Battle of Tsingtao: British and Japanese forces capture the German-controlled port of Tsingtao in China. Details
August 28 The Royal Navy wins the First Battle of Heligoland Bight, North Sea. Details
August 29–August 30 Battle of Saint Quentin, aka Battle of Guise. Orderly Allied retreat. Details
August 30 New Zealand occupies German Samoa (later Western Samoa). Details
September 3–September 11 Austro-Hungarian defeat at the Battle of Rava Russka. Details
September 5–September 12 First Battle of the Marne. The German advance on Paris is halted, marking the failure of the Schlieffen Plan. Details
September 7–September 14 First Battle of the Masurian Lakes: The Russian Army of the Neman withdraws from East Prussia with heavy casualties. Details
September 8–September 17 Second Austro-Hungarian attempt at invading Serbia fails.
September 9 Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg lays out Germany's war aims. Details
September 11–September 21 Australian forces occupy German New Guinea. Details
September 13 Troops from South Africa begin invading German South-West Africa. Details
September 13–September 28 The First Battle of the Aisne ends in a substantial draw. The Race to the Sea begins. Details
September 14 Erich von Falkenhayn replaces Helmuth von Moltke the Younger as German Chief of Staff. Details
September 17 The Siege of Przemyśl begins Details
September 28–October 10 The Germans siege and capture Antwerp, Belgium. Details
September 29–October 31 Battle of the Vistula, aka Battle of Warsaw. Details
October 16–October 31 Battle of the Yser. French and Belgian forces secure the coastline of Belgium. Details
October 19–November 22 The First Battle of Ypres ends the Race to the Sea. The Germans are prevented from reaching Calais and Dunkirk. Details
November 1 Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
Battle of Coronel. Von Spee's German cruiser squadron defeats a Royal Navy squadron under Christopher Cradock. Details
November 2 The United Kingdom begins the naval blockade of Germany. Details
November 3 Montenegro declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
November 3–November 5 Von Lettow-Vorbeck's German colonial forces defeat the British at the Battle of Tanga, German East Africa. Details
November 5 France and the United Kingdom declare war on the Ottoman Empire.
November 6 The Austro-Hungarians enter Belgrade.
November 9 Battle of Cocos, northeast Indian Ocean. The Australian cruiser Sydney destroys the German cruiser Emden. Details
November 11–December 6 Battle of Łódź (Lviv. Details
November 11 Sultan Mehmed V declares Jihad on the Allies.
December 8 Battle of the Falklands. Von Spee's German cruiser squadron is defeated by the Royal Navy.| Details
December 16 The German fleet shells Scarborough and Hartlepool, England. Details
December 24-December 25 An unofficial Christmas truce is declared between large numbers of German and French forces. Details
December 29–January 2, 1915 The Russians win the Battle of Sarikamis, Caucasia. Details

