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World War Z  
The cover of World War Z
The cover of World War Z
Author Max Brooks
Country United States
Genre(s) Horror, Post-Apocalyptic fiction
Publisher Crown
Publication date September 12, 2006
Media type Print (hardcover and paperback), e-book, audiobook
Pages 352 pp
ISBN 0307346609
OCLC Number 65340967
Dewey Decimal 813/.6 22
LC Classification PS3602.R6445 W67 2006
Preceded by The Zombie Survival Guide (2003)

World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War (abbreviated WWZ) is a 2006 post-apocalyptic horror novel by Max Brooks. It is a follow-up to his 2003 book The Zombie Survival Guide. Rather than a grand overview or single narrative, World War Z is a collection of individual accounts in the form of interviews with characters conducted by the author. Brooks plays the role of an agent of the United Nations Postwar Commission who published the novel a decade after the Zombie War. The United Nations left out much of his work from the official report, choosing to focus on facts and figures from the war rather than individual stories; these form the bulk of the novel. The interviews chart a decade-long war against zombies from the view point of many different people of various nationalities. The personal accounts also describe the changing religious, geo-political, and environmental aftermath of the Zombie War.

World War Z was inspired by The Good War, an oral history of World War II by Studs Terkel; and by the zombie films of director George Romero. Brooks used World War Z to comment on social issues like government ineptitude and American isolationism, while also examining themes of survivalism and uncertainty. Critics have praised the novel for reinventing the zombie genre; the audiobook version, performed by a full cast including Alan Alda and John Turturro, won a Audie Award in 2007. A film based upon the book is in development, produced by Plan B Entertainment, directed by Marc Forster and with a screenplay by J. Michael Straczynski.

Contents

Development

Brooks designed World War Z to follow the "laws" set up in The Zombie Survival Guide, and explained that the guide may exist in the world of the novel as a precursor to the Zombie War.[1] The zombies of the The Zombie Survival Guide are undead humans reanimated by an incurable virus, Solanum. They are devoid of intelligence and are motivated only by the desire to consume living flesh. The only way to destroy them is to destroy the brain, by any means. Although zombies are as strong as the humans they infected, they are slow moving but do not tire. Zombies usually announce their presence by moaning.[2]

Brooks did a large amount of research while writing World War Z to make the novel as realistic as possible: "Everything in World War Z (as in The Zombie Survival Guide) is based in reality... well, except the zombies. But seriously, everything else in the book is either taken from reality or 100% real. The technology, politics, economics, culture, military tactics... it was a LOT of homework.[3]"

Brooks used a variety of reference books and consulted with friends who were experts in several fields when writing the novel.[3] He also cites the U.S. Army as a reference[4] on firearm statistics, though he does not state how those statistics were obtained.

Plot summary

Zombies approach a barricade manned by soldiers defending Yonkers, while news helicopters hover over the scene
Battle of Yonkers art that won an official World War Z contest, printed in the paperback edition.

Through a series of oral interviews, Brooks as an agent of the United Nations Postwar Commission describes the history of World War Z. Although the true origin of the zombie pandemic is unknown, the story begins in China after a zombie from a previous outbreak bites a young boy. The Chinese government attempts to contain the infection and concocts a crisis involving Taiwan to mask the true purpose of increased military activity. Infected refugees seeking a cure and the black market organ trade spread the infection to other countries; an outbreak in Cape Town, South Africa finally brings the plague, then known as "African rabies", to global attention.

As the infection spreads, only Israel initiates a nationwide quarantine program, and builds a "Security Wall". The United States does little to prepare for the pandemic, since it is sapped of political will by several "brushfire wars" and lulled into a false sense of security by an ineffective and fraudulently marketed vaccine called "Phalanx". When the world recognizes the true scope of the problem, a period begins known as the "Great Panic". The United States Army sends a task force to Yonkers, New York in a high-profile military campaign intended to restore American morale. Due to reliance on ineffective Cold War-era tactics, and technology that is ineffective against zombies, however, the force is routed. Other countries suffer similarly disastrous defeats against their own infections.

