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Orville Wright

Photo: 1903
Born August 19, 1871(1871-08-19)
Dayton, Ohio
Died January 30, 1948 (aged 76)
Dayton, Ohio
Occupation printer/publisher, bicycle retailer/manufacturer, airplane inventor/manufacturer, pilot trainer
Spouse(s) None
Signature
Wilbur Wright

Photo: 1903
Born April 16, 1867(1867-04-16)
Millville, Indiana
Died May 30, 1912 (aged 45)
Dayton, Ohio
Occupation printer/editor, bicycle retailer/manufacturer, airplane inventor/manufacturer, pilot trainer
Spouse(s) None
Signature
.The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two Americans who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903. In the two years afterward, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft.^ Early History of Flight A timeline of the history of the airplane up to the Wright Brothers.
  • The History of the Airplane - Orville and Wilbur Wright. 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC inventors.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Wilbur Wright was born on April 16, 1867 in Millville, Indiana; Orville was born August 19, 1871 in Dayton, Ohio.
  • Taking to the Skies | Introduction 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They flew "the world's first power-driven, heavier-than-air machine in which man made free, controlled, and sustained flight."

.Although not the first to build and fly experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.^ Some people still did not accept that the Wright brothers were the first to fly a powered aircraft.
  • The Wright brothers: pioneers of the skies 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wright Brothers' first powered flight.
  • Two brothers from Dayton taught the world to fly 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.afmc.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Wright-Patterson Air Force Base - Media Gallery 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wpafb.af.mil [Source type: General]

^ Wilbur was at the controls for what should have been the first flight.

.The brothers' fundamental breakthrough was their invention of three-axis control, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.^ The brothers' fundamental breakthrough was their invention of 'three axis-control', which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.
  • 3d kitty hawk wright brothers model 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.turbosquid.com [Source type: General]

^ The brothers' fundamental breakthrough was their invention of " three axis-control ", which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And there you have it, three axis control of an aircraft!

[4] .This method became standard and remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds.^ This method became standard on fixed wing aircraft of all kinds.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 3d kitty hawk wright brothers model 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.turbosquid.com [Source type: General]

^ This was the type of control that was used on all aircrafts that had a fixed wing.
  • the-wright-brothers | www.flight-history.com 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.flight-history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then he dropped that idea and went to a kind of fixed-wing hang-glider.
  • No. 1659: Wright and Lilienthal 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC uh.edu [Source type: General]

[5][6] .From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on unlocking the secrets of control to conquer "the flying problem", rather than developing more powerful engines as some other experimenters did.^ Some people are more tactile in their creative efforts than others.
  • The Wright Way - 7 Problem Solving Principles 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC pilotsweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Special Feature: The Wright Way 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.patronsaintpr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why did the Wright Brothers often fly kites?
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people still did not accept that the Wright brothers were the first to fly a powered aircraft.
  • The Wright brothers: pioneers of the skies 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their careful wind tunnel tests produced better aeronautical data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers more effective than any before.^ They tested more than 200 wing models in the tunnel.
  • Wright brothers | Article | World Book Student 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: News]

^ But each flight was better than the one before it.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This specific wing configuration was never actually tested in their wind tunnel.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7][8] .Their U.S. patent 821,393 claims the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulates a flying machine's surfaces.^ Patent on the flying machine .
  • The Wilbur and Orville Wright Papers 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.free.ed.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • The Wilbur and Orville Wright Papers 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.free.ed.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wright US Patent #821,393 .

^ Their U.S. patent 821,393 claims the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulates a flying machine's surfaces.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.They gained the mechanical skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery.^ They gained the mechanical skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Wright, Orville & Wilbur 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.thefameframe.com [Source type: General]

^ Three years later, they opened their first bicycle shop.
  • NASA - The Wright Brothers' Story 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They gained their technical ability by having worked for years with printing presses, bicycles, motors and other machinery.

.Their work with bicycles in particular influenced their belief that an unstable vehicle like a flying machine could be controlled and balanced with practice.^ They knew that a bicycle was an inherently unstable machine but could be mastered with practice.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, their work with bicycles influenced them in believing that an airplane could be controlled and balanced with practice.

^ Their "Flyer" was not the first flying machine, but it was the first aircraft that could be controlled while in the air.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=fflf-0000110&article_id=660&chapter_id=14&chapter_title=Technology&article_title=Celebrating_100_Years_of_Flight 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .From 1900 until their first powered flights in late 1903, they conducted extensive glider tests that also developed their skills as pilots.^ They extensively tested these ideas by glider flights of the aircraft.
  • Overview of the Wright Brothers' Invention Process 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC wright.grc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first flights with the power-machine were made on the 17th of December, 1903.
  • Writings of Orville and Wilbur Wright: Century Magazine Article 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.wright-house.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He and Orville journeyed to Kitty Hawk, where they tested the 1900 glider.
  • The Wright Brothers 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.u-s-history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their bicycle shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first aircraft engine in close collaboration with the brothers.^ Their bicycle shop employee Charlie Taylor became an important part of the team, building their first aircraft engine in close collaboration with the brothers.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1893, the brothers opened a bicycle shop.
  • The Wright Brothers 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.u-s-history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The engine was built by their friend, Charlie Taylor.
  • The Wright Brothers 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC eich.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Wright brothers' status as inventors of the airplane has been subject to counter-claims by various parties.^ The Wright Brothers were pure inventors.
  • WRIGHT BROTHERS: Kitty Hawk & Kill Devil Hills ~ Packet by Eric Hause: Articles about the Outer Banks NC and the Mainland 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.coastalguide.com [Source type: News]

^ Wright Brothers' 1906 Patent for airplane, 1906.

^ Orville and Wilbur Wright , inventors of the airplane .
  • Inventors and their inventions 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

.Much controversy persists over the many competing claims of early aviators.^ Much controversy persists over the many competing claims of early aviators .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like many early aviators, Lilienthal thought that successful flying devices had to take the shape of birds, whose wing structures he had studied carefully.
  • Wright Brothers Biographical Overview 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC aviation-history.com [Source type: General]

^ The brothers' status as inventors of the airplane has been an issue of debate, particularly as there were competing claims regarding other early aviators.
  • Holidays: Wright Brothers Day in United States 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.timeanddate.com [Source type: General]

Childhood

Orville Wilbur
Orville (left) and Wilbur, 1876
.The Wright brothers were two of seven children born to Milton Wright (1828–1917) and Susan Catherine Koerner (1831–1889).^ Milton and Susan Wright encouraged their children to be curious and independent.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright family was proud of the two brothers.
  • Wright Brothers Biographical Overview 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC aviation-history.com [Source type: General]

^ Their mother, Susan Koerner Wright, was a huge influence on the two boys.

.Wilbur Wright was born near Millville, Indiana in 1867; Orville in Dayton, Ohio in 1871. The brothers never married.^ Wilbur Wright was born on April 16, 1867 in Millville, Indiana; Orville was born August 19, 1871 in Dayton, Ohio.
  • Taking to the Skies | Introduction 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leisure near Wright Brothers .
  • LondonTown.com | Wright Brothers - Stoney Street Bankside London 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.londontown.com [Source type: General]

^ Orville was born four years later in Dayton, Ohio.

.The other Wright siblings were named Reuchlin (1861–1920), Lorin (1862–1939), Katharine (1874–1929), and twins Otis and Ida (born 1870, died in infancy).^ Reuchlin was born in 1861, Lorin in 1862, Wilbur in 1867, and Orville in 1871.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two boys, Reuchlin (1861–1920) and Lorin (1862–1939), were born to the couple before Wilbur was born on a farm near Millville.
  • Wilbur and Orville Wright (American aviators) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur Wright, had two older brothers, Reuchlin (1861-1920) and Lorin (1862-1939), and a younger sister Katharine (1874-1929).
  • Wright brothers: Wilbur and Orville Wright 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wright-house.com [Source type: General]

.In elementary school, Orville was given to mischief and was once expelled.^ In elementary school, Orville was given to mischief and was once expelled.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Wright Brothers History |short ver.| by.. [Mikee & CO] 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

^ Orville was a good student during his elementary school years, but his grades suffered as he grew older and developed other outside interests.

^ Elementary School Classification Type: Lowest grade: Highest grade: Elementary School Prekindergarten 6th Grade Statistics There are 522 students and 28 teachers at Orville Wright Elementary School.
  • Orville Wright Elementary School Dayton, Ohio - Official Contact Details 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.educationindex.com [Source type: General]

[11] .In 1878 their father, who traveled often as a bishop in the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, brought home a toy "helicopter" for his two younger sons.^ Milton Wright, father of aviators Wilbur and Orville Wright, was a bishop in the United Brethren Church.
  • My Scrapbook 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC omp.ohiolink.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their father was a bishop at the Church of the United Brethren in Christ and they lived most of their life in Dayton, Indiana.
  • The My Hero Project - Orville and Wilbur Wright 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilbur and Orville's father was a bishop, an official of the United Brethren Church.
  • VOA Special English 2007-09-15 - Biography - The Wright Brothers: They Showed the World How to Fly 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.manythings.org [Source type: General]
  • The Wright Brothers: They Showed the World How to Fly 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: General]

.The device was based on an invention of French aeronautical pioneer Alphonse Pénaud.^ The toy was based on the design of the French aeronautical pioneer Alphonse Pénaud.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The device was based on an invention of French aeronautical pioneer Alphonse Penaud .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Wright Brothers History |short ver.| by.. [Mikee & CO] 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

^ It was based on an invention by French aeronautical pioneer Alphonse Penaud.
  • Wright brothers: Wilbur and Orville Wright 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wright-house.com [Source type: General]

.Made of paper, bamboo and cork with a rubber band to twirl its rotor, it was about a foot long.^ It was a toy helicopter made of cork, bamboo, and paper, and powered by a rubber band.
  • Lawrence W. Reed on Wright Brothers on National Review Online 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.nationalreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The toy was a helicopter, made of cork, bamboo, and paper.
  • WayBack . Flight . Wright Flight | PBS KIDS GO! 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC pbskids.org [Source type: General]

^ It consisted of cork and bamboo, with a paper body, and was powered by rubber bands.
  • The My Hero Project - Orville and Wilbur Wright 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilbur and Orville played with it until it broke, and then built their own.^ Wilbur and Orville built the front porch.

^ Wilbur and Orville played and played with their new toy.
  • VOA Special English 2007-09-15 - Biography - The Wright Brothers: They Showed the World How to Fly 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.manythings.org [Source type: General]
  • The Wright Brothers: They Showed the World How to Fly 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: General]

^ Wilbur and Orville played with it until it broke, then made new copies of the toy themselves.
  • NASA - The Wright Brothers' Story 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .In later years, they pointed to their experience with the toy as the initial spark of their interest in flying.^ It sparked a life-long interest in flying.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1899 they became interested in flying.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ In later years, they pointed to their experience with the toy as the initial spark of their interest in flying.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Wright Brothers History |short ver.| by.. [Mikee & CO] 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

[13]

Early career and research

Wright brothers' home at 7 Hawthorn Street, Dayton about 1900. Wilbur and Orville built the covered wrap-around porch in the 1890s.
.Both brothers attended high school, but did not receive diplomas.^ Both brothers received high school educations, but did not receive diplomas.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They both attended high school, but neither brother graduated.
  • Tag: Wright - Explore content tagged Wright on eHow.com 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Wilbur attended high school in Richmond.
  • Wright Brothers Collection, Biographical Scetch 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC home.dayton.lib.oh.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The family's abrupt move in 1884 from Richmond, Indiana to Dayton (where the family had lived during the 1870s) prevented Wilbur from receiving his diploma after finishing four years of high school.^ The family moved from Dayton temporarily in Wilbur’s senior year, so he didn’t graduate from high school, despite his stellar grades.
  • Profiles in Greatness: Wilbur and Orville Wright | SUCCESS Magazine | What Achievers Read 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.successmagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ Over the years, the family lived in Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Richmond, Indiana; and Dayton, Ohio.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright family lived first in Indiana, where Wilbur was born, but they moved to Dayton, Ohio, in 1869.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the winter of 1885–86 Wilbur was accidentally struck in the face by a hockey stick while playing an ice-skating game with friends, resulting in the loss of his front teeth.^ In the winter of 1885-86 Wilbur was accidentally struck in the face by a hockey stick while playing an ice-skating game with friends.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the winter of 1885-86, while playing a game on skates on an artificial lake, Wilbur was accidentally hit in the mouth with a stick and fell to the ground.
  • EAA's Countdown To Kitty Hawk - Wright Brothers-Full 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.countdowntokittyhawk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the winter of 1885 when he was playing hokey and he was struck in the face by mistake by a hockey stick.
  • Orville Wright Biography, Pictures, Videos - FamousWhy 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC people.famouswhy.com [Source type: General]
  • Wilbur Wright Biography, Pictures, Videos - FamousWhy 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC people.famouswhy.com [Source type: General]

.He had been vigorous and athletic until then, and although his injuries did not appear especially severe, he became withdrawn, and did not attend Yale as planned.^ He had been vigorous and athletic until then, and although his injuries did not appear especially severe, he became withdrawn, and did not attend Yale as planned.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1885, he took several college preparatory classes at Central High School in Dayton, Ohio with ambitions of going to Yale University, but he never attended college.

^ Wilbur’s plans to attend Yale College and become a clergyman like his father were dashed when he lost most of his teeth in an accident while playing ice hockey.
  • The Wright brothers: pioneers of the skies 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Had he enrolled, his career might have taken a very different path than the extraordinary one he eventually followed with Orville.^ Had he enrolled, his career might have taken a very different path than the extraordinary one he eventually followed with Orville.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But when one adds to this Wilbur's vision and insight and Orville's mechanical genius, these outwardly ordinary men together achieved something truly extraordinary.
  • Wright Brothers Collection, Biographical Scetch 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC home.dayton.lib.oh.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also appears that when they manufactured more than one of a particular model, each individual airplane was somewhat different from the others of that model.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead, he spent the next few years largely housebound, caring for his mother who was terminally ill with tuberculosis and reading extensively in his father's library.^ His spent his time helping his ill mother and reading in his father's library.
  • Orville Wright Biography, Pictures, Videos - FamousWhy 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC people.famouswhy.com [Source type: General]
  • Wilbur Wright Biography, Pictures, Videos - FamousWhy 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC people.famouswhy.com [Source type: General]

^ Instead, he had to spend most of the next several years homebound helping take care of his mother, who was dying of tuberculosis.

^ He also read extensively from the family library.
  • Wright brothers: Wilbur and Orville Wright 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wright-house.com [Source type: General]

.He ably assisted his father during times of controversy within the Brethren Church[14] but also expressed unease over his own lack of ambition.^ However, he also expressed unease over his own lack of ambition.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He ably assisted his father during times of controversy within the Brethren Church.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their father was a bishop of the United Brethren Church.
  • Wright brothers | Article | World Book Student 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC photo.pds.org:5005 [Source type: News]

[15]
.Orville dropped out of high school after his junior year to start a printing business in 1889, having designed and built his own printing press with Wilbur's help.^ So they designed and built their own engine.
  • The Wright brothers: pioneers of the skies 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He quit school before his senior year to start a printing business.

^ Wilbur was born in 1867 and Orville -- four years his junior -- in 1871.
  • Wright Brothers@Everything2.com 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: General]

.Wilbur shook off the lingering depression caused by his accident and joined the print shop, serving as editor while Orville was publisher of the weekly newspaper the West Side News, followed for only a few months by the daily Evening Item.^ Quietly starting a partnership with far-reaching consequences, Wilbur joined the print shop, serving as editor while Orville was publisher of the weekly newspaper the West Side News , followed, for only a few months, by the daily Evening Item .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next, they published a daily paper called The Evening Item .
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, he changed the weekly newspaper to a daily and called it The Evening Item.

.One of their clients for printing jobs was Orville's friend and classmate in high school, Paul Laurence Dunbar, who rose to international acclaim as a ground-breaking African-American poet and writer.^ Dunbar was a friend of the Wrights and a high school classmate of Orville.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Matilda Jane Dunbar was the mother of poet Paul Laurence Dunbar.
  • My Scrapbook 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC omp.ohiolink.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of Orvilles classmates was the African-American poet Paul Lawrence Dunbar, who was the only black student in the class.
  • Wright Brothers Biographical Overview 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC aviation-history.com [Source type: General]

.The Wrights printed the Dayton Tattler, a weekly newspaper that Dunbar edited for a brief period.^ Milton Wright minister in the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, moved his family to Dayton in 1867 so he could edit the church newspaper published there.

^ While in high school Orville built a printing press and started a weekly newspaper.
  • Aviation History - Wilbur & Orville Wright 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aviationhistory.org [Source type: General]

^ It was that year that the brothers assembled their printing press from old parts found in junk yards and barns and began to publish a successful neighborhood weekly newspaper.
  • Wright Brothers National Memorial 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC statelibrary.ncdcr.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.Capitalizing on the national bicycle craze, the brothers opened a repair and sales shop in 1892 (the Wright Cycle Exchange, later the Wright Cycle Company) and began manufacturing their own brand[17] in 1896. They used this endeavor to fund their growing interest in flight.^ In 1892, the brothers bought bicycles.

^ They opened their very own bicycle shop a few years later.

^ A year later, in 1892, the Wright Brothers became interested in bicycles when the cycling craze was sweeping the country.
  • Wright Brothers Biographical Overview 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC aviation-history.com [Source type: General]

.In the early or mid-1890s they saw newspaper or magazine articles and probably photographs of the dramatic glides by Otto Lilienthal in Germany.^ Related newspaper, magazine, and journal articles: .
  • Article: The Outer Banks gear up for Wilbur and Orville Wright centennial.(Knight Ridder Newspapers) - Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Otto Lilienthal gliding .
  • Taking to the Skies | Introduction 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Related articles from newspapers, magazines, and more .
  • Wright brothers Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Wright brothers 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The year 1896 brought three important aeronautical events.^ The year 1896 brought three important aeronautical events.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the rapid development in gasoline engines, three very important events occurred in 1903, all three changing our lives in different ways.
  • http://www.acbs.org/rudder/oldrudder/Rudder/Spring04/Kittyhawk.html 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.acbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In May, Smithsonian Institution Secretary Samuel Langley successfully flew an unmanned steam-powered model aircraft.^ Samuel Langley flew an unmanned steam-powered aircraft back in 1896.

^ The Smithsonian issue In the early 1900s professor Samuel P. Langley was secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

^ In May, Smithsonian Institution Secretary Samuel Langley successfully flew an unmanned steam-powered model aircraft.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the summer, Chicago engineer and aviation authority Octave Chanute brought together several men who tested various types of gliders over the sand dunes along the shore of Lake Michigan.^ Chanute was an engineer and early champion of aviation.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1896, Octave Chanute began experimenting with gliders in a camp on the shores of Lake Michigan near Chicago.
  • Wright Brothers Papers - Documents - Letters - Diaries - Notebooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.paperlessarchives.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ French aviation researcher Octave Chanute collected data and brought together young aviators to experiment with gliders on the sand dunes at the Lake Michigan shore.
  • Wright brothers: Wilbur and Orville Wright 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wright-house.com [Source type: General]

.In August, Lilienthal was killed in the plunge of his glider.^ In August, Lilienthal was killed in the plunge of his glider.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This shortfall led to Otto Lilienthal’s fate, a German glider pilot who plunged out of control to his death in 1896.

^ Otto Lilienthal pilots his hang glider, a contraption that would eventually kill him.
  • Mechanical Engineering "100 Years of Flight," Dec. 2003 -- "Trial by Flyer," Feature Article 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.memagazine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .These events lodged in the consciousness of the brothers.^ These events lodged in the consciousness of the brothers.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In May 1899 Wilbur wrote a letter[19] to the Smithsonian Institution requesting information and publications about aeronautics.^ June 1899 --Wilbur writes a letter to the Smithsonian Institution, asking for research information about flight.
  • The Wright Brothers - Pioneers of Flight History and Facts 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On May 30th of that year, he wrote to the Smithsonian, looking for aviation publications.
  • Wright Brothers Biographical Overview 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC aviation-history.com [Source type: General]

^ Wilbur wrote to the Smithsonian Institution asking for available literature on flight.
  • The Wright Brothers and William Brewster 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.sail1620.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .Drawing on the work of Sir George Cayley, Chanute, Lilienthal, Leonardo da Vinci, and Langley, they began their mechanical aeronautical experimentation that year.^ Leonardo da Vinci .
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The brothers admired Lilienthals work and they communicated regularly with Chanute.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using the work of Sir George Cayley, Chanute, Lilienthal, Leonardo da Vinci and Langley, they started to create an airplane and Will was considered the head of the team.
  • Orville Wright Biography, Pictures, Videos - FamousWhy 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC people.famouswhy.com [Source type: General]

.The Wright brothers always presented a unified image to the public, sharing equally in the credit for their invention.^ To celebrate the centennial of the first flight, the museum will open The Wright Brothers & the Invention of the Aerial Age on October 11, 2003.

^ In 1905 the war department refused three separate offers by the Wright Brothers to share their scientific discoveries on air flights.
  • Science: Wright Brothers - EncycloMedia™: Free Online Encyclopedia 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.encyclomedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1910, the first capital of the Confederacy was desperate to turn the page on its Civil War past and lured the Wright Brothers to Montgomery in hopes of improving its image.
  • February 2010 (WBHM - Your NPR News Station) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC wbhm.org [Source type: General]

.Biographers note, however, that Wilbur took the initiative in 1899–1900, writing of "my" machine and "my" plans before Orville became deeply involved when the first person singular became the plural "we" and "our". Author James Tobin asserts, "it is impossible to imagine Orville, bright as he was, supplying the driving force that started their work and kept it going from the back room of a store in Ohio to conferences with capitalists, presidents, and kings.^ When Wilbur died, Orville, against his desires, became president of the company.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our next work was to draw up the plans for a suitable machine.

^ Biographers note, however, that Wilbur took the initiative in 1899–1900, writing of "my" machine and "my" plans before Orville became deeply involved when the first person singular became the plural "we" and "our".
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Will did that. .He was the leader, from the beginning to the end."^ He was the leader, from the beginning to the end."
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]

Ideas about control

.Despite Lilienthal's fate, the brothers favored his strategy: to practice gliding in order to master the art of control before attempting motor-driven flight.^ This shortfall led to Otto Lilienthal’s fate, a German glider pilot who plunged out of control to his death in 1896.

^ Instead, with the nose tipped down, the plane promptly responded to the lateral control and Orville finished the flight with several thorns driven into the wing.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More ordering information Wholesale pricing On December 17, 1903, at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, the Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur, achieved the first controlled, powered flight in an airplane.
  • Wright Brothers Gifts by Harmony Designs (Bookmarks, Paperweights, Magnets and more.) 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.harmonydesigns.com [Source type: General]

.The death of British aeronaut Percy Pilcher in another hang gliding crash in 1899 only reinforced their opinion that a reliable method of pilot control was the key to successful—and safe—flight.^ The death of British aeronaut Percy Pilcher in another hang gliding crash in 1899 only reinforced their opinion that a reliable method of pilot control was the key to successful—and safe—flight.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He believes that effective control is the key to successful flight.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earlier aviators such as Otto Lilienthal and Percy Pilcher built and flew gliders in their pursuit of manned-flight.

.At the outset of their experiments they regarded control as the unsolved third part of "the flying problem". They believed sufficiently promising knowledge of the other two issues—wings and engines—already existed.^ They twist their wings to control their flight.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ They believed sufficiently promising knowledge of the other two issues—wings and engines—already existed.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the outset of their experiments they regarded control as the unsolved third part of "the flying problem".
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .The Wright brothers thus differed sharply from more experienced practitioners of the day, notably Ader, Maxim and Langley who built powerful engines, attached them to airframes equipped with unproven control devices, and expected to take to the air with no previous flying experience.^ "It's amazing what fantastic engineers the Wright brothers were.
  • CNN - How did Wilbur and Orville do it? - March 4, 1999 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ They built more powerful engines and flew better airplanes.
  • VOA Special English 2007-09-15 - Biography - The Wright Brothers: They Showed the World How to Fly 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.manythings.org [Source type: General]
  • The Wright Brothers: They Showed the World How to Fly 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: General]

^ The Wright brothers were indeed, the first to fly!
  • The Wright Brothers, how they invented the air plane 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.garypalamara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though agreeing with Lilienthal's idea of practice, the Wrights saw that his method of balance and control—shifting his body weight—was fatally inadequate.^ Lilienthal and Chanute had guided and balanced their machines by shifting the weight of the operator's body.
  • Writings of Orville and Wilbur Wright: Century Magazine Article 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.wright-house.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though agreeing with Lilienthal's idea of practice, the Wrights saw that his method of balance and control—shifting his body weight—was fatally inadequate.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After carefully studying bird flight, the Wright brothers became aware of the inefficiency of Lilienthal's methods of seeking balance and control solely by body movements.
  • Taking to the Skies | Introduction 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .They were determined to find something better.^ They were determined to find something better.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
Wright 1899 kite: front and side views, with control sticks.
^ [Side view of Dan Tate, left, and Wilbur, right, flying the 1902 glider as a kite] .
  • Wilbur and Orville Wright Timeline, 1867-1948 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: General]

^ After proving this theory or wing warping by attaching control lines to twist the sides of a box-kite while in flight, they decided to build a glider that incorporated wing warping.