1915

Dates Events
January 2 The Russian offensive in the Carpathians begins. It will continue until April 12.
January 19 First Zeppelin raid on Great Britain. Details
January 24 Battle of Dogger Bank between squadrons of the British Grand Fleet and the German Hochseeflotte. Details
January 28–February 3 The Ottomans fail to capture the Suez Canal. Details
February 4 Germany begins submarine warfare against merchant vessels. Details
February 7–February 22 Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes. The Russian X Army is defeated. Details
February 19 British and French naval attack on the Dardanelles. The Gallipoli Campaign begins. Details
March 10–March 13 Battle of Neuve Chapelle. After an initial success, a British offensive is halted. Details
March 22 The Siege of Przemyśl ends. The Russians capture the fortress. Details
April 22–May 25 At the Second Battle of Ypres, the Germans use chemical weapons (gas) for the first time. Details
April 25 Allied forces land on Gallipoli. Details
London Pact between the Entente and Italy. Details
April 28 First Battle of Krithia. The Allied advance is repelled. Details
May 1–May 3 Battle of Gorlice-Tarnów: the German troops under General Mackensen break through the Russian lines in Galicia. Details
May 6–May 8 Second Battle of Krithia. The Allied attempts at advancing are thwarted again. Details
May 7 The British liner Lusitania is sunk by a German U-boat. Details
May 10 Troops from Hungary rout the Russians at Jarosław. Lviv is again in Austrian hands.
May 12 Windhoek, capital of German South-West Africa, is occupied by South African troops. Details
May 23 Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary.
June 4 Third Battle of Krithia. Yet another Allied failure. Details
The Russians leave Przemyśl. Details
June 22 Mackensen breaks again through the Russian lines in the Lviv area. Details
June 23–July 7 First Battle of the Isonzo.
June 27 The Austro-Hungarians re-enter Lviv. Details
June 28–July 5 The British win the Battle of Gully Ravine. Details
July 9 The German forces in South-West Africa surrender. Details
July 18–August 3 Second Battle of the Isonzo.
August 5 The Germans occupy Warsaw. Details
August 6–August 29 Battle of Sari Bair, aka the August Offensive. Last and unsuccessful attempt by the British to seize the Gallipoli peninsula. Details
September 1 Germany suspends unrestricted submarine warfare. Details
September 8 Nicholas II removes Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolayevich as Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, personally taking that position. Details
September 19 The Germans occupy Vilnius. The Gorlice-Tarnów Offensive ends. Details
September 25–September 28 Battle of Loos. A British major offensive fails. Details
October 6 Serbia is invaded by Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria. Details
October 14 Bulgaria declares war on Serbia
October 15 The United Kingdom declares war on Bulgaria.
October 16 France declares war on Bulgaria.
October 18–November 4 Third Battle of the Isonzo
October 19 Italy and Russia declare war on Bulgaria.
October 27 A French army lands in Salonika and, with the help of British and Italian troops, sets up a Balkan Front.
November 10–December 2 Fourth Battle of the Isonzo
November 22–November 25 Battle of Ctesiphon, in present-day Iraq. Details
November 27 The Serbian army collapses. It will retreat to the Adriatic Sea and be evacuated by the Italian and French Navies. Details
December 7 The Siege of Kut, Mesopotamia, by the Ottomans begins. Details
December 19 Douglas Haig replaces John French as commander of the British Expeditionary Force. Details