More countries succumb to the zombie plague and human civilization teeters on the brink of collapse. All of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains falls to the zombies. In an attempt to halt the flow of infected refugees from India, Iran destroys several key bridges within Pakistan, leading to a nuclear war between the two countries. Japan is forced to evacuate its non-infected population to South Korea, Kamchatka, and other areas. Meanwhile, millions of refugees attempt to live on the oceans in massive armadas of ships, a "solution" that proves disastrous for many as infections break out among the refugees. Many people in North America flee to the wilds of northern Canada, but approximately 11 million people die of starvation and exposure after realizing they are unprepared for the harsh climate. The leaders of the United Kingdom relocate north of the Antonine Wall, and the royal family relocates to Ireland and the Isle of Man, except Queen Elizabeth II, who gives away all her estates to be managed as safe zones and refuses to leave Windsor Castle, believing such an act would be wrong and a desertion of the people. Europeans change their medieval castles from tourists attractions into fortified strongpoints, and old medieval weaponry being used becomes a common sight.

The turning point of the war comes in South Africa, where the government adopts a plan drafted by an ex-apartheid government official named Paul Redeker. The plan calls for the establishment of small "safe zones", ideally protected by natural barriers, within which the infection can be eradicated. Large groups of refugees are to be kept alive outside the safe zones for the purpose of distracting the hordes of undead and allowing those within the safe zones time to regroup. Although Redeker and his plan are criticized as heartless, various governments worldwide quickly adopt their own versions of the "Redeker Plan".

The United States, after relocating the capital to Hawaii and establishing the area west of the Rocky Mountains as its safe zone, restructures its economy for wartime production. The United States elects a coalition government, with a President and Vice President from opposing political parties. In the eastern United States, several quarantine zones attempt to maintain their barricades with minimal resupply drops and limited help. Several nations adopt military tactics and technologies from previous wars that prove more effective against the zombies than modern weapons. Eventually, after a conference near Honolulu aboard the USS Saratoga, the remaining nations of the world agree to begin a military offensive to reclaim their territories.

Ten years after the "official" end of the worldwide zombie war, millions of undead are still active and the geopolitical landscape of the Earth has been transformed. A democratic Cuba has become the world's most thriving economy and international banking capital, and Tibet, freed from Chinese rule, is now home to the world's most populated city. Following a religious revolution, Russia is now an expansionist theocracy. After its civil war, China has become a democracy but has been vastly depopulated. North Korea is completely empty, the entire population thought to have relocated underground though no one is certain whether the tunnels may be home to 23 million zombies. The United Nations fields a large allied military force, engaged in eliminating the remaining undead.

In colder areas of the globe, outbreaks occur every spring, when frozen zombies thaw and find their way to human populations. 25 million zombies still roam the ocean floor and occasionally emerge onto dry land. Several regions, most notably Iceland, are completely overrun. Major effects of the war are a drastic reduction in the human population, in which casualties are somewhere between 600 million and 2.7 billion, and the devastation of many environments and species, as much by desperate humans as by marauding zombies.

Themes

Social commentary

Reviewers have noted that Brooks uses World War Z as a platform to criticize government ineptitude, corporate corruption and human short-sightedness.[5][6] At one point in the book, a Palestinian youth living in Kuwait refuses to believe that the dead are rising, fearing it is a trick by Israel. Many American characters blame the United States' inability to counter the zombie threat on low confidence in the government due to conflicts in the Middle East.[7] Brooks also shows his particular dislike of government bureaucracy. One character in the novel tries to justify lying about the zombie outbreak to avoid widespread panic while at the same time failing to develop a solution for fear of arousing public ire.[8][9] Alder Utter, a reviewer for The Eagle, notes similarities between the government's response in the novel and the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: "Early warnings are missed, crucial reports go unheeded, profiteers make millions selling placebos, the army equips itself with tools perfect for the last war they fought and populations ignore the extent of threat until it is staring them in the face — this is, surprisingly, a post-Katrina zombie tale."[10]

Brooks has also criticized American isolationism:

I love my country enough to admit that one of our national flaws is isolationism. I wanted to combat that in World War Z and maybe give my fellow Americans a window into the political and cultural workings of other nations. Yes, in World War Z some nations come out as winners and some as losers, but isn't that the case in real life as well? I wanted to base my stories on the historical actions of the countries in question, and if it offends some individuals, then maybe they should reexamine their own nation's history.[1]

