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Illustration of a scribe writing
.Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system).^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ George Orwell’s essay on the use of the English language encouraged me to think about how to improve my writing by using ideas from neuroscience and cognitive science.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ The sign can symbolize a tongue, but rapa is the paddle used by the Timo in dancing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Writing may use abstract characters that represent phonetic elements of speech, as in Indo-European languages, or it may use simplified representations of objects or concepts, as in east-Asian and ancient Egyptian pictographic writing forms.^ It is often difficult to find out a reading of an Indus sign in the Veda that coincides with its pictographic form and with the amulet character of the seals.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If you use the word utilize, in writing or speech, stab yourself repeatedly in the face with a broken beer bottle.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ It can represent abstract and concrete words, male and female, subject and object, noun and verb, matter and spirit.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

However, it is distinguished from illustration, such as cave drawing and painting, and non-symbolic preservation of language via non-textual media, such as magnetic tape audio.
Writing is an extension of human language across time and space. .Writing most likely began as a consequence of political expansion in ancient cultures, which needed reliable means for transmitting information, maintaining financial accounts, keeping historical records, and similar activities.^ Most likely he had objections against the contents, too, since he could not have failed to notice the sexual meaning of many words.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ From the point of view of cosmology the activities of the Timo serve to associate heaven and earth, god and man in a way similar to the sacred marriage in the ancient cultures.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Apart from that yeah, there has been such a losss of meaning and talent in writing ,but also in the other arts like Fine Arts(Does anybody LIKE Damien Hirst?
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

.Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration outgrew the power of memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form (Robinson, 2003, p. 36).^ Monkey on 26.01.2008 at 17:58 ( Reply ) @Lola: “Writing it’s important but isn’t there other things more important going on around the world?” .
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ Writing it’s important but isn’t there other things more important going on around the world?
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

In both Mesoamerica and Ancient Egypt writing may have evolved through calendrics and a political necessity for recording historical and environmental events.

Contents

Writing as a category

.Writing, more particularly, refers to two things: writing as a noun, the thing that is written; and writing as a verb, which designates the activity of writing.^ For those of you new to the site, you can expect to come by on Mondays and have a concrete writing activity to do or thing to think about that will hopefully get you writing.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The only reason I write is because it interests me more than any other activity I've ever found.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Monkey on 26.01.2008 at 17:58 ( Reply ) @Lola: “Writing it’s important but isn’t there other things more important going on around the world?” .
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

It refers to the inscription of characters on a medium, thereby forming words, and larger units of language, known as texts. It also refers to the creation of meaning and the information thereby generated. .In that regard, linguistics (and related sciences) distinguishes between the written language and the spoken language.^ It can only be surmised that the language of the Indus script is related to some of the languages spoken today in the Indus Valley or in the neighbouring areas.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ [Mnsterberg's APA Presidential address about the epistemological relation between the natural and the normative sciences.
  • Classics in the History of Psychology -- Author Index 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC psychclassics.yorku.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ A bilingual could be helpful in finding out this value and it would also give us greater security in regard to the language spoken in the Indus Valley at that time.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

The significance of the medium by which meaning and information is conveyed is indicated by the distinction made in the arts and sciences. For example, while public speaking and poetry reading are both types of speech, the former is governed by the rules of rhetoric and the latter by poetics.
.A person who composes a message or story in the form of text is generally known as a writer or an author.^ It is not necessary to write grammatical forms, if the oral tradition is known to the writer and the reader alike.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Moses is the person who has already made that transformation and goes to all of the places people's habits keep them and give the message with a demonstrations of power.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We have many visitors to this site who are interested in writing children’s books as well as numerous seasoned authors… The Adventurous Writer .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.However, more specific designations exist which are dictated by the particular nature of the text such as that of poet, essayist, novelist, playwright, journalist, and more.^ One looks back with unspeakable regret and gnawing remorse to such periods; fancying that, had one been more alive to the nature of his feelings, and more attentive to soothe them, such would not have existed.
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.A translator is a specialized multilingual writer who must fully understand a message written by somebody else in one language; the translator's job is to produce a document of faithfully equivalent message in a completely different language.^ I am one of those traditionalists who believe that, in order to write a good crime novel today, you must have read and studied the greats of the genre.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Other manuscripts that have been written in Latin (B to F) have been translated, but had no effect on the understanding of Rongorongo.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ One reason is that he mastered the art of writing for completely different audiences.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.A person who transcribes or produces text to deliver a message authored by another person is known as a scribe, typist or typesetter.^ Moses is the person who has already made that transformation and goes to all of the places people's habits keep them and give the message with a demonstrations of power.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

A person who produces text with emphasis on the aesthetics of glyphs is known as a calligrapher or graphic designer.
Writing is also a distinctly human activity. .It has been said that a monkey, randomly typing away on a typewriter (in the days when typewriters replaced the pen or plume as the preferred instrument of writing) could re-create Shakespeare-- but only if it lived long enough (this is known as the infinite monkey theorem).^ In the past month, I've fallen away from the practice of writing every day.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ For The "Over Fifty" Crowd Long ago and far away, in a land that time forgot, Before the days of Dylan, or the dawn of Camelot.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Nor is it enough to pay attention to words only when you face the task of writing—that is like playing the violin only on the night of the concert.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Such writing has been speculatively designated as coincidental. It is also speculated that extraterrestrial beings exist who may possess knowledge of writing. .At this point in time, the only confirmed writing in existence is of human origin.^ I’ve been spending serious journal time doodling content and concept ideas, but had not found an entry point to begin writing.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Means for recording information

Wells argues that writing has the ability to "put agreements, laws, commandments on record. .It made the growth of states larger than the old city states possible.^ Better Quality, and in Larger Quantities, than Produced by the Present Mode of Distilling, from the Produce of the United States (English) (as Author) McHugh, Augustin, 1877-1928 .
  • Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The command of the priest or king and his seal could go far beyond his sight and voice and could survive his death" (Wells in Robinson, 2003, p. 35).

Writing systems

.The major writing systems – methods of inscription – broadly fall into four categories: logographic, syllabic, alphabetic, and featural.^ This cannot be otherwise in the case of a word script, since it is a feature already found with syllabic writings.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ On account of the relatively early decline of the Indus civilization, the Indus script retained its logographic character, it did not develop into a syllabic or a letter script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It cannot be denied, however, that both writing systems make use of a similar method of rendering words by pictograms and word sequences by ligatures and fusions.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Another category, ideographic (symbols for ideas), has never been developed sufficiently to represent language. .A sixth category, pictographic, is insufficient to represent language on its own, but often forms the core of logographies.^ It is often difficult to find out a reading of an Indus sign in the Veda that coincides with its pictographic form and with the amulet character of the seals.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Logographies

A logogram is a written character which represents a word or morpheme. .The vast number of logograms needed to write a language, and the many years required to learn them, are the major disadvantage of the logographic systems over alphabetic systems.^ Over the past few years we’ve compared freelance writing to many different entities.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Reply ) I read 1984 many years ago, and it reminds me of “the new word order”, which is taking place even as I write.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ I don’t often write or blog about traveling, but when I booked my third overseas vacation in a year, I decided to learn a few secrets of the travel writer trade!
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

However, the efficiency of reading logographic writing once it is learned is a major advantage. .No writing system is wholly logographic: all have phonetic components as well as logograms ("logosyllabic" components in the case of Chinese characters, cuneiform, and Mayan, where a glyph may stand for a morpheme, a syllable, or both; "logoconsonantal" in the case of hieroglyphs), and many have an ideographic component (Chinese "radicals", hieroglyphic "determiners").^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ A word script, with which we have to do in both cases, can be understood even by people who do not speak the same language, as is obvious from the Chinese script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In the last part of my character revision series I made the case for why all your significant characters should have some kind of arc.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

For example, in Mayan, the glyph for "fin", pronounced "ka'", was also used to represent the syllable "ka" whenever the pronunciation of a logogram needed to be indicated, or when there was no logogram. .In Chinese, about 90% of characters are compounds of a semantic (meaning) element called a radical with an existing character to indicate the pronunciation, called a phonetic. However, such phonetic elements complement the logographic elements, rather than vice versa.^ This can be the meaning of the compound on seal 2704, since its elements are a stylus and a hand.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The main logographic system in use today is Chinese characters, used with some modification for various languages of China, Japanese, and, to a lesser extent, Korean in South Korea.^ It can only be surmised that the language of the Indus script is related to some of the languages spoken today in the Indus Valley or in the neighbouring areas.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Men of the Bible; Some Lesser-Known Characters (English) (as Author) Millikan, Robert, 1868-1953 .
  • Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In many instances, imprecise language is used intentionally to avoid taking a position and offending various demographics.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

Another is the classical Yi script.

Syllabaries

A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables. .A glyph in a syllabary typically represents a consonant followed by a vowel, or just a vowel alone, though in some scripts more complex syllables (such as consonant-vowel-consonant, or consonant-consonant-vowel) may have dedicated glyphs.^ And though the holidays are all but over, I can’t think of a more creative gift to give a blogger…just because.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Though the number may be exaggerated, there is no reason to attribute the origin of the script to another source than that of the first settlers.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Phonetically related syllables are not so indicated in the script. For instance, the syllable "ka" may look nothing like the syllable "ki", nor will syllables with the same vowels be similar.
Syllabaries are best suited to languages with relatively simple syllable structure, such as Japanese. .Other languages that use syllabic writing include the Linear B script for Mycenaean Greek; Cherokee; Ndjuka, an English-based creole language of Surinam; and the Vai script of Liberia.^ It is more likely, however, that it is based on the Indus script, whose geometric signs have much more similarity with the Brâhmî and the Greek and Latin alphabet than the Egyptian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ This cannot be otherwise in the case of a word script, since it is a feature already found with syllabic writings.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Reply ) You left out one other suggestion in Orwell’s essay: use Saxon words rather than those with Greek or Latin roots.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

Most logographic systems have a strong syllabic component. Ethiopic, though technically an alphabet, has fused consonants and vowels together to the point that it's learned as if it were a syllabary.