1916

Dates Events
January 8–January 16 Austro-Hungarian offensive against Montenegro, which capitulates.
January 9 The Gallipoli Campaign ends in an Allied defeat and an Ottoman victory. Details
January 11 Corfu occupied by the Allies. Details
January 24 Reinhard Scheer is appointed commander of Germany's Hochseeflotte. Details
January 27 Conscription introduced in the United Kingdom by the Military Service Act. Details
February 13–February 16 Battle of Erzurum.
February 21 The Battle of Verdun begins.
February 28 German Kamerun (Cameroon) surrenders. Details
March 1 Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare. Details
March 1–March 15 Fifth Battle of the Isonzo.
March 8 Battle of Dujaila: a British attempt to relieve Kut fails. Details
March 18–April Lake Naroch offensive.
April 23 Easter Rising by Irish rebels against the United Kingdom. Details
April 29 The British forces under siege at Kut surrender to the Ottomans. Details
May 10 Germany suspends unrestricted submarine warfare. Details
May 15–June 10 Austro-Hungarian Strafexpedition in Trentino. Details
May 31–June 1 Battle of Jutland between Britain's Grand Fleet and Germany's Hochseeflotte. Details
June 4 The Brusilov Offensive begins.
June 5 The Arab Revolt in Hejaz begins. Details
The HMS Hampshire is sunk off the Orkneys; Lord Kitchener dies. Details
June 10 Italy: Paolo Boselli succeeds Antonio Salandra as Prime Minister. Details
July 1 The Battle of the Somme begins. Details
July 2 Battle of Erzincan.
July 14 Battles for Longueval and Delville Wood (Initial phase of the Battle of the Somme) Details
Battle of Bazentin Ridge (Initial phase of the Battle of the Somme) Details
July 23–August 7 Battle of Pozières (Initial phase of the Battle of the Somme) Details
August 3–August 5 Battle of Romani. Ottoman attack on the British in the Sinai peninsula fails. Details
August 3–August 17 Sixth Battle of the Isonzo. The Italians capture Gorizia (August 9). Details
August 18–September 5 Battle of Guillemont (intermediate phase of the Battle of the Somme) Details
August 27 Italy declares war on Germany.
Romania enters the war on the Entente's side. Her army is defeated in a few weeks.
August 29 Paul von Hindenburg replaces Erich von Falkenhayn as German Chief of Staff. Details
September 6 The Central Powers create a unified command.
September 9 Battle of Ginchy (intermediate phase of the Battle of the Somme) Details
September 10–November 19 Allied offensive on the Salonika Front.
September 14–September 17 Seventh Battle of the Isonzo
September 15 Battle of Flers-Courcelette (last offensive of the Battle of the Somme). The British use armored tanks for the first time in history. Details
September 20 The Brusilov Offensive ends with a substantial Russian success. Details
September 25 Battle of Morval (part of the final stages of the Battle of the Somme) Details
September 26–September 28 Battle of Thiepval Ridge (part of the final stages of the Battle of the Somme) Details
October 1–November 5 Battle of Le Transloy (part of the final stages of the Battle of the Somme) Details
October 9–October 12 Eighth Battle of the Isonzo.
October 24 The French recapture Fort Douaumont near Verdun. Details
November 1–November 4 Ninth Battle of the Isonzo.
November 13–November 15 Battle of the Ancre (closing phase of the Battle of the Somme) Details
November 18 The Battle of the Somme ends with enormous casualties and no winner. Details
November 21 HMHS Britannic sinks because of a German mine Details
Francis Joseph I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, dies and is succeeded by Charles I. Details
November 25 David Beatty replaces John Jellicoe as commander of the Grand Fleet. Jellicoe becomes First Lord of the Sea. Details
December 5–December 7 United Kingdom: Prime Minister Henry Asquith resigns and is succeeded by David Lloyd George. Details
December 6 The Germans occupy Bucharest. The capital of Romania moved to Iaşi. Details
December 13 Robert Nivelle replaces Joseph Joffre as Commander-in-Chief of the French Army. Details
December 23 Battle of Magdhaba in the Sinai peninsula. Details
December 27 Togoland is divided in British and French administrative zones. Details
December 29 Grigori Rasputin, Russia's éminence grise, is assassinated. Details