Survivalism

Survivalism and disaster preparedness are other prevalent themes in the novel. Several interviews, especially those from the United States, focus on policy changes designed to train the surviving Americans to fight the zombies and rebuild the country.[7] Throughout the novel, characters demonstrate the physical and mental requirements needed to survive a disaster.[9] In a 2008 interview Brooks described the large amount of research needed to find optimal methods for fighting a worldwide zombie outbreak. He also pointed out that Americans like the zombie genre because they are a nation of individualists who believe that they can survive anything with the right tools and talent.[3]

Uncertainty

Brooks considers the theme of uncertainty central to the zombie genre. He believes that zombies allow people to deal with their own anxiety about the end of the world.[11] Brooks has expressed a deep fear of zombies:

They scare me more than any other fictional creature out there because they break all the rules. Werewolves and vampires and giant sharks, you have to go look for them. My attitude is if you go looking for them, no sympathy. But zombies come to you. Zombies don't act like a predator; they act like a virus, and that is the core of my terror. A predator is intelligent by nature, and knows not to overhunt its feeding ground. A virus will just continue to spread, infect and consume, no matter what happens. It's the mindlessness behind it.[12]

This mindlessness is connected to the context in which Brooks was writing. In a July 2006 interview, he declared: "at this point we’re pretty much living in an irrational time", full of human suffering and lacking reason or logic.[13] When asked in a subsequent interview about how he would compare Islamic terrorists with zombies, Brooks said:

The lack of rational thought has always scared me when it came to zombies, the idea that there is no middle ground, no room for negotiation. That has always terrified me. Of course that applies to terrorists, but it can also apply to a hurricane, or flu pandemic, or the potential earthquake that I grew up with living in L.A. Any kind of mindless extremism scares me, and we're living in some pretty extreme times.[3]

Literary significance and reception

Reviews for the novel have been generally positive. Steven H Silver identified Brooks' international focus as the novel's greatest strength. He also commented favorably on Brooks' ability to create an appreciation for the work needed to combat a global zombie outbreak. Silver's only complaint was with "Good-Byes" – the final chapter of the book – in which characters get a chance to give a final closing statement. Silver felt that it was not always apparent who the sundry, undifferentiated characters were.[14]

Gilbert Cruz of Entertainment Weekly gave the novel an "A" rating, commenting that the novel shared with great zombie stories the use of a central metaphor, describing it as "an addictively readable oral history."[9] The Eagle described the book as being "unlike any other zombie tale" and "sufficiently terrifying for most readers, and not always in a blood-and-guts way, either."[10] Keith Phipps of The Onion's A. V. Club stated that the format of the novel makes it difficult for it to develop momentum, but found the novel's individual episodes gripping.[5] In his review for Time Out Chicago, Pete Coco declared that "[b]ending horror to the form of alternative history would have been novel in and of itself. Doing so in the mode of Studs Terkel might constitute brilliance."[15]

Ron Currie Jr. named World War Z one of his favorite apocalyptic novels and praised Brooks for illustrating "the tacit agreement between writer and reader that is essential to the success of stories about the end of the world ... [both] agree to pretend that this is not fiction, that in fact the horrific tales of a war between humans and zombies are based in reality".[6] Patrick Daily of the Chicago Reader said the novel transcends the "silliness" of The Zombie Survival Guide by "touching on deeper, more somber aspects of the human condition".[16] Drew Taylor of the Fairfield County Weekly credits World War Z with making zombies more popular in mainstream society.[17]

A reviewer on RPGnet gave the novel 5 out of 5 critical hits,[18] while About.com gave the novel 4.5 out of 5 stars.[19] The hardcover version of World War Z spent four weeks on the New York Times Best Seller list, peaking at number nine.[20][21] According to Publishers Weekly, World War Z has sold 600,000 copies in all formats.[22]

References to other works

Brooks (right) and George Romero

In an October 2006 interview with Eatmybrains.com, Brooks discussed the cultural influences on the novel. He claimed inspiration from "The Good War" by Studs Terkel. Brooks stated: "[Terkel's book is] an oral history of World War II. I read when I was a teenager and it's sat with me ever since. When I sat down to write World War Z, I wanted it to be in the vein of an oral history."[1]