^ The design included a "joy-stick" for the purpose of controlling horizontal and vertical rudders, a feature that anticipated the control system used by the Wright Brothers.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wing-warping is shown in lower view.^ Wing-warping is shown in lower view.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pilot would try to counteract the increasing spin by applying positive warp to the lower wings.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flown as a kite at Dayton, the model glider's wing surfaces were warped by the use of four cords reaching from the upper and lower wingtips on each side to the operator on the ground.
  • Wright Brothers National Memorial 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC statelibrary.ncdcr.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(Wright Brothers drawing in Library of Congress)
.On the basis of observation, Wilbur concluded that birds changed the angle of the ends of their wings to make their bodies roll right or left.^ They studied how birds change the angle of their wings in order to roll to the left or right.

^ Birds mastered roll by twisting their wings.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Wright Brothers drawing in Library of Congress) Based on observation, Wilbur concluded that birds changed the angle of the ends of their wings to make their bodies roll right or left.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .The brothers decided this would also be a good way for a flying machine to turn—to "bank" or "lean" into the turn just like a bird—and just like a person riding a bicycle, an experience with which they were thoroughly familiar.^ The 1903 machine would never fly again.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But most people just thought they were full of it, and the Wright Brothers liked it that way.

^ And thats just the way they would have wanted it.

.Equally important, they hoped this method would enable recovery when the wind tilted the machine to one side (lateral balance).^ One of their important tasks would be to improve the stability of the machine.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Equally important, they hoped this method would enable recovery when the wind tilted the machine to one side (lateral balance).
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Considering the Wrights only got 4 flights out of that one before it took major damage (which they thought they could repair before the wind took it and finished it off), I'm not too shocked by that.
  • FARK.com: (4672310) Wright Brothers' plane crashes. This is not a repeat from 1905 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They puzzled over how to achieve the same effect with man-made wings and eventually discovered wing-warping when Wilbur idly twisted a long inner-tube box at the bicycle shop.^ They warped the wing.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was playing with a bicycle inner tube box in the bicycle shop when he noticed that by twisting the empty box, the sides changed position.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilbur got the idea of twisting the wings from observing how birds fly.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]
.Other aeronautical investigators regarded flight as if it were not so different from surface locomotion, except the surface would be elevated.^ This forward placement of the elevator was perhaps the best configuration for in-flight safety for the pioneering aviator, because in sizing the elevator, the surface had a stall speed below that for the main wing.

^ We had removed the upper surface from the machine and were flying it in a wind to see at what angles it would be supported in winds of different strengths.

^ And they knew what the control surfaces would need to be able to do if the flight was to be controlled by the pilot.

.They thought in terms of a ship's rudder for steering, while the flying machine remained essentially level in the air, as did a train or an automobile or a ship at the surface.^ They worked hard to develop a flying machine that had the right combination of wing shape, design and surface area coupled with the right kind of lightweight engine.
  • Taking to the Skies | Introduction 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She was born at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio, where the Wright Brothers had a bicycle shop and where they developed their biplane flying machine.
  • Author relates Wright brothers' time in Alabama | TuscaloosaNews.com | The Tuscaloosa News | Tuscaloosa, AL 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.tuscaloosanews.com [Source type: News]

^ It seemed unsafe to try their flying machine but Orville and Wilbur Wright decided to start from the level ground before their camp.
  • Taking to the Skies | Introduction 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The idea of deliberately leaning, or rolling, to one side seemed either undesirable or did not enter their thinking.^ But the only way to determine that the wings were warped was to see that the machine was rolling to one side or the other.

^ This, they reasoned, would enable them to level out the wings after being rolled to one side by a gust of wind.
  • The Wright Brothers' Conquest of the Air 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC rqriley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No matter what either one did, the other seemed sure to take the next needed step.
  • The Wright Brothers, how they invented the air plane 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.garypalamara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Some of these other investigators, including Langley and Chanute, sought the elusive ideal of "inherent stability", believing the pilot of a flying machine would not be able to react quickly enough to wind disturbances to use mechanical controls effectively.^ The 1903 machine would never fly again.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (It still would be effective if used today.
  • Wright Brothers National Memorial 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC statelibrary.ncdcr.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manly was piloting the Langley machine.
  • Mechanical Engineering "100 Years of Flight," Dec. 2003 -- "Trial by Flyer," Feature Article 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.memagazine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Wright brothers, on the other hand, wanted the pilot to have absolute control.^ The Wright Brothers were the first to fly a controllable self-propelled, heavier than air machine on December 17, 1903.
  • Wright Brothers Invention Process -- The First Flight 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC wright.grc.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ SKEPTICS Afraid that others would steal their technology, the Wright brothers stopped test flights by 1905 and focused instead on securing patents for their control system and contracts with the U.S. and French military.
  • I Have Today Seen Wilbur Wright and his Great White Bird | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus, ridiculed by the press, the Wright brothers continued their work in semi-obscurity, while other pilot pioneers like Brazilian pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont or US pioneer Glenn Curtiss were occupying the limelight.

[27] .For that reason, their early designs made no concessions toward built-in stability (such as dihedral wings).^ For that reason, their early designs made no concessions toward built-in stability (such as dihedral wings).
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But no such engine was forthcoming and finally they attacked the problem head-on and designed their own engine with the help of their machinist, Charles Taylor.

^ The most frequent path taken by the early pioneers who wanted to discover the secret of flight wrongly attempted a design that imitated a flapping-wing bird.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They deliberately designed their 1903 first powered flyer with anhedral (drooping) wings, which are inherently unstable, but less susceptible to upset by gusty sidewinds.^ The Flyer is unstable in sideslip during takeoff because of the anhedral of the wing.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They worked hard to develop a flying machine that had the right combination of wing shape, design and surface area coupled with the right kind of lightweight engine.
  • Taking to the Skies | Introduction 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But we tested the fabric and there is metal rubbing, which shows [the steel straps] were there on the day they flew in 1903.” Never mind that the steel makes for a less-flexible wing, or that it’s clearly a bad design on what everyone agrees is an unstable airplane, or even that the Wrights themselves used a one-piece rib on all later aircraft.
  • In Search of the Real Wright Flyer | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Flights

Toward flight

Park Ranger Tom White demonstrates a replica of Wright brothers box kite at the Wright Brothers Memorial
.In July 1899 Wilbur put wing warping to the test by building and flying a five-foot box kite in the approximate shape of a biplane.^ Wilbur though of wing warping from twisting with a small cardboard box.
  • :: NASA Quest > Aerospace :: 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC quest.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

^ Wilbur tested his "wingwarping" idea in July 1899 using a 5-foot box kite with a fixed horizontal tail plane.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1899, he made a biplane kite (a biplane has two sets of wings).
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the wings were warped, or twisted, one end would receive more lift and rise, starting a turn in the direction of the lower end.^ Wing-warping is shown in lower view.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the wings were warped, or twisted, one end would receive more lift and rise, starting a turn in the direction of the lower end.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If he twisted one side, the other side would twist in the opposite direction.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Warping was controlled by four lines attached to the kite.^ Warping was controlled by four lines attached to the kite.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilbur thought that he could control the twist, or warp, with metal cables attached to the wings on his biplane kite.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1899 the Wright brothers built a kite which they controlled by warping or twisting the wings.
  • Wright Brothers First Flight:  Mrs McGowan's 2nd Grade 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.mrsmcgowan.com [Source type: General]

.The lines led to two sticks held by the kite flyer, who tilted them in opposite directions to twist the wings and make the kite bank left or right.^ The lines led to two sticks held by the kite flyer, who tilted them in opposite directions to twist the wings and make the kite bank left or right.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Side view of Dan Tate, left, and Wilbur, right, flying the 1902 glider as a kite] .
  • Wilbur and Orville Wright Timeline, 1867-1948 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: General]

^ The operator simply shifted the weight of his body to tilt the wings in the direction opposite from adverse action of the wind.
  • Wright Brothers National Memorial 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC statelibrary.ncdcr.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1900 the brothers journeyed to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina to begin their manned gliding experiments.^ Inventors of the first powered airplane Kitty Hawk, North Carolina .
  • NASA Quest > Aerospace Team Online 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC quest.arc.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

^ In 1900 the brothers journeyed to Kitty Hawk , North Carolina to begin their manned gliding experiments.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They decided to go to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
  • The My Hero Project - Wilbur and Orville Wright 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilbur chose the location on the basis of a reply to his first letter to Octave Chanute, whose suggestions included the Atlantic coast for regular breezes and a soft sandy landing surface.^ Letter from Wilbur Wright to Octave Chanute, May 13, 1900 5.

^ Enclosed in a letter from Wilbur Wright to Octave Chanute, January 5, 1902.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They chose the location based on advice from Octave Chanute (answering Wilbur's letter), who suggested a sandy coastal area for regular breezes and a soft landing surface.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilbur also requested and scrutinized U.S. Weather Bureau data, and selected Kitty Hawk after writing to the government meteorologist stationed there.^ Kitty hawk, but most was assembled there.
  • :: NASA Quest > Aerospace :: 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC quest.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

^ They selected Kitty Hawk after scrutinizing Weather Bureau data and writing to the government meteorologist stationed there.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1904, Wilbur describes a launching derrick they built to compensate for the lack of North Carolina winds when they weren't testing at Kitty Hawk.
  • Wright Brothers were Wrong! by G. Edwin Lint 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.diskbooks.org [Source type: General]

.The location, although remote, was closer to Dayton than other places Chanute had suggested, including California and Florida.^ The location, although remote, was closer to Dayton than other places Chanute had suggested, including California and Florida.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chanute suggests locations in San Diego, Pine Island, Florida and the Atlantic Coasts of South Carolina and Georgia.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A basic assessment of early pioneers, including Cayley, Lilienthal, Chanute, and others.
  • The Wright Brothers and the Invention of the Airplane 19 September 2009 19:24 UTC www.centennialofflight.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The spot also gave them privacy from reporters, who had turned the 1896 Chanute experiments at Lake Michigan into something of a circus.^ The spot also gave them privacy from reporters, who had turned the 1896 Chanute experiments at Lake Michigan into something of a circus.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there a lot of wannabes out there who think attending these programs will turn them into writers?
  • Stephen Wright’s Literary Landscape by Patrick Ambrose - The Morning News 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.themorningnews.org [Source type: General]

^ Veteran engineer Octave Chanute with the help of a young engineer named Augustus Herring, made a number of glider flights in 1896 at the Indiana Dunes on the shores of Lake Michigan.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chanute visited them in camp each season from 1901 to 1903 and saw gliding experiments, but not the powered flights.^ Chanute had visited Kitty Hawk in early November but missed witnessing the first flight when broken propeller shafts forced a month's delay.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early in August Mr. Chanute came down from Chicago to witness our experiments and spent a week in camp with us.

^ In 1896, Samuel P. Langley flew the first steam-powered model airplane in Washington, D.C. Another major figure in experimental flight was Octave Chanute.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gliders

.The Wrights based the design of their first full-size glider (as well as the 1899 kite) on the work of their recent predecessors, chiefly the Chanute-Herring biplane hang glider ("double-decker", as the Wrights called it), which flew well in the 1896 experiments near Chicago; and aeronautical data on lift that Lilienthal had published.^ Early Wright designs were based on his work.

^ Main article: Wright Glider They based the design of their first full-size glider on the work of their recent predecessors: the Chanute-Herring "double-decker", a biplane hang glider which flew well in the 1896 experiments near Chicago; and aeronautical data on lift that Lilienthal had published.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It began with this simple model glider, which Wilbur Wright flew as a kite...

.The Wrights designed the wings with camber, a curvature of the top surface.^ They worked hard to develop a flying machine that had the right combination of wing shape, design and surface area coupled with the right kind of lightweight engine.
  • Taking to the Skies | Introduction 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a bridge builder, Chanute encouraged the Wrights, through letters, to abandon the idea of bird-shaped wings in favor of a stronger, double-wing design.
  • Wright Brothers Biographical Overview 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC aviation-history.com [Source type: General]

^ The Wrights located their maximum camber close to the leading edge of the wing.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The brothers did not discover this principle, but took advantage of it.^ "By original scientific research, the Wright Brothers discovered the principles of human flight.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville immediately took exception, saying that they did have special advantages.
  • Special Feature: The Wright Way 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.patronsaintpr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The better lift of a cambered surface compared to a flat one was first discussed scientifically by Sir George Cayley.^ To my mind Sir George Cayley was the first of the important pioneers.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1799 the English inventor, Sir George Cayley, was the first person to recognize the three basic principles that govern flight: forward motion or propulsion, lift and control.
  • How the Wright Brothers Invented the Air plane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.garypalamara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To test the lifting properties of an airfoil section versus a flat plate, they mounted the objects to the edges of a bicycle wheel, which was attached horizontally above the front wheel of one of their bicycles.
  • EAA's Countdown To Kitty Hawk - Wright Brothers-Full 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.countdowntokittyhawk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lilienthal, whose work the Wrights carefully studied, used cambered wings in his gliders, proving in flight the advantage over flat surfaces.^ Wright glider in flight , 1902.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After carefully studying bird flight, the Wright brothers became aware of the inefficiency of Lilienthal's methods of seeking balance and control solely by body movements.
  • Taking to the Skies | Introduction 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like many early aviators, Lilienthal thought that successful flying devices had to take the shape of birds, whose wing structures he had studied carefully.
  • Wright Brothers Biographical Overview 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC aviation-history.com [Source type: General]

.The wooden uprights between the wings of the Wright glider were braced by wires in their own adaptation of Chanute's modified "Pratt truss", a bridge-building design he used in his 1896 glider.^ In 1896, the Wright Brothers began building their own bicycles.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was similar to the Pratt truss used in the structure of bridges.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights used the biwing structure as a practical design for wing warping.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Wrights mounted the horizontal elevator in front of the wings rather than behind, apparently believing this feature would help avoid a nosedive and crash like the one that killed Lilienthal.^ The left wing, the front elevator and one of the skids were slightly damaged.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights mounted the horizontal elevator in front of the wings rather than behind, apparently believing this feature would help avoid a nosedive and crash like the one that killed Lilienthal.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The horizontal stabilizer was placed in front of the wings.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .(Later, when Brazilian aviation pioneer Santos-Dumont, flew his 14-bis in Paris in 1906, French newspapers dubbed the tail-first arrangement a "canard", because of the supposed resemblance to a duck in flight.^ In addition to his pioneering work in airships, Santos-Dumont made the first public European flight of an airplane in Paris in October 1906.
  • mental_floss Blog » Who flew before the Wright Brothers? 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.mentalfloss.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • mental_floss Blog » Who flew before the Wright Brothers? 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.mentalfloss.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Santos-Dumont was a Brazilian who pursued aviation in France.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newspapers proclaimed Santos-Dumont to be the first to fly.
  • Mechanical Engineering "100 Years of Flight," Dec. 2003 -- "Trial by Flyer," Feature Article 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.memagazine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .Wilbur incorrectly believed a tail was not necessary,[29] and their first two gliders did not have one.^ To capitalize on their legal case, the brothers incorporated the Wright Company on November 22, with Wilbur as president and Orville as one of two vice-presidents.
  • Wright Brothers Biographical Overview 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC aviation-history.com [Source type: General]

^ Wilbur - 109 - 19:06:22 ] RE: Zahcary/5thgrade/CumminsHomeschool/OH how long did it take you to buld your first plane The first glider took about two weeks to build.
  • :: NASA Quest > Aerospace :: 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC quest.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

^ The brothers did confirm one of their experimental ideas that first year in Kitty Hawk They called it wing warping.
  • EAA's Countdown To Kitty Hawk - Wright Brothers-Full 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.countdowntokittyhawk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to some Wright biographers, Wilbur probably did all the gliding until 1902, perhaps to exercise his authority as older brother and to protect Orville from harm.^ Orville and Wilbur Wright - read a profile on these brothers in flight.

^ His great-grandfather was Loren Wright, an older brother of Orville and Wilbur.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville and Wilbur Wright , inventors of the airplane .
  • Inventors and their inventions 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: General]

[30][31]
Glider Vital Statistics[32]
Wingspan Wing area Chord Camber Aspect ratio Length Weight
1900 17 ft 6 in (5.33 m) 165 sq ft (15 m2) 5 ft (2 m) 1/20 3.5:1 11 ft 6 in (3.51 m) 52 lb (24 kg)
1901 22 ft (7 m) 290 sq ft (27 m2) 7 ft (2.1 m) 1/12,*1/19 3:1 14 ft (4.3 m) 98 lb (44 kg)
1902 32 ft 1 in (9.78 m) 305 sq ft (28 m2) 5 ft (1.5 m) 1/20–1/24 6.5:1 17 ft (5.2 m) 112 lb (51 kg)
* .(This airfoil caused severe stability problems; the Wrights modified the camber on-site.^ (This airfoil caused severe pitch problems; the Wrights modified the camber on-site.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights would subsequently find that this number was the major cause of their lift problem with their early gliders.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were many gliders we made, but because of control problems, we went through several designs and finally ended up with our wright flyer.
  • :: NASA Quest > Aerospace :: 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC quest.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

)

1900 Glider

.The brothers flew the glider only a few days in the early autumn of 1900 at Kitty Hawk.^ In their first days a Kitty Hawk, the Wrights flew the glider as a kite.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He flew it at Kitty Hawk again for the 80th anniversary.
  • In Search of the Real Wright Flyer | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The brothers flew the glider only a few days in the early autumn of 1900 at Kitty Hawk.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the first tests, probably October 3, Wilbur was aboard while the glider flew as a kite not far above the ground with men below holding tether ropes.^ In their first days a Kitty Hawk, the Wrights flew the glider as a kite.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It began with this simple model glider, which Wilbur Wright flew as a kite...

^ In the first tests, probably Oct.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .Most of the kite tests were unpiloted with sandbags or chains (and even a local boy) as onboard ballast.^ Most of the kite tests were unpiloted with sandbags or chains (and even a local boy) as onboard ballast.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The 1900 glider. No photo was taken with a pilot aboard.
.They tested wing-warping using control ropes from the ground.^ They warped the wing.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They tested wing-warping using control ropes from the ground.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They used a wind tunnel to test different wing shapes.
  • Wright Brothers First Flight:  Mrs McGowan's 2nd Grade 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.mrsmcgowan.com [Source type: General]

.The glider was also tested unmanned while suspended from a small homemade tower.^ The glider was also tested unmanned while suspended from a small homemade tower.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The brothers tested this theory by building and flying a small kite-like glider with superposed surfaces.
  • Taking to the Skies | Introduction 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilbur (but not Orville) made about a dozen free glides on only a single day.^ Wilbur (but not Orville) made about a dozen free glides on only a single day.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Change Is in the Air: http://www.marcopolo-education.org/MarcoGrams/Jan2004.html On a cold day in December 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright changed history.
  • June 17 - afternoon 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC studyplans.com [Source type: General]

^ Linda/NASAQuest - 33 - 18:23:57 ] RE: [ Orville ] Wilbur, dear brother, I see you made it to the web chat.
  • :: NASA Quest > Aerospace :: 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC quest.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

.For those tests, the brothers trekked four miles (6 km) south to the Kill Devil Hills, a group of sand dunes up to 100 feet (30 m) high (where they made camp in each of the next three years).^ They tested it at Kill Devil Hills.
  • The My Hero Project - Wilbur and Orville Wright 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They located it four miles south of Kitty Hawk near the largest sand dune--Big Kill Devil Hill.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They made all their flights in that position for the next five years.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although the glider's lift was less than expected (causing most tests to be unmanned), the brothers were encouraged because the craft's front elevator worked well and they had no accidents.^ Although the glider's lift was less than expected (causing most tests to be unmanned), the brothers were encouraged because the craft's front elevator worked well and they had no accidents.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rewarding their wind tunnel work, the glider produced the expected lift.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the most serious accident they ever had.
  • Wilbur and Orville Wright 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC gardenofpraise.com [Source type: General]

.However, the small number of free glides meant they were not able to give wing-warping a true test.^ They warped the wing.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They tested wing-warping using control ropes from the ground.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the small number of free glides meant they were not able to give wing-warping a true test.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pilot lay flat on the lower wing, as planned, to reduce aerodynamic drag.^ The pilot lay flat on the lower wing, as planned, to reduce aerodynamic drag.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cradle in which the pilot lay was connected with wires in order to give a spiral twist to the wings for greater balance and control.
  • Taking to the Skies | Introduction 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.sil.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a glide ended, the pilot was supposed to lower himself to a vertical position through an opening in the wing and land on his feet with his arms wrapped over the framework.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a glide ended, the pilot was supposed to lower himself to a vertical position through an opening in the wing and land on his feet with his arms wrapped over the framework.^ The operator having taken a position where the center of pressure was supposed to be, an attempt at gliding was made, but the machine turned downward and landed after going only a few yards.

^ It was made of Japanese silk, attached to a harness of linen webbing with dimensions 24 feet high and 19 feet in diameter in the open position.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lower wing is nominally 2 feet above the ground during the takeoff roll.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within a few glides, however, they discovered the pilot could remain prone on the wing, headfirst, without undue danger when landing.^ Within a few glides, however, they discovered the pilot could remain prone on the wing, headfirst, without undue danger when landing.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Correspondence with local Kitty Hawk residents later confirmed the favorable conditions; however, they warned that the local weather could become unpredictable after mid-November.
  • How the Wright Brothers Invented the Air plane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.garypalamara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, they couldn't compete with larger, more established daily newspapers, and after a few months they went back to being simple job printers.

.They made all their flights in that position for the next five years.^ They made all their flights in that position for the next five years.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They made over 1,000 gliding flights and were able to confirm their previous data and to demonstrate their ability to control the three axes of motion of the glider.
  • Wright brothers Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Wright brothers 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By experimenting with movable portions of the wing assembly, rather than shifts in bodily weight, as a means of correcting the aircraft's position in flight they made an important improvement in aircraft design.
  • Wright brothers Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Wright brothers 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1901 Glider

Orville at Kitty Hawk with the 1901 glider, its nose pointed skyward; it had no tail.
.Hoping to improve lift, they built the 1901 glider with a much larger wing area and made 50 to 100 flights in July and August for distances of 20 to 400 ft (6 to 122 m).^ Before that we made hundreds of glider flights.
  • :: NASA Quest > Aerospace :: 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC quest.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

^ It was the biggest glider they ever built.
  • The My Hero Project - Wilbur and Orville Wright 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another glider which was larger than the 1900 one was built in 1901.
  • The My Hero Project - Orville and Wilbur Wright 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .The glider stalled a few times, but the parachute effect of the forward elevator allowed Wilbur to make a safe flat or "pancake" landing, instead of a nose-dive.^ The glider stalled a few times, but the parachute effect of the forward elevator allowed Wilbur to make a safe flat or "pancake" landing, instead of a nose-dive.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During a practice flight on August 9, 1896, he was hit by a strong gust of wind that caused his glider to nose up and stall.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then Wilbur found he could safely ride the glider in the prone position down the slope of a sand dune.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These incidents wedded the Wrights even more strongly to the canard design, which they did not give up until 1910. The glider, however, delivered two major disappointments.^ They didnt give up.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These incidents wedded the Wrights even more strongly to the canard design, which they did not give up until 1910.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The glider, however, delivered two major disappointments.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It produced only about one-third the lift calculated and sometimes failed to respond properly to wing-warping, turning opposite the direction intended—a problem later known as adverse yaw.^ Its lifting capacity seemed scarcely one-third of the calculated amount.

^ It produced only about one-third the lift calculated and sometimes failed to respond properly to wing-warping, turning opposite the direction intended—a problem later known as adverse yaw .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, with the nose tipped down, the plane promptly responded to the lateral control and Orville finished the flight with several thorns driven into the wing.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the trip home after their second season, Wilbur, stung with disappointment, remarked to Orville that man would fly, but not in their lifetimes.^ Wilbur sailed for Europe; Orville would fly near Washington, D.C. .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the trip home after their second season, Wilbur, stung with disappointment, remarked to Orville that man would fly, but not in their lifetimes.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Wilbur had quit, Orville would have too.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The poor lift of the gliders led the Wrights to question the accuracy of Lilienthal's data, as well as the "Smeaton coefficient" of air pressure, which had been in existence for over 100 years and was part of the accepted equation for lift.^ Both the Lilienthal data and the Smeaton coefficient are used in the formula for calculating lift.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also questioned the accuracy of the Smeaton coefficient.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The poor lift of the gliders led the Wrights to question the accuracy of Lilienthal's data, as well as the " Smeaton coefficient" of air pressure, which had been used for over 100 years and was part of the accepted equation for lift.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Lift Equation
L = k\;S\;V^2\;C_L
L = lift in pounds
k = coefficient of air pressure (Smeaton coefficient)
S = total area of lifting surface in square feet
V = velocity (headwind plus ground speed) in miles per hour
CL = coefficient of lift (varies with wing shape)
Replica of the Wright brothers' wind tunnel at the Virginia Air and Space Center
.The Wrights—and Lilienthal—used the equation to calculate the amount of lift that wings of various sizes would produce.^ The Wrights—and Lilienthal—used the equation to calculate the amount of lift that wings of various sizes would produce.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Smeaton Coefficient was used in the calculation of lift at the time of the Wright Brothers.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The glider performed worse than expected because it was based upon inaccurate data from Otto Lilienthal and John Smeaton about the lifting ability of various wing designs.
  • Wright Brothers Biographical Overview 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC aviation-history.com [Source type: General]

.On the basis of measurements of lift and wind during the 1901 glider's kite and free flights, Wilbur believed (correctly, as tests later showed) that the Smeaton number was very close to 0.0033, not the traditionally used 60 percent larger 0.0054, which would exaggerate predicted lift.^ Wilbur had controlled, had extended the flight by the use of controls...