1917

Dates Events
January 9 Battle of Roof. The British drive the Ottomans out of Sinai. Details
January 16 The German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann sends a telegram to his ambassador in Mexico, instructing him to propose the Mexican government an alliance against the United States. Details
February 1 Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare. Details
February 23 Second Battle of Kut. The British recapture the city. Details
February 23–April 5 The Germans withdraw to the Hindenburg Line. Details
March 1 Arz von Straussenberg replaces Conrad von Hötzendorf as Austro-Hungarian Chief of Staff. Details
March 8–March 11 The British capture Baghdad. Details
March 15 Russia: Czar Nicholas II abdicates. A provisional government is appointed. Details
March 26 First Battle of Gaza. The British attempt to capture the city fails. Details
April 6 The United States of America declares war on Germany.
April 9–April 12 The Canadians obtain a significant victory in the Battle of Vimy Ridge. Details
April 16–May 9 The Second Battle of the Aisne (aka Nivelle Offensive) ends in disaster for both the French army and its commander Robert Nivelle. Details
April 19 Second Battle of Gaza. The Ottoman lines resist a British attack. Details
April 29–May 20 Series of mutinies in the French army. Details
May 5–May 15 Allied offensive on the Salonika Front.
May 9–May 16 Battle of Arras. The British attack a heavily fortified German line without obtaining any strategic breakthrough. Details
May 12–June 6 Tenth Battle of the Isonzo. Details
May 15 Philippe Pétain replaces Robert Nivelle as Commander-in-Chief of the French Army. Details
May 23 Battle of Mount Hermada in the Karst. Details
June 7–June 8 The British recapture Messines Ridge. Details
June 10–June 29 Battle of Mount Ortigara. Details
June 12 Greece: King Constantine I abdicates. Details
June 25 First American troops land in France. Details
July 1–July 19 The Kerensky Offensive fails. It is the last Russian initiative in the war. Details
July 6 Arab rebels led by Lawrence of Arabia seize the Jordanian port of Aqaba. Details
July 20 Corfu Declaration about the future Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Details
July 31 The Battle of Passchendaele (aka Third Battle of Ypres) begins. Details
August 6–August 20 Battle of Mărăşeşti. Details
August 18–August 28 Eleventh Battle of the Isonzo. Details
September 8 Russia: General Kornilov's coup attempt fails. Details
September 27–September 28 Battle of Ramadi, Mesopotamia. Details
October 24–November 4 Battle of Caporetto. The Austro-Hungarians and Germans break through the Italian lines. The Italian army is defeated and falls back on the Piave River. Details
October 30 Italy: Vittorio Emanuele Orlando succeeds Paolo Boselli as Prime Minister. Details
October 31–November 7 Third Battle of Gaza. The British break through the Ottoman lines. Details
November 2 Balfour Declaration: the British government supports plans for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine. Details
November 5 The Allies agree to establish a Supreme War Council at Versailles.
November 7 The October Revolution begins in Russia. The Bolsheviks seize power. Details
November 8 Armando Diaz replaces Luigi Cadorna as Commander-in-Chief of the Italian Army. Details
November 9–December 28 First Battle of the Piave: the Austro-Hungarians and Germans try unsuccessfully to cross the river. Details
November 10 The Battle of Passchendaele (aka Third Battle of Ypres) ends in a stalemate. Details
November 13 France: Paul Painlevé is replaced by Georges Clemenceau as Prime Minister. Details
November 17 Second Battle of Heligoland Bight, North Sea. Details
November 20–December 3 Battle of Cambrai. A British attack fails and the battle results in a stalemate. Details
December 7 The United States declares war on Austria-Hungary.
December 8–December 26 Battle of Jerusalem. The British enter the city (December 11) Details
December 23 Russia signs an armistice with Germany.

1918

Dates Events
January 8 Woodrow Wilson outlines his Fourteen Points. Details
February 18 Fighting resumes on the Eastern Front.
February 21 The British capture Jericho.
February 25 German troops capture Estonia.
March 3 At Brest-Litovsk, Leon Trotsky signs the peace treaty with Germany. Details
March 21–March 25 First phase of the Spring Offensive (Operation Michael). The Germans obtain a Pyrrhic victory. Details
March 23–August 7 Artillery bombardment of Paris. Details
March 26 French Marshall Ferdinand Foch is appointed Supreme Commander of all Allied forces. Details
April 1- Royal Air Force founded by combining the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service.
April 4 Second phase of the Spring Offensive (Operation Georgette). The results are disappointing for the Germans. Details
May 7 Treaty of Bucharest between Romania and the Central Powers. It will never be ratified. Details
May 27–June 6 Third Battle of the Aisne (aka Operation Blücher-Yorck, third phase of the Spring Offensive). After initial gains, the German advance is halted. Details
June 9–June 12 Final phase of the Spring Offensive (Operation Gneiseau). Although substantial territorial gains, the Germans do not achieve their strategic goals Details
June 13–June 23 Second Battle of the Piave: the Austro-Hungarian offensive is repelled. Details
July 15–August 5 Second Battle of the Marne and last German offensive on the Western Front, which fails when the Germans are counterattacked by the French. Details
August 8–August 11 Battle of Amiens, first phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. Details
September 12 Battle of Havrincourt, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. Details
September 15 The Allies break through the Bulgarian lines at Dobro Polje. Details
September 18–September 19 Battle of Doiran, The Bulgarians halt the British and Greek advance. Details
September 18–October 10 Battle of the Hindenburg Line, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive. The Allies break through the German lines. Details
September 19–September 21 Battle of Megiddo. The British conquer Palestine. Details
September 26–November 11 Meuse-Argonne Offensive, the final phase of the Hundred Days Offensive and of World War I. Details
September 30 Bulgaria signs an armistice with the Allies.
October 1 The British enter Damascus. Details
October 20 Germany suspends submarine warfare. Details
October 24–November 4 Battle of Vittorio Veneto. The Austro-Hungarian army is routed. The Italians enter Trent and land at Triest. Details
October 29 Wilhelm Groener replaces Erich Ludendorff as Hindenburg's deputy. Details
October 29 Germany's Hochseeflotte mutinies. Details
October 30 The Ottoman Empire signs the Armistice of Mudros.
November 3 Austria-Hungary signs the armistice with Italy, effective November 4.
November 9 Germany: Kaiser William II abdicates; republic proclaimed. Details
November 10 Austria-Hungary: Kaiser Charles I abdicates. Details
November 11 At 6 am, Germany signs the Armistice of Compiègne. End of fighting at 11 a.m..
November 12 Austria proclaimed a republic.
November 14 Czechoslovakia proclaimed a republic. Details
German U-boats interned.
3 days after the armistice, fighting ends in the East African theater when General von Lettow-Vorbeck agrees a cease-fire on hearing of Germany's surrender. Details
November 21 Germany's Hochseeflotte surrendered to the United Kingdom.
November 22 The Germans evacuate Luxembourg.
November 23 9 days after agreeing a cease-fire, General von Lettow-Vorbeck formally surrenders his undefeated army at Abercorn in present-day Zambia. Details
November 27 The Germans evacuate Belgium.
December 1 Yugoslav independence proclaimed. Details