Alphabets

An alphabet is a small set of symbols, each of which roughly represents or historically represented a phoneme of the language. .In a perfectly phonological alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond perfectly in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling.^ It would also mean that this line would mainly belong to the category of ta'u , which does not correspond to its contents and to its first significant word.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If the word decipherment could be altogether discarded in regard to these writings, I would do so.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The letters or syllables of the alphabet are words at the same time.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.As languages often evolve independently of their writing systems, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages they were not designed for, the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language.^ If they can be read as Melu hh a, as is suggested by the fish-sign, a similar appellation in another language may be found in the upper line.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you think your writing will change anybody?Carver: … Good fiction is partly a bringing of the news from one world to another.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It was for this reason that I was led to hope that within a short time we should have such a large quantity of books that there wouldn’t be a single work which could not be… The Write News .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Abjads
In most of the alphabets of the Mid-East, only consonants are indicated, or vowels may be indicated with optional diacritics. This property originated since the Egyptian times in the hieroglyphs. Such systems are called abjads, derived from the Arabic word for "alphabet".
Abugidas
In most of the alphabets of India and Southeast Asia, vowels are indicated through diacritics or modification of the shape of the consonant. These are called abugidas. .Some abugidas, such as Ethiopic and Cree, are learned by children as syllabaries, and so are often called "syllabics". However, unlike true syllabaries, there is not an independent glyph for each syllable.^ There is, however, the related syllable hu , to pour out (the sacrificial drink).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Sometimes the term "alphabet" is restricted to systems with separate letters for consonants and vowels, such as the Latin alphabet, although abugidas and abjads may also be accepted as alphabets. .Because of this use, Greek is often considered to be the first alphabet.^ Sign B 2 is often used in connection with the sign for javelin or stick, vero (J 132), since both were regarded as something good, the stick, because it promoted fertility in various ways.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Featural scripts

.A featural script notates the building blocks of the phonemes that make up a language.^ I began by making a list in my journal of specific features of life in Los Alamos that distinguished it from other places I might have grown up.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The story plan, treatment and a three act structure are what make up the story structure of a film script.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ BASIC FEATURES: By careful study of the script he has drawn up ten basic features, prominent among them are: .
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.For instance, all sounds pronounced with the lips ("labial" sounds) may have some element in common.^ Some of you may have noticed my short tweet last night about a special treat for you all on the site.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.In the Latin alphabet, this is accidentally the case with the letters "b" and "p"; however, labial "m" is completely dissimilar, and the similar-looking "q" is not labial.^ It is more likely, however, that it is based on the Indus script, whose geometric signs have much more similarity with the Brâhmî and the Greek and Latin alphabet than the Egyptian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.In Korean hangul, however, all four labial consonants are based on the same basic element.^ In the same way as these two lines, all the four tablets that were read by Metoro can be translated.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

However, in practice, Korean is learned by children as an ordinary alphabet, and the featural elements tend to pass unnoticed.
.Another featural script is SignWriting, the most popular writing system for many sign languages, where the shapes and movements of the hands and face are represented iconically.^ The most important point of objection is, however, that even if the signs of the Indus script were similar to Rongorongo signs, they need not have the same meaning.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If they can be read as Melu hh a, as is suggested by the fish-sign, a similar appellation in another language may be found in the upper line.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The sign B 2 can be related to writing too, because it resembles a string figure that is the origin of the Easter Island script according to Wolff (1973: 55).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Featural scripts are also common in fictional or invented systems, such as Tolkien's Tengwar.

Historical significance of writing systems

Olin Levi Warner, tympanum representing Writing, above exterior of main entrance doors, Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington DC, 1896.
Historians draw a distinction between prehistory and history, with history defined by the advent of writing. .The cave paintings and petroglyphs of prehistoric peoples can be considered precursors of writing, but are not considered writing because they did not represent language directly.^ Before my eyes drooped so low I had to crawl between the covers, about 2500 words had bubbled forth, and they were nothing I’d envisioned or considered writing.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The long-ears were angry with the short-ears, because they did not help them to erect the tomb ( ahu ).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ I hear from people who don't feel entitled to call themselves writers because they have not yet published a book (or completed one); from "mid-list"… Suite 101: Writing & Publishing .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Writing systems always develop and change based on the needs of the people who use them.^ If we do not succeed in reading the pictograms of a remote writing system, we are not entitled to hold this system and those who have developed it, responsible for it.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ At any rate, the word decipherment should not be used by those who have nothing more to tell, but that symbolic writings are no writings at all.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ As always, we will continue to modify the OWL and its resources based on user feedback, but the major changes in how you see and navigate the OWL are now finished.The OWL featu..
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Sometimes the shape, orientation and meaning of individual signs also changes over time. .By tracing the development of a script it is possible to learn about the needs of the people who used the script as well as how it changed over time.^ The amount given me caused me to sleep for three days though, the boy who warned me about the orderlies said I was injected a second time during my sleep.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thanks to all of you who took the time to write me about errors and formatting issues!
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ We don't know the people who change our lives .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Tools and materials

.The many tools and writing materials used throughout history include stone tablets, clay tablets, wax tablets, vellum, parchment, paper, copperplate, styluses, quills, ink brushes, pencils, pens, and many styles of lithography.^ Another root that is used for to write is pish , to carve (in stone).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ George Orwell’s 5 Rules For Effective Writing Style Never use metaphors, similes or other figures of speech you are used of seeing in print.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

It is speculated that the Incas might have employed knotted threads known as quipu (or khipu) as a writing system. [1]
.The typewriter and various forms of word processors have subsequently become widespread writing tools, and various studies have compared the ways in which writers have framed the experience of writing with such tools as compared with the pen or pencil.^ It is not necessary to write grammatical forms, if the oral tradition is known to the writer and the reader alike.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In this way, the fragments or the signs and words of a line are becoming notes of a melody, as it were.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Which sign was taken for a certain word, was obviously left to the writer, if it was only in tune with the pictographic form.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] For more information see writing implements.

History of early writing

.By definition, the modern practice of history begins with written records; evidence of human culture without writing is the realm of prehistory.^ Besides, the Indus script is one of the oldest writings that were conceived by the human mind going back to the era of the bull 3000 years before the beginning of our era.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

The writing process evolved from economic necessity in the ancient near east. Archaeologist Denise Schmandt-Besserat determined the link between previously uncategorized clay "tokens" and the first known writing, cuneiform.[7] .The clay tokens were used to represent commodities, and perhaps even units of time spent in labor, and their number and type became more complex as civilization advanced.^ Around the first of 1981 we began to get close and in February I spent more time with her than at the cabin until I left in April.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the gathering I spent time in Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, leaving five states of the continental United States not visited in my travels.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

A degree of complexity was reached when over a hundred different kinds of tokens had to be accounted for, and tokens were wrapped and fired in clay, with markings to indicate the kind of tokens inside. These markings soon replaced the tokens themselves, and the clay envelopes were demonstrably the prototype for clay writing tablets.[7]

Mesopotamia

.The original Mesopotamian writing system was derived from this method of keeping accounts, and by the end of the 4th millennium BC,[8] this had evolved into using a triangular-shaped stylus pressed into soft clay for recording numbers.^ It cannot be denied, however, that both writing systems make use of a similar method of rendering words by pictograms and word sequences by ligatures and fusions.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

This was gradually augmented with pictographic writing using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted. .Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing was gradually replaced by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus (hence the term cuneiform), at first only for logograms, but evolved to include phonetic elements by the 29th century BC. Around the 26th century BC, cuneiform began to represent syllables of spoken Sumerian.^ There are only the Sumerian and the Egyptian pictographic writings that are of equal age or even older.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Also in that period, cuneiform writing became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers, and this script was adapted to another Mesopotamian language, Akkadian, and from there to others such as Hurrian, and Hittite.^ This may be the reason why the Akkadians called the land at the Indus by this name, though me is a separate syllable and has another meaning.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Apart from that yeah, there has been such a losss of meaning and talent in writing ,but also in the other arts like Fine Arts(Does anybody LIKE Damien Hirst?
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two basic ways to make money writing: write content for others to sell (or otherwise monetize) or write content that you sell (or otherwise monetize).
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Scripts similar in appearance to this writing system include those for Ugaritic and Old Persian.^ As a result, TrackBack spam filters similar to those implemented against comment spam now exist in many weblog publishing systems….
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ If we do not succeed in reading the pictograms of a remote writing system, we are not entitled to hold this system and those who have developed it, responsible for it.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It cannot be denied, however, that both writing systems make use of a similar method of rendering words by pictograms and word sequences by ligatures and fusions.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

China

.In China historians have found out a lot about the early Chinese dynasties from the written documents left behind.^ I’ve written about it on several occasions and I truly believe that it is one of the best tools out there to get your writing work noticed.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Other people have written about the power of one word, something I’ve read a lot about via singer-songwriter-blogger-coach Christine Kane.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