^ Based on measurements of lift and wind during the 1901 glider's kite and free flights, Wilbur believed (correctly, as tests later showed) that the Smeaton number was very close to 0.0033, not the traditionally used 60% larger 0.0054, which would exaggerate predicted lift.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So had the 1900, 1901 gliders, and later during the 1902 flying season, the 1902 glider used the anhedral.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Back home, furiously pedaling a strange-looking bicycle on neighborhood streets, they conducted makeshift open-air tests with a miniature Lilienthal airfoil and a counter-acting flat plate, which were both attached to a freely rotating third bicycle wheel mounted horizontally in front of the handlebars.^ What they did was take a bicycle wheel and mount it horizontally and free to spin in front of the handlebars of one of their bicycles.
  • NOVA | Wright Brothers' Flying Machine | The Unlikely Inventors | PBS 19 September 2009 19:24 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Back home, furiously pedaling a strange-looking bicycle on neighborhood streets, they conducted makeshift open-air tests with a miniature Lilienthal airfoil and a counter-acting flat plate, which were both attached to a freely rotating third bicycle wheel mounted horizontally in front of the handlebars.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To test the lifting properties of an airfoil section versus a flat plate, they mounted the objects to the edges of a bicycle wheel, which was attached horizontally above the front wheel of one of their bicycles.
  • EAA's Countdown To Kitty Hawk - Wright Brothers-Full 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.countdowntokittyhawk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because the third wheel rotated against the airfoil instead of remaining motionless as the calculations predicted, the Wrights confirmed their suspicion that published data on lift were unreliable, and they decided to expand their investigation.^ The Wrights decided to take a different approach to the problem of calculating lift.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were using the calculations for predicting lift that had been accepted for years.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results, based on which way the third wheel turned, confirmed their suspicion that published data on lift were unreliable and encouraged them to expand their investigation.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also realized that trial-and-error with different wings on full-size gliders was too costly and time-consuming.^ They also realized that trial-and-error with different wings on full-size gliders was too costly and time-consuming.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was also the first time they got really scared.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They looked at all the other earlier approaches at creating a flying machine, and saw that the most practical way of going about trial and error was using man-carrying gliders.
  • The My Hero Project - Orville and Wilbur Wright 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Putting aside the three-wheel bicycle, they built a six-foot wind tunnel in their shop and conducted systematic tests on miniature wings from October to December 1901.[35] The "balances" they devised and mounted inside the tunnel to hold the wings looked crude, made of bicycle spokes and scrap metal, but were "as critical to the ultimate success of the Wright brothers as were the gliders."[36] The devices allowed the brothers to balance lift against drag and accurately calculate the performance of each wing.[37] .They could also see which wings worked well as they looked through the viewing window in the top of the tunnel.^ It had a glass window in the top for viewing the measuring instrument they had designed.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They could also see which wings worked well as they looked through the viewing window in the top of the tunnel.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She gave me the seat so I could see the view.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

.Prior to beginning their wind tunnel experiments, Wilbur, at Chanute's invitation, traveled to Chicago to give a speech to the Western Society of Engineers on September 18, 1901. Wilbur's speech consisted of detailed accounts of his and Orville's glider experiments at Kitty Hawk up to the fall of 1901 and was complemented by a lantern slide show of photographs.^ In a speech on September 18 to the Western Society of Engineers, Wilbur suggested that "the Lilienthal tables might themselves be somewhat in error."
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chanute also visited the Wrights at their home in Dayton and at Kitty Hawk during their glider experiments.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kitty Hawk winds sometimes helped.
  • Mechanical Engineering "100 Years of Flight," Dec. 2003 -- "Trial by Flyer," Feature Article 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.memagazine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilbur's speech was the first public account of the brothers' experiments.^ It is clear that Wilbur was the first of the two brothers to show interest in the problem of powered flight, but from 1900 on, when the brothers began their experiments with gliders at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, it is clear that Wilbur, and Orville were equal partners and conducted themselves as a team in their dealings with competitors, customers, reporters and the general public.
  • Wright Brothers Collection, Biographical Scetch 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC home.dayton.lib.oh.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Flight - learn about the Wright brothers experiments that led to their first flight.

^ Orville and Wilbur Wright were two brothers who fulfill my definition of a hero with their amazing accomplishment of creating the first successful airplane.
  • The My Hero Project - Orville and Wilbur Wright 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1902 Glider

.
A Big Improvement
At left, 1901 glider flown by Wilbur (left) and Orville.
^ Glider being flown as a kite by Wilbur Wright (left) and Orville Wright (right) , 1901.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Big Improvement At left, 1901 glider flown by Wilbur (left) and Orville.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville and Wilbur made a few short glides on Little Hill in the morning and then moved to the steeper slope of Big Hill (site of the current Wright Memorial).
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At right, 1902 glider flown by Wilbur (right) and Dan Tate, their helper.^ At right, 1902 glider flown by Wilbur (right) and Dan Tate, their helper.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glider being flown as a kite by Wilbur Wright (left) and Orville Wright (right) , 1901.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the 1902 glider flights were made right outside here where the memorial now stands.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dramatic improvement in performance is apparent.^ Dramatic improvement in performance is apparent.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 1901 glider flies at a steep angle of attack due to poor lift and high drag.^ The design had excellent lift to drag characteristics, but poor pitch stability.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They measured wind speed, lift with a spring scale attached to the line, and the angle of attack.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Raising the nose to an extreme angle of attack can result in loss of efficient airflow over the wing and result in loss of lift.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In contrast, the 1902 glider flies at a much flatter angle and holds up its tether lines almost vertically, clearly demonstrating a much better lift-to-drag ratio.
.Lilienthal had made "whirling arm" tests on only a few wing shapes, and the Wrights mistakenly assumed the data would apply to their wings, which had a different shape.^ Lilienthal had made "whirling arm" tests on only a few wing shapes, and the Wrights mistakenly assumed the data would apply to their wings, which had a different shape.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They used a wind tunnel to test different wing shapes.
  • Wright Brothers First Flight:  Mrs McGowan's 2nd Grade 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.mrsmcgowan.com [Source type: General]

^ Subsequently, the Wrights found inaccuracies in the data and based their successful 1902 glider and the 1903 Wright Flyer on data they derived from their own wind tunnel experiments During the period 1891-1896, Lilienthal made over 2,500 successful glider flights.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Wrights took a huge step forward and made basic wind tunnel tests on 200 wings of many shapes and airfoil curves, followed by detailed tests on 38 of them.^ The Wrights tested over 200 airfoils to find the optimum shape in a 6-foot pioneering wing tunnel they designed and built.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They tested almost 200 different wing designs in the wind tunnel.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights took a huge step forward and made basic wind tunnel tests on 200 wings of many shapes and airfoil curves, followed by detailed tests on 38 of them.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tests, according to biographer Howard, "were the most crucial and fruitful aeronautical experiments ever conducted in so short a time with so few materials and at so little expense".[38] An important discovery was the benefit of longer narrower wings: in aeronautical terms, wings with a larger aspect ratio (wingspan divided by chord—the wing's front-to-back dimension).^ The tests, according to biographer Howard, "were the most crucial and fruitful aeronautical experiments ever conducted in so short a time with so few materials and at so little expense".
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A key discovery was the benefit of longer narrower wings: in aeronautical terms, wings with a larger aspect ratio (wingspan divided by chord —the wing's front-to-back dimension).
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were very important changes, for most knowledgeable authorities believed the wing structure failed, not a defect in the catapult system, during Langley's unsuccessful 1903 test.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such shapes offered much better lift-to-drag ratio than the broader wings the brothers had tried so far.^ Their experiments enabled them to select a new wing shape with an efficient lift-to-drag ratio.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such shapes offered much better lift-to-drag ratio than the broader wings the brothers had tried so far.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USCG __________________ Gladys Marie "I'm somewhere...in the future...and I look much better than I look right now!"
  • Modern Day Piracy - WetCanvas 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wetcanvas.com [Source type: General]

.With this knowledge, and a more accurate Smeaton number, the Wrights designed their 1902 glider.^ With this knowledge, and a more accurate Smeaton number, the Wrights designed their 1902 glider.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wright glider in flight , 1902.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After two seasons of experimental glides, they would eventually disprove the effectiveness of Lilienthal's data on wing design, leading them to develop the breakthrough 1902 glider.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Using another crucial discovery from the wind tunnel, they made the airfoil flatter, reducing the camber (the depth of the wing's curvature divided by its chord).^ To solve this they built a wind tunnel.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ They reconfigured the wing to reduce the camber of the wings from 1:12 to 1:19.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They built a wind tunnel.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

.The 1901 wings had significantly greater curvature, a highly inefficient feature the Wrights copied directly from Lilienthal.^ The 1901 wings had significantly greater curvature, a highly inefficient feature the Wrights copied directly from Lilienthal.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights mounted the horizontal elevator in front of the wings rather than behind, apparently believing this feature would help avoid a nosedive and crash like the one that killed Lilienthal.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights—and Lilienthal—used the equation to calculate the amount of lift that wings of various sizes would produce.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fully confident in their new wind tunnel results, the Wrights discarded Lilienthal's data, now basing their designs on their own calculations.^ In the background is a reproduction of the Wright wind tunnel.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of the above were new and original conclusions resulting from their wind tunnel experiments.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sheets with tables of wind tunnel data .
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wilbur Wright pilots the 1902 glider over the Kill Devil Hills, October 10, 1902. The single rear rudder is steerable; it replaced the original fixed double rudder.
.With characteristic caution, the brothers first flew the 1902 glider as an unmanned kite, as they had done with their two previous versions.^ In their first days a Kitty Hawk, the Wrights flew the glider as a kite.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first they flew the glider like a kite.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright brothers made their first glider like a giant kite.
  • The My Hero Project - Wilbur and Orville Wright 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rewarding their wind tunnel work, the glider produced the expected lift.^ Rewarding their wind tunnel work, the glider produced the expected lift.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their careful wind tunnel tests produced better aeronautical data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers more effective than any before.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their wind tunnel measured the lift of an airplane wing.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also had a new structural feature: a fixed, rear vertical rudder, which the brothers hoped would eliminate turning problems.^ The brothers then decided to make the rear rudder movable to solve the problem.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also had a new structural feature: a fixed, rear vertical rudder, which the brothers hoped would eliminate turning problems.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They fixed the flyer and the two brothers flipped a coin to see who would get to be the first to fly in the plane.
  • The My Hero Project - Orville and Wilbur Wright 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 1902 they realized that wing-warping created "differential drag" at the wingtips.^ They warped the wing.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1902 they realized that wing-warping created "differential drag" at the wingtips.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everything came together in the 1902 glider--a moveable rear rudder connected to the wing-warping system and controlled by a hip cradle.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Greater lift at one end of the wing also increased drag, which slowed that end of the wing, making the aircraft swivel—or "yaw"—so the nose pointed away from the turn.^ Greater lift at one end of the wing also increased drag, which slowed that end of the wing, making the aircraft swivel — or "yaw" — so the nose pointed away from the turn.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The higher wings in the banking turn increased in speed, resulting in increased lift.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But this only increased the drag, further slowing the lower wings, losing more lift.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That was how the tailless 1901 glider behaved.^ That was how the tailless 1901 glider behaved.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The improved wing design enabled consistently longer glides, and the rear rudder prevented adverse yaw—so effectively that it introduced a new problem.^ The improved wing design enabled consistently longer glides, and the rear rudder prevented adverse yaw—so effectively that it introduced a new problem.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everything came together in the 1902 glider--a moveable rear rudder connected to the wing-warping system and controlled by a hip cradle.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patent also describes the steerable rear vertical rudder and its innovative use in combination with wing-warping, enabling the airplane to make a coordinated turn , a technique that prevents hazardous adverse yaw , the problem Wilbur had when trying to turn the 1901 glider.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes when the pilot attempted to level off from a turn, the glider failed to respond to corrective wing-warping and persisted into a tighter turn.^ Sometimes when the pilot attempted to level off from a turn, the glider failed to respond to corrective wing-warping and persisted into a tighter turn.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville apparently visualized that the fixed rudder resisted the effect of corrective wing-warping when attempting to level off from a turn.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His insight into how birds controlled their flight by altering the aerodynamic characteristics of their wings led to his breakthrough "wing-warping" concept.
  • Wright Brothers Collection, Biographical Scetch 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC home.dayton.lib.oh.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The glider would slide toward the lower wing, which hit the ground, spinning the aircraft around.^ The glider would slide toward the lower wing, which hit the ground, spinning the aircraft around.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Would we exclude that hypothetical flight from consideration as The First Flight solely on the grounds that it landed at a spot lower than where it took off?

^ But every so often no matter how careful they were when attempting a turn, the low wing would drop even lower and the glider would slide into an uncontrolled spinning fall.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Wrights called this "well digging".
.Orville apparently visualized that the fixed rudder resisted the effect of corrective wing-warping when attempting to level off from a turn.^ Sometimes when the pilot attempted to level off from a turn, the glider failed to respond to corrective wing-warping and persisted into a tighter turn.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville apparently visualized that the fixed rudder resisted the effect of corrective wing-warping when attempting to level off from a turn.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everything came together in the 1902 glider--a moveable rear rudder connected to the wing-warping system and controlled by a hip cradle.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He wrote in his diary that on the night of October 2, "I studied out a new vertical rudder". The brothers then decided to make the rear rudder movable to solve the problem.^ The brothers then decided to make the rear rudder movable to solve the problem.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He wrote in his diary that on the night of 2 October , "I studied out a new vertical rudder".
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilbur making a turn 24 October 1902 with the movable rudder.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .They hinged the rudder and connected it to the pilot's warping "cradle", so a single movement by the pilot simultaneously controlled wing-warping and rudder deflection.^ They twist their wings to control their flight.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ They warped the wing.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They hinged the rudder and connected it to the pilot's warping "cradle", so a single movement by the pilot simultaneously controlled wing-warping and rudder deflection.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tests while gliding proved that the trailing edge of the rudder should be turned away from whichever end of the wings had more drag (and lift) due to warping.^ Tests while gliding proved that the trailing edge of the rudder should be turned away from whichever end of the wings had more drag (and lift) due to warping.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ November 1901 --The brothers create their own wind tunnel to test the effectiveness of different types of wing camber on lift and drag.
  • The Wright Brothers - Pioneers of Flight History and Facts 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, a long narrow wing would create more lift than a short stubby one.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The opposing pressure produced by turning the rudder enabled corrective wing-warping to reliably restore level flight after a turn or a wind disturbance.^ The opposing pressure produced by turning the rudder enabled corrective wing-warping to reliably restore level flight after a turn or a wind disturbance.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His insight into how birds controlled their flight by altering the aerodynamic characteristics of their wings led to his breakthrough "wing-warping" concept.
  • Wright Brothers Collection, Biographical Scetch 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC home.dayton.lib.oh.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Everything came together in the 1902 glider--a moveable rear rudder connected to the wing-warping system and controlled by a hip cradle.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, when the glider banked into a turn, rudder pressure overcame the effect of differential drag and pointed the nose of the aircraft in the direction of the turn, eliminating adverse yaw.^ Furthermore, when the glider banked into a turn, rudder pressure overcame the effect of differential drag and pointed the nose of the aircraft in the direction of the turn, eliminating adverse yaw.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August 1901 --Although they had broken the distance for glider flight carrying humans, they are still confounded by the problem of control during turning (drag caused the aircraft to slip sideways and lose control).
  • The Wright Brothers - Pioneers of Flight History and Facts 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After this point is passed, the center of pressure, instead of continuing to more forward, with the decreasing angle, turns and moves rapidly toward the rear.

.In short, the Wrights discovered the true purpose of the movable vertical rudder.^ In short, the Wrights discovered the true purpose of the movable vertical rudder.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ October 1902 --Trouble with "tailspin" prompts the brothers to redesign the vertical rudder that features one large movable flap.
  • The Wright Brothers - Pioneers of Flight History and Facts 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The design included a "joy-stick" for the purpose of controlling horizontal and vertical rudders, a feature that anticipated the control system used by the Wright Brothers.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its role was not to change the direction of flight, but rather, to aim or align the aircraft correctly during banking turns and when leveling off from turns and wind disturbances.^ Its role was not to change the direction of flight, but rather, to aim or align the aircraft correctly during banking turns and when leveling off from turns and wind disturbances.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August 1901 --Although they had broken the distance for glider flight carrying humans, they are still confounded by the problem of control during turning (drag caused the aircraft to slip sideways and lose control).
  • The Wright Brothers - Pioneers of Flight History and Facts 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.aviationexplorer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this trial flight of one hour it must be steered in all directions without difficulty and at all times under perfect control and equilibrium.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .The actual turn—the change in direction—was done with roll control using wing-warping.^ The actual turn — the change in direction — was done with roll control using wing-warping.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They tested wing-warping using control ropes from the ground.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A slow flat turn would be used to change direction.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The principles remained the same when ailerons superseded wing-warping.^ The principles remained the same when ailerons superseded wing-warping.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These balance planes, or ailerons, provided an alternative to the Wrights' wing warping.
  • Mechanical Engineering "100 Years of Flight," Dec. 2003 -- "Trial by Flyer," Feature Article 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.memagazine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back To The Future As airplanes got faster and heavier, wing warping was replaced by the use of ailerons because of structural problems.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wilbur makes a turn using wing-warping and the movable rudder, October 24, 1902.
.With their new method the Wrights achieved true control in turns for the first time on October 8, 1902, a major milestone.^ With their new method the Wrights achieved true control in turns for the first time on 8 October 1902 , a major milestone.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alberto Santos-Dumont of Brazil, who flew a steam-powered box kite contraption on October 23 , 1906, while the Wrights only achieved a powered glide; .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | December 17| Saturnalia Wright brothers Chronos Saturn Christmas Sow Day Orkney John Greenleaf Whittier Cuauhxicalli Eagle Bowl Holt drowned 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ Year 1905 The Wrights correctly concluded that the tendency to spin while turning was a control problem associated with the tail.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During September and October they made between 700 and 1,000 glides, the longest lasting 26 seconds and covering 622.5 feet (189.7 m).^ This first flight lasted 12 seconds and covered 120 feet.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One flight that Wilbur flew lasted 26 seconds and flew 622 feet.
  • The My Hero Project - Wilbur and Orville Wright 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On October 23, 1902, Wilbur flew a record 622.5 feet in 26 seconds.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hundreds of well-controlled glides after they made the rudder steerable convinced them they were ready to build a powered flying machine.^ So they were ready to go ahead with the design of a powered flying machine, which they did.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hundreds of well-controlled glides after they made the rudder steerable convinced them they were ready to build a powered flying machine.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They made it possible to fly.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

.Thus did three-axis control evolve: wing-warping for roll (lateral motion), forward elevator for pitch (up and down) and rear rudder for yaw (side to side).^ "Pitch" is the up and down movement of the plane.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elevators on the horizontal stabilizer (tail) control the pitch of an airplane which prevents an up and down motion of the nose.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pitch is the up and down movement of an airplane.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On March 23, 1903, the Wrights applied for their famous patent for a "Flying Machine", based on their successful 1902 glider.^ The Wright machine was difficult to fly.
  • Mechanical Engineering "100 Years of Flight," Dec. 2003 -- "Trial by Flyer," Feature Article 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.memagazine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He knew about the Wrights' successes, but not the details of their flying machine.
  • Mechanical Engineering "100 Years of Flight," Dec. 2003 -- "Trial by Flyer," Feature Article 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.memagazine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1903 machine would never fly again.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some aviation historians believe that applying the system of three-axis flight control on the 1902 glider was equal to, or even more significant, than the addition of power to the 1903 Flyer.^ Wright glider in flight , 1902.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some aviation historians believe that applying the system of three-axis flight control on the 1902 glider was equal to, or even more significant, than the addition of power to the 1903 Flyer.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They deliberately designed their 1903 first powered flyer with anhedral (drooping) wings, which are inherently unstable, but less susceptible to upset by gusty sidewinds.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Peter Jakab of the Smithsonian asserts that perfection of the 1902 glider essentially represents invention of the airplane.^ Peter Jakab of the Smithsonian asserts that perfection of the 1902 glider essentially represents invention of the airplane.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The glider contained the three essential features of a modern airplane.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jakab, Peter L. Visions of a Flying Machine: The Wright Brothers and the Process of Invention (Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight Series).
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41][42]

Adding power

First flight of the Wright Flyer I, December 17, 1903, Orville piloting, Wilbur running at wingtip.
.In 1903 the brothers built the powered Wright Flyer I, using their preferred material for construction, spruce, a strong and lightweight wood, and Pride of the West muslin for surface coverings.^ We used Spruce, because it was strong and light.
  • :: NASA Quest > Aerospace :: 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC quest.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

^ The Wright brothers used horsehide glue.
  • In Search of the Real Wright Flyer | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wright 1903 Flyer Performance .
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also designed and carved their own wooden propellers, and had a purpose-built gasoline engine fabricated in their bicycle shop.^ They also built their own engine and propellers.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ They started making their own bicycle shop and repairing bicycles in 1899.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ In the end, they even built their own engine for the 1903 flyer.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They thought propeller design would be a simple matter and intended to adapt data from shipbuilding.^ They thought propeller design would be a simple matter and intended to adapt data from shipbuilding.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After two seasons of experimental glides, they would eventually disprove the effectiveness of Lilienthal's data on wing design, leading them to develop the breakthrough 1902 glider.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their careful wind tunnel tests produced better aeronautical data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers more effective than any before.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, their library research disclosed no established formulas for either marine or air propellers, and they found themselves with no sure starting point.^ However, their library research disclosed no established formulas for either marine or air propellers, and they found themselves with no sure starting point.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We had thought we could adopt the theory from marine engineers, and then by using our tables of air pressures, instead of the tables of water pressures used in their calculations, that we could estimate in advance the performance of the propellers we could use."
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the brothers started the daily with very little capital and no savings.
  • EAA's Countdown To Kitty Hawk - Wright Brothers-Full 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.countdowntokittyhawk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They discussed and argued the question, sometimes heatedly, until they concluded that an aeronautical propeller is essentially a wing rotating in the vertical plane.^ They discussed and argued the question, sometimes heatedly, until they concluded that an aeronautical propeller is essentially a wing rotating in the vertical plane.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes they would convince each other of the other's argument and change sides to argue the opposite point of view.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They determined that they could achieve greater thrust with two propellers rotating slowly, than they could with one propeller rotating faster.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .On that basis, they used data from more wind tunnel tests to design their propellers.^ They tested almost 200 different wing designs in the wind tunnel.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To solve this they built a wind tunnel.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ On that basis, they used data from more wind tunnel tests to design their propellers.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The finished blades were just over eight feet long, made of three laminations of glued spruce.^ The finished blades were just over eight feet long, made of three laminations of glued spruce.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In no time Parks had glued up some layers of spruce to make a laminated blank for Hyde.
  • In Search of the Real Wright Flyer | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each propeller was 8.5 feet in diameter and made of three 1 1/8 inch thick laminations of spruce with the wing tip covered with light duck canvas glued on to prevent the wood from splitting.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Wrights decided on twin "pusher" propellers (counter-rotating to cancel torque), which would act on a greater quantity of air than a single relatively slow propeller and not disturb airflow over the leading edge of the wings.^ The Wrights located their maximum camber close to the leading edge of the wing.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights decided on twin "pusher" propellers (counter-rotating to cancel torque), which would act on a greater quantity of air than a single relatively slow propeller and not disturb airflow over the leading edge of the wings.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The linkage was designed to rotate the propellers in opposite directions so as to counteract the torque effect of each rotating blade.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilbur made a March 1903 entry in his notebook indicating the prototype propeller was 66% efficient.^ Wilbur made a March 1903 entry in his notebook indicating the prototype propeller was 66% efficient.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The propellers had an efficiency of 66%.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (E, I, HS, C, G) The first successful sustained powered flights in a heavier-than-air machine were made here by Wilbur and Orville Wright on December 17, 1903.
  • ACS National Chemistry Week: History of Flight: Electronic Resources 19 September 2009 19:24 UTC library.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Modern wind tunnel tests on reproduction 1903 propellers show they were more than 75% efficient under the conditions of the first flights, and actually had a peak efficiency of 82%.^ To solve this they built a wind tunnel.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ This year, they constructed their first propeller.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ It was after the Wright Brothers first flight in 1903.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