Brooks also cited renowned zombie film director George Romero as an influence, but criticized John Russo's The Return of the Living Dead films: "They cheapen zombies, make them silly and campy. They've done for the living dead what the old Batman TV show did for the Dark Knight."[1] Brooks acknowledged making several references to popular culture in the novel, including one to alien robot franchise Transformers, but declined to identify the others so that readers could discover them independently.[1]

Audiobook

An abridged audiobook was published in 2007 by Random House, directed by John McElroy, produced by Dan Zitt, with sound editing by Charles De Montebello. The book is read by author Max Brooks, but includes many other actors taking on the roles of the many individual characters who are interviewed in the novel. Brooks, thanks to his first career doing voice-over work and cartoons, was able to recommend a large number of the cast members.[12]

Cast

Critical reception and recognition

In her review of the audiobook for Strange Horizons, Siobhan Carroll called the story "gripping" and found the listening experience evocative of Orson Welles’s famous narration of The War of the Worlds. Carroll had mixed opinions on the voice acting, commending it as "solid and understated, mercifully free of “special effects” and "scenery chewing" overall, but lamenting what she perceived as undue cheeriness on the part of Max Brooks and inauthenticity in the Chinese accent of Steve Park.[7] Publishers Weekly also criticized Brook's narration, but found that the rest of the "all-star cast; deliver their parts with such fervor and intensity that listeners cannot help but empathize with these characters".[24] In an article in Slate concerning the mistakes producers make on publishing audiobooks, Nate DiMeo used World War Z as an example of dramatizations whose full casts contributed to making them "great listens", and described the book as a "smarter-than-it-has-any-right-to-be zombie novel."[25] The World War Z audiobook won the 2007 Audie Award for Multi-Voiced Performance and was nominated for Audiobook of the Year.[26][27]

Film adaptation

After a bidding war with Leonardo DiCaprio's production company Appian Way, Brad Pitt's Plan B Entertainment secured the screen rights to the novel in 2007.[28] The screenplay was written by Babylon 5 and Rising Stars creator J. Michael Straczynski, who identified the challenge in adapting the work as "creating a main character out of a book that reads as a UN Report on the zombie wars".[29] Marc Forster signed on to direct, and described the film as reminiscent of 1970s conspiracy thrillers like All the President's Men.[30] Straczynski, however, identified 2002 spy film The Bourne Identity as an appropriate comparison, and noted that the film will have a large international scope which maintains the political emphasis.[31]

When asked about his involvement with the film, Brooks stated that he had "zero control", but favored a role for Brad Pitt,[1] and expressed approval for Straczynski as screenwriter.[32][33] In an interview with Fangoria, Brooks said, "I can’t give it away, but Straczynski found a way to tie it all together. The last draft I read was amazing."[34] Despite his lack of artistic control, Brooks did say that the movie "has to be epic ... and if it isn't the Lord of the Rings of zombie movies, I don't want to see it get made."[35]

An early script was leaked onto the internet in 2008. Ain't It Cool News reviewed the script on March 27, 2008, and said "[t]his isn’t just a good adaptation of a difficult book ... it’s a genre-defining piece of work that could well see us all arguing about whether or not a zombie movie qualifies as 'Best Picture' material".[36] The review also noted the film appears stylistically similar to Children of Men.[36] According to Ain't It Cool News, the film follows Gerry Lane as he travels the post-war world and interviews survivors of the zombie war who are "starting to wonder if survival is a victory of any kind." One of the first interviews is with Dr. Tsai, the first to encounter the zombies.[36]

Straczynski had hoped that the film would begin production by the start of 2009.[31] Forster, however, told IGN on March 6, 2009 that the script was still in development and he was not sure if World War Z would be his next film.[37] On March 20, 2009, rumors surfaced that production offices were set up and the film was in early pre-production.[38] In June 2009, Marc Forster told an interviewer that the film would be delayed, stating that the film's script still needs a lot of development and is "still far from realization".[39]