From the Shang Dynasty most of this writing has survived on bones or bronze implements. .Markings on turtle shells (used as oracle bones) have been carbon-dated to around 1500 BC. Historians have found that the type of media used had an effect on what the writing was documenting and how it was used.^ I’m not sure of the exact date of publication for this piece, but I believe it was in early 2000…around the same time those “Totally Organic (and extremely inappropriate ) Experience” commercials were all over TV. It’s fun to see how my writing has… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Reply ) I love how you said, “I’m sure it contains imperfections” and then right after you said, “The Key is…,” which is a metaphor used in almost every piece of writing.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ Though I had noticed how I often I got colder after eating an orange during the cold weather, it was not until the winter of 1983-'84 that I found out the real effects.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

There have recently been discoveries of tortoise-shell carvings dating back to c. 6000 BC, but whether or not the carvings are of sufficient complexity to qualify as writing is under debate.[9][10] .If it is deemed to be a written language, writing in China will predate Mesopotamian cuneiform, long acknowledged as the first appearance of writing, by some 2000 years.^ Effective Writing – George Orwell I was first pointed this way at univ over 30 years ago by my history tutor.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ Close to a year ago I posted the first Script Writing Resource.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Egypt

.The earliest known hieroglyphic inscriptions are the Narmer Palette, dating to c.3200 BC, and several recent discoveries that may be slightly older, though the glyphs were based on a much older artistic tradition.^ The pictorial form of the sign has been retained in several inscriptions, the most famous among them is from Dholavira and has been excavated only recently.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Though his 'translation' - the first line is mainly based on Ray's - contains several mistakes and does not go much beyond simple word-renderings, it is obvious that Metoro's chants are not completely meaningless.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Haiku is rooted in a much older form of traditional Japanese poetry called renga.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

The hieroglyphic script was logographic with phonetic adjuncts that included an effective alphabet.
.Writing was very important in maintaining the Egyptian empire, and literacy was concentrated among an educated elite of scribes.^ It explains why it is very important for you to understand the assignment you have been given before you begin to try and write anything.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Only people from certain backgrounds were allowed to train to become scribes, in the service of temple, pharaonic, and military authorities. The hieroglyph system was always difficult to learn, but in later centuries was purposely made even more so, as this preserved the scribes' status.
The world's oldest known alphabet was developed in central Egypt around 2000 BC from a hieroglyphic prototype, and over the next 500 years spread to Canaan and eventually to the rest of the world.

Indus Valley

Ten Indus scripts discovered near the northern gate of Dholavira (perhaps 5,000 years old)
.Indus script refers to short strings of symbols associated with the Indus Valley Civilization used between 2600–1900 BC. In spite of many attempts at decipherments and claims, it is as yet undeciphered.^ It can only be surmised that the language of the Indus script is related to some of the languages spoken today in the Indus Valley or in the neighbouring areas.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Divine and urban origin is also ascribed to the modern Sanskrit script, the Devanâgarî, (the script) of the town of the gods, and the Brâhmî script that comes chronologically between the Indus script and the modern Sanskrit script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The same can be said of the similarities between the Indus script and the Hittite script discovered by Meriggi (1938).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The script generally refers to that used in the mature Harappan phase, which perhaps evolved from a few signs found in early Harappa after 3500 BC,[11], and was followed by the mature Harappan script.^ Apart from early Harappan graffiti and pot-marks where the script is still in a rudimentary stage, inscriptions with a single sign are rare.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ This can be explained in relation to the quarters of the universe and the yugas , the cosmic periods, but it could also contain a hint to the development of the script that consisted of simple signs in the beginning as it is found on early Harappa graffiti and in neolithic cave paintings.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Apart from early Harappan graffiti and pot-marks, where the script is still in a rudimentary stage, inscriptions with a single sign are rare.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The script is written from right to left,[12] and sometimes follows a boustrophedonic style.^ From the Sumerian signs of the name written vertically on the seal we obtain , when they are written from left to right.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The inscription of the first line that belongs to the Indus script is rendered as in the Finnish Concordance II (read in the direction from right to left of the impression).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Since the number of principal signs is about 400-600,[13] midway between typical logographic and syllabic scripts, many scholars accept the script to be logo-syllabic[14] (typically syllabic scripts have about 50-100 signs whereas logographic scripts have a very large number of principal signs).^ Moreover, the number of basic signs in both scripts is about 100.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, the number of the signs is identical and the Maori signs were arranged in three columns of twice of 13 and once of 11 signs like an alphabet.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ This cannot be otherwise in the case of a word script, since it is a feature already found with syllabic writings.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Several scholars maintain that structural analysis indicates an agglutinative language underlies the script.^ It is also contradictory to the structural analysis of the script (Mahadevan 1973; 41).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ J. Guy (1982: 445-447) has presented a structural analysis for the first half of this line that I have indicated it by paragraphs in Metoro's reading: .
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

However, this is contradicted by the occurrence of signs supposedly representing suffixes at the beginning or middle of words.

Turkmenistan

.Archaeologists have recently discovered that there was a civilization in Central Asia using writing 4,000 years ago.^ Here his good friend Gary Goshgarian tells what an unpretentious fellow Parker was and how he years ago managed to write his way out of the college classroom.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ A while ago I realized that my life’s work is in books, and more recently I found that that’s in writing them and designing them.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I thought I would just send him an unpublished article I wrote a couple years ago and mention that to him-that it is unpublished and that I wrote it a couple years ago (there are somethings that would need to be… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.An excavation near Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan, revealed an inscription on a piece of stone that was used as a stamp seal.^ In Mesopotamia cylinder seals were used, whereas in the Indus Valley stamp seals prevail.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

[15]

Phoenician writing system and descendants

.The Phoenician writing system was adapted from the Proto-Caananite script in around the 11th century BC, which in turn borrowed ideas from Egyptian hieroglyphics.^ Two Systems of Symbolic Writing Two Systems of Symbolic Writing - The Indus Script and the Rongorongo Script of Easter Island .
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

This writing system was an abjad — that is, a writing system in which only consonants are represented. .This script was adapted by the Greeks, who adapted certain consonantal signs to represent their vowels.^ It is more likely, however, that it is based on the Indus script, whose geometric signs have much more similarity with the Brâhmî and the Greek and Latin alphabet than the Egyptian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In a word-script cross-checking is the best and often the only means to prove, whether the reading of a certain sign is correct.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ By this reason, it can also be explained that the signs the Maoris of New Zewland wrote under the treaty of Waitangi (Fischer 1997: 5) have certain similarities with the Javanese Kawi script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The Cumae alphabet, a variant of the early Greek alphabet gave rise to the Etruscan alphabet, and its own descendants, such as the Latin alphabet and Runes.^ It is more likely, however, that it is based on the Indus script, whose geometric signs have much more similarity with the Brâhmî and the Greek and Latin alphabet than the Egyptian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Other descendants from the Greek alphabet include the Cyrillic alphabet, used to write Russian, among others.^ Reply ) You left out one other suggestion in Orwell’s essay: use Saxon words rather than those with Greek or Latin roots.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ George Orwell’s 5 Rules For Effective Writing Style Never use metaphors, similes or other figures of speech you are used of seeing in print.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

The Phoenician system was also adapted into the Aramaic script, from which the Hebrew script and also that of Arabic are descended.
The Tifinagh script (Berber languages) is descended from the Libyco-Berber script which is assumed to be of Phoenician origin.

Mesoamerica

.A stone slab with 3,000-year-old writing was discovered in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and is an example of the oldest script in the Western Hemisphere preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about 500 BC. [16][17][18] It is thought to be Olmec.^ Word Is Love on 29.01.2008 at 00:18 ( Reply ) Charlzz: “Writing well is not always about writing original, compelling prose.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ History renders no example for a true symbolic writing having developed from a letter script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Mike on 26.01.2008 at 18:16 ( Reply ) The comments demonstrate how little thought we put into our routine writing.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

.Of several pre-Columbian scripts in Mesoamerica, the one that appears to have been best developed, and the only one to be deciphered, is the Maya script.^ A decipherment of one or both of them can only be afforded by studying the two scripts in their own surroundings.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ There are many further breakthroughs necessary, before one can say that the script of Easter Island can be called deciphered.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ To illustrate how this method of reading the Indus inscriptions works, we shall study at first several seals with one sign only.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC, and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century AD. Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs, somewhat similar in function to modern Japanese writing.^ If we take the earlier date, it would mean that the script was given its present form at the end of the 16th century, i.e.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the sign B 51 was used until modern time as petroglyph (Fischer 1997: 373, n.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It cannot be denied, however, that both writing systems make use of a similar method of rendering words by pictograms and word sequences by ligatures and fusions.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Creation of text or information

St. Augustine writing, revising, and re-writing: Sandro Botticelli's St. Augustine in His Cell

Composition

Creativity

Author

Writer

Critiques

Writers sometimes search out others to evaluate or criticize their work. .To this end, many writers join writing circles, often found at local libraries or bookstores.^ Fiction Channel is a website where visitors can enjoy the literary works of many great writers who write in English, from Shakespeare to James Herriot.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I don’t often write or blog about traveling, but when I booked my third overseas vacation in a year, I decided to learn a few secrets of the travel writer trade!
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Sometimes I found it easier to write some things in poetry rather than in prose, so I wrote many poems.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