.This is a remarkable achievement, considering that modern wooden propellers have a maximum efficiency of 85%.^ This is a remarkable achievement, considering that modern wooden propellers have a maximum efficiency of 85%.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyde commented, "The performance of our remanufactured Wright propeller was amazing, when you consider that today's wood propellers are only 85% efficient."
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The extra weight would require additional load on the remarkably efficient propellers.
  • Mechanical Engineering "100 Years of Flight," Dec. 2003 -- "Trial by Flyer," Feature Article 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.memagazine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]
A Wright engine, serial number 17, circa 1910, is on display at the New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks, Connecticut.
.The Wrights wrote to several engine manufacturers, but none met their need for a sufficiently lightweight powerplant.^ The Wrights wrote to several engine manufacturers, but none met their need for a sufficiently lightweight powerplant.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Scottish engineer Percy Pilcher met Lilienthal and made several flights under his tutelage.
  • Mechanical Engineering "100 Years of Flight," Dec. 2003 -- "Trial by Flyer," Feature Article 20 November 2009 20:51 UTC www.memagazine.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DuFour subsequently wrote a book about Taylor's life and the recreation of the engine, "Charles Taylor: The Wright Brothers Mechanician."
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They turned to their shop mechanic, Charlie Taylor, who built an engine in just six weeks in close consultation with the brothers.^ They turned to their shop mechanic, Charlie Taylor , who built an engine in just six weeks in close consultation with the brothers.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They built an internal combustion engine that powered the tools in the shop.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also built their own engine and propellers.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

.To keep the weight low enough, the engine block was cast from aluminum, a rare practice for the time.^ To keep the weight low enough, the engine block was cast from aluminum, a rare practice for the time.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a aluminum block cast and machined by our mechanic Charlie Taylor.
  • :: NASA Quest > Aerospace :: 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC quest.nasa.gov [Source type: General]

.The Wright/Taylor engine was a primitive version of modern fuel-injection systems, having no carburetor or fuel pump.^ The Wright/Taylor engine was a primitive version of modern fuel-injection systems, having no carburetor or fuel pump .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having distanced himself from most aeronautical research and development with the conclusion of his contract as a consulting engineer for The Wright Company, Orville's experiments ranged in scope.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of his other interesting projects was researching how Charlie Taylor built the gas engine that propelled the 1903 Wright Flyer.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gasoline was gravity-fed into the crankcase through a rubber tube from the fuel tank mounted on a wing strut.^ Gasoline was gravity -fed into the crankcase through a rubber tube from the fuel tank mounted on a wing strut.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The propeller drive chains, resembling those of bicycles, were actually supplied by a manufacturer of heavy-duty automobile chain-drives.^ The propeller drive chains, resembling those of bicycles, were actually supplied by a manufacturer of heavy-duty automobile chain-drives.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the horsepower of the engine (12) appears to be sufficient to overcome the drag (7.3), there will be additional loss of horsepower attributed to the chain drives that transmit the power from the engine to the propellers.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The propellers were connected to the engine through a chain, gear and sprocket system, similar to a bicycle design.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .The Flyer cost less than a thousand dollars, in contrast to more than $50,000 in government funds given to Samuel Langley for his man-carrying Great Aerodrome.^ The Flyer cost less than a thousand dollars to construct, this in contrast to the 50,000 plus dollars given to Samuel Langley for his man-carrying Great Aerodrome.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While not paying any more attention to the letter than he had for similar requests, Samuel Langleys assistant Richard Rathbun had a letter prepared with a list of current articles and sent it, along with a series of pamphlets on the subject of aeronautics to Wilbur.
  • EAA's Countdown To Kitty Hawk - Wright Brothers-Full 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.countdowntokittyhawk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With added bonus paid for increased performance, thirty thousand dollars was the total cost of the contract.
  • The Wright Brothers, how they invented the air plane 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.garypalamara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .The Flyer had a wingspan of 40.3 ft (12.3 m), weighed 605 lb (274 kg)[47] and sported a 12 horsepower (8.9 kW) 180 lb (82 kg) engine.^ Their engine was crude but light and had 12 horsepower.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Flyer had a wingspan of 40 feet (12 m), weighed 625 pounds (283 kg), and sported a 12 hp (9 kW), 170 pound (77 kg) engine.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright brothers craft had grown in size over the years; adding an engine the to the Flyer gave it a weight of 605 pounds with a 40-foot wingspan.
  • EAA's Countdown To Kitty Hawk - Wright Brothers-Full 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.countdowntokittyhawk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.In camp at Kill Devil Hills, they suffered weeks of delays caused by broken propeller shafts during engine tests.^ They also built their own engine and propellers.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ Chanute had visited Kitty Hawk in early November but missed witnessing the first flight when broken propeller shafts forced a month's delay.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After weeks of delays at Kitty Hawk caused by broken propeller shafts during engine tests, Wilbur won a coin toss and made a three-second flight attempt on December 14 , 1903 , stalling after takeoff and causing minor damage to the Flyer.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the shafts were replaced (requiring two trips back to Dayton), Wilbur won a coin toss and made a three-second flight attempt on December 14, 1903, stalling after takeoff and causing minor damage to the Flyer.^ Wilbur Wright to Katharine Wright, December 14, 1903.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Flight, December 17, 1903.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After weeks of delays at Kitty Hawk caused by broken propeller shafts during engine tests, Wilbur won a coin toss and made a three-second flight attempt on December 14 , 1903 , stalling after takeoff and causing minor damage to the Flyer.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Because December 13, 1903, was a Sunday, the brothers did not make any attempts that day, even though the weather was good.^ The embarrassing outcome of the last attempted test flight, conducted on December 8, 1903, was that the pilot had to be rescued from the freezing Potomac River.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ December 12, 1903 the brothers reinstalled the stronger propeller shafts, but found there were inadequate winds to fly.
  • EAA's Countdown To Kitty Hawk - Wright Brothers-Full 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.countdowntokittyhawk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot headlined the Wright Brothers story, on December 18 , 1903: .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | December 17| Saturnalia Wright brothers Chronos Saturn Christmas Sow Day Orkney John Greenleaf Whittier Cuauhxicalli Eagle Bowl Holt drowned 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

) .In a message to their family, Wilbur referred to the trial as having "only partial success", stating "the power is ample, and but for a trifling error due to lack of experience with this machine and this method of starting, the machine would undoubtedly have flown beautifully."^ In a message to their family, Wilbur referred to the trial as having "only partial success", stating "the power is ample, and but for a trifling error due to lack of experience with this machine and this method of starting, the machine would undoubtedly have flown beautifully."
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights knew that having their 1908 machine hanging next to the Langley flyer of 1903 would continue to foster the false impression that Langley was the first to fly.
  • The Wright Brothers, how they invented the air plane 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.garypalamara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The course of the flight up and down was exceedingly erratic, partly due to the irregularity of the air, and partly to lack of experience in handling the machine.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .Following repairs, the Wrights finally took to the air on December 17, 1903, making two flights each from level ground into a freezing headwind gusting to 27 miles per hour (43 km/h).^ Orville Wright to Milton Wright, December 17, 1903 .
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville Wright's diary entry of December 17, 1903.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first flight of December 17, 1903.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first flight, by Orville, of 120 feet (37 m) in 12 seconds, at a speed of only 6.8 miles per hour (10.9 km/h) over the ground, was recorded in a famous photograph.^ The wind had a velocity of 10 to 12 meters per second (22 to 27-miles per hour).
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orvilles first flight wasnt all that much to write home to mother about only about 120 feet, 12 seconds.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, it was Orville, who, at 10:35 A.M., flew the Flyer a total of 12 seconds, covering 120 feet.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The next two flights covered approximately 175 feet (53 m) and 200 feet (61 m), by Wilbur and Orville respectively.^ Wilbur flew the second flight of 175 feet in fifteen seconds.
  • EAA's Countdown To Kitty Hawk - Wright Brothers-Full 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.countdowntokittyhawk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next, with Wilbur at the controls, the Flyer covered 175 feet.
  • InvSamp 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.favimp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next, Orville covered 200 feet in fifteen seconds.
  • EAA's Countdown To Kitty Hawk - Wright Brothers-Full 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.countdowntokittyhawk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their altitude was about 10 feet (3.0 m) above the ground.^ Their altitude was about 10 ft above the ground.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, when at about 800-feet the machine began pitching again, and on one of its starts downward struck the ground.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The air yesterday in the narrow streets downtown, which were shut in by the high buildings, hung like a dense pall apparently about twenty feet from the ground.

[50] Here is Orville Wright's account of the final flight of the day:
.Wilbur started the fourth and last flight at just about 12 o'clock.^ Wilbur started the fourth and last flight at just twelve oclock.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilbur started the fourth and last flight at just about 12 o'clock.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second and third flights went about 175 feet and the fourth and final flight went a total of 852 feet in 59 seconds.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first few hundred feet were up and down, as before, but by the time three hundred feet had been covered, the machine was under much better control.^ The course of this flight was much like that of the first flight, very much up and down.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first few hundred feet were up and down, as before, but by the time three hundred feet had been covered, the machine was under much better control.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first few hundred feet were up and down as before, but by the time 300-feet had been covered, the machine was under much better control.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The course for the next four or five hundred feet had but little undulation.^ The course for the next four or five hundred feet had but little undulation.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, when out about eight hundred feet the machine began pitching again, and, in one of its darts downward, struck the ground.^ However, when at about 800-feet the machine began pitching again, and on one of its starts downward struck the ground.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, when out about eight hundred feet the machine began pitching again, and, in one of its darts downward, struck the ground.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The air yesterday in the narrow streets downtown, which were shut in by the high buildings, hung like a dense pall apparently about twenty feet from the ground.

.The distance over the ground was measured to be 852 feet; the time of the flight was 59 seconds.^ The longest of four flights that day lasted 59 seconds and covered a distance of 852 feet.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The distance over the ground was measured and found to be 852-feet.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The time of the flight was 59-seconds.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The frame supporting the front rudder was badly broken, but the main part of the machine was not injured at all.^ The frame supporting the front rudder was badly broken, but the main part of the machine was not injured at all.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On subsequent days, when the wind was too light to support the machine with a man on it, we tested it as a kite, working the rudders by cords reaching to the ground.

^ Orville was badly injured, suffering a broken left leg and four broken ribs.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We estimated that the machine could be put in condition for flight again in about a day or two.^ We estimated that the machine could be put in condition for flight again in about a day or two.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two days after the funeral when no will had been revealed, Scribze, Ivonette's husband, called the bank to see about getting the will.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The long flights convinced the Wrights they had achieved their goal of creating a flying machine of "practical utility" which they could offer to sell.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]
Orville's notebook entry of December 17, 1903
.Five people witnessed the flights: Adam Etheridge, John Daniels (who snapped the famous "first flight" photo using Orville's pre-positioned camera) and Will Dough, all of the U.S. government coastal lifesaving crew; area businessman W.C. Brinkley; and Johnny Moore, a teenaged boy who lived in the area.^ Who made the first powered flight?
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flights were witnessed by five people: Adam Etheridge, John Daniels and Will Dough of the coastal lifesaving crew; area businessman W.C. Brinkley; and Johnny Moore, a boy from the village, making these arguably the first public flights.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They made all their flights in that position for the next five years.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the men hauled the Flyer back from its fourth flight, a powerful gust of wind flipped it over several times, despite the crew's attempt to hold it down.^ After the men hauled the Flyer back from its fourth flight, a powerful gust of wind flipped it over several times, despite the crew's attempt to hold it down.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After this last flight, a sudden, gust of wind flipped the machine.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It turned out that the wind generated in the wind tunnel was almost the same as the wind the Wright Flyer faced at Kitty Hawk on the first successful flight (27-mph).
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Severely damaged, the airplane never flew again.^ Severely damaged, the airplane never flew again.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a minor accident on September 2, Orville flew on September 3, but had to make a forced landing after one turn and damaged the airplane.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The brothers shipped it home, and years later Orville restored it, lending it to several U.S. locations for display, then to a British museum (see Smithsonian dispute below), before it was finally installed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. in 1948, its current residence.^ It was enshrined at the Smithsonian Institution in 1948.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The brothers shipped it home, and years later Orville restored it, lending it to several U.S. locations for display, then to a British museum (see Smithsonian dispute below), before it was finally installed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. in 1948.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville died in January 1948 of a heart attack at 76 years of age.
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Wrights sent a telegram about the flights to their father, requesting that he "inform press."^ Weaver was convinced that the Wrights had flown even though he had not winnessed a flight and sent a favorable report to Lahm.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights were concerned about safety from the very beginning, as was their father.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights father, Milton Wright, instructed daughter Katharine to walk over to her brother Lorins house and ask him to take the telegram to the local newspaper office for publication.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the Dayton Journal refused to publish the story, saying the flights were too short to be important.^ When the hometown Dayton Herald carried the story of "first flight" on Dec 17, 1903, it carried the headline: Dayton Boys Emulate Great Santos-Dumont.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After tests with sandbags in the passenger seat, Charlie Furnas, a helper from Dayton, became the first fixed-wing aircraft passenger on a few short flights May 14.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Madeline Iseli, executive director for the Inventing Flight says the Dayton is clearly the forerunner in terms of preparedness for the centennial.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile, against the brothers' wishes, a telegraph operator leaked their message to a Virginia newspaper, which concocted a highly inaccurate news article that was reprinted the next day in several newspapers elsewhere, including Dayton.^ A telegraph operator relaying a message to their father leaked the news against the brothers' wishes, and highly inaccurate reports ran in several newspapers the next day.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next Wright Brothers are among us today, working tirelessly toward a breakthrough that will spark a new industry and improve countless lives.
  • Justia Regulation Tracker Special Observances: Wright Brothers Day (Proc. 8466) , - Presidential Documents - 67967–67968 [E9–30548] 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC regulations.justia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This was ironic because the Wright Brothers specifically told the telegraph operator in Kitty Hawk NOT to tell the press so they could break the news in their hometown of Dayton, OH. .
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics - 100 Things to Teach Kids 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.aiaa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .The Wrights issued their own factual statement to the press in January.^ With the new printing press, larger jobs could be made and they were issued under the name "Wright Bros: Job Printers, 7 Hawthorn Street."
  • EAA's Countdown To Kitty Hawk - Wright Brothers-Full 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.countdowntokittyhawk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, the flights did not create public excitement—if people even knew about them—and the news soon faded.^ The students created a word list of words related to the Wright Brothers and their first flight, they solved math problems related to flight, and students picked a topic to write about.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ And they started out exactly the right way by reading what other people had written about flight.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were few witnesses to the flights and no reporters no CNN or nightly news broadcast, no film at 11, no National Public Radio.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(In Paris, however, Aero Club of France members, already stimulated by Chanute's reports of Wright gliding successes, took the news more seriously and increased their efforts to catch up to the brothers.^ The Wright Brothers grew up.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ The Wright Brothers took this advice to heart.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More: Weird , Wright-Patterson Air Force Base , Wright brothers , National Park Service , North Carolina , plane crashes , Dayton Daily News , repeat , Mark Dusenberry .
  • FARK.com: (4672310) Wright Brothers' plane crashes. This is not a repeat from 1905 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.fark.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)

Trouble establishing legitimacy

.
Orville in flight over Huffman Prairie in Wright Flyer II.
^ In conjunction with the national historic landmark theme study, the alternatives study focused on The Wright Cycle Company building, Wright Flyer III, and Huffman Prairie Flying Field.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 12) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.cr.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright Field to give Orville Wright his last airplane flight, more than forty years after his historic first flight.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilbur trained French and Italian pilots using his method, and Orville trained American pilots at the Wright Company flight school using his method.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Flight #85, approximately 1,760 feet (536 m) in 40 1/5 seconds, November 16, 1904.
.In 1904 the Wrights built the Flyer II.^ In 1904 the brothers built the Flyer II and set up an airfield at Huffman Prairie , a cow pasture eight miles (13 km) northeast of Dayton which bank president Torrance Huffman let them use rent-free.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind tunnel tests were conducted at Langley of the full-scale reproduction of the 1903 Wright Flyer built by the Wright Experience (Ken Hyde) of Warrenton, Va.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights developed a new flyer in 1905 and, using the engine they had developed for the 1904 Flyer, conducted test flights and improved their design.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They decided to avoid the expense of travel and bringing supplies to the Outer Banks and set up an airfield at Huffman Prairie, a cow pasture eight miles (13 km) northeast of Dayton.^ In 1904 the brothers built the Flyer II and set up an airfield at Huffman Prairie , a cow pasture eight miles (13 km) northeast of Dayton which bank president Torrance Huffman let them use rent-free.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The brothers were sufficiently successful as small businessmen to fund all of their Kitty Hawk-related travel, supplies, and other expenses.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other speeches were made telling how on Huffmans Prairie, eight miles east of Dayton, the Wrights in 1905 made the record-breaking fight which first brought upon them the attention of the world.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They received permission to use the field rent-free from owner and bank president Torrance Huffman.^ In 1904 the brothers built the Flyer II and set up an airfield at Huffman Prairie , a cow pasture eight miles (13 km) northeast of Dayton which bank president Torrance Huffman let them use rent-free.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Torrence owned Huffman Prairie and permitted the Wrights to use the land free of charge as long as they moved the cows and horses out of the way.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville and Wilbur were using Huffman Prairie as a test ground as they were developing the Flyer into a practical airplane.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They invited reporters to their first flight attempt of the year on May 23, on the condition that no photographs be taken.^ This year, they constructed their first propeller.
  • Ms. Sullivan's Class 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC kids-learn.org [Source type: General]

^ They invited reporters to their first flight attempt of the year on 23 May on the condition that no photographs be taken.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright Field to give Orville Wright his last airplane flight, more than forty years after his historic first flight.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Engine troubles and slack winds prevented any flying, and they could manage only a very short hop a few days later with fewer reporters present.^ Engine troubles and slack winds prevented any flying, and they could manage only a very short hop a few days later with fewer reporters present.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It managed to fly for a short hop, but didn't impress anyone.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much of it functioned like a bulletin board for events of the day, with many very short reports on subjects that haven’t been considered newsworthy for decades.

.Some scholars of the Wrights speculate the brothers may have intentionally failed to fly in order to disinterest reporters in their experiments.^ Some scholars of the Wrights speculate the brothers may have intentionally failed to fly in order to disinterest reporters in their experiments.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After much effort on the part of the Wright brothers in order to prepare for the case, Judge Hazel handed down his final decision in Wright v.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on unlocking the secrets of control to conquer "the flying problem", rather than developing more powerful engines as some other experimenters did.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] .Whether that is true is not known, but after their poor showing local newspapers virtually ignored them for the next year and a half.^ Whether that is true is not known, but after their poor showing local newspapers virtually ignored them for the next year and a half.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reporters showed up the next day (only their second appearance at the field since May the previous year), but the brothers declined to fly.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Wrights were glad to be free from the distraction of reporters.^ The Wrights were glad to be free from the distraction of reporters.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The absence of newsmen also reduced the chance of competitors learning their methods. .After the Kitty Hawk powered flights, the Wrights made a decision to begin withdrawing from the bicycle business so they could devote themselves to creating and marketing a practical airplane.^ His airplane will be displayed at the Kitty Hawk museum.
  • In Search of the Real Wright Flyer | History of Flight | Air & Space Magazine 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.airspacemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights were pleased that they now had a practical airplane that they could market.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights were satisfied that they had produced a practical airplane.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .The decision was financially risky, since they were neither wealthy nor government-funded (unlike other experimenters such as Ader, Maxim, Langley and Santos-Dumont).^ Santos-Dumont was born in Brazil on July 20, 1873 to a family made wealthy by the coffee business .
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since both had never married, and with Wilbur gone, they depended upon each other and were good companions for they had many of the same friends and interests.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the target companies may have already committed their funds to other locations such as the Wright celebration in Dayton.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Wright brothers did not have the luxury of giving away their invention; it was to be their livelihood.^ They did not have the luxury of giving away their invention; it was to be their livelihood.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chanute would support the Wright Brothers in all their efforts and urged them to make public appearances and give interviews.
  • EAA's Countdown To Kitty Hawk - Wright Brothers-Full 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.countdowntokittyhawk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Franklin Institute was the first scientific organization to give the Wright brothers credit and ranking for achieving sustained powered flight.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus, their secrecy intensified, encouraged by advice from their patent attorney, Henry Toulmin, not to reveal details of their machine.
Wilbur flying almost four circles of Huffman Prairie, about 2 and 3/4 miles in 5 minutes 4 seconds; flight #82, November 9, 1904.
Wilbur's logbook showing diagram and data for first circle flight on September 20, 1904
.At Huffman Prairie, lighter winds and lower air density than in Kitty Hawk (because of Ohio's higher altitude and higher temperatures) made takeoffs very difficult, and they had to use a much longer starting rail, stretching to hundreds of feet, compared to the 60-foot (18 m) rail at Kitty Hawk.^ At Huffman Prairie, lighter winds and lower air density than in Kitty Hawk (due to Ohio's higher altitude and higher temperatures) made takeoffs very difficult, and they had to use a much longer starting rail, stretching to hundreds of feet, compared to the Template:Convert rail at Kitty Hawk.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kitty Hawk provided more than wind.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dayton didn't have the wind of Kitty Hawk and the air pressure was less because of the higher elevation.
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.During the spring and summer they suffered many hard landings, real crackups, repeated Flyer damage, and bodily bumps and bruises.^ During the spring and summer they suffered many hard landings, real crackups, repeated Flyer damage, and bodily bumps and bruises.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Orville suffered a bone-jarring crackup on July 14, they rebuilt the Flyer with the forward elevator and rear rudder both enlarged and placed several feet farther away from the wings.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the first time in 100 years that a Wright 1903 Flyer has been successfully flown and landed without damage, using an authentic engine.
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.On August 13, making an unassisted takeoff, Wilbur finally exceeded their best Kitty Hawk effort with a flight of 1,300 feet (400 m).^ On 13 August , making an unassisted takeoff, Wilbur finally exceeded their best Kitty Hawk effort with a flight of Template:Convert .
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^ Chanute had visited Kitty Hawk in early November but missed witnessing the first flight when broken propeller shafts forced a month's delay.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After weeks of delays at Kitty Hawk caused by broken propeller shafts during engine tests, Wilbur won a coin toss and made a three-second flight attempt on December 14 , 1903 , stalling after takeoff and causing minor damage to the Flyer.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Then they decided to use a weight-powered catapult to make takeoffs easier and tried it for the first time on September 7. On September 20, 1904, Wilbur flew the first complete circle in history by a manned heavier-than-air powered machine, covering 4,080 feet (1,244 m) in about a minute and a half.^ The latter location was chosen because it was the starting point of Wilbur's September 20, 1904, flight when he flew the first circle in an airplane.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 12) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.cr.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 20 September 1904 , Wilbur flew the first complete circle in history by a manned heavier-than-air powered machine, covering Template:Convert in about a minute and a half.
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^ The work was to be completed in time for the statue to be unveiled on September 20, 1913.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 12) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.cr.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their two best flights were November 9 by Wilbur and December 1 by Orville, each exceeding five minutes and covering nearly three miles in almost four circles.^ Their two best flights were 9 November by Wilbur and 1 December by Orville, each exceeding five minutes and covering about three miles in almost four circles.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In July 1909 Orville, with Wilbur assisting, completed the proving flights for the U.S. Army, meeting the requirements of a two-seater able to fly with a passenger for an hour at an average of speed of 40 miles an hour (64 km/h) and land undamaged.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilbur trained French and Italian pilots using his method, and Orville trained American pilots at the Wright Company flight school using his method.
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.By the end of the year the brothers had accumulated about 50 minutes in the air in 105 flights over the rather soggy 85 acre pasture, which, remarkably, is virtually unchanged today from its original condition and is now part of Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park, adjacent to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.^ By the end of the year the brothers had accumulated about 50 minutes in the air in 105 flights over the rather soggy 85 acre pasture, which, remarkably, is virtually unchanged today from its original condition and is now part of Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park , adjacent to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Park Service in 1992 studied the Wright Company Factory buildings for inclusion within the Dayton Aviation Heritage Historical Park.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright Brothers were not always revered in Dayton as they are now.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite progress in 1904, the Flyer was still frequently out of control.^ Despite progress in 1904, the Flyer was still frequently out of control.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55] .The Wrights scrapped the battered and much-repaired airplane, but saved the engine, and in 1905 built a new Flyer III, which included an important design change.^ In 1905 the Wrights scrapped the battered and much-repaired airplane, but saved the engine and built a new Flyer III , which included an important design change.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1903 machine contained not only a 200-pound aluminum, 4-cylinder, water-cooled gasoline engine that the Wrights had designed and built, but also two propellers, all mounted on a controllable airframe.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Myer, Wilbur used an airplane of mainly the same design to make 120 flights in France between August 8, 1908, and January 2, 1909, half of which included passengers, men and women, and convinced Europe of the capabilities of the Wright Flyer.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The brothers installed a separate control for the rear rudder instead of linking the rudder to the wing-warping "cradle" as before.^ The brothers installed a separate control for the rear rudder instead of linking the rudder to the wing-warping "cradle" as before.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He became so absorbed in making a correction by shifting the hip cradle that controls wingwarping, that he failed to notice he had forgotten to adjust the rudder.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The brothers did confirm one of their experimental ideas that first year in Kitty Hawk They called it wing warping.
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.Each of the three axes—pitch, roll and yaw—now had its own independent control.^ Each of the three axes—pitch, roll and yaw—now had its own independent control.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1905, they had improved their engine, propellers, and control system - with separate pitch, roll, and yaw controls - making it the first fully controllable aircraft.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Wilbur's method, the roll and yaw controls were combined on the same lever at the pilot's right hand.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, this Flyer offered the same marginal performance as the first two.^ Nevertheless, this Flyer offered the same marginal performance as the first two.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It turned out that the wind generated in the wind tunnel was almost the same as the wind the Wright Flyer faced at Kitty Hawk on the first successful flight (27-mph).
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1916 Orville reconstructed the Flyer for the first time in thirteen years for display at a dedication of two new buildings at MIT in Cambridge, Mass.
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.Its maiden flight was June 23 and the first several flights were no longer than 10 seconds.^ He commented that the wingspan of the Constellation was longer than the distance of his first flight.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its maiden flight was June 23 and the first several flights were no longer than 10 seconds.
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^ His first flight lasted only one minute 45 seconds, but his ability to effortlessly make banking turns and fly a circle amazed and stunned onlookers, including several pioneer French aviators, among them Louis Bleriot .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .After Orville suffered a bone-jarring and potentially fatal crash on July 14, they rebuilt the Flyer with the forward elevator and rear rudder both enlarged and placed several feet farther away from the wings.^ After Orville suffered a bone-jarring crackup on July 14, they rebuilt the Flyer with the forward elevator and rear rudder both enlarged and placed several feet farther away from the wings.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They deliberately designed their 1903 first powered flyer with anhedral (drooping) wings, which are inherently unstable, but less susceptible to upset by gusty sidewinds.
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^ Everything came together in the 1902 glider--a moveable rear rudder connected to the wing-warping system and controlled by a hip cradle.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These modifications greatly improved stability and control, setting the stage for a series of six dramatic "long flights" ranging from 17 to 38 minutes and 11 to 24 miles (39 km) around the three-quarter mile course over Huffman Prairie between September 26 and October 5. Wilbur made the last and longest flight, 24.5 miles (39.4 km) in 38 minutes and 3 seconds, ending with a safe landing when the fuel ran out.^ These modifications greatly improved stability and control, setting the stage for a series of six dramatic "long flights" ranging from 17 to 38 minutes and 11 to Template:Convert around the three-quarter mile course over Huffman Prairie between 26 September and 5 October .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 9 September he made the first hour-long flight, enduring 62 minutes and 15 seconds.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flight #46, covering 20¾ miles in 33 minutes 17 seconds, last photographed flight of the year.
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.The flight was seen by a number of people, including several invited friends, their father Milton, and neighboring farmers.^ The flight was seen by a number of people, including several invited friends, their father Milton, and neighboring farmers.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The article included a letter from Charles Webbert, the Wrights bicycle shop landlord, who was a creditable eyewitness to a number of Wright flights at Huffman Prairie.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next, Orville took his 82-year old father on a nearly seven-minute flight, the first and only one of Milton Wright's life.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57]
Wright Flyer III piloted by Orville over Huffman Prairie, October 4, 1905. Flight #46, covering 20 and 3/4 miles in 33 minutes 17 seconds; last photographed flight of the year
.Reporters showed up the next day (only their second appearance at the field since May the previous year), but the brothers declined to fly.^ Reporters showed up the next day (only their second appearance at the field since May the previous year), but the brothers declined to fly.
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^ Wells-Fargo Up $93.75 in a Day ; Express Company Shares Jump from $356.25 to $450 — Takes Exchange by Surprise; Next to Highest Record; Advance Beaten Only by the Northern Pacific Corner in May, 1901 — No Explanation Offered .