In July 2009, Brooks revealed to Fangoria that the script is currently being re-written by Matthew Michael Carnahan. Brooks believes this "shows [the producer's] confidence in this project" because of the amount of money that was being invested in it.[40] Paramount Pictures also announced at Comic-Con that they are looking for a new director to replace Forster.[41]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Exclusive Interview: Max Brooks on World War Z". Eat My Brains!. October 20, 2006. http://www.eatmybrains.com/showfeature.php?id=55. Retrieved April 26, 2008. 
  2. ^ "'The Zombie Survival Guide' With Max Brooks". Interview. Washington Post. October 30, 2003. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2003/10/26/DI2005033114558.html. Retrieved 2009-04-14. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Zombie Wars". Washington Post. October 6, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2006/10/03/DI2006100300686.html. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  4. ^ "Max Brooks Talks pt. 1, Comic-Con 2008". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlsEBBZx8g8. 
  5. ^ a b Phipps, Keith (October 25, 2006). "World War Z: An Oral History Of The Zombie War". The A.V. Club. The Onion. http://www.avclub.com/content/node/54484. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  6. ^ a b Currie, Ron (September 5, 2008). "The End of the World as We Know it". Untitled Books. http://www.untitledbooks.com/pages/features/index.asp?FeaturesID=74. Retrieved September 21, 2008. 
  7. ^ a b c Carroll, Siobhan (October 31, 2006). "World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War by Max Brooks". Strange Horizons. http://www.strangehorizons.com/reviews/2006/10/world_war_z_an_.shtml. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  8. ^ Chappell, Les (February 4, 2007). "Brooks redefines the zombie genre in WWZ". The Daily Cardinal. http://www.dailycardinal.com/article/5147. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b c Cruz, Gilber (September 15, 2006). "Book Review World War Z". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1535157,00.html. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  10. ^ a b Utter, Alden (October 2, 2006). "Brooks puts brains in print for zombie fanatics". The Eagle. http://media.www.theeagleonline.com/media/storage/paper666/news/2006/10/02/TheScene/Brooks.Puts.Brains.In.Print.For.Zombie.Fanatics-2319449.shtml. Retrieved September 9, 2008. 
  11. ^ Cripps, Charlotte (November 1, 2006). "Preview: Max Brooks' Festival Of The (Living) Dead! Barbican, London". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/film-and-tv/features/preview-max-brooks-festival-of-the-living-dead-barbican-london-422481.html. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  12. ^ a b Lance Eaton (October 2, 2006). "Zombies Spreading like a Virus: PW Talks with Max Brooks". Interview. Publishers Weekly. http://www.publishersweekly.com/article/CA6376416.html. Retrieved 2009-01-15. 
  13. ^ Donahue, Dick (August 7, 2006). "Three Answers: Max Brooks". Interview. Publishers Weekly. http://www.publishersweekly.com/article/CA6359995.html?nid=2286. Retrieved 2009-01-15. 
  14. ^ Silver, Steven H. (2006). "World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War Review". SF Site. http://www.sfsite.com/12a/ww237.htm. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  15. ^ Coco, Pete (October 11, 2008). "Review: World War Z". Time Out Chicago. http://www.timeout.com/chicago/articles/books/23231/world-war-z. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  16. ^ Daily, Patrick. "Max Brooks". Chicago Reader. http://events.chicagoreader.com/events/Event?oid=852597. Retrieved October 28, 2008. 
  17. ^ Taylor, Drew (October 28, 2008). "The Hunt for Real October". Fairfield Count Weekly. http://www.fairfieldweekly.com/article.cfm?aid=10281. Retrieved October 30, 2008. 
  18. ^ "Review of World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War". RGPnet. http://www.rpg.net/reviews/archive/12/12573.phtml. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  19. ^ Houle, Brian. "World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War by Max Brooks". About.com. http://contemporarylit.about.com/od/sciencefictionreviews/fr/worldWarZ.htm. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  20. ^ "Best Sellers: October 15, 2006". The New York Times. October 15, 2006. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0DEEDA1530F936A25753C1A9609C8B63. Retrieved October 2, 2008. 