.With the evolution of the Internet, writing circles have started to go online.^ I made both Reading resolutions and Writing resolutions and, while 2010 has already started, I wanted to confirm the resolutions I want to keep The Reading resolutions that I have listed, I am probably not going to keep to their fullest extent.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ If you are looking for the service in writing a dissertation, then a custom thesis or thesis proposal from the internet is the way to go.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

See also

References

  1. ^ The Khipu Database Project, http://khipukamayuq.fas.harvard.edu/index.html
  2. ^ Chandler, Daniel (1990). "Do the write thing?". Electric Word 17: 27–30.  
  3. ^ Chandler, Daniel (1992). "The phenomenology of writing by hand". Intelligent Tutoring Media 3 (2/3): 65–74.  
  4. ^ Chandler, Daniel (1993). "Writing strategies and writers' tools". English Today: The International Review of the English Language 9 (2): 32–8.  
  5. ^ Chandler, Daniel (1994). "Who needs suspended inscription?". Computers and Composition 11 (3): 191–201.  
  6. ^ Chandler, Daniel (1995). The Act of Writing: A Media Theory Approach. Aberystwyth: Prifysgol Cymru.  
  7. ^ a b Rudgley, Richard (2000). The Lost Civilizations of the Stone Age. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 48–57.  
  8. ^ The Origin and Development of the Cuneiform System of Writing, Samuel Noah Kramer, Thirty Nine Firsts In Recorded History pp 381-383
  9. ^ China Daily, 12 June 2003, Archaeologists Rewrite History, http://www.china.org.cn/english/2003/Jun/66806.htm
  10. ^ "'Earliest writing' found in China.". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2956925.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-30. "Signs carved into 8,600-year-old tortoise shells found in China may be the earliest written words, say archaeologists."  
  11. ^ Whitehouse, David (1999) 'Earliest writing' found BBC
  12. ^ (Lal 1966)
  13. ^ (Wells 1999)
  14. ^ (Bryant 2000)
  15. ^ "Ancient writing found in Turkmenistan.". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1330705.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-30. "A previously unknown civilisation was using writing in Central Asia 4,000 years ago, hundreds of years before Chinese writing developed, archaeologists have discovered. An excavation near Ashgabat, the capital of Turkmenistan, revealed an inscription on a piece of stone that seems to have been used as a stamp seal."  
  16. ^ "Writing May Be Oldest in Western Hemisphere.". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/15/science/15writing.html. Retrieved 2008-03-30. "A stone slab bearing 3,000-year-old writing previously unknown to scholars has been found in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and archaeologists say it is an example of the oldest script ever discovered in the Western Hemisphere."  
  17. ^ "'Oldest' New World writing found". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/5347080.stm. Retrieved 2008-03-30. "Ancient civilisations in Mexico developed a writing system as early as 900 BC, new evidence suggests."  
  18. ^ "Oldest Writing in the New World". Science. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/313/5793/1610. Retrieved 2008-03-30. "A block with a hitherto unknown system of writing has been found in the Olmec heartland of Veracruz, Mexico. Stylistic and other dating of the block places it in the early first millennium before the common era, the oldest writing in the New World, with features that firmly assign this pivotal development to the Olmec civilization of Mesoamerica."  

Further reading

.
  • A History of Writing: From Hieroglyph to Multimedia, edited by Anne-Marie Christin, Flammarion (in French, hardcover: 408 pages, 2002, ISBN 2-08-010887-5)
  • In the Beginning: A Short History of the Hebrew Language. By Joel M. Hoffman, 2004. Chapter 3 covers the invention of writing and its various stages.
  • Origins of writing on AncientScripts.com
  • Museum of Writing: UK Museum of Writing with information on writing history and implements
  • On ERIC Digests: Writing Instruction: Current Practices in the Classroom; Writing Development; Writing Instruction: Changing Views over the Years
  • Children of the Code: The Power of Writing - Online Video
  • Rogers, Henry.^ It changed the way I viewed the writing process.
    • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In so doing, there are thirteen years between children, nine months for gestation, 12 years of nursing and three months before ovulation begins again.
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814 (English) (as Author) Vie de Franklin (French) (as Author) Mikels, Rosa Mary Redding .
    • Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    2005. Writing Systems: A Linguistic Approach. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-23463-2 (hardcover); ISBN 0-631-23464-0 (paperback)
  • Ankerl, Guy (2000) [2000]. Global communication without universal civilization. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. pp. 59–66, 235s. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.  
  • Robinson, Andrew "The Origins of Writing" in David Crowley and Paul Heyer (eds) Communication in History: Technology, Culture, Society (Allyn and Bacon, 2003).

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system).^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In the symbolical language of the Veda this sign may be compared to a cup or vessel.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The sub-clause, mostly used paratactical in Polynesian languages, can be deduced from the sequence of signs.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

It is distinguished from illustration, such as cave drawing and painting, and the recording of language via a non-textual medium such as magnetic tape audio.

Sourced

.
  • Learn as much by writing as by reading.^ I don't know how much I can help because I am very new to learning proper grammar and writing.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • After being Turned Down by numerous Publishers, he had decided to write for Posterity.^ This is a book with a history that deserves some brief explanation, as it’s a great example of an author using social media technologies in an innovative way to both write and publish a book.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I sent a six-page pubs list of links to numerous published articles and manuscripts, so I know they know my writing style.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • Science fiction is no more written for scientists than ghost stories are written for ghosts.^ The poem was written for the people, and is therefore in a more popular tone than usual: portions strike as abrupt and unpolished, but many stanzas are all his own.
    • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ She has also written three non-fiction books and has one more on the way.Carol Denbow: Welcome Audrey.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ No man was ever more devoted than he to the endeavour of making those around him happy; no man ever possessed friends more unfeignedly attached to him.
    • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Every writer hopes or boldly assumes that his life is in some sense exemplary, that the particular will turn out to be universal.^ In Signs of Self-Sabotage in the Writing Life, I described what being afraid of succeeding looks like for some aspiring and established writers.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ That caused me to see enlightening properties in every type of verbal communication, writing, songs, science fiction, and other forms of communicating.
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

  • I'm a bit of a grinder. Novels are very long, and long novels are very, very long. It's just a hell of a lot of man-hours. .I tend to just go in there, and if it comes, it comes.^ You just didn't want me to come along but I am going."
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    A morning when I write not a single word doesn't worry me too much. .If I come up against a brick wall, I'll just go and play snooker or something or sleep on it, and my subconscious will fix it for me.^ You just didn't want me to come along but I am going."
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My memory is the house faced south and the bed was against the east wall of the southeast room.
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A girl who worked in a cafe and I were close friends and each morning she would come into my mind before I opened my eyes out of sleep.
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Usually, it's a journey without maps but a journey with a destination, so I know how it's going to begin and I know how it's going to end, but I don't know how I'm going to get from one to the other.^ I don’t know about this one.
    • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This one is frequently broken, probably because many people don’t know the difference between active and passive verbs .
    • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Too Many Choices First, if you know two dozen ways to describe “happy,” how will you choose the one to use?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    That, really, is the struggle of the novel.[1]
  • The aspiring writer must not merely be persistent, but relentless. .If you are persistent and your manuscript is rejected, you send it out again.^ Cagney & Hope...a trip down Memory Lane : ) Did your parents ever send you to dancing school because of these guys?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Did you know that most potential clients will Google your name to find out more… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Username Email cancel Once you've completed the information above, we'll send you your password.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .But if you are relentless, you make ten copies of the rejected manuscript and send them all out simultaneously.^ You all make this so worthwhile for me.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ So I sent the book out to a super copy editor (if you need a copy editor, let me know and I'll put you in touch) and cleaned up everything we could find.I'm in… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Now what is it about killer sales copy that makes the customer take the action that ‘you’ desire?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • Any writer, I suppose, feels that the world into which he was born is nothing less than a conspiracy against the cultivation of his talent
    • James Baldwin "Autobiographical Notes" (1952); republished in Notes of a Native Son (1955)
  • I am a galley slave to pen and ink.^ The son greater than his father, born of the nuptials of Jupiter and Thetis, was to dethrone Evil, and bring back a happier reign than that of Saturn.
    • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This feels so much less cluttered and so much more productive than it did when my desktop was full of files.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I'm on jury duty this week and up against multiple deadlines, so posting will be less frequent than usual.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

  • The free-lance writer is a man who is paid per piece or per word or perhaps. .
    • Robert Benchley, quoted by James Thurber in The Bermudian (November 1950).
  • It took me fifteen years to discover that I had no talent for writing, but I couldn't give it up because by that time I was too famous.^ And sadly I don’t have enough time to do the reading & write it up properly for you.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ My earliest memory occurred when I was less than a year old, about the time I was just pulling up, standing alone or maybe learning to walk.
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As I write this, things are looking up, fortunately - and I hope they continue to do so, because I don't think our… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