^ Next year (2002) the flyover will kick off the planned yearlong series of events leading up to the centennial event.
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.The long flights convinced the Wrights they had achieved their goal of creating a flying machine of "practical utility" which they could offer to sell.^ The Wrights were pleased that they now had a practical airplane that they could market.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The long flights convinced the Wrights they had achieved their goal of creating a flying machine of "practical utility" which they could offer to sell.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Requesting that the plane be returned to the United States was contingent upon the Smithsonian Institution acknowledging that the Wright brothers were the first to fly and the first capable of flight.
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.The only photos of the flights of 1904–1905 were taken by the brothers.^ The only photos of the flights of 1904-1905 were taken by the brothers.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Flyer III , the only fixed-wing aircraft designated a National Historic Landmark , was dismantled after the 1905 flights.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout the brothers' experiments at Huffman Prairie Flying Field in 1904 and 1905, comments about the "activities" out near Simms Station were never investigated.
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.(A few photos were damaged in the Great Dayton Flood of 1913, but most survived intact.^ This album was produced after 1913, when many of the glass-plate negatives were damaged in a flood while stored in the Wrights' house.
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were further abused when the crates were submerged in the great Dayton flood of 1913.
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^ There, it sat in storage enduring flood damage in 1913.
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) .In 1904 Ohio beekeeping businessman Amos Root, a technology enthusiast, saw a few flights including the first circle.^ In 1904 Ohio beekeeping businessman Amos Root , a technology enthusiast, saw a few flights including the first circle.
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^ His first flight lasted only one minute 45 seconds, but his ability to effortlessly make banking turns and fly a circle amazed and stunned onlookers, including several pioneer French aviators, among them Louis Bleriot .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few days after the first successful powered, sustained, controlled flight of the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk in 1903, it was disassembled and returned to Dayton, Ohio.
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.Articles he wrote for his beekeeping magazine were the only published eyewitness reports of the Huffman Prairie flights, except for the unimpressive early hop local newsmen saw.^ Articles he wrote for his beekeeping magazine were the only published eyewitness reports of the Huffman Prairie flights, except for the unimpressive early hop local newsmen saw.
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^ The results of the tests were published in both the 1914 and 1915 Smithsonian Annual Report concluding that the 1903 Aerodrome invented by Langley was capable of flight.
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^ In the early or mid-1890s they saw newspaper or magazine articles and probably photographs of the dramatic glides by Otto Lilienthal in Germany.
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.Root offered a report to Scientific American magazine, but the editor turned it down.^ Root offered a report to Scientific American magazine, but the editor turned it down.
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^ As a result, The editor of the Scientific American decided to take another look at the Wrights claim to success by sending questionnaires to the alleged witnesses to the flights in Dayton.
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.As a result, the news was not widely known outside of Ohio, and was often met with skepticism.^ As a result, the news was not widely known outside of Ohio, and was often met with skepticism.
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The Paris edition of the Herald Tribune headlined a 1906 article on the Wrights "FLYERS OR LIARS?"
.In years to come Dayton newspapers would proudly celebrate the hometown Wright brothers as national heroes, but the local reporters somehow missed one of the most important stories in history as it was happening a few miles from their doorstep.^ In years to come Dayton newspapers would proudly celebrate the hometown Wright brothers as national heroes, but the local reporters somehow missed one of the most important stories in history as it was happening a few miles from their doorstep.
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^ He noted that the Wright Brothers have been lost in history.
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^ Neither Dayton, the hometown of the Wright brothers, nor Orville ever saw it again.
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James M. Cox, publisher at that time of the Dayton Daily News (later governor of Ohio and Democratic presidential nominee in 1920), expressed the attitude of newspapermen—and the public—in those days when he admitted years later, "Frankly, none of us believed it."[58]
.
The Dayton Daily News reported the October 5 flight on page 9, with agriculture and business news.
^ The next day the Dayton Daily News reported that the Wrights were making spectacular flights.
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^ In September 1905, two years after the first powered flight at Kitty Hawk, he was flying over Huffman Prairie in Dayton when he reported hitting a bird.
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^ Positive feedback was received to a Dayton Daily News suggestion that the name of Main Street be changed to honor Wilbur and Orville.
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[59]
.A few newspapers published articles about the long flights, but no reporters or photographers had been there.^ Articles he wrote for his beekeeping magazine were the only published eyewitness reports of the Huffman Prairie flights, except for the unimpressive early hop local newsmen saw.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On January 12 , 1889 it published his article, 'La Anarqua no admite adjetivos ' (' Anarchy needs no adjectives ').
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | August 19 |Vinalia Rustica Rome Ogden Nash Pope Alexander VI witch trials witchcraftBlondin Lake George Canberra 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ We thought by facing the machine into a strong wind there ought to be no trouble in launching it from the level ground about the camp.
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.The lack of splashy eyewitness press coverage was a major reason for disbelief in Washington, D.C. and Europe and in journals like Scientific American, whose editors doubted the "alleged experiments" and asked how U.S. newspapers, "alert as they are, allowed these sensational performances to escape their notice."^ Root offered a report to Scientific American magazine, but the editor turned it down.
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^ The local newspaper wrote that they were making sensational flights every day.
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^ Allyn asked Orville how he would like to fly that one.
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[60]
.The Wright brothers were certainly complicit in the lack of attention they received.^ The Wright brothers were certainly complicit in the lack of attention they received.
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^ The CCC workforce conducted grading and paving, and they dug drainage ditches and set the base of the memorial at Wright Brothers Hill.
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^ Not as much as the Wright brothers had originally thought they had, but at least enough to give them a starting point.
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.Fearful of competitors stealing their ideas, and still without a patent, they flew on only one more day after October 5. From then on, they refused to fly anywhere unless they had a firm contract to sell their aircraft.^ Alberto Santos-Dumont of Brazil, who flew a steam-powered box kite contraption on October 23 , 1906, while the Wrights only achieved a powered glide; .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | December 17| Saturnalia Wright brothers Chronos Saturn Christmas Sow Day Orkney John Greenleaf Whittier Cuauhxicalli Eagle Bowl Holt drowned 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ Wary of the competition stealing their plans, after 1905 they refused to make public flights or take part in air shows unless they had a firm contract to sell their airplane.
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^ It also appears that when they manufactured more than one of a particular model, each individual airplane was somewhat different from the others of that model.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They wrote to the U.S. government, then to Britain, France and Germany with an offer to sell a flying machine, but were rebuffed because they insisted on a signed contract before giving a demonstration.^ They attempted to interest the military in the U.S., France, Britain, and Germany, but were rebuffed because they insisted on a signed contract before giving a demonstration.
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^ So they were ready to go ahead with the design of a powered flying machine, which they did.
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^ If you have been a member of the federal acquisition community for a while, then you have probably heard the story of the Wright brothers' contract with the U.S. Army for a heavier-than-air flying machine.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They were unwilling even to show their photographs of the airborne Flyer. .The American military, having recently spent $50,000 on the Langley Aerodrome—a product of the nation's foremost scientist—only to see it plunge twice into the Potomac River "like a handful of mortar", was particularly unreceptive to the claims of two unknown bicycle makers from Ohio.^ It twice crashed into the Potomac River after being catapulted from a houseboat.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I had the opportunity of seeing first hand the meticulous work that was going into reproducing the 1903 Flyer.
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^ In contrast, Dr. Samuel Langley, Director of the Smithsonian Institution, employed a sophisticated engine that generated a whopping 50 hp, but his Aerodrome was poorly designed.
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[61] .Thus, doubted or scorned, the Wright brothers continued their work in semi-obscurity, while other aviation pioneers like Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont and American Glenn Curtiss entered the limelight.^ Carrie continued to work for the Wrights.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, doubted or scorned, the Wright brothers continued their work in semi-obscurity, while other aviation pioneers like Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont and American Glenn Curtiss entered the limelight.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Santos-Dumont was a Brazilian who pursued aviation in France.
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European skepticism

.In 1906, skeptics in the European aviation community had converted the press to an anti-Wright brothers stance.^ Since that time the preservation of aviation related sites, especially those linked to the Wright brothers, has gained acceptance.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 12) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.cr.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aviation Trail Incorporated had a grand vision for the revitalization of the Wright brothers' neighborhood, but other efforts within the neighborhood overshadowed and diverted their plan.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 12) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.cr.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In their plans to memorialize the Wright brothers, the Dayton Air Service Incorporated Committee, in agreement with the Aviation Committee, planned to demolish the hangar and erect a marker.
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European newspapers, especially in France, were openly derisive, calling them bluffeurs (bluffers).[62] .Ernest Archdeacon, founder of the Aéro-Club de France, was publicly scornful of the brother's claims in spite of published reports; specifically, he wrote several articles and in 1906, stated that the French would make the first public demonstration of powered flight.^ This flight won the Aero club of Frances Archdeacon Prize.
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^ Ernest Archdeacon, a wealthy attorney and a founder of the Aero Club of France heard the message.
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^ The flights were witnessed by five people: Adam Etheridge, John Daniels and Will Dough of the coastal lifesaving crew; area businessman W.C. Brinkley; and Johnny Moore, a boy from the village, making these arguably the first public flights.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]
The Paris edition of the New York Herald summed up Europe's opinion of the Wright brothers in an editorial on February 10, 1906:
"The Wrights have flown or they have not flown. They possess a machine or they do not possess one. They are in fact either fliers or liars. It is difficult to fly. It's easy to say, 'We have flown.'"[62]
.The Alberto Santos-Dumont´s public flight, in 1906, is the first to have been certified by the Aéro Club de France and the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI).^ Alberto Santos-Dumont of Brazil, who flew a steam-powered box kite contraption on October 23 , 1906, while the Wrights only achieved a powered glide; .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | December 17| Saturnalia Wright brothers Chronos Saturn Christmas Sow Day Orkney John Greenleaf Whittier Cuauhxicalli Eagle Bowl Holt drowned 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ The Wright brothers' 17 December 1903 flight is recognized by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale , the standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics , as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight".
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This flight won the Aero club of Frances Archdeacon Prize.
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[64] .In 1908, after the Wrights' first flights in France, Archdeacon publicly admitted that he had done them an injustice.^ Requesting that the plane be returned to the United States was contingent upon the Smithsonian Institution acknowledging that the Wright brothers were the first to fly and the first capable of flight.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright Field to give Orville Wright his last airplane flight, more than forty years after his historic first flight.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This flight won the Aero club of Frances Archdeacon Prize.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]

Return to Kitty Hawk May 1908

.The Wright brothers made no flights at all in 1906 and 1907 while they pursued fitful negotiations with the U.S. and European governments.^ They made all their flights in that position for the next five years.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright brothers were no different.
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^ The Wright brothers made no flights at all in 1906 and 1907 while they pursued fitful negotiations with the U.S. and European governments.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While grounded they experimented with a pontoon and engine setup on the Miami River in hopes of flying their airplane from the water.^ The Wright Experience pilots found that they could handle the Flyer although it takes much practice to acquire the flying skills needed.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experiments were conducted on the Miami River near Dayton, Ohio in the spring and early summer of 1913.
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^ They also received a special fee every time they left the ground in an airplane.
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These experiments proved unsuccessful. .In May 1906 they were finally granted a patent for their flying machine.^ Flying Machine patent ↑ Crouch 2003, p.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Paragraph 2] It is desirable that the flying machine should be designed so that it may be quickly and easily assembled and taken apart and packed for transportation in Army wagons.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 23 March 1903 the Wrights applied for their famous patent for a "Flying Machine", based on their successful 1902 glider.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1907 the brothers journeyed to Europe for the first time for face-to-face talks with government bureaucrats and businessmen.^ The Homecoming Celebration for the Wright brothers in 1909 was the first time that the brothers' hometown acknowledged their success.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 12) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.cr.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, he took off on a six-minute flight with Wilbur as his passenger, the only time the Wright brothers ever flew together.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the Wright brothers first became interested in flight, the first thing they did was to really take a look at the literature of flight that existed at that time.
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.Orville joined his brother two months after Wilbur's departure, but first packed a new Model A Flyer in a crate which was shipped to France and left in storage at Le Havre in anticipation of demonstration flights.^ Orville and Wilbur Wright - read a profile on these brothers in flight.

^ Admission tickets for demonstration flights by Wilbur Wright at Le Mans, France, 1908 .
  • The Achievement: The Dream of Flight (A Library of Congress Special Presentation Commemoratingthe Centennial of Flight) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Quietly starting a partnership with far-reaching consequences, Wilbur joined the print shop, serving as editor while Orville was publisher of the weekly newspaper the West Side News , followed, for only a few months, by the daily Evening Item .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In early 1908 the Wrights finally signed contracts with a French company and the U.S. Army.^ After finally signing contracts with a French company and the U.S. Army, they went back to Kitty Hawk in May 1908 with the 1905 Flyer, modified with seats for pilot and passenger, and began practicing for their all-important demonstration flights.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can we really learn anything useful about performance-based service contracting and the effective use of incentives from the Armys experience with the Wright brothers?
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilbur trained French and Italian pilots using his method, and Orville trained American pilots at the Wright Company flight school using his method.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In May they went back to Kitty Hawk with their 1905 Flyer to practice for their all-important demonstration flights.^ They went back to Dayton.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After finally signing contracts with a French company and the U.S. Army, they went back to Kitty Hawk in May 1908 with the 1905 Flyer, modified with seats for pilot and passenger, and began practicing for their all-important demonstration flights.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the experiments were completed, the airframe was abandoned in Kitty Hawk, and the engine, chain guards, propellers, and other items were shipped back to Dayton.
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.They had not been to the camp in four and a half years and had to rebuild their two sheds, which had been badly damaged by weather and scavengers; the 1902 glider was in a hopeless state of disrepair.^ For those tests, the brothers trekked four miles (6 km) south to the Kill Devil Hills , a group of sand dunes up to Template:Convert high (where they made camp in each of the next three years).
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^ Starting with the 1902 glider, they had interconnected the movements of the tail to wing warping so that they would move simultaneously.
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^ The camber they used on the 1902 glider was a relatively flat 1 in 24 to 1 in 30 depending upon how the wing was rigged.
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.Their American and French contracts required them to be able to carry a passenger.^ Their contracts required them to be able to carry a passenger.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This flight satisfied the flight requirements of the Wrights French contract.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They modified the 1905 Flyer by installing two seats and adding upright control levers.^ Using a paradigm of building full-scale gliders that were controllable by a pilot, and then adding power, they were able solve the problems of flight and flew on December 17, 1903.
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^ Success In June, they designed and made two propellers to be used on their machine, the Flyer.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was reassembled with a two-man upright configuration & new control arrangement and flown at Kitty Hawk in May 1908.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After tests with sandbags in the passenger seat, Charlie Furnas, a helper from Dayton, became the first fixed-wing aircraft passenger on a few short flights May 14. For safety, and as a promise to their father, Wilbur and Orville did not fly together.^ This method became standard on fixed wing aircraft of all kinds.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For safety, and as a promise to their father, Wilbur and Orville did not fly together.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brewer was from England, where in 1908 on a short flight with Wilbur, he became the first Englishman to fly.
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.However, several newspaper accounts at the time mistakenly took Orville's flight with Furnas as both brothers flying together.^ An error in transmission cut two seconds off the longest flight time of 59 seconds and Orvilles name was misspelled.
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^ Yet, the experiments with the reconstructed Aerodrome were sufficient for Walcott and Zahm to present Langley as the first man capable of flight and the Wright brothers as the individuals who were the first to fly.
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^ Here is Orville Wright's account of the final flight of the day: .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later that day after flying solo seven minutes, Wilbur suffered his worst crash when, still not well-acquainted with the two control levers, he apparently moved one the wrong way and slammed the Flyer into the sand between 40 and 50 miles an hour.^ Four days after Orvilles accident, Wilbur flew for one hour and 31 minutes.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In July 1909 Orville, with Wilbur assisting, completed the proving flights for the U.S. Army, meeting the requirements of a two-seater able to fly with a passenger for an hour at an average of speed of 40 miles an hour (64 km/h) and land undamaged.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flying it meant lying prone in a cradle that one moved with the hips to "warp" the wings for horizontal control, while at the same time moving a lever with the left hand that controlled the front elevator for pitch control.
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.He emerged with only bruises and a cut nose, but the accident ended the practice flights—and the airplane's flying career.^ The Power To Fly Flight is impossible unless there is enough thrust to maintain the flying speed of an airplane.
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^ During a practice flight on August 9, 1896, he was hit by a strong gust of wind that caused his glider to nose up and stall.
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^ Inventing Flight on a Shoestring The Wright Brothers would never have won the race to fly a power-driven airplane if success had depended on money.
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Public showing

Orville demonstrating the flyer to the U.S. Army, Fort Myer, Virginia September 1908. Photo: by C.H. Claudy.
.The brothers' contracts with the U.S. Army and a French syndicate depended on successful public flight demonstrations that met certain conditions.^ The brothers' contracts with the U.S. Army and a French syndicate depended on successful public flight demonstrations that met certain conditions.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can we really learn anything useful about performance-based service contracting and the effective use of incentives from the Armys experience with the Wright brothers?
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The incident was read with interest by the Wright Brothers and is credited with awaking their interest in the solving the riddle of successful flight by man.
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.The brothers had to divide their efforts.^ The brothers had to divide their efforts.
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Wilbur sailed for Europe; Orville would fly near Washington, D.C.
.Wilbur faced deep skepticism in the French aeronautical community and outright scorn by some newspapers that called him a "bluffeur", but he began official public demonstrations on August 8, 1908 at the Hunaudières horse racing track near the town of Le Mans, France.^ Facing deep skepticism in the French aeronautical community and outright scorn by some newspapers that called him a "bluffeur", Wilbur began official public demonstrations on 8 August 1908 at the Hunaudières horse racing track near the town of Le Mans , France .
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^ The Wrights father, Milton Wright, instructed daughter Katharine to walk over to her brother Lorins house and ask him to take the telegram to the local newspaper office for publication.
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^ Wilbur and Orville devised slightly different flight controls in the airplanes they built separately in France and the U.S. for their 1908 public demonstrations.
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.His first flight lasted only one minute 45 seconds, but his ability to effortlessly make banking turns and fly a circle amazed and stunned onlookers, including several pioneer French aviators, among them Louis Bleriot.^ His first flight lasted only one minute 45 seconds, but his ability to effortlessly make banking turns and fly a circle amazed and stunned onlookers, including several pioneer French aviators, among them Louis Bleriot .
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^ Wilbur climaxed an extraordinary year in early October when he flew at New York City's Hudson-Fulton celebrations, circling the Statue of Liberty and making a 33-minute flight up and down the Hudson River alongside Manhattan in view of up to one million New Yorkers.
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^ Its role was not to change the direction of flight, but rather, to aim or align the aircraft correctly during banking turns and when leveling off from turns and wind disturbances.
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.In the following days, Wilbur made a series of technically challenging flights, including figure-eights, demonstrating his skills as a pilot and the capability of his flying machine, which far surpassed those of all other pilot pioneers.^ In the following days Wilbur made a series of technically challenging flights including figure-eights, demonstrating his skills as a pilot and the capability of his flying machine, which far surpassed those of all other pilot pioneers.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of these other investigators, including Langley and Chanute, sought the elusive ideal of "inherent stability", believing the pilot of a flying machine would not be able to react quickly enough to wind disturbances to use mechanical controls effectively.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His first flight lasted only one minute 45 seconds, but his ability to effortlessly make banking turns and fly a circle amazed and stunned onlookers, including several pioneer French aviators, among them Louis Bleriot .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The French public was thrilled by Wilbur's feats and flocked to the field by the thousands.^ The French public was thrilled by Wilbur's feats and flocked to the field by the thousands.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Wright brothers catapulted to world fame overnight.^ The Wright brothers catapulted to world fame overnight.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright brothers didnt use parachutes although parachutes existed long before the Wright brothers introduced the airplane to the world.
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^ These flights solidly established the fame of the Wright brothers in America.
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.Former doubters issued apologies and effusive praise.^ Former doubters issued apologies and effusive praise.
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."L'Aérophile" editor Georges Besançon wrote that the flights "have completely dissipated all doubts.^ "L'Aérophile" editor Georges Besançon wrote that the flights "have completely dissipated all doubts.
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^ Orville gleefully wrote to George Spratt, "Isn't it astonishing that all these secrets have been preserved for so many years just so that we could discover them."
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.Not one of the former detractors of the Wrights dare question, today, the previous experiments of the men who were truly the first to fly...."^ Not one of the former detractors of the Wrights dare question, today, the previous experiments of the men who were truly the first to fly..."
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright brothers thus differed sharply from more experienced practitioners of the day, notably Ader , Maxim and Langley who built powerful engines, attached them to airframes equipped with unproven control devices, and expected to take to the air with no previous flying experience.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet, the experiments with the reconstructed Aerodrome were sufficient for Walcott and Zahm to present Langley as the first man capable of flight and the Wright brothers as the individuals who were the first to fly.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .Leading French aviation promoter Ernest Archdeacon wrote, "For a long time, the Wright brothers have been accused in Europe of bluff...^ Leading French aviation promoter Ernest Archdeacon wrote, "For a long time, the Wright brothers have been accused in Europe of bluff...They are today hallowed in France, and I feel an intense pleasure...to make amends."
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, the Wright brothers had flown 39 times that distance (24 miles) two years earlier at Huffman Prairie in Dayton, Ohio.
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^ The agreement permits the Outer Banks area to use the Wright Brother's name and likeness in advertising and promotion until December 31, 2013.
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.They are today hallowed in France, and I feel an intense pleasure...to make amends."^ Leading French aviation promoter Ernest Archdeacon wrote, "For a long time, the Wright brothers have been accused in Europe of bluff...They are today hallowed in France, and I feel an intense pleasure...to make amends."
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In May 1908 the Wrights took a machine to Kitty Hawk to prepare for the demonstrations they would make in France and at Ft.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66]
.On October 7, 1908, Edith Berg, the wife of the brothers' European business agent, became the first American woman airplane passenger when she flew with Wilbur—-one of many passengers who rode with him that autumn.^ He was the first passenger to be killed in an airplane accident.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 7 October 1908 , Edith Berg, the wife of the brothers' European business agent, became the first American woman airplane passenger when she flew with Wilbur—one of many passengers who rode with him that autumn.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wright airplanes of the 1907 type include: the machine shipped to Europe in 1907 and flown by Wilbur in France from 1908 to March 1909; the airplane that Orville flew in the first Army tests at Fort Myer and wrecked on September 17, 1908; the airplane assembled at Pau and shipped to Rome for flights by Wilbur in April 1909; one of two machines assembled in Berlin in 1909 and flown by Orville in March and April; the machine used by Wilbur in his flights of September-October 1909 during the Hudson-Fulton Celebration in New York City and the machine flown by Orville at Montgomery Alabama in 1910.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67]
.Orville followed his brother's success by demonstrating another nearly identical flyer to the United States Army at Fort Myer, Virginia, starting on September 3, 1908. On September 9, he made the first hour-long flight, lasting 62 minutes and 15 seconds.^ On September 4, Orville flew for four minutes and 15 seconds.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 9 September he made the first hour-long flight, enduring 62 minutes and 15 seconds.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville followed his brother's success by demonstrating another nearly identical flyer to the United States Army at Fort Myer , Virginia, starting on 3 September 1908 .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
Fort Myer crash.
^ Fort Myer crash.
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photo by C.H. Claudy
.On September 17, Army lieutenant Thomas Selfridge rode along as his passenger, serving as an official observer.^ C.H. Claudy On 17 September Army lieutenant Thomas Selfridge rode along as his passenger, serving as an official observer.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It occurred during U.S. Army qualification tests at Fort Myer, VA on September 17, 1908.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville took off on September 17 carrying U.S. Army Lieutenant Thomas R. Selfridge.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few minutes into the flight at an altitude of about 100 feet (30 m), a propeller split and shattered, sending the aircraft out of control.^ A few minutes into the flight at an altitude of about Template:Convert , a propeller split, sending the aircraft out of control.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As his flights continued, he began to make gliders that were easier to control and to think about adding a small engine.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The re-enactment flight is planned for 10:35 a.m., exactly 100 years to the minute after the Wrights' famous flight.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Selfridge suffered a fractured skull in the crash and died that evening in the nearby Army hospital, becoming the first fatality of an airplane crash.^ Selfridge suffered a fracture at the base of his skull and never recovered consciousness after surgery.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Model C airplanes were delivered to the Army in 1912.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Selfridge was killed in the crash, the first person to die in powered fixed-wing aircraft.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Orville was badly injured, suffering a broken left leg and four broken ribs.^ Orville was badly injured, suffering a broken left leg and four broken ribs.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville suffered a broken thigh, several broken ribs, and scalp lacerations.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ken flew another flight of 115 feet and landed sustaining minor damage to the Flyer consisting of four broken ribs.
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.Twelve years later, after he suffered increasingly severe pains, X-rays revealed the accident had also caused three hip bone fractures and a dislocated hip.^ Myer accident had also caused three hip bone fractures and a dislocated hip.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twelve years later, after Orville suffered increasingly severe pains, X-rays revealed the Ft.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sun Guoliang, the head of the Beijing City Education Bureau, suffered three fractured ribs.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | August 19 |Vinalia Rustica Rome Ogden Nash Pope Alexander VI witch trials witchcraftBlondin Lake George Canberra 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