1919

Dates Events
January 18 Treaty of Versailles between the Allies and Germany: the Peace Conference opens in Paris. Details
January 25 Proposal to create the League of Nations accepted. Details
June 21 German High Seas Fleet (53 ships) scuttled in Scapa Flow with nine deaths, the last casualties of the war. Details
July 8 Germany ratifies the Treaty of Versailles. Details
July 21 The United Kingdom ratifies the Treaty of Versailles. Details

1920

Dates Events
January 10 First meeting of the League of Nations held in London. Official end of World War I. Details
Free City of Danzig established. Details
January 21 The Paris Peace Conference ends. Details
February 10 A plebiscite returns Northern Schleswig to Denmark. Details
April 19–April 26 Conference of Sanremo, Italy, about League of Nations mandates in former Ottoman territories of the Middle East. Details
June 4 Treaty of Trianon between the Allies and Hungary. Details
August 10 Treaty of Sèvres between the Allies and the Ottoman Empire. The treaty is not recognized by the Turkish national movement, which consider the Istanbul government illegitimate. Details
September 8 Gabriele D'Annunzio proclaims in Fiume the Italian Regency of Carnaro. Details
November 1 League of Nations headquarters moved to Geneva, Switzerland. Details
November 12 Treaty of Rapallo between Italy and Yugoslavia. Zadar is annexed by Italy and the Free State of Fiume is established. Details
November 15 The League of Nations holds its first general assembly. Details

Post-1920

Dates Events
1921
October 13 Treaty of Kars between Bolshevik Russia and Turkey. Details
1922
February 6 Washington Naval Treaty, limiting naval tonnage, signed by France, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. Details
April 10–May 19 Genoa Conference. Representatives of 34 countries discuss economics in the wake of the Great War. Details
April 16 Treaty of Rapallo between Germany and Bolshevik Russia to normalize diplomatic relations. Details
September 11 Treaty of Kars ratified in Yerevan, Armenia. Details
1923
July 24 Treaty of Lausanne between the Allies and Turkey, successor State to the Ottoman Empire. It supersedes the Treaty of Sèvres. Details
1924
January 27 Treaty of Rome between Italy and Yugoslavia. Fiume is annexed by Italy and the neighboring town of Sušak is assigned to Yugoslavia. Details
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