  • That so many writers have been prepared to accept a kind of martyrdom is the best tribute that flesh can pay to the living spirit of man as expressed in his literature. One cannot doubt that the martyrdom will continue to be gladly embraced. .To some of us, the wresting of beauty out of language is the only thing in the world that matters.^ It can only be surmised that the language of the Indus script is related to some of the languages spoken today in the Indus Valley or in the neighbouring areas.
    • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A bilingual could be helpful in finding out this value and it would also give us greater security in regard to the language spoken in the Indus Valley at that time.
    • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I’ve spent a gazillion hours not only writing a novel but in doing countless other things to try to break out, things that might ultimately benefit you some day—consider it a pioneering effort.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Anthony Burgess, English Literature: A Survey for Students (1958, revised 1974)
  • The tendinous part of the mind, so to speak, is more developed in winter; the fleshy, in summer.^ The sufferings occasioned by a cold English winter made him pine, especially when our colder spring arrived, for a more genial climate.
    • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Select Masterpieces of Biblical Literature (English) (as Editor) Story of Orestes A Condensation of the Trilogy (English) (as Author) Moult, Thomas, 1893-1974 .
    • Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    I should say winter had given the bone and sinew to literature, summer the tissues and the blood.
  • A well-written Life is almost as rare as a well-spent one.
  • In every man's writings, the character of the writer must lie recorded. .
  • The original writer is not one who imitates nobody, but one whom nobody can imitate.^ Utta Danella, who was born in 1924, is one of the most renowned female writers in Germany nowadays.
    • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Many books require no thought from those who read them, and for a very simple reason; they made no such demand upon those who wrote them.^ Since they spring from the world of the novel, only those who have read it will see the merits of some designs at this point.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If we do not succeed in reading the pictograms of a remote writing system, we are not entitled to hold this system and those who have developed it, responsible for it.
    • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Before that time, what man is to do must be shown, what is expected of our lives must be made known, readying others for that, those who will and can, is what I am about.
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Better to write for yourself and have no public, than to write for the public and have no self.^ When I read that, I realized one thing: that I need go no further than my own interior, my own experience, for whatever I wanted to write.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

  • You get ideas from daydreaming. You get ideas from being bored. .You get ideas all the time.^ Pet Names: Do you have pet phrases you keep nearby at all times?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Thanks to all of you who took the time to write me about errors and formatting issues!
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .The only difference between writers and other people is we notice when we're doing it.^ The only difference between me and others is that I'm out there doing it.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Nick, I have tried so hard, over and over again, to get re-engaged with this once fine site – but alas, most of us more mature writers have gone on to other places.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • Neil Gaiman. .Where do you get your ideas? Essay.^ If you want to be understood, if you want your ideas to spread, using effective language must be your top priority.
      • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

      ^ You want your ideas to spread right?
      • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

      ^ By following Orwell’s 5 rules for effective writing, you’ll distinguish yourself from competitors and clearly communicate your ideas.
      • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

      .(1997).
  • Tomorrow may be hell, but today was a good writing day, and on the good writing days nothing else matters.^ Good writing matters, probably more than you think.
    • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I am one of those traditionalists who believe that, in order to write a good crime novel today, you must have read and studied the greats of the genre.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It may be the greatest of ironies that the problems facing publishers today have nothing to do with finding people who want to read.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

  • [Writing is] a bit like shitting...if it's coming in dribs and drabs or not coming at all, or being forced out, or if you're missing the rhythm, it's no pleasure at all.^ If you’re anywhere close, come!
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Now, of course, if you’re sitting on a feed count of 400 subscribers today, there’s no… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Writing might feel like the last thing you want to do.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

  • Please write again soon. .Though my own life is filled with activity, letters encourage momentary escape into others lives and I come back to my own with greater contentment.^ Since I make a living writing content for my blogs and websites, I thought I’d chime in (no ebooks to buy in this post, sorry).
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A girl who worked in a cafe and I were close friends and each morning she would come into my mind before I opened my eyes out of sleep.
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is called The Book Of Elijah because it's how I have read the events of my life to come into the understanding in SEEDS OF LIFE .
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Elizabeth Forsythe Hailey, A Woman of Independent Means
  • There rise authors now and then, who seem proof against the mutability of language, because they have rooted themselves in the unchanging principles of human nature.^ Boys and girls had a natural inclination to old men of dignity like the Timo in that time, even if there occurred some sort of resistance now and then.
    • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yet there are creative people who seem to have overcome creative roadblocks — authors who publish one or two novels a year, filmmakers who produce annual blockbusters, and entertainers who are on the top hits list week after week.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ These are people who had an interesting idea for a product to sell or a service to market, but they run up against a horrid scary intimidating wall: marketing.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • Washington Irving, [w:The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon|]], "The Mutabilities of Literature" (1819–1820)
  • Well personally I like bad writing. .I know this because no matter what I like, someone tells me that [it's] badly written.^ HERE I AM ON THE ROAD AGAIN Here I am on the road again while society say I'm less than a man because I have no responsibility in the only life I know as free.
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And because they do not know it, the quarrel with each other saying: The right law is like this, the law is not like this.
    • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Because, the fact is, most of the time I'm either terrified or feel like an idiot because I don't know what I'm doing.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .I like bad acting too.^ Even bad activities, like the destruction of a city, can be a sacred act therefore.
    • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • You can approach the act of writing with nervousness, excitement, hopefulness, or even despair--the sense that you can never completely put on the page what's in your mind and heart.^ You write to communicate to the hearts and minds of others what's burning inside you.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To sharpen your message you can instead write “The rose appear red to me”.
    • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

    ^ For those of you new to the site, you can expect to come by on Mondays and have a concrete writing activity to do or thing to think about that will hopefully get you writing.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .You can come to the act with your fists clenched and your eyes narrowed, ready to kick ass and take down names.^ We all want to be successful freelancers and the key to getting there comes in just one simple word: ACTION If you want to be a successful freelancer you need to take action.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He practically holds your hand as he takes you through his tried and tested techniques.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It means I’m pushing the words instead of being pulled by them.” — Raymond Chandler When it comes to your writing, is your muse pulling you or is the other way around?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .You can come to it because you want a girl to marry you or because you want to change the world.^ You just didn't want me to come along but I am going."
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Louise had already told me "I don't mind other girls helping me with my homework, I just don't want you taking money out of my house".
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We all want to be successful freelancers and the key to getting there comes in just one simple word: ACTION If you want to be a successful freelancer you need to take action.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    Come to it any way but lightly. .Let me say it again: you must not come lightly to the blank page.
  • I have made this [letter] longer, because I have not had the time to make it shorter.^ But you have to make a start, so let’s get to it.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Let’s see what you can come up with.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Linktopia with the help of Judge Page and we spend our time at neurosciencemarketing.com because they offer three compelling stories that can relate to the publishing business.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • If it was easy, everyone would do it rather than going around telling you their ideas and saying how they could be a writer if they had the time..^ The god there [says]: You go!
    • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If I didn't resurrect before that time they could do with my body as they wished.
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The subject he had suggested for a tragedy was Charles I: and he had written to me: 'Remember, remember Charles I. I have been already imagining how you would conduct some scenes.
    • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Arthur M. Jolly, interview with Write On Online, 2009
  • A writer is someone for whom writing is more difficult than it is for other people.^ The poem was written for the people, and is therefore in a more popular tone than usual: portions strike as abrupt and unpolished, but many stanzas are all his own.
    • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ NOTE ON POEMS OF 1819, BY MRS. SHELLEY. Shelley loved the People; and respected them as often more virtuous, as always more suffering, and therefore more deserving of sympathy, than the great.
    • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Good writing matters, probably more than you think.
    • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • You ask me why I do not write something....I think one's feelings waste themselves in words, they ought all to be distilled into actions and into actions which bring results.^ Can you not imagine yourself writing all… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Will you write something about it this week?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Before my eyes drooped so low I had to crawl between the covers, about 2500 words had bubbled forth, and they were nothing I’d envisioned or considered writing.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    • Florence Nightingale, Letter to a friend, quoted in The Life of Florence Nightingale (1913) by Edward Tyas Cook, p. .94
  • Thus, in a real sense, I am constantly writing autobiography, but I have to turn it into fiction in order to give it credibility.^ The words atu ki are transformed by her several times into tuki , to unite (in a sexual sense), which is philologically wrong, but gives a good suggestion of the meaning of the text.
    • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Katherine Paterson, The Spying Heart, 1989
  • When something can be read without effort, great effort has gone into its writing.^ PickTheBrain writing posts like George Orwell’s Rules for Effective Writing and How to Write Something Worth Reading, this site will be right up your [...
    • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I am one of those traditionalists who believe that, in order to write a good crime novel today, you must have read and studied the greats of the genre.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

  • Words are like leaves; and where they most abound, much fruit of sense beneath is rarely found.^ Cooked foods I found to be neutral, except most spicy ones, leaving only the feet's sensors to regulate the body's climate control system.
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I don't feel quite as much like the frightened freshman anymore; there were familiar faces, people to talk to, and a bit of a sense of what class would be like.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Or do you leave people feeling like they’ve been pillaged?
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • True ease in writing comes from art, not chance.^ The root grabh is not used in this sense in the Veda, but we come across the roots rî , to let flow (the line of writing) and rsh , to pierce, which can mean to write, too.
    • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This was not a forced break, which I have done in the past, but a true do-nothingness that has settled into the part of my morning that I once filled with writing.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    As those move easiest who have learn'd to dance. .
  • And lo, though I travel through the valley of the archetypes, I shall fear no evil, for I know that the author can't kill me off for at least another 150 pages, no matter how stupid or trite I become, or he ruins the book.^ The language of the Veda that was transmitted orally for at least two thousand years, is an early type of Sanskrit, no doubt, but we do not know, whether the Veda was transmitted in this language from the very beginning.
    • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I, knowing she was on her way back, I told her I expected to become an evangelist traveling with little to no money and few to no cloths, "You have to be willing to live that way same if you came back".
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think there is a real risk that no matter how good the iSlate is, it will not be good enough to live up to the speculation.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • Say all you have to say in the fewest possible words, or your reader will be sure to skip them; and in the plainest possible words or he will certainly misunderstand them.^ It might be time to see a doctor when… New site aims to be the YouTube of gaming - You can skip the article, the site is Kongregate.com and the relevant quote is “Not all of them are gems, but the top 100 are.” Some you’ll recognize, others not, but I can pretty much guarantee you’ll loose a sizeable amount of your day here.
    • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the present form of this article the reader will only find these word readings, but improved to a great deal through the results of the syllabic readings.
    • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If you use the word “soul” it’s because you want to say something important that you don’t know how to say in original words.
    • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • How vain it is to sit down to write when you have not stood up to live.^ Well this place is where you can write them down.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Once you know the rules, once you know how to write and are comfortable and competent and masterful, then you can break any of the rules you like.
    • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