[68] .The brothers' sister Katharine, a school teacher, rushed from Dayton to Virginia and stayed by Orville's side for the seven weeks of his hospitalization.^ The brothers' sister Katharine, a school teacher, rushed from Dayton to Washington and stayed by Orville's side for the many weeks of his hospitalization.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville and his sister Katharine were in France to be with Wilbur.
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^ Miss Katharine Wright, their sister, Bishop Milton Wright, their father, and Lorin and Reuchlin Wright, their brothers, had already entered carriages when Wilbur and Orville emerged from their home, escorted by the state militia troops of regulars and a brass band.
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.She helped negotiate a one-year extension of the Army contract.^ She helped negotiate a one-year extension of the Army contract.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Army apparently did not request, nor did the Wrights provide, any consideration in exchange for the contract time extensions.
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^ One account says that the Army actually sent contracts to all three: Herring, Scott and the Wrights, and that it was only then that Scott asked the Army to let him withdraw.
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.A friend visiting Orville in the hospital asked, "Has it got your nerve?"^ A friend visiting Orville in the hospital asked, "Has it got your nerve?"
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^ Miller asked Earl Findley, Orville's good friend and the editor of U.S. Air Services, to intercede and persuade Mabel to turn over the letter to him.
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"Nerve?" repeated .Orville, slightly puzzled.^ Orville, slightly puzzled.
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."Oh, do you mean will I be afraid to fly again?^ "Oh, do you mean will I be afraid to fly again?
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.The only thing I'm afraid of is that I can't get well soon enough to finish those tests next year."^ The only thing I'm afraid of is that I can't get well soon enough to finish those tests next year."
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^ Next, Orville took his 82-year old father on a nearly seven-minute flight, the first and only one of Milton Wright's life.
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^ Reporters showed up the next day (only their second appearance at the field since May the previous year), but the brothers declined to fly.
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[69] .Deeply shocked by the accident, Wilbur determined to make even more impressive flight demonstrations; in the ensuing days and weeks he set new records for altitude and duration.^ Deeply shocked by the accident, Wilbur determined to make even more impressive flight demonstrations; in the ensuing days and weeks he set new records for altitude and duration.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilbur and Orville devised slightly different flight controls in the airplanes they built separately in France and the U.S. for their 1908 public demonstrations.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next day the Dayton Daily News reported that the Wrights were making spectacular flights.
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.In January 1909 Orville and Katharine joined him in France, and for a time they were the three most famous people in the world, sought after by royalty, the rich, reporters and the public.^ In January 1909 Orville and Katharine joined him in France, and for a time they were the three most famous people in the world, sought after by royalty, the rich, reporters and the public.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville and his sister Katharine were in France to be with Wilbur.
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^ On January 16, 1909 Orville was involved in a train wreck in France.
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.The kings of England, Spain and Italy came to see Wilbur fly.^ The kings of England, Spain and Italy came to see Wilbur fly.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brewer was from England, where in 1908 on a short flight with Wilbur, he became the first Englishman to fly.
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Wright Model A Flyer flown by Wilbur 1908-09 and launching derrick, France, 1909
.The Wrights traveled to Pau, in the south of France, where Wilbur made many more public flights, giving rides to a procession of officers, journalists and statesmen—and his sister Katharine on February 15. He trained two French pilots, then transferred the airplane to the French company.^ He trained two French pilots, then transferred the airplane to the French company.
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^ Wilbur trained French and Italian pilots using his method, and Orville trained American pilots at the Wright Company flight school using his method.
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^ Orville and his sister Katharine were in France to be with Wilbur.
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.In April the Wrights went to Italy where Wilbur assembled another Flyer, giving demonstrations and training more pilots.^ In April the Wrights went to Italy where Wilbur assembled another Flyer, giving demonstrations and training more pilots.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wright B Flyers and they were used for training pilots and in aerial experiments.
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^ Wright Model A Flyer flown by Wilbur 1908-09 and launching derrick, France, 1909 The Wrights traveled to Pau, in the south of France, where Wilbur made many more public flights, giving rides to a procession of officers, journalists and statesmen—and his sister Katharine on 15 February .
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.A cameraman climbed aboard and made the first motion picture from an airplane.^ A cameraman climbed aboard and made the first motion picture from an airplane.
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.After their return to the U.S., the brothers and Katharine were invited to the White House where President Taft bestowed awards upon them.^ After their return to the U.S., the brothers and Katharine were invited to the White House where President Taft bestowed awards upon them.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Requesting that the plane be returned to the United States was contingent upon the Smithsonian Institution acknowledging that the Wright brothers were the first to fly and the first capable of flight.
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^ This is how the White House's official website describes that tricky stuff from the closing years of Clinton's presidency: .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | August 19 |Vinalia Rustica Rome Ogden Nash Pope Alexander VI witch trials witchcraftBlondin Lake George Canberra 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

.Dayton followed up with a lavish two-day homecoming celebration.^ Dayton followed up with a lavish two-day homecoming celebration.
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^ So those are the two people, Orville and Kate, whose birthday we are celebrating today and its National Aviation Day too as I said.
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^ The City of Dayton didnt get around to publicly honoring the Wrights until it held a homecoming celebration on June 17, 1909, six years after the first flight.
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.In July 1909 Orville, with Wilbur assisting, completed the proving flights for the U.S. Army, meeting the requirements of a two-seater able to fly with a passenger for an hour at an average of speed of 40 miles an hour (64 km/h) and land undamaged.^ In July 1909 Orville, with Wilbur assisting, completed the proving flights for the U.S. Army, meeting the requirements of a two-seater able to fly with a passenger for an hour at an average of speed of 40 miles an hour (64 km/h) and land undamaged.
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^ On October 5, Wilbur made a 38 minute circling flight of 24 and 1/5 miles, traveling at an average speed of 38 miles per hour.
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^ They successfully completed the endurance test on July 27 by carrying Lt. Lahm for one hour, 12 minutes, and 40 seconds; 57 however, they couldnt meet the July 28 deadline for successful completion of the speed test.
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They sold the aircraft to the Army's Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps for $30,000 (which included a $5,000 bonus for exceeding the speed specification). .Wilbur climaxed an extraordinary year in early October when he flew at New York City's Hudson-Fulton celebrations, circling the Statue of Liberty and making a 33-minute flight up and down the Hudson River alongside Manhattan in view of up to one million New Yorkers.^ Wilbur flew his longest flight the next day, October 5 th .
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^ Wilbur climaxed an extraordinary year in early October when he flew at New York City's Hudson-Fulton celebrations, circling the Statue of Liberty and making a 33-minute flight up and down the Hudson River alongside Manhattan in view of up to one million New Yorkers.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wright airplanes of the 1907 type include: the machine shipped to Europe in 1907 and flown by Wilbur in France from 1908 to March 1909; the airplane that Orville flew in the first Army tests at Fort Myer and wrecked on September 17, 1908; the airplane assembled at Pau and shipped to Rome for flights by Wilbur in April 1909; one of two machines assembled in Berlin in 1909 and flown by Orville in March and April; the machine used by Wilbur in his flights of September-October 1909 during the Hudson-Fulton Celebration in New York City and the machine flown by Orville at Montgomery Alabama in 1910.
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.These flights solidly established the fame of the Wright brothers in America.^ Orville and Wilbur Wright - read a profile on these brothers in flight.

^ These flights solidly established the fame of the Wright brothers in America.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright brothers flew the first heavier-than-air powered flight 100 years ago on this date.
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Family flights

.On May 25, 1910 back at Huffman Prairie, Orville piloted two unique flights.^ On 25 May 1910 back at Huffman Prairie, Orville piloted two unique flights.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An error in transmission cut two seconds off the longest flight time of 59 seconds and Orvilles name was misspelled.
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^ The article included a letter from Charles Webbert, the Wrights bicycle shop landlord, who was a creditable eyewitness to a number of Wright flights at Huffman Prairie.
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.First, he took off on a six-minute flight with Wilbur as his passenger, the only time the Wright brothers ever flew together.^ Orville and Wilbur Wright - read a profile on these brothers in flight.

^ First Flight - learn about the Wright brothers experiments that led to their first flight.

^ First, he took off on a six-minute flight with Wilbur as his passenger, the only time the Wright brothers ever flew together.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They received permission from their father to make the flight.^ They received permission from their father to make the flight.
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^ The negotiations were impeded by the Wrights refusal to make any demonstration flights before they had signed a contract.
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^ They came back to Kitty Hawk the next year, 1901, with a bigger glider and that was the first time they could really make genuine flights.
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.They had always promised Milton they would never fly together to avoid the chance of a double tragedy and to ensure one brother would remain to continue their experiments.^ The brothers would fly a flag when they were ready to fly, and help would arrive.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They had always promised Milton they would never fly together to avoid the chance of a double tragedy and to ensure one brother would remain to continue their experiments.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They didnt know then that as the linear measurement of a model is doubled it needs about eight times the power to fly.
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.Next, Orville took his 82-year old father on a nearly seven-minute flight, the first and only one of Milton Wright's life.^ It had taken the Wrights only three and a half years of work to the first flight.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wright Again - To celebrate the 100 year anniversary of flight, "Wright Again" leads elementary, middle, and high school students through the technical development of one of the most unique aircraft in the world—the first successfully flown powered airplane, the 1903 Wright Flyer.

^ Requesting that the plane be returned to the United States was contingent upon the Smithsonian Institution acknowledging that the Wright brothers were the first to fly and the first capable of flight.
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.The airplane rose to about 350 feet (107 m) while the elderly Wright called to his son, "Higher, Orville, higher!"^ The airplane rose to about Template:Convert while the elderly Wright called to his son, "Higher, Orville, higher!"
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's All About Control The greatest contribution the Wright Brothers made to man-flight was figuring out how to control an airplane in flight.
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^ Wilbur and Orville gave no details about their airplane.
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[70]

Patent war

.The Wright brothers wrote their 1903 patent application themselves, but it was rejected.^ Their 1903 patent application, which they wrote themselves, was rejected.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 23 March 1903 the Wrights applied for their famous patent for a "Flying Machine", based on their successful 1902 glider.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Locating a final place for the 1903 airplane to be exhibited was much harder than arranging the disposition of the Wright brothers' papers.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In January 1904 they hired Ohio patent attorney Henry Toulmin, and on May 22, 1906, they were granted U.S. Patent 821393[9] for a "Flying Machine".
.The patent illustrates a non-powered flying machine—namely, the 1902 glider.^ U.S. Patent and Trademark Office archive The patent illustrated a non-powered flying machine—namely, the 1902 glider.
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^ Flying Machine patent ↑ Crouch 2003, p.
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^ So they were ready to go ahead with the design of a powered flying machine, which they did.
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.The patent's importance lies in its claim of a new and useful method of controlling a flying machine, powered or not.^ The patent's importance lies in its claim of a new and useful method of controlling a flying machine, powered or not.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flying Machine patent ↑ Crouch 2003, p.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So they were ready to go ahead with the design of a powered flying machine, which they did.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The technique of wing-warping is described, but the patent explicitly states that other methods instead of wing-warping could be used for adjusting the outer portions of a machine's wings to different angles on the right and left sides to achieve lateral (roll) control.^ The technique of wing-warping is described, but the patent explicitly states that wing-warping need not be the only method that could be employed to vary the outer portions of a machine's wings to different angles on the right and left sides.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The actual turn — the change in direction — was done with roll control using wing-warping.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their most revolutionary contribution was the concept of wing warping for lateral control of a flying machine.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The concept of varying the angle presented to the air near the wingtips, by any suitable method, is central to the patent.^ The concept of varying the angle near the wingtips, by whatever means, is central to the patent.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The coefficient of lift is a multiplying factor that takes into consideration the various angles a wing assumes with regard to the flow of air know as the "angle of attack."
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coefficient of Lift: The coefficient is a multiplying factor that takes into consideration the various angles a wing assumes with regard to the flow of air.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The patent also describes the steerable rear vertical rudder and its innovative use in combination with wing-warping, enabling the airplane to make a coordinated turn, a technique that prevents hazardous adverse yaw, the problem Wilbur had when trying to turn the 1901 glider.^ The patent also describes the steerable rear vertical rudder and its innovative use in combination with wing-warping, enabling the airplane to make a coordinated turn , a technique that prevents hazardous adverse yaw , the problem Wilbur had when trying to turn the 1901 glider.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilbur conceived and successfully tested the concept of wing warping to turn an airplane.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With new confidence Wilbur tried to make some turns, but then a new problem materialized.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finally, the patent describes the forward elevator, used for ascending and descending.^ Finally, the patent describes the forward elevator, used for ascending and descending.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lawsuits begin

.Attempting to circumvent the patent, Glenn Curtiss and other early aviators devised ailerons to emulate lateral control described in the patent and demonstrated by the Wrights in their public flights.^ Thus, doubted or scorned, the Wright brothers continued their work in semi-obscurity, while other aviation pioneers like Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont and American Glenn Curtiss entered the limelight.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The broad protection intended by this language succeeded when the Wrights won patent infringement lawsuits against Glenn Curtiss and other early aviators who adopted ailerons while the Wrights continued to use wing-warping.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few days after the first successful powered, sustained, controlled flight of the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk in 1903, it was disassembled and returned to Dayton, Ohio.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soon after the historic July 4, 1908 one-kilometer flight by Curtiss in the June Bug, the Wrights warned him not to infringe their patent by profiting from flying or selling aircraft that used ailerons.^ "Springfielder Helped Wrights Fly," Local/State , Springfield, OH, June 17, 1999.
  • Wright Brothers Collection, Newspaper Clippings 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC home.dayton.lib.oh.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was also the first Wright machine to utilize modern-type ailerons on both the upper and lower wings instead of using wingwarping.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One reader of the recent celebration noted in the local newspaper about the weekend event to salute Wright brothers homecoming on June 16: .
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Curtiss refused to pay license fees to the Wrights and sold an airplane equipped with ailerons to the Aeronautic Society of New York in 1909. The Wrights filed a lawsuit, beginning a years-long legal conflict.^ The Wrights filed a lawsuit, beginning a years-long legal conflict.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Curtiss refused to pay license fees to the Wrights and sold a plane to the Aeronautic Society of New York in 1909.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They arrived in New York aboard the Kronprinzessin Cecilie to the cheers of representatives of the Aero Club of America, The Aeronautic Society and several other organizations as well as friends and admirers.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also sued foreign aviators who flew at U.S. exhibitions, including the leading French aviator Louis Paulhan.^ They also sued foreign aviators who flew at U.S. exhibitions, including the leading French aviator Louis Paulhan .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leading French aviation promoter Ernest Archdeacon wrote, "For a long time, the Wright brothers have been accused in Europe of bluff...They are today hallowed in France, and I feel an intense pleasure...to make amends."
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His first flight lasted only one minute 45 seconds, but his ability to effortlessly make banking turns and fly a circle amazed and stunned onlookers, including several pioneer French aviators, among them Louis Bleriot .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Curtiss people derisively suggested that if someone jumped in the air and waved his arms, the Wrights would sue.^ Lilienthal had made "whirling arm" tests on only a few wing shapes, and the Wrights mistakenly assumed the data would apply to their wings, which had a different shape.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would be four years before even the U. S. War Department would believe that the Wrights had actually flown a heavier-than-air, engine-powered airplane.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71] .European companies which bought foreign patents the Wrights had received sued other manufacturers in their countries.^ The brothers' licensed European companies, which owned foreign patents the Wrights had received, sued manufacturers in their countries.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February 1907, the Wrights signed a contract with Flint and Company of New York to act as their agents for the marketing of airplanes to European governments.
  • Analysis--The True Story of the Wright Brothers Contract 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wifcon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the target companies may have already committed their funds to other locations such as the Wright celebration in Dayton.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those lawsuits were only partly successful.^ The European lawsuits were only partly successful.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite a pro-Wright ruling in France, legal maneuvering dragged on until the patent expired in 1917. A German court ruled the patent not valid because of prior disclosure in speeches by Wilbur Wright in 1901 and Octave Chanute in 1903. In the U.S. the Wrights made an agreement with the Aero Club of America to license airshows which the Club approved, freeing participating pilots from a legal threat.^ Despite a pro-Wright ruling in France, legal maneuvering dragged on until the patent expired in 1917.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the U.S. the Wrights made an agreement with the Aero Club of America to license airshows which the Club approved, freeing participating pilots from a legal threat.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A German court ruled the patent invalid due to prior disclosure in speeches by Wilbur Wright in 1901 and Octave Chanute in 1903.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Promoters of approved shows paid fees to the Wrights.^ Promoters of approved shows paid fees to the Wrights.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72] .The Wright brothers won their initial case against Curtiss in February 1913, but the decision was appealed.^ The Wright brothers won their initial case against Curtiss in February 1913, but the decision was appealed.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Curtiss on February 27,1913.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 1914, a U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the verdict in favor of the Wrights against Curtiss, whose company continued to avoid penalties through legal tactics.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1910 until his death from typhoid fever in 1912, Wilbur took the leading role in the patent struggle, traveling incessantly to consult with lawyers and testify in what he felt was a moral cause, particularly against Curtiss, who was creating a large company to manufacture aircraft.^ From 1910 until his death from typhoid fever in 1912, Wilbur took the leading role in the patent struggle, traveling incessantly to consult with lawyers and testify in what he felt was a moral cause, particularly against Curtiss, who was creating a large company to manufacture aircraft.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The enormous amount of time and energy that Wilbur dedicated to defending the brothers' patent had worn him out and lowered his resistance, making him more susceptible to typhoid fever.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1910 and 1916 the Wright Company flying school at Huffman Prairie trained 115 pilots who were instructed by Orville and his assistants.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Wrights' preoccupation with the legal issue stifled their work on new designs, and by 1911 Wright aircraft were considered inferior to those of European makers.^ Between 1910 and 1915 the Wrights produced 10 different distinct aircraft designs.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before leaving camp in 1902, we were already at work on the general design of a new machine which we proposed to propel with a motor.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new design featured the Wright Flyer flying in the opposite direction of that depicted on the N.C. Quarter and an astronaut superimposed over an outline of Ohio .
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Indeed, aviation development in the U.S. was suppressed to such an extent that when the U.S. entered World War I no acceptable American-designed aircraft were available, and U.S. forces were compelled to use French machines.^ Indeed, aviation development in the US was suppressed to such an extent that when the U.S. entered World War I no acceptable American-designed aircraft were available, and the US forces were compelled to use French machines.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1917, with World War I underway, the U.S. government stepped in to supervise a cross-licensing organization in which member companies paid a blanket fee for the use of aviation patents, including the original and subsequent Wright patents.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wilbur trained French and Italian pilots using his method, and Orville trained American pilots at the Wright Company flight school using his method.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Orville and Katharine Wright believed Curtiss was partly responsible for Wilbur's premature death, which occurred in the wake of his exhausting travels and the stress of the legal battle.^ Orville and his sister Katharine were in France to be with Wilbur.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, their names were not Orville and Wilbur Wright.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville succeeded to the presidency of the Wright company upon Wilbur's death.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Victory and cooperation

.In January 1914, a U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the verdict against the Curtiss company, which continued to avoid penalties through legal tactics.^ In January 1914, a U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the verdict in favor of the Wrights against Curtiss, whose company continued to avoid penalties through legal tactics.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Curtiss immediately appealed the decision and the ban was rescinded until the Federal Appeals Court ruled on the case.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Curtiss had uncovered a loophole in the Federal Appeals Court decision and was manufacturing airplanes that operated with one aileron at a time.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Orville apparently felt vindicated by the decision, and much to the frustration of company executives, he did not push vigorously for further legal action to ensure a manufacturing monopoly.^ The decision opened the way for a legal monopoly such as had been awarded to the Bell Telephone Company, but differences developed between the New York stock holders and Orville.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The conflict of Orville's wishes and sense of duty was further apparent in his involvement in many aeronautical boards and commissions.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sharing Wilbur's distaste for business but not his brother's executive skills, Orville sold the company in 1915.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In fact, he was planning to sell the company and departed in 1915. In 1917, with World War I underway, the U.S. government pressured the industry to form a cross-licensing organization, the Manufacturers Aircraft Association, to which member companies paid a blanket fee for the use of aviation patents, including the original and subsequent Wright patents.^ In 1917, with World War I underway, the U.S. government stepped in to supervise a cross-licensing organization in which member companies paid a blanket fee for the use of aviation patents, including the original and subsequent Wright patents.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others, including the U.S. War Department and foreign governments, were not convinced.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gertler informs that he has in his possession ten crates of the original company archives of the Wright Company from l909 to l915, with minutes, photos, negatives, certificates, letters, and a lot more.
  • Wright Brothers Collection, Newspaper Clippings 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC home.dayton.lib.oh.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] .The Wright-Martin company (successor to the Wright company) and the Curtiss company (which held a number of its own patents) each received a $2 million payment[74][75].^ The Wright-Martin company (successor to the Wright company) and the Curtiss company (which held a number of its own patents) each received a $2 million payment.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a twist of irony, the Wright Aeronautical Corporation (another successor) and the Curtiss Aeroplane company merged in 1929 to form the Curtiss-Wright corporation, which remains in business today producing high-tech components for the aerospace industry.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The brothers' licensed European companies, which owned foreign patents the Wrights had received, sued manufacturers in their countries.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "patent war" ended, although side issues lingered in the courts until the 1920s.^ The "patent war" ended, although side issues lingered in the courts until the 1920s.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He noticed that although the vertical end sides of the box remained rigid, the top and bottom sides could be twisted to form a new set of angles at opposite ends.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. courts decided that ailerons were also covered by the patent (European court decisions were less definitive — see Patent War section below).
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a twist of irony, the Wright Aeronautical Corporation (another successor) and the Curtiss Aeroplane company merged in 1929 to form the Curtiss-Wright corporation, which remains in business today producing high-tech components for the aerospace industry.^ In a twist of irony, the Wright Aeronautical Corporation (another successor) and the Curtiss Aeroplane company merged in 1929 to form the Curtiss-Wright corporation, which remains in business today producing high-tech components for the aerospace industry.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright-Martin company (successor to the Wright company) and the Curtiss company (which held a number of its own patents) each received a $2 million payment.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second Curtiss case was never heard in a courtroom, for in 1917 a patent pool covering the aeronautical industry was formed.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Friendship ends