  21. ^ "Title Profile: World War Z". Publishers Weekly. http://www.publishersweekly.com/index.asp?layout=pwkprofileTitle&iMarketID=2&iReleaseID=369153&view=iReleaseID&text=369153&vchProductTitle=World+War+Z&iContributorID=611551. Retrieved January 15, 2009. 
  22. ^ "People: 7/20/2009". Publishers Weekly. July 20, 2009. http://www.publishersweekly.com/article/CA6671783.html?industryid=47151. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 
  23. ^ front cover of five-disk CD packaging, ISBN 978-0-7393-6640-0
  24. ^ "Audio Reviews: Week of 10/2/2006". Book review. Publishers Weekly. October 2, 2006. http://www.publishersweekly.com/article/CA6376146.html. Retrieved 2009-01-15. 
  25. ^ DiMeo, Nate (September 18, 2008). "Read Me a Story, Brad Pitt". Slate. http://www.slate.com/id/2200177/. Retrieved September 20, 2008. 
  26. ^ "Audie Award press release". Audio Publishers Association. 2007. http://www.audiopub.org/files/public/Audieswinnersrelease.pdf. Retrieved November 12, 2007. 
  27. ^ "Audies Gala 2007 Winners and nominees". Audio Publishers Association. http://www.audiopub.org/audies07winners.asp?page=1. Retrieved April 14, 2009. 
  28. ^ LaPorte, Nicole; Fleming, Michael (2006). "Par, Plan B raise 'Zombie'". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117945332.html?categoryid=13&cs=1. Retrieved November 12, 2007. 
  29. ^ Amaya, Erik (November 19, 2008). "J. Michael Straczynski: Origin of a Writer". Comic Book Resources. http://www.comicbookresources.com/?page=article&id=18888. Retrieved November 20, 2008. 
  30. ^ Fleming, Michael; Tatiana Siegel (November 13, 2008). "Forster joins in Paramount's 'War'". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117995840.html?categoryid=13&cs=1. Retrieved November 14, 2008. 
  31. ^ a b Marshall, Rick (December 3, 2008). "J. Michael Straczynski On ‘World War Z’: ‘The Scale Of What We’re Doing Here Is Phenomenal’". MTV Movie Blog. http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2008/12/03/j-michael-straczynski-on-world-war-z-the-scale-of-what-were-doing-here-is-phenomenal/. Retrieved December 3, 2008. 
  32. ^ Ullrich, Chris (June 29, 2008). "WWC Interview: 'World War Z' Writer Max Brooks". Comic Mix. http://www.comicmix.com/news/2008/06/29/wwc-interview-world-war-z-writer-max-brooks/. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  33. ^ "Max Brooks Talks World War Z Flick". FilmBuff Newsreel. June 1, 2008. http://www.filmbuffonline.com/2008/06/max-brooks-talks-world-war-z-flick.html. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  34. ^ Timpone, Tony (November 19, 2008). "Max Brooks talks WORLD WAR Z movie". Fangoria. http://www.fangoriaonline.com/home/news/9-film-news/597-max-brooks-talks-world-war-z-movie.html. Retrieved November 21, 2008. 
  35. ^ Decarlo, Jonathan (June 24, 2009). "Indie Film Examiner returns from Wizard World; Max Brooks talks World War Z movie". Examiner.com. http://www.examiner.com/x-13859-Pittsburgh-Indie-Film-Examiner~y2009m6d24-Indie-Film-Examiner-returns-from-Wizard-World-Max-Brooks-talks-World-War-Z-movie. Retrieved 13 July 2009. 
  36. ^ a b c Moriarty (March 27, 2008). "Moriarty’s One Thing I Love Today! JMS’s WORLD WAR Z Script!". Ain't It Cool News. http://www.aintitcool.com/node/36168. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  37. ^ Orlando Parfitt (March 6, 2009). "World War Z Update". IGN. http://movies.ign.com/articles/959/959980p1.html. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  38. ^ Ryan Rotten (March 20, 2009). "The Undead Rule at Paramount". ShockTillYouDrop.com. http://shocktillyoudrop.com/news/topnews.php?id=9975. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  39. ^ Garth Franklin (June 16, 2009). ""World War Z" Feature Hits A Delay?". Dark Horizons. http://www.darkhorizons.com/news/14412/-world-war-z-feature-hits-a-delay-. Retrieved 2009-06-15. 
  40. ^ Michael Gingold (July 16, 2009). "New Screenwriter Takes On WORLD WAR Z". Fangoria. http://fangoria.com/home/news/9-film-news/3240-new-screenwriter-takes-on-world-war-z.html. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  41. ^ "SDCC 09: World War Z Seeking New Director". DreadCentral.com. July 25, 2009. http://www.fangoria.com/home/news/112-sdcc/3408-sdcc-09-max-brooks-talks-what-else-zombies.html. Retrieved 6 August 2009. 

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