    ^ All you do is sit down at a typewriter and open a vein.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • Writers take words seriously - perhaps the last professional class that does - and they struggle to steer their own through the crosswinds of meddling editors and careless typesetters and obtuse and malevolent reviewers into the lap of the ideal reader.^ A Journal of the Swedish Embassy in the Years 1653 and 1654, Vol II. (English) (as Editor) Morton, David, 1886-1957 .
    • Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ An editor will take you more seriously if you observe a certain protocol, and it's easier to keep work in circulation if you have a system in place.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Regular readers are familiar with you and your content, so they’re already keyed into how you write and what you’re about.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • John Updike, Writers on Themselves, The New York Times (17 August 1986)
  • The purpose of writing is to inflate weak ideas, obscure pure reasoning, and inhibit clarity.^ The New York Times has announced plans to start charging for content on its website at nytimes.com.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You’re driven to write a children’s book, but you’re not sure what yo… http://ow.ly/16q5EK # ✔ New video for children’s writers!
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I had completed a year (a time) in Iowa and two and a half years (times and the dividing of time 38 ) in New York City.
    • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

    With a little practice, writing can be an intimidating and impenetrable fog!

External links

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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

This lesson explores how to write well. It is a general introduction for all ages.
.Writing is a tool used exclusively by humans to convey thoughts through a visible form which represents language.^ George Orwell’s essay on the use of the English language encouraged me to think about how to improve my writing by using ideas from neuroscience and cognitive science.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ George Orwell’s Five Rules For Effective Writing – “If you want to be understood, if you want your ideas to spread, using effective language must be your top priority.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

.Just like in speaking, there are limitless ways in which words can be put together in order to convey ideas, thoughts, images and feelings.^ He ordered me not to say another word in his courtroom or be in contempt, then he proceed to ask me questions to get me to speak.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't feel quite as much like the frightened freshman anymore; there were familiar faces, people to talk to, and a bit of a sense of what class would be like.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Then I thought, about half way through it, "No I don't" and put it out saying "Father take the taste of cigarettes out of my mouth."
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

The purpose might be to inform, persuade, entertain, or a combination of the three.
.In many written forms of language, there are a few basic components of writing.^ I’ve written about it on several occasions and I truly believe that it is one of the best tools out there to get your writing work noticed.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Over the past few years we’ve compared freelance writing to many different entities.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It was in a deep sleep is written, and there are many dreams in the Bible as messages to man.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

.There are things like paragraphs, which are generally separated by indentations or line breaks.^ There are rare cases that might be exceptions, like discussing a legal concept but in general I think that is really good advice.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ Stories are formatted like blog entries – with breaks between paragraphs… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

There are also words, which are collections of letters. These collections of letters are words, and words can represent a variety of different things. .There are also punctuation marks which tell the reader how to time their reading.^ There were many times when this book made me laugh out loud, and let me tell you,… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I don’t know how, but there’s electricity in the air and my bones are telling… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Sentences exist to isolate small ideas. Paragraphs isolate collections of sentences which together convey an idea greater than the sum of the sentences. Essays are collections of paragraphs that can be long or short. There are a variety of types of essays. .Fiction is writing in which the ideas are made up.^ Occasionally (often), it’s difficult (impossible) for me to come up with an idea right off the top of my head to sit down and write about.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Non-fiction is writing that attempts to write about ideas and concepts that are generally considered real or true.^ Before my eyes drooped so low I had to crawl between the covers, about 2500 words had bubbled forth, and they were nothing I’d envisioned or considered writing.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It has been really interesting reading the comments to see what other writers consider their ideal freelance writing gig, and it made me think about the next logical (to me anyway) question: Are you waiting for it [...
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Occasionally (often), it’s difficult (impossible) for me to come up with an idea right off the top of my head to sit down and write about.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Tips for better writing (mostly for English)

.
  • Do not make sentences too long.
  • Do not use words like "very", "good", "get", "thing", or "things" if it can be avoided.^ Motorcycle Guy on 21.04.2007 at 22:57 ( Reply ) I definitely agree with not using big words when a long one will do.
    • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Magic is a very great word, and can be used in many situations, but I am really sick of hearing it in every book that has, well, magical things happening in it.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The strengths of Rowling’s prose read like a summary of Strunk and White’s The Elements of Style: varied sentences, both in length and structure use… .
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    .These words do not generally enhance writing because they are like a boring painting - they don't do a lot to enhance the reader's understanding.
  • When writing formally, don't use contractions like "don't", "can't", "wouldn't", "shouldn't", etc.
  • Do not confuse words like their, they're and there; weather and whether; etc.
  • Know how to use it's and its.^ Because a lot of writers don’t.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ When they’re done well, there’s nothing wrong with these books.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you don’t know whether or not to use an apostrophe, don’t bother.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    It's is always a contraction of "it is"; its is possessive ("belonging to it").
  • Do not end sentences with prepositions like "in", "with", "beside", "around".
  • Full stops (.) separate sentences.
  • Colons (:) separate related clause clauses.
  • Semicolons (;) serve to join two related complete sentences.
  • Commas (,) serve to join a sentence with a sentence fragment using a coordinator like "and", "so", "yet", or "but".
  • Spaces ( ) separate words (and sentences, when used in conjunction with a full stop).

Collaborative papers

.You can start a collaborative paper in the main namespace, or if you would like to create something individually, please keep it in the user namespace on your userpage or as a subpage to your userpage.^ With GetACoder you reduce expenses, increase efficiencies, aggressively grow your business, and create a sustainable competitive advantage.
  • Writing: Jobs Related to Writing. 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.getacoder.com [Source type: General]

^ If your state is not listed and you would like to know if we have added it since the list you have, just ask.
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In about the time it should have taken her to write down my request she then said in words "would you like some coffee to."
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

WRITING (the verbal noun of "to write," O. Eng. .writan, to inscribe), the use of letters, symbols or other conventional characters, for the recording by visible means of significant sounds; more specifically, the art of tracing by hand these symbols on paper or other material, by pen and ink, pencil, stylus or other such means, as opposed to mechanical methods such as printing.^ Don’t overdo the “million dollar words” : While you want to use a variety of words to convey more precise meaning, be careful that you don’t fill your writing with what I call “million dollar words.” These are longer, more obscure, or more scholarly- sounding words that people often insert into their writing purely for the purpose of seeming more intelligent.

^ The thing I found is different cultures use metaphors with different terms meaning the same as the terms in metaphors of other cultures.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At any rate, the word decipherment should not be used by those who have nothing more to tell, but that symbolic writings are no writings at all.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The principal features in the development of writing in its primary sense are dealt with in separate articles (see Alphabet, Palaeography, Inscriptions, Book, Manuscript, Shorthand, &c.^ Read : Reading the work of good authors helps you develop a sense of how effective writing is constructed, and gives you a glimpse of the skill and artistry that goes into it.

). .Here it is only necessary briefly to refer to the origins of a system which has eventually followed the history of the various languages and has been stereotyped by the progress of typography.^ Originally, this must have been the Ashvins, the Vedic twin-gods, though according to the following verse they were only the suitors.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ And as in the case of other cultures it is necessary here to study the language as well as the oral tradition of the people, to which the texts belong.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ History of Religion A Sketch of Primitive Religious Beliefs and Practices, and of the Origin and Character of the Great Systems (English) (as Author) Menzies, Sutherland, fl.
  • Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Very early in the history of mankind three needs become pressing. .These are (a) to recall at a particular time something that has to be done; (b) to communicate with some other person who is not present, nor for the moment easily accessible; (c) to assert rights over tools, cattle, &c., by a distinctive mark, or by a similar mark to distinguish one's own production (e.g.^ These signs were forgotten after some time.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The idea is to allow companies to easily find the persons who are best suited to solving a particular problem, which vastly expands their R&D possibilities (and also saving them permanent labor costs).