.The lawsuits damaged the public image of the Wright brothers, who were generally regarded before this as heroes.^ The lawsuits damaged the public image of the Wright brothers, who were generally regarded before this as heroes.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wrights father, Milton Wright, instructed daughter Katharine to walk over to her brother Lorins house and ask him to take the telegram to the local newspaper office for publication.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet, the experiments with the reconstructed Aerodrome were sufficient for Walcott and Zahm to present Langley as the first man capable of flight and the Wright brothers as the individuals who were the first to fly.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Critics said the brothers were greedy and unfair and compared their actions unfavorably to European inventors, who worked more openly.^ Critics said the brothers were greedy and unfair, and compared their actions unfavourably to European inventors, who refused to enforce restrictive patents on this new technology.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supporters said the brothers were protecting their interests and were justified in expecting fair compensation for the years of work leading to their successful inventions.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And Irving said to us—because a lot of people were having trouble dealing with the criticism in class—and he said what happens to you here is nothing compared to what is going to happen if you publish.
  • Stephen Wright’s Literary Landscape by Patrick Ambrose - The Morning News 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.themorningnews.org [Source type: General]

.Supporters said the brothers were protecting their interests and were justified in expecting fair compensation for the years of work leading to their successful invention.^ Supporters said the brothers were protecting their interests and were justified in expecting fair compensation for the years of work leading to their successful inventions.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They gained the mechanical skills essential for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, after years of trying to convince Orville to write a book, the complete story of the Wright brothers was available to those who were interested.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their ten-year friendship with Octave Chanute, already strained by tension over how much credit, if any, he might deserve for their success, collapsed after he publicly criticized their actions.^ Their long friendship with Octave Chanute collapsed after he publicly criticized their actions.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The approach was initiated by Cayley, embellished by Otto Lilienthal and Octave Chanute and the breakthrough to successful manned flight achieved by the Wright brothers.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chapter 10, "The Year of the Flying Machine" and Chapter 11, "Octave Chanute".
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In business

.The Wright Company was incorporated on November 22, 1909. The brothers sold their patents to the company for $100,000 and also received one-third of the shares in a million dollar stock issue and a 10 percent royalty on every airplane sold.^ This airplane was offered for sale after Orville had sold the Wright Company.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The brothers sold their patents to the company for $100,000 and also received one-third of the shares in a million dollar stock issue and a 10 percent royalty on every airplane sold.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright Company was incorporated on 22 November 1909 .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76] .With Wilbur as president and Orville as vice president, the company set up an airplane factory in Dayton and a flying school/test flight field at Huffman Prairie; the headquarters office was in New York City.^ When Wilbur died, Orville, against his desires, became president of the company.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With Wilbur as president and Orville as vice president, the company set up an airplane factory in Dayton and a flying school/test flight field at Huffman Prairie; the headquarters office was in New York City.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time he was flying a test flight over Dayton, Ohio.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In mid-1910 the Wrights changed the design of their airplane, moving the horizontal elevator from the front to the back and adding wheels.^ In mid-1910 the Wrights changed the design of their airplane, moving the horizontal elevator from the front to the back and adding wheels.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flying it meant lying prone in a cradle that one moved with the hips to "warp" the wings for horizontal control, while at the same time moving a lever with the left hand that controlled the front elevator for pitch control.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Germans designed a chute that could be harnessed on the pilots back and could be deployed safely after bailing out of an airplane airplane.
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.It had become apparent by then that a rear elevator would make the airplane easier to control, especially as higher speeds grew more common.^ It had become apparent by then that a rear elevator would make the airplane easier to control, especially as higher speeds grew more common.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The glider was designed to provide 3-axis control pitch, roll, and yaw that makes it possible for a pilot to steer an airplane in the direction desired.
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^ The camber of the wings was reduced to 1/25 from 1/20 and the elevator control was relocated for easier handling.
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.This aircraft was designated the "Model B", although the original canard design was never referred to as the "Model A" by the Wrights.^ This aircraft was designated the "Model B", although the original canard design was never referred to as the "Model A" by the Wrights.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The display space for the aircraft was designed by Orville Wright.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the commission has been given almost twice the time the Wright Brothers had to design, build and successfully launch their machine, progress has been slow.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the US Signal Corps which bought the airplane did call it "Wright Type A"[77]
.There were not many customers for aircraft, so in the spring of 1910 the Wrights hired and trained a team of salaried exhibition pilots to show off their machines and win prize money for the company—despite Wilbur's disdain for what he called "the mountebank business". The team debuted at the Indianapolis Speedway on June 13. Before the year was over, pilots Ralph Johnstone and Arch Hoxsey died in air show crashes, and in November 1911 the brothers disbanded the team on which nine men had served (four other former team members died in crashes afterward).^ The team debuted at the Indianapolis Speedway on June 13.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were not many customers for airplanes, so in the spring of 1910 the Wrights hired and trained a team of salaried exhibition pilots to show off their aircraft and win prize money for the company—despite Wilbur's disdain for what he called "the mountebank business".
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the year was over, pilots Ralph Johnstone and Arch Hoxsey died in airshow crashes, and in November 1911 the brothers disbanded the team on which nine men had served (four other former team members died in crashes afterward).
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78]
.The Wright Company transported the first known commercial air cargo on November 7, 1910 by flying two bolts of dress silk 65 miles (105 km) from Dayton to Columbus, Ohio for the Moorehouse-Marten Department Store, which paid a $5,000 fee.^ Other speeches were made telling how on Huffmans Prairie, eight miles east of Dayton, the Wrights in 1905 made the record-breaking fight which first brought upon them the attention of the world.
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^ The Wright brothers flew the first heavier-than-air powered flight 100 years ago on this date.
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^ The Wrights first flew at Kitty Hawk, but they conceived, researched, built and perfected their invention in Dayton.
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.Company pilot Phil Parmelee made the flight—which was more an exercise in advertising than a simple delivery—in an hour and six minutes with the cargo strapped in the passenger's seat.^ Company pilot Phil Parmelee made the flight—which was more an exercise in advertising than a simple delivery—in an hour and six minutes with the cargo strapped in the passenger's seat.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After tests with sandbags in the passenger seat, Charlie Furnas, a helper from Dayton, became the first fixed-wing aircraft passenger on a few short flights May 14.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 9 September he made the first hour-long flight, enduring 62 minutes and 15 seconds.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The silk was cut into small pieces and sold as souvenirs.^ The silk was cut into small pieces and sold as souvenirs.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was ordered cut into pieces of approximate length and shape.
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.Between 1910 and 1916 the Wright Company flying school at Huffman Prairie trained 115 pilots who were instructed by Orville and his assistants.^ This is a true story of James, who was undergoing pilot training at the school.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between 1910 and 1916 the Wright Company flying school at Huffman Prairie trained 115 pilots who were instructed by Orville and his assistants.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wright Flyer III piloted by Orville over Huffman Prairie, 4 October 1905 .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several trainees became famous, including Henry "Hap" Arnold, who rose to Five-Star General, commanded U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II, and became first head of the U.S. Air Force; Calbraith Perry Rodgers, who made the first coast-to-coast flight in 1911 (with many stops and crashes) in a Wright Model EX named the "Vin Fiz" after the sponsor's soft drink; and Eddie Stinson, founder of the Stinson Aircraft Company.^ A modified EX, the Vin Fiz flown by Galbraith Perry Rodgers, made the first transcontinental flight in 1911.
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^ Several trainees became famous, including Henry "Hap" Arnold , who rose to Five-Star General, commanded U.S. Army Air Forces in World War II, and became first head of the U.S. Air Force; Calbraith Perry Rodgers , who made the first coast-to-coast flight in 1911 (with many stops and crashes) in a Wright Model EX named the " Vin Fiz " after the sponsor's soft drink; and Eddie Stinson, founder of the Stinson Aircraft Company .
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Model, EX 1911 .
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Smithsonian feud

.Samuel P. Langley, secretary of the Smithsonian Institution from 1887 until his death in 1906, experimented for years with model flying machines and successfully flew unmanned powered model aircraft in 1896 and 1903. Two tests of his manned full-size motor-driven Aerodrome in October and December 1903, however, were complete failures.^ Two tests of his manned full-size motor-driven Aerodrome in October and December 1903, however, were complete failures.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He launched the full-size version of his airplane, the Great Aerodrome, with a passenger on October 7, 1903 and December 8, 1903.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville was outraged with the Smithsonian Institution's response to the Curtiss tests of the Aerodrome.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, the Smithsonian later proudly displayed the Aerodrome in its museum as the first heavier-than-air craft "capable" of manned powered flight, relegating the Wright brothers' invention to secondary status and ironically triggering a decades-long feud with Orville Wright, whose brother had received help from the Smithsonian when beginning his own quest for flight.^ The Wright brothers flew the first heavier-than-air powered flight 100 years ago on this date.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Requesting that the plane be returned to the United States was contingent upon the Smithsonian Institution acknowledging that the Wright brothers were the first to fly and the first capable of flight.
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^ They bit their tongues and made brotherly eyebrow-raising and winking gestures of disrespect when they received the first Langley Medal awarded by the Smithsonian on 10 February 1909, for advancing the science of aerodromes (Langleys word) in its application to aviation by their successful investigations and demonstrations of the practicality of mechanical flight by man."
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Glenn Curtiss or an assistant coaxes the structurally modified Langley Aerodrome into the air above the surface of Keuka Lake near Hammondsport, N.Y., September 17, 1914.
.The Smithsonian based its claim for the Aerodrome on short test flights Glenn Curtiss and his team made with it in 1914. The Smithsonian allowed Curtiss, in an unsavory alliance, to make major modifications to the craft before attempting to fly it.^ Orville was outraged with the Smithsonian Institution's response to the Curtiss tests of the Aerodrome.
  • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville was making a test flight.
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^ Before the student acquires these things any attempt to fly would be dangerous and foolhardy."
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[79] .The Smithsonian hoped to salvage Langley's aeronautical reputation by proving the Aerodrome could fly; Curtiss wanted to prove the same thing to defeat the Wrights' patent lawsuits against him.^ While Albert Zahm, who had sided with Curtiss in the patent suits and worked to claim that the Langley Aerodrome was capable of flight, worked at the Library of Congress, Orville had not been willing to consider donating his papers to that institution.
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^ The Wright Experience pilots found that they could handle the Flyer although it takes much practice to acquire the flying skills needed.
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^ As a representative of the British aeronautical community, he asked for a tour of the Hammondsport facility and hoped to find out further information on the Aerodrome while at the site.
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.The tests had no effect on the patent battle, but the Smithsonian made the most of them, honoring the Aerodrome in its museum and publications.^ The tests had no effect on the patent battle, but the Smithsonian made the most of them, honoring the Aerodrome in its museum and publications.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1942, after years of bad publicity, and encouraged by Wright biographer Fred Kelly, the Smithsonian finally relented by publishing, for the first time, a list of the Aerodrome modifications and recanting misleading statements it had made about the 1914 tests.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most authoritative aeronautical engineers, after reviewing the changes made to the Aerodrome in 1914, supported Orville in defense of the Wright brothers.
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.The Institution did not reveal the extensive Curtiss modifications, but Orville Wright learned of them from his brother Lorin and a close friend, Griffith Brewer, who both witnessed and photographed some of the tests.^ Orville was outraged with the Smithsonian Institution's response to the Curtiss tests of the Aerodrome.
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^ The Institution did not reveal the extensive Curtiss modifications, but Orville Wright learned of them from his brother Lorin and a close friend, Griffith Brewer, who both witnessed and photographed some of the tests.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright Brothers memorial is located close by.
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[80]
.Orville repeatedly objected to misrepresentation of the Aerodrome, but the Smithsonian was unyielding.^ Orville repeatedly objected to misrepresentation of the Aerodrome, but the Smithsonian was unyielding.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Orville was outraged with the Smithsonian Institution's response to the Curtiss tests of the Aerodrome.
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.Orville responded by loaning the restored 1903 Kitty Hawk Flyer to the London Science Museum in 1928, refusing to donate it to the Smithsonian while the Institution "perverted" the history of the flying machine.^ Despite the Smithsonian Institution's actions, when Orville died, the plane was still on display at the Science Museum of London.
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^ Orville responded by loaning the restored 1903 Kitty Hawk Flyer to the London Science Museum in 1928, refusing to donate it to the Smithsonian while the Institution "perverted" the history of the flying machine.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hyde is on schedule for the flying attempt at Kitty Hawk in 1903.
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[81] .Subsequently Orville would never see his airplane again as he would die before its return to the United States.^ Requesting that the plane be returned to the United States was contingent upon the Smithsonian Institution acknowledging that the Wright brothers were the first to fly and the first capable of flight.
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^ We thought it would die down before long and so remained indoors the early part of the morning.
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^ Orville fell in love with the area, and before returning home, he purchased the twenty acre Lambert Island.
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.Charles Lindbergh attempted to mediate the dispute, to no avail.^ Charles Lindbergh attempted to mediate the dispute, to no avail.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several other attempts were made to solve the controversy, including appointing a committee headed by Charles Lindbergh to look into the matter, but no solutions were agreed upon.
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.In 1942, after years of bad publicity, and encouraged by Wright biographer Fred C. Kelly, the Smithsonian finally relented by publishing, for the first time, a list of the Aerodrome modifications and recanting misleading statements it had made about the 1914 tests.^ Attached: Fred C. Kelly, biographical information.
  • Wright Brothers Collection, Newspaper Clippings 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC home.dayton.lib.oh.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This statement [ 88 ] was published by the Smithsonian Institution on October 24, 1942.
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^ I wish to obtain such papers as Smithsonian Institution has published on this subject, and if possible a list of other works in print in the English language.
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[82] .Orville then privately requested the British museum to return the Flyer, but the airplane remained in protective storage for the duration of World War II and finally came home after Orville's death.^ None of the bombers escorted by Tuskegee Airmen were lost during World War II. .
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^ Themes include: "100 years after the first flight, ONE-WAY FLIGHT, we're finally planning the return trip" and "Wilbur & Orville's First Flight Lasted 12 Seconds.
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^ Orville and Wilbur were using Huffman Prairie as a test ground as they were developing the Flyer into a practical airplane.
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.On November 23, 1948, the executors of Orville's estate signed an agreement for the Smithsonian to purchase the Flyer for one dollar.^ Orville's will left the two executors in charge of locating one or several repositories or institutions that should have the materials.
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^ Incensed that the organizers of the dinner did not honor their agreement, Orville rose and handed the trophy to Arnold, but he did not utter one word.
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^ Immediately after the funeral, Miller and Steeper, as executors of Orville's estate, received word from the Library of Congress that the Wright brothers papers were a national treasure and the library was interested in obtaining them.
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At the insistence of the executors, the agreement also included strict conditions for display of the airplane.
Original 1903 Wright Flyer in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.
.The agreement reads, in part, "Neither the Smithsonian Institution or its successors, nor any museum or other agency, bureau or facilities administered for the United States of America by the Smithsonian Institution or its successors shall publish or permit to be displayed a statement or label in connection with or in respect of any aircraft model or design of earlier date than the 1903 Wright Aeroplane, claiming in effect that such aircraft was capable of carrying a man under its own power in controlled flight."^ The agreement reads, in part, "Neither the Smithsonian Institution or its successors, nor any museum or other agency, bureau or facilities administered for the United States of America by the Smithsonian Institution or its successors shall publish or permit to be displayed a statement or label in connection with or in respect of any aircraft model or design of earlier date than the 1903 Wright Aeroplane, claiming in effect that such aircraft was capable of carrying a man under its own power in controlled flight."
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The display space for the aircraft was designed by Orville Wright.
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^ This statement [ 88 ] was published by the Smithsonian Institution on October 24, 1942.
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[83] .If this agreement is not fulfilled, the Flyer can be reclaimed by the heir of the Wright brothers.^ The Wright Cycle Shop, 1127 West Third St., the Wright brothers fifth bicycle shop, where the Kitty Hawk Flyer was built also ended up in Greenfield Village.
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^ This is no small task, because no one other than the Wright Brothers has flown the 1903 model Flyer.
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^ The agreement permits the Outer Banks area to use the Wright Brother's name and likeness in advertising and promotion until December 31, 2013.
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.Some aviation buffs, particularly those who promote the legacy of Gustave Whitehead, now accuse the Smithsonian of refusing to investigate claims of earlier flights.^ It is particularly disappointing that one of those who voted against the motion is the state director of the NC Department of Cultural Resources, who has overall responsibility for the state's centennial celebration.
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^ I knew the Wrights werent entirely pleased on the occasion of being awarded the Langley Medal by the Smithsonian Institution for achievement in aerodynamic investigation and its application to aviation.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ORDER NOW The novels of Stephen Wright offer a fascinating glimpse into humanity’s dark side for those who dare to read them.
  • Stephen Wright’s Literary Landscape by Patrick Ambrose - The Morning News 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.themorningnews.org [Source type: General]

[84] .After a ceremony in the Smithsonian museum, the Flyer went on public display on December 17, 1948, the 45th anniversary of the only day it was flown successfully.^ Daytons schools and factories closed for the occasion so that people could attend the parades, public reception, fireworks display and awards ceremony.
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^ Ken Hyde Featured on National Aviation Day The highlight of the Wright Brother's Centennial celebration on December 17, 2003 at Kill Devil Hills, N.C., will be a recreation of the first flight of the 1903 Wright Flyer with an exact reproduction of the Flyer.
  • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the first time in 100 years that a Wright 1903 Flyer has been successfully flown and landed without damage, using an authentic engine.
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The Wright brothers' nephew Milton (Lorin's son), who had seen gliders and the Flyer under construction in the bicycle shop when he was a boy, gave a brief speech and formally transferred the airplane to the Smithsonian, which displayed it with the accompanying label:
The original Wright brothers aeroplane
The world's first power-driven heavier-than-air machine in which man made free, controlled, and sustained flight
Invented and built by Wilbur and Orville Wright
Flown by them at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina December 17, 1903
By original scientific research the Wright brothers discovered the principles of human flight
As inventors, builders, and flyers they further developed the aeroplane, taught man to fly, and opened the era of aviation

Last years

Wilbur Wright

.Neither brother married.^ Neither brother married.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wilbur once quipped that he did not have time for both a wife and an airplane.^ Wilbur once quipped that he, "could not support a wife and a flying machine".
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85]. .He became ill on a trip to Boston in April 1912. After returning to Dayton, he was diagnosed with typhoid fever.^ He became ill on a trip to Boston in April 1912.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After returning to Dayton, he was diagnosed with typhoid fever.
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^ She became a favorite on the exhibition circuit and the first women to successfully fly across the English Channel on April 16, 1912.
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.He died, at age 45, in the Wright family home on May 30.[86] His father Milton wrote about Wilbur in his diary: "A short life, full of consequences.^ It was not until the first week of May that all the family's possessions were completely removed from 7 Hawthorne Street and the new home set up.
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^ Orville was laid to rest in the Wright family plot where his father, mother, Wilbur, and Katharine were buried.
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^ Orville and Wilbur made a few short glides on Little Hill in the morning and then moved to the steeper slope of Big Hill (site of the current Wright Memorial).
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An unfailing intellect, imperturbable temper, great self-reliance and as great modesty, seeing the right clearly, pursuing it steadfastly, he lived and died."[87]

Orville Wright

.Orville succeeded to the presidency of the Wright company upon Wilbur's death.^ When Wilbur died, Orville, against his desires, became president of the company.
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^ No, their names were not Orville and Wilbur Wright.
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^ Orville succeeded to the presidency of the Wright company upon Wilbur's death.
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.Sharing Wilbur's distaste for business but not his brother's executive skills, Orville sold the company in 1915. He, Katharine and their father Milton moved to a mansion, Hawthorn Hill, Oakwood, Ohio, which the newly wealthy family built.^ He, Katharine and their father Milton moved to a mansion, Hawthorn Hill , Oakwood, Ohio , which the newly wealthy family built.
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^ Now Orville and Katharine were the lone residents of Hawthorn Hill.
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^ While Katharine oversaw the operations at Hawthorn Hill, Orville turned his attention to The Wright Company.
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.Milton died in his sleep in 1917. Orville made his last flight as a pilot in 1918. He retired from business and became an elder statesman of aviation, serving on various official boards and committees, including the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), predecessor agency to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce (ACCA), predecessor to the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA).^ He retired from business and became an elder statesman of aviation, serving on various official boards and committees, including the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ( NACA ), predecessor agency to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA ).
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^ On May 13, 1918 Orville made his last flight as a pilot, flying a 1911 Wright airplane .
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^ NACA, the predecessor to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), was founded in 1915 to aid the American aircraft industry by conducting research and development.
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.Katharine married Henry Haskell of Kansas City, a former Oberlin classmate, in 1926, which greatly upset Orville.^ The ramifications of marrying Henry on her relationship with Orville greatly concerned Katharine.
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^ Orville now looked at Katharine's marrying Haskell as abandonment.
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^ After months of worrying about her intention to leave Orville and get married, Katharine finally agreed to a wedding date.
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.He refused to attend the wedding or even communicate with her.^ He refused to attend the wedding or even communicate with her.
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He finally agreed to see her, apparently at Lorin's insistence, just before she died of pneumonia in 1929.
.Orville Wright served NACA for 28 years.^ Serving on NACA until his death in 1948, longer than any other member, Orville seldom missed a meeting.
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^ Yet, as Tom Crouch stated in his biography of the Wright brothers, "[Orville's] personal contributions had no special impact on the NACA program.
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^ Also the family support that each member of the Wright family freely gave to each other throughout their lives served to create an environment that encouraged Orville to pursue his interest in inventing.
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.In 1930, he received the first Daniel Guggenheim Medal established in 1928 by the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics.^ Orville received the Cresson Medal in May 1914 " in recognition of the epoch-making work accomplished by him at first together with his brother Wilbur, and later alone, in establishing on a practical basis the science and art of aviation."
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^ Orville's participation as a member of the board overseeing the operation of the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics took a similar route.
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In 1936, he was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
.On April 19, 1944, the second production Lockheed Constellation, piloted by Howard Hughes and TWA president Jack Frye, flew from Burbank, California to Washington, D.C. in 6 hours and 57 minutes.^ On April 19 , 1944 , the second production Lockheed Constellation , piloted by Howard Hughes and TWA president Jack Frye flew from Burbank, California to Washington D.C. in 6 hours and 57 minutes.
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^ On 9 September he made the first hour-long flight, enduring 62 minutes and 15 seconds.
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.On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright Field to give Orville Wright his last airplane flight, more than 40 years after his historic first flight.^ On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright Field to give Orville Wright his last airplane flight, more than forty years after his historic first flight.
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^ Here are some links for the Wright brothers -- first flight biography photo gallery Aigaion :fish: _________________________ dubito ut intelligam .
  • wright brothers - BellaOnline Forums 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC forums.bellaonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright brothers flew the first heavier-than-air powered flight 100 years ago on this date.
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.He may even have briefly handled the controls.^ He may even have briefly handled the controls.
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.He commented that the wingspan of the Constellation was longer than the distance of his first flight.^ He commented that the wingspan of the Constellation was longer than the distance of his first flight.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wright brothers flew the first heavier-than-air powered flight 100 years ago on this date.
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^ He wanted to survey facilities in Philadelphia for caring perpetually for the Kitty Hawk Flyer in which he and his brother made the first flight in a heavier-than-air machine.
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[88]
.Orville died in 1948 after his second heart attack, having lived from the horse-and-buggy age to the dawn of supersonic flight.^ Orville died in 1948 after his second heart attack , having lived from the horse-and-buggy age to the dawn of supersonic flight.
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^ A heart attack in 1948 did take Orville's life.
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^ Orville suffered a second heart attack on January 27, 1948 while at his laboratory.
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.Both brothers are buried at the family plot at Woodland Cemetery, Dayton, Ohio.^ Burial was held in Woodland Cemetery.
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^ Both brothers are buried at the family plot at Woodland Cemetery, Dayton, Ohio .
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^ Brewer became good friends with both Wright brothers, and throughout the years was a frequent visitor in Dayton.
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[89]

Competing claims

.First flight claims are made for Ader, Whitehead, Pearse and Jatho for their variously documented tests in years prior to and including 1903. Claims that the first true flight occurred after 1903 are made for Vuia and Santos-Dumont.^ Its hard to believe that this was five years after the first flight in 1903.
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^ In 1942, after years of bad publicity, and encouraged by Wright biographer Fred Kelly, the Smithsonian finally relented by publishing, for the first time, a list of the Aerodrome modifications and recanting misleading statements it had made about the 1914 tests.
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^ On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright Field to give Orville Wright his last airplane flight, more than forty years after his historic first flight.
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.Supporters of these pre- and post-Wright pioneers argue that techniques used by the Wright brothers disqualify them as first to make successful airplane flights.^ These flights solidly established the fame of the Wright brothers in America.
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^ The flights were witnessed by five people: Adam Etheridge, John Daniels and Will Dough of the coastal lifesaving crew; area businessman W.C. Brinkley; and Johnny Moore, a boy from the village, making these arguably the first public flights.
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^ His first flight lasted only one minute 45 seconds, but his ability to effortlessly make banking turns and fly a circle amazed and stunned onlookers, including several pioneer French aviators, among them Louis Bleriot .
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.Those techniques were: a launch rail; skids instead of wheels; a headwind at takeoff; and a catapult after 1903. Supporters of the Wright brothers argue that proven, repeated, controlled and sustained flights by the brothers entitle them to credit as inventors of the airplane, regardless of those techniques.^ Several claims actually were made after the Wrights' first successful flights, and attempt to discount the achievement due to one or more of the following technical reasons: the takeoff rail, the lack of wheels, ground effect , the need for a headwind, and, beginning in 1904, the use of a catapult.
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^ The Wright brothers' 17 December 1903 flight is recognized by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale , the standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics , as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight".
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^ The Wright brothers , Orville ( 19 August 1871 – 30 January 1948 ) and Wilbur ( 16 April 1867 – 30 May 1912 ), were two Americans who are generally credited [1] [2] [3] with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight on 17 December 1903 .
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Ohio/North Carolina rivalry

North Carolina 50 State Quarter features the famous first flight photo of the 1903 Wright Flyer I at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
Ohio 50 State Quarter features the 1905 Wright Flyer III built and flown in Ohio, in another famous photo from Huffman Prairie
.The U.S. states of Ohio and North Carolina both take credit for the Wright brothers and their world-changing inventions—Ohio because the brothers developed and built their design in Dayton, and North Carolina because Kitty Hawk was the site of the first flight.^ The North Carolina First Flight Centennial Commission (FFCC), the state agency overseeing North Carolina's celebration of the first flight at Kitty Hawk, has contributed to the problem.
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^ Ohio/North Carolina rivalry .
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^ The facts are that the Wrights conceived of and built the first airplane in Dayton, Ohio and flew it for the first time at Kitty Hawk, NC., in 1903.
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.With a spirit of friendly rivalry, Ohio adopted the slogan "Birthplace of Aviation" (later "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers", recognizing not only the Wrights, but also John Glenn and Neil Armstrong, both Ohio natives).^ With a spirit of friendly rivalry, Ohio adopted the slogan "Birthplace of Aviation" (later "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers", recognizing not only the Wrights, but also John Glenn and Neil Armstrong , both Ohio natives), while North Carolina has adopted the slogan "First In Flight".
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^ Thus, doubted or scorned, the Wright brothers continued their work in semi-obscurity, while other aviation pioneers like Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont and American Glenn Curtiss entered the limelight.
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^ The new inscription reads "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers."
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The slogan appears on Ohio license plates. .North Carolina uses the slogan "First In Flight" on its license plates.^ The North Carolina First Flight Centennial Commission (FFCC), the state agency overseeing North Carolina's celebration of the first flight at Kitty Hawk, has contributed to the problem.
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^ The Wrights regularly visited the Village of Kitty Hawk, 4 miles to the north of Kill Devil Hills for supplies and used the telegraph office at the weather bureau at Kitty Hawk to announce their successful first flight.
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^ With a spirit of friendly rivalry, Ohio adopted the slogan "Birthplace of Aviation" (later "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers", recognizing not only the Wrights, but also John Glenn and Neil Armstrong , both Ohio natives), while North Carolina has adopted the slogan "First In Flight".
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The site of the first flights in North Carolina is preserved as Wright Brothers National Memorial, while their Ohio facilities are part of Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park.^ The event will take place in Dare County, North Carolina at the Wright Brothers' National Memorial.
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^ Community organizations and individuals in Dayton have been actively supporting this 5th site of Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historic Park.
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^ The Wright Brothers memorial is located close by.
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.As the positions of both states can be factually defended, and each played a significant role in the history of flight, neither state truly has an exclusive claim to the Wrights' accomplishment.^ Requesting that the plane be returned to the United States was contingent upon the Smithsonian Institution acknowledging that the Wright brothers were the first to fly and the first capable of flight.
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^ More significant, he had played a leading role in developing the wind tunnel and designing the all-important balances.
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^ The positive response convinced the editor that the Wrights did do what they claimed.
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.While speaking at a presentation at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Neil Armstrong joked that there is enough credit for both states: North Carolina provided the right winds and soft landing material and Dayton provided the know-how, resources and engineering.^ While speaking at a presentation at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Neil Armstrong joked that there is enough credit for both states: North Carolina provided the right winds and soft landing material and Dayton provided the know-how, resources and engineering.
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^ I wanted to do it right and I didn’t know how.
  • Stephen Wright’s Literary Landscape by Patrick Ambrose - The Morning News 9 January 2010 23:46 UTC www.themorningnews.org [Source type: General]

^ Available upon request from the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution.
  • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Smithsonian Institution, "The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Aerial Age"
  2. ^ Johnson, Mary Ann. =On the Aviation Trail in the Wright Brothers' West Side Neighborhood in Dayton, Ohio Wright State University, 2001.
  3. ^ "Flying through the ages." BBC News, March 19, 1999. Retrieved: July 17, 2009.
  4. ^ Padfield, Gareth D., Professor of Aerospace Engineering, and Lawrence, Ben, researcher. "The Birth of Flight Control: An Engineering Analysis of the Wright Brothers’ 1902 Glider." (PDF format) The Aeronautical Journal, Department of Engineering, The University of Liverpool, UK, December 2003, p. 697. Retrieved: 23 January 2008.
  5. ^ Howard 1988, p. 89.
  6. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 183.
  7. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 156.
  8. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 228.
  9. ^ a b Flying Machine patent
  10. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 169.
  11. ^ Wallechinsky and Wallace 2005, p. 12.
  12. ^ "The Wright Family." U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission.
  13. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 56–57.
  14. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 164.
  15. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 130.
  16. ^ What Dreams We Have
  17. ^ "The Van Cleve Bicycle that the Wrights Built and Sold". U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Wright_Bros/wright_family/WR1G5.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-22.  
  18. ^ Crouch 2003. Chapter 10, "The Year of the Flying Machine" and Chapter 11, "Octave Chanute".
  19. ^ "Wilbur Wright May 30, 1899 Letter to Smithsonian". Smithsonian Scrapbook: Letters from the Archives. http://siarchives.si.edu/history/exhibits/documents/wrightmay301899.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-22.  
  20. ^ Howard 1988, p. 30.
  21. ^ Tobin 2004, p. 92.
  22. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 166.
  23. ^ Tobin 2004, p. 53.
  24. ^ Tobin 2004, p. 70.
  25. ^ Tobin 2004, pp. 53–55.
  26. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 167–168.
  27. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 168–169.
  28. ^ Jakab 1997, p. 73.
  29. ^ Some Aeronautical Experiments
  30. ^ Howard 1988, p. 52.
  31. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 198.
  32. ^ Wright Brothers Aeroplane Company,"WBAC", accessed Nov. 17, 2006.
  33. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 188–189.
  34. ^ WBAC Retrieved: November 17, 2006.
  35. ^ Dodson, MG (2005). "An Historical and Applied Aerodynamic Study of the Wright Brothers' Wind Tunnel Test Program and Application to Successful Manned Flight". US Naval Academy Technical Report USNA-334. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/3585. Retrieved 2009-03-11.  
  36. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 225.
  37. ^ WBAC, "Lift and Drift" Retrieved: December 11, 2006.
  38. ^ Howard 1988, p. 72.
  39. ^ Anderson 2004, p. 134.
  40. ^ Culick, Fred E.C. "What the Wright Brothers Did and Did Not Understand About Flight Mechanics—In Modern Terms." Pasadena, California: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics: California Institute of Technology, Paper AIAA-2001-3385, 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, July 8–11, 2001. Retrieved: July 27, 2009.
  41. ^ Langewiesche 1972 p. 163.
  42. ^ Jakab 1997, pp. 183–184.
  43. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 242–243.
  44. ^   "100 Years of Flight: supplement, Prop-Wrights." Mechanical Engineering, December 2003.
  45. ^ Howard 1988, pp. 108–109.
  46. ^ Tobin, p. 192
  47. ^ Wright Brothers Aeroplane Companyretrieved Dec. 17, 2009
  48. ^ Tobin, p. 159
  49. ^ Kelly 2002, pp. 112–113.
  50. ^  "1903 - Who Made the First Flight?" TheWrightBrothers.org.
  51. ^ Kelly 1943, pp. 101–102.
  52. ^ Crouch 1989, pp. 271–272.
  53. ^ Howard 1988, pp. 154–155.
  54. ^ Crouch 2003, pp. 273–274.
  55. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 286.
  56. ^ Winchester 2005, p. 311.
  57. ^ Dayton Metro Library Note: Dayton Metro Library has a document showing durations, distances and a list of witnesses to the long flights in late September-early October 1905. Retrieved: May 23, 2007.
  58. ^ Tobin 2004, p. 211.
  59. ^ Image courtesy Dayton Metro Library. The newspaper article can be read at this link—click "Full resolution".
  60. ^ "To Fly is everything!" Retrieved: May 19, 2008.
  61. ^ Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Retrieved: November 21, 2006.
  62. ^ a b "History: Prize patrol." Wright Brothers.org. Retrieved: October 14, 2009.
  63. ^ a b "Ernest Archdeacon." US Centennial of Flight, 2003. Retrieved: October 14, 2009.
  64. ^ Les vols du 14bis relatés au fil des éditions du journal l'illustration de 1906.The wording is: "cette prouesse est le premier vol au monde homologué par l'Aéro-Club de France et la toute jeune Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI)."
  65. ^ "L'Aerophile", August 11, 1908, quoted in Crouch 2003, p. 368.
  66. ^ "L'Auto", August 9, 1908, quoted in Crouch 2003, p. 368.
  67. ^ The first woman aeroplane passenger was Thérèse Peltier on July 8, 1908 when she made a flight of 656 feet (200 m) with Léon Delagrange in Milan, Italy. Smithsonian.
  68. ^ Kelly 1943, p. 230.
  69. ^ Kelly 1943, pp. 231–232.
  70. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 12.
  71. ^ "Trial by Flyer" Mechanical Engineering 100 Years of Flight
  72. ^ Dayton History Books Online Flying Machines: Construction and Operation, Chapter 23. Retrieved: May 22, 2007.
  73. ^ "Glenn Curtiss and the Wright Patent Battles. centennialofflight. Retrieved: March 7, 2009. Quote: "The suit finally ended with the advent of World War I when the aircraft manufacturers established the Manufacturers' Aircraft Association to coordinate wartime aircraft manufacturing in the United States and formed a patent pool with the approval of the U.S. government. All patent litigation ceased automatically. Royalties were reduced to one percent and free exchange of inventions and ideas took place among all the airframe builders."
  74. ^ "End Patent Wars of Aircraft Makers." The New York Times, August 7, 1917. Retrieved: March 7, 2009. Quote: "New Organization Is Formed, Under War Pressure, to Interchange Patents.
  75. ^ "Big Royalties to be Paid: Wright and Curtiss Interests Each to Receive Ultimately $2,000,000 – Increased Production Predicted. Payment of Royalties." The New York Times, August 7, 1917. Retrieved: March 7, 2009.
  76. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 410.
  77. ^ .p.272, Cragg; the author obtained information at the Fort Sam Houston Museum that also records the place of the flights as the Arthur MacArthur Field, then used for cavalry drill
  78. ^ Crouch 2003, Chapter 31, "The Mountebank Game".
  79. ^ "Twin Pushers"website contains details of the modifications. Retrieved: May 21, 2007.
  80. ^ Howard 1988, Chapter 46: "The Aerodrome Affair".
  81. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 491.
  82. ^ What Dreams We Have Appendix C - Tests of the Langley Aerodrome
  83. ^ Image of the Agreementon archived page from "glennhcurtiss.com" website. The image is contained on this archived page of the website. Retrieved: May 20, 2008. Agreement is also available upon request from the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution.
  84. ^ O'Dwyer, William J. History by Contract. Leutershausen, Germany: Fritz Majer & Sohn, 1978. ISBN 3-92217-500-7.
  85. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 118.
  86. ^ "Wilbur Wright Dies of Typhoid Fever. Ill More Than Three Weeks, the End Came at 3:15 o'clock Thursday Morning." New York Times, May 30, 1912. Quote: Dayton, Ohio, . Following a sinking spell that developed soon after midnight, Wilbur Wright, aviator and aeroplane builder, died of typhoid fever at 8:15 A.M. to-day. Wright had been lingering for many days and though his condition from time to time gave some hopes to members of his family, the attending physicians, Drs. D.B. Conkihn and Levi Spitler, maintained throughout the latter part of his sickness that he could not recover." Retrieved: July 21, 2007.
  87. ^ Crouch 2003, p. 449.
  88. ^ Yenne 1987, pp. 44–46.
  89. ^ "Orville Wright, 76, is Dead in Dayton; Co-Inventor With His Brother, Wilbur, of the Airplane Was Pilot in First Flight." The New York Times, January 31, 1948. Quote: "Dayton, Ohio, October 30, 1948, Orville Wright, who with his brother, the late Wilbur Wright, invented the airplane, died here tonight at 10:40 in Miami Valley Hospital. He was 76 years old.. Retrieved: July 21, 2007.

Bibliography

.
  • Anderson, John D. Inventing Flight: The Wright Brothers and Their Predecessors.^ The Wright brothers flew the first heavier-than-air powered flight 100 years ago on this date.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Wind Tunnel The Wright Brothers did not invent the wind tunnel, but they were the first to use it for scientific aeronautical research directly related to the design and construction of an airplane.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It's All About Control The greatest contribution the Wright Brothers made to man-flight was figuring out how to control an airplane in flight.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8018-6875-0.
  • Ash, Russell.^ Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-8018-6875-0 .
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The Wright Brothers. .London: Wayland, 1974. ISBN 978-0853403425.
  • Ciampaglia, Giuseppe.^ Ash, Russell , The Wright Brothers , London: Wayland, 1974.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 978-0853403425 .
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Il soggiorno romano dei Fratelli Wright". La Strenna dei Romanisti, 1992.
  • Ciampaglia, Giuseppe. I Fratelli Wright e le loro macchine volanti. .Roma: IBN Editore, 1993.
  • Combs, Harry with Martin Caidin.^ Combs, Harry, with Caidin, Martin.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Kill Devil Hill: Discovering the Secret of the Wright Brothers.^ The talk took place during the morning in the Pavilion auditorium at the Wright Brothers National Memorial, Kill Devil Hills.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A couple of 5th graders from the local First Flight Elementary School in Kill Devil Hills were at the controls of some of the airplanes.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Speaking with emotion, he said that in two years people would have the opportunity to witness the history that escaped most eyes at Kill Devil Hills in 1903.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Denver, Colorado: Ternstyle Press Ltd, 1979. ISBN 0-94005-301-2.
  • Cragg, Dan, Sgt.Maj, USA (Ret.^ Denver, CO: Ternstyle Press Ltd, 1979.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-94005-301-2 .
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ), ed., The Guide to Military Installations. .Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books, 1983. ISBN 978-0811727815.
  • Crouch, Tom D. The Bishop's Boys: A Life of Wilbur and Orville Wright.^ Here is Tom Crouch signing his new book, Wings , for me.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Wilbur trained French and Italian pilots using his method, and Orville trained American pilots at the Wright Company flight school using his method.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Orville was laid to rest in the Wright family plot where his father, mother, Wilbur, and Katharine were buried.
    • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2003. ISBN 0-39330-695-X.
  • Howard, Fred, Wilbur And Orville: A Biography of the Wright Brothers.^ Wilbur trained French and Italian pilots using his method, and Orville trained American pilots at the Wright Company flight school using his method.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Orville was laid to rest in the Wright family plot where his father, mother, Wilbur, and Katharine were buried.
    • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Orville and Wilbur made a few short glides on Little Hill in the morning and then moved to the steeper slope of Big Hill (site of the current Wright Memorial).
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Ballantine Books, 1988. ISBN 0-34535-393-5.
  • Jakab, Peter L. Visions of a Flying Machine: The Wright Brothers and the Process of Invention (Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight Series).^ Template:US patent — Flying machine — O. & W. Wright U.S. Patent 821,393 —for those who do not have USPTO graphics plugin Retrieved from " http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Transwiki:Wright_brothers " Categories : Transwikis needing a home .
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On the Aviation Trail in the Wright Brothers' West Side Neighborhood in Dayton, Ohio Wright State University, 2001.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Yet, the experiments with the reconstructed Aerodrome were sufficient for Walcott and Zahm to present Langley as the first man capable of flight and the Wright brothers as the individuals who were the first to fly.
    • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian, 1997. ISBN 1-56098-748-0.
  • Kelly, Fred C., ed.^ Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 1997.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 1-56098-748-0 .
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Kelly, Fred C., ed.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Miracle At Kitty Hawk, The Letters of Wilbur & Orville Wright.^ In 2007 Amanda Wright Lane, great-grandniece of Wilbur and Orville Wright visited with Mario Villares, grandnephew of Santos-Dumont in Brazil.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Orville Wright, 76, is Dead in Dayton; Co-Inventor With His Brother, Wilbur, of the Airplane Was Pilot in First Flight."
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Wrights made their third trip to Kitty Hawk in 1902, arriving August 28th.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Da Capo Press, 2002. ISBN 0-306-81203-7.
  • Kelly, Fred C. The Wright Brothers: A Biography Authorized by Orville Wright.^ Fred C. Kelly, the Wright brothers first biographer asked Orville in 1939 if it was the profit motive that motivated he and his brother to invent the airplane.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Finally, after years of trying to convince Orville to write a book, the complete story of the Wright brothers was available to those who were interested.
    • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Kelly asked, "And the Wright brothers?"
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, originally published in 1943, 1989. ISBN 0-48626-056-9.
  • Langewiesche, Woflgang.^ Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, originally published in 1943, 1989.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 1988.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001, originally published in 1953.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Stick and Rudder: An Explanation of the Art of Flying.^ Stick and Rudder: An Explanation of the Art of Flying .
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: McGraw-Hill, Copyright 1944 and 1972. ISBN 0-07-036240-8.
  • McFarland, Marvin W., ed.^ Shipping and handling Item location: lovely hills of central new york, United States Shipping to: Worldwide .
    • ✈ UNITED STATES AIR FORCE USAF Turbulant History 1976 - eBay (item 250443635355 end time Mar-09-10 22:01:01 PST) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC cgi.ebay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Orville was on a business trip to New York, so only Katharine and Milton were present the first night in Hawthorn Hill.
    • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Papers of Wilbur and Orville Wright: Including the Chanute-Wright Letters and the Papers of Octave Chanute.^ Wilbur does receive the response he was looking for from his letter when Chanute responded that he was "pleased to correspond with you further and to have a more detailed account of your proposal."
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We are bringing the project to an end that the original editor of the papers of Wilbur and Orville Wright always wanted to do.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Wilbur Wright was born near Millville, Indiana in 1867; Orville in Dayton , Ohio in 1871.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001, originally published in 1953. ISBN 0-30680-671-1.
  • Tobin, James.^ New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001, originally published in 1953.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: McGraw-Hill, Copyright 1944 and 1972.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Shipping and handling Item location: lovely hills of central new york, United States Shipping to: Worldwide .
    • ✈ UNITED STATES AIR FORCE USAF Turbulant History 1976 - eBay (item 250443635355 end time Mar-09-10 22:01:01 PST) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC cgi.ebay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .To Conquer The Air: The Wright Brothers and the Great Race for Flight.^ The Wright brothers flew the first heavier-than-air powered flight 100 years ago on this date.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ July 3: Soaring Society (Gliders) Cross-Country Flight Finale Ceremony Return to Kitty Hawk: Transcontinental Glider Race, Wright Brothers Monument, Kill Devil Hills.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Yet, the experiments with the reconstructed Aerodrome were sufficient for Walcott and Zahm to present Langley as the first man capable of flight and the Wright brothers as the individuals who were the first to fly.
    • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004. ISBN 0-74325-536-4.
  • Wright, Orville.^ ISBN 0-74325-536-4 .
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Orville was on a business trip to New York, so only Katharine and Milton were present the first night in Hawthorn Hill.
    • What Dreams We Have (Chapter 10) 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Wright brothers owned a flying school at Nassau Boulevard, Long Island, New York.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .How We Invented the Airplane.^ How We Invented the Airplane .
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, 1988. ISBN 0-48625-662-6.
  • Walsh, John E. One Day at Kitty Hawk: The Untold Story of the Wright Brothers.^ Chanute also visited the Wrights at their home in Dayton and at Kitty Hawk during their glider experiments.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In years to come Dayton newspapers would proudly celebrate the hometown Wright brothers as national heroes, but the local reporters somehow missed one of the most important stories in history as it was happening a few miles from their doorstep.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Wrights first flew at Kitty Hawk, but they conceived, researched, built and perfected their invention in Dayton.
    • Celebrating The Success Of The Wright Brothers & The Invention of the Airplane 9 February 2010 16:10 UTC www.wrightstories.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Ty Crowell Co, 1975. ISBN 0-69000103-7.
  • Winchester, Jim, ed.^ New York: Ty Crowell Co, 1975.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Winchester, Jim, ed.
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Wright Flyer." .Biplanes, Triplanes and Seaplanes (The Aviation Factfile).^ Biplanes, Triplanes and Seaplanes (The Aviation Factfile).
    • Transwiki:Wright brothers - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 7 January 2010 4:54 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Rochester, Kent, UK: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-641-3.
  • Yenne, Bill, Lockheed. Greenwich, Connecticut: Bison Books, 1987. ISBN 0-69000-103-7.

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Simple English

Orville Wright
File:Orville
Photo: 1903
Born August 19, 1871(1871-08-19)
Dayton, Ohio
Died January 30, 1948 (aged 76)
Dayton, Ohio
Wilbur Wright
File:Wilbur
Photo: 1903
Born April 16, 1867(1867-04-16)
Millville, Indiana
Died May 30, 1912 (aged 45)
Dayton, Ohio
The Wright brothers, Orville Wright (August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948) and Wilbur Wright (April 16, 1867 - May 30, 1912), are credited for making the first controlled, powered, heavier-than-air flight on December 17, 1903.[1] They had been experimenting for many years with gliders and other vehicles before their first powered flight. They are also known for making the first way to steer an airplane. Their first test flight took place in Kitty Hawk Heights, North Carolina though they designed the aircraft in Dayton, Ohio.

Contents

Before Building Airplanes

The Wrights both grew up in Dayton, Ohio and were the son of a minister. They went to high school, but did not go to college and started a newspaper instead[2]. After that, they started a shop to build and repair bicycles[3].

Interest in Flight

By the 1890s, the Wrights were interested in flight, particularly the gliders of Otto Lilienthal. They saw controlling a plane as one of the big problems of flight, as Lilienthal and others had been killed when they could not control their aircraft, and fixed it by building wings that could be moved up and down slightly. From 1900 to 1902, they built gliders in Dayton and tested them in Kitty Hawk. During this period, they also built a wind tunnel to test how well something will fly. In 1903, they built a powered airplane with a propeller and a light engine. The Wright Flyer airplane first flew successfully on December 17, 1903, which many think is the first time man ever flew. The two continued to make changes to their design, and had a very practical plane by 1905.

After the flight

The Wright Brothers kept their discovery largely secret for a couple of years until they showed it to the world in 1908 [4]. (They had filed a patent on the airplane Mar 23, 1903. [5]) After that, they started a company to build airplanes and had a “patent war” with Glenn Curtiss over who could make money over the invention of the airplane. During the patent war, Wilbur died. Orville continued work to maintain his reputation as the first man to fly, but eventually sold the airplane company and became an “elder statesman” of aviation. He died in 1948.



References

  1. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale is the standard setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics worldwide. They officially said the Wright brothers flight was "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight".
  2. What Dreams We Have
  3. "The Van Cleve Bicycle that the Wrights Built and Sold". U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Wright_Bros/wright_family/WR1G5.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  4. "L'Aerophile," August 11, 1908, quoted in Crouch 2003, p. 368.
  5. Wright, Oeville, "Flying-Machine", U.S. Patent 821393, http://www.google.com/patents?vid=USPAT821393&id=h5NWAAAAEBAJ&dq=821,393, retrieved 2010-03-19 



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