^ Some of these blogs are a mix of reviews, personal updates, and pretty much anything the blogger wants to post.

a special make of pottery) from that of others. .The last-named use, out of which in time develops every kind of trade-mark, is itself a development of the earlier property mark.^ From then on until the last meal Thursday, every time I ate anything, from the store bought things I had to the meals brought, the same thing happened.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ B 50 developed from it, whose meaning has more connotations and which was used as a motif of tattoo in former times already.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

The right to property must be established before traffic, whether by way of barter or of sale, is possible.
.Every one is familiar with devices to achieve the first of these aims; one of the commonest is to tie a knot in a hand kerchief.^ One of the partys first tasks on arriving in Italy was to hand Alba over to Byron, who was living in Venice.
  • Mary Shelley | Thames Path Online Guide 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.thames-path.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Believe it or not, every one of these format requirements exists for a legitimate, sensible reason.
  • writing 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.sfwa.org [Source type: General]

.It is obvious that by multiplying the number of knots a number of points equal to the number of knots might in this way be referred to, though it is probable that the untrained memory would fail to recall the meaning attached to more than a very limited number of knots.^ Good writing matters, probably more than you think.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ The number indicating an argument to be formatted is less than zero, or greater than or equal to the number of provided objects to be formatted (1).
  • System.Console Class 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The number indicating an argument to be formatted is less than zero, or greater than or equal to the number of provided objects to be formatted (2).
  • System.Console Class 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: Reference]

The simplest application of these knots is in keeping a record of a number of days, as in the story related by Herodotus (iv. 98), to the effect that Darius, on crossing the Ister in his Scythian expedition, left with the Greeks appointed to guard the bridge a thong with a number of knots equal to the number of days that their watch over the bridge was to be continued. .One knot was to be undone each day, and if the king had not returned by the time that all the knots were undone, the Greeks were to break down the bridge and go away.^ For The "Over Fifty" Crowd Long ago and far away, in a land that time forgot, Before the days of Dylan, or the dawn of Camelot.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ One day, in '82, I climbed on a slide and sat down.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ About thirty minutes later he returned and told her "when you finished booking him, give him time served and let him go".
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

A development of this is found in the Peruvian quipus, which consists of a number of thongs or cords hanging from a top-band or cross-bar. In its simplified form, knots are merely tied upon the individual cords. In its more elaborate forms the cords are of different colours, and are knotted together so as to. form open loops of various shapes. .In the Antiguedades Peruanas, 1 we are told that the knots of the quipus in all probability indicated only numbers originally, but that as time went on the skill of the makers became so great that historical events, laws and edicts could thus be communicated.^ After that winter the only time I wore a shirt was when I went into eating places.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One may only take the EU for an example of a modern fascist organisation; it did after all start out as European Economic Community.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ The transporting sheriff's deputy told all inquirers to talk to me; those who did were amazed at my understanding and ability to communicate.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

.In every place of any importance there was an official whose business it was to interpret quipus received from a distance, and to make quipus himself.^ But there is also those people whom you are around with every day that can make you feel inspired.
  • 31 Ways to Find Inspiration for Your Writing | Write to Done 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writetodone.com [Source type: General]

^ He selected the hallowed place himself; there is 'the sepulchre, Oh, not of him, but of our joy!-- ...
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

If, however, the quipus which was received came from a distant province, it was not intelligible without an oral explanation. .Unfortunately, the art of interpretation of quipus is lost, so that it is impossible to ascertain how far the knots were merely a mnemonic for the messenger, and how far they were intelligible without explanation to a stranger.^ They are not merely mnemonic devices nor lists of ancestors nor purely ornamentic.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Similar mnemonics are said to have been used in the remotest antiquity amongst the Chinese, the Tibetans, and other peoples of the Old World.'^ Lecture: Chinese and Other Writing Systems in China and the World Reading: DeFrancis (2002) Suppl.
  • Marjorie Chan's C683. Study of the Chinese Writing System (Au 2006) 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC people.cohums.ohio-state.edu [Source type: Academic]

Similar in character to the quipus is the message-stick, which is still in use amongst the natives of Australia. A branch of a tree is taken and notches made upon it. .These are now cut with a knife; in earlier times they were made with the edge of a mussel shell.^ For some time now, Amazon has made it possible for readers to rank reviews, and it publishes the rank of every single reviewer on its site.

^ Shelley and Williams made longer excursions; they sailed several times to Massa.
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.The notches are made in the presence of the messenger, who receives his instructions while they are being made.^ They took me to Grambling's police chief who began a lecture about my being on parole.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During that stay I wrote the Fifth Circuit for their decision who replied they made the decision October 1987 to have it returned with no forwarding address.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

.The notches are thus merely aids to memory, and not self-explanatory, though if messages frequently passed between two persons, practice would in time help the person to whom the message was sent to guess at the 1 Quoted by Middendorf, Das Runa Simi oder die Keshua Sprache (Leipzig, 1890), p.^ A bilingual could be helpful in finding out this value and it would also give us greater security in regard to the language spoken in the Indus Valley at that time.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ But even if there would be a closer relation between the Indus script and Rongorongo, it would not be helpful in the decipherment of each of the two, because we do only compare the unknown with the unknown.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Buddhist parable, the unicorn has been replaced by the elephant, though the unicorn would have better suited the purpose, because the elephant is known even to a person that is blind by birth.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

8.
2 Cf. Andree, Ethnologische Parallelen and Vergleiche, i. p. 184 sqq.
meaning, even without a verbal explanation. .The following was the method of the Wotjoballuk of the Wimmera river in Victoria.' "The messenger carried the message-stick in a net bag, and on arriving at the camp to which he was sent, he handed it to the headman at some place apart from the others, saying to him, ` So-and-so sent you this,' and he then gives his message, referring as he does so to the notches on the message-stick; and if his message requires it, also enumerates the days or stages, as the case may be," by a method of counting on different parts of the body.^ Let me give you some good things that you can receive when you get an online writing job.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Once you’ve told the reader what he’s going to be reading about, then you can give him new information.

^ Barthel sticked unto his last days to his opinion that Hotu-matua arrived at the island in the 14th century (Fischer 1997: 642, n.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.For the purposes of communication with absent persons, however, another method commended itself, which in time was adopted also for mnemonic purposes.^ I’ve used all of these at one time or another, but freewriting is one of my favorite methods for coming up with ideas.
  • 31 Ways to Find Inspiration for Your Writing | Write to Done 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writetodone.com [Source type: General]

^ People offer advice with an eye toward the times they live in and sometimes that advice doesn’t translate to future media and communication methods.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

.This method was the beginning whence some forms at least of later writing have been derived.^ Today I will begin some reflective writing and extreme journaling.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.From the very earliest times to which the energy of man can be traced, date two kinds of writing: (a) engraving of a visible object on some hard substance, such as the flat surface of a bone; (b) drawing, painting or engraving marks which could again be identified.^ The erections where there were no conceptions were very weak, and there were times I don't get an erection at all for some girls.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I was willing to try any kind of writing press releases, crossword puzzles...I even wrote some text for a Nintendo DS game!
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ To some of them the man indicated the head, to some the ear, to some the tusk, to some the trunk, to some the belly, to some the leg, to some the back, so some the tail, to some the end of the tail, and each time he added, the elephant is like this.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Of the first kind are the engravings of reindeer, buffaloes and other animals by the cave men of prehistoric times; of the second are a large number of pebbles discovered by M. Ed.^ The rite was carried out after the first menses, at the same time the cave of imprisonment was opened.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Piette at Mas d'Azil, on the left bank of the Arize, an account of which was published by the discoverer in L'Anthropologie (1896), vii. 384 sqq. This layer of coloured pebbles is intercalated between the last layer of the Reindeer Age and the first of the Neolithic period. The layer is over 2 ft. thick, of a reddish-black colour, and along with the pebbles are found cinders, peroxide of .iron, teeth of deer perforated, probably in order to be strung like beads, harpoons of various kinds, and the bones of a large number of animals, some wheat, and, in the upper part of the layer, nuts, cherry-stones and plums.^ In the last part of my character revision series I made the case for why all your significant characters should have some kind of arc.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Normally, the upper part of the standard has the form of a net that is always smaller than the lower part looking like a vessel.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

The stones were coloured with peroxide of iron. .The characters are of two kinds: (a) a series of strokes which possibly indicate numbers, (b) graphic symbols.^ In the last part of my character revision series I made the case for why all your significant characters should have some kind of arc.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

The stones were scattered about without connexion or relation one with another. Whatever the meaning may be, it is clear that the markings are not accidental. .It is noticeable, however, that none of them definitely represent any animal, though some of them bear a certain resemblance to caterpillars or serpents.^ Inspite of its one horn, the Sumerian animal is definitely a bull, however.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The account of the triumph of the priests and the serviles, after the French invasion of Spain in 1823, bears a strong and frightful resemblance to some of the descriptions of the massacre of the patriots in the "Revolt of Islam".
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Others look like rough attempts to represent trees and river plants.^ The tree represented by the leaf and the sky can be related to each other, if the tree is regarded as the world tree, but this concept is unknown to the oral tradition of Easter Island.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

A great number closely resemble symbols of the alphabet. Piette himself was inclined to see in the symbols the forerunners of the later syllabaries and alphabets of the East, nine of them agreeing with forms in the Cypriot syllabary (see below) and eleven with those of the Phoenician alphabet. .A certain amount of likeness, however, could not well be avoided, for as soon as the artist advances beyond the single perpendicular or horizontal line he must, by crossing two lines, get forms which resemble alphabetical symbols.^ That a symbolic interpretation is subjective, can only be maintained to a certain extent: Symbols have to be regarded subjectively like old and modern art.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ So they avoid pointing out writing errors, choosing instead to praise the content – as though content and the ability to articulate it well were two unrelated things.

^ It is more likely, however, that it is based on the Indus script, whose geometric signs have much more similarity with the Brâhmî and the Greek and Latin alphabet than the Egyptian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.It might be therefore a safer conclusion to suppose that if they passed beyond magic symbols, to be buried like the Australian churinga, they were conventional marks understood by the members of the clan or tribe which frequented the caves of Mas d'Azil.^ When you place rules on magic to the point at which they become totally explainable and commonplace, much like the rules of gravity or physics, breaking them makes the magic *really* feel like magic.
  • Writing Excuses Episode 14: Magic Systems and their Rules » Writing Excuses 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www.writingexcuses.com [Source type: General]

^ They’re also less likely to be understood and more awkward to read.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

.It has been suggested that, like similar things among the American Indians, they may have been used in playing games or gambling.^ Project Gutenberg is a TradeMark and may not be used in any sales of Project Gutenberg eBooks or other materials be they hardware or software or any other related product without express permission.
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Practical SEO copywriting tips The main thing I like about Glenn’s books is that they are very usable.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ If they can be read as Melu hh a, as is suggested by the fish-sign, a similar appellation in another language may be found in the upper line.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.A very large number of conventional marks, however, are demonstrably reductions from still older forms, conventional marks often developing out of pictographs.^ It is often difficult to find out a reading of an Indus sign in the Veda that coincides with its pictographic form and with the amulet character of the seals.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ However, these are often written in shorthand, and are rarely edited before they go out.

^ As we neared Tallahassee, Florida discussing the "Beast" of Revelation 13 I said some people could take the mark, number, or name of the beast in their hand and still be saved.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

Pictography has, in fact, left its traces in all parts of the - world. It has, however, been most widely developed in the New World as a system lasting down to modern C. times. .The American Indians, besides picture-writing, used also (1) the simple mnemonic of a notched stick to record various incidents, such as the number of days spent on an expedition, the number of enemies slain and the like; (2) wampum belts, consisting of strung beads, which could be utilized as a mnemonic, exactly like a rosary.^ Writing outside the box can also be using the inspiration of past masters like “what Orwell can teach us about writing” The double advantage here is that Orwell has an authority that few net writers could ever [...
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ Sign B 2 is often used in connection with the sign for javelin or stick, vero (J 132), since both were regarded as something good, the stick, because it promoted fertility in various ways.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If you use the word utilize, in writing or speech, stab yourself repeatedly in the face with a broken beer bottle.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

.Wampum belts, however, were employed in more intricate forms; white beads indicated peace, purple or violet meant war.^ This drama, however, must not be judged for more than was meant.
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

Sometimes a pattern was made in the belt with beads of a different colour, as in the belt presented to s A. W. Howitt in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xviii. (1889), p. 318 sqq.
William Penn on the making of a treaty with the Leni-Lenape chiefs in 1682. Here, in the centre of the belt, two figures, intended to represent Penn and an Indian, join hands, thus clearly indicating a treaty. Very simple pictures are drawn upon birch bark, indicating by their order the subjects in a series of songchants with sufficient precision to enable the singer to recall the theme of each in his recitation. An account can be kept of sales or purchases by representing in perpendicular strokes the number of items, and adding at the end of each series a picture of the animal or object to which the particular series refers. Thus three strokes followed by the picture of a deer indicate that the hunter has brought three deer for sale. .A conventional symbol (a circle with a line across it) is used to indicate a dollar, a cross represents ten cents, and an upright stroke one cent, so that the price can be quite clearly set forth.^ The line terminator can be set using the System.IO.TextWriter.NewLine property of the System.Console.Out stream.
  • System.Console Class 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The line terminator can be set using theSystem.IO.TextWriter.NewLine property of the System.Console.Out stream.
  • System.Console Class 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The root grabh is not used in this sense in the Veda, but we come across the roots rî , to let flow (the line of writing) and rsh , to pierce, which can mean to write, too.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

This practice is followed in many other parts of the world. .In clay tablets discovered by Dr Arthur Evans during his exploration of the great palace at Knossos, in Crete, a somewhat similar method of enumeration is followed; while at Athens conventional symbols were used to distinguish drachmae and obols upon the revenue records, of which considerable fragments are still preserved.^ It cannot be denied, however, that both writing systems make use of a similar method of rendering words by pictograms and word sequences by ligatures and fusions.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.In comparatively recent times, according to Colonel Mallery (loth Annual Report of American Bureau of Ethnology), the Dakota Indians invented a chronological table, or winter count, wherein each year is recorded by a picture of some important event which befell during that year.^ My head is my study, & there I keep the various plans of stories for years some times, letting them grow as they will till I am ready to put them on paper.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Please show them we're not ALL poverty-stricken Marxist anti-consumerists: KevinKringle.com (it's getting to be some time of year, anyway) Moretosee.com...
  • greg.org: the making of: writing archives, by greg allen 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC greg.org [Source type: General]

^ This was an eventful year, and less time was given to study than usual.
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

In these pictures a considerable amount of symbolism was necessary. .A black upright stroke indicates that a Dakota Indian was killed, a rough outline of the head and body spotted with blotches indicates that in the year thus indicated the tribe suffered from smallpox.^ It may be an image of a leading priest, however, indicated by the ribbon with a third eye he wears round the head, which corresponds to the fish-sign with a stroke or eye.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Sometimes, in referring to persons, the symbol is of the nature of a rebus. Thus, Red Coat, an Indian chief, was killed in the winter of 1807-1808; this fact is recorded by a picture of a red coat with two arrows piercing it and blood dripping. .There is, however, nothing of the nature of a play upon words intended, and even when General Manyadier is represented as a figure in European dress, with the heads of two deer behind his head and connected with his mouth, no rebus was intended (many a deer), but the Indians supposed that his name really meant this, like their own names Big Crow, Little Beaver, and so forth.^ There is much, however, that speaks to the many.
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Boys and girls had a natural inclination to old men of dignity like the Timo in that time, even if there occurred some sort of resistance now and then.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ There is little doubt, however, that it is a contraction of haka iri , which has the meanings to climb up and to braid the hair.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Here the Mexicans proceeded a stage further, as in the often quoted case of the name of Itz-coati, literally knife-snake, which is ordinarily represented by a reptile (coati) with a number of knives (its) projecting from its back.^ On the presumption that the additional stroke of the man-sign represents a phallus, it can be read as the creator-god Daksha, whose name means potency literally.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.It is, however, also found divided into three words, itz-co-atl - knife-pot-water - and represented by a different picture accordingly.^ If you can write three different sentences using a word, then it will become part of your vocabulary.

^ It cost two cents US to cross the Rio Grand into the state of Chihuahua that left three cents United States and the 25 cents Mexican, I had found.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For each word, write three different sentences using the word.

.The Mexicans, moreover, to indicate that the picture was a proper name, drew the upper part of the human figure below the symbol, and joined them by a line, a practice adopted also amongst their northern neighbours when, as in names like Little-Ring, the representation would hardly be sufficiently definite.^ But, like everything he wrote, it breathes that deep sympathy for the sorrows of humanity, and indignation against its oppressors, which make it worthy of his name.
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Normally, the upper part of the standard has the form of a net that is always smaller than the lower part looking like a vessel.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Simple abstract notions could also be expressed in this picture-writing. Starvation or famine was graphically represented by a human figure with the ribs showing prominently. A noose amongst the Mexicans was the symbol for robbery, though more logically belonging to its punishment. In a Californian rock-painting reproduced by Mallery (p. 638), sorrow is represented by a figure from whose eyes drop tears. .This could be abbreviated to an eye with tears falling from it, a form recorded by Schoolcraft as existing amongst the Ojibwa Indians.^ Just prior to school's opening for the fall semester they both got on the bus with tear filled eyes, and I had mixed emotions but Linda's schooling took priority 35 .
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

The symbol is so obvious that it is found with the same value among Egyptian hieroglyphics.
.The civilization of the American Indians was nowhere very high, and for their simple needs this system, without further development, sufficed.^ Certainly, the founders of a high civilization can also be credited with the ability of developing a refined language like Sanskrit, that was from the very beginning the language of a small group of people, for the common people a Prakrit language like Pali, that served this purpose for the Buddhists, is better suitable.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Without further ado, here are my top nine character development tips from the past year.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Can you share some quick insights on how you developed plots and characters?My methods of work are very simple & soon told.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.It was different in the more elaborate civilizations which prevailed among the ancient peoples of the Old World, to whom with certainty the development of writing from pictography can be ascribed - the Assyrians (see Cuneiform), Egyptians (see Egypt) and Chinese (see China).^ The ancient world: Early writing from Mesopotamia and Egypt, 3100 B.C.--800 A.D. (a catalog) .
  • Bibliography on Writing Systems 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www.blatner.com [Source type: News]

Here more complex notions had to be expressed. The development of the system can be traced through many centuries, and, as might be expected, this development shows a tendency to conventionalize the pictorial symbols employed. Out of conventionalized forms develop (a) syllabaries, (b) alphabets. As regards the latter the historical evolution is traced in the article Alphabet. .The account given under China (language) gives a good idea of the development of a syllabary from pictographic writing.^ Read : Reading the work of good authors helps you develop a sense of how effective writing is constructed, and gives you a glimpse of the skill and artistry that goes into it.

^ Let me give you some good things that you can receive when you get an online writing job.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ This would imply to give up the idea that Sanskrit is older than any other language and that the Aryans are the supreme race.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.
.The Egyptian system of writing is perhaps the oldest of known scripts, and was carried on till the Ptolemaic period, when the more convenient Greek alphabet led to its gradual disuse.^ It is more likely, however, that it is based on the Indus script, whose geometric signs have much more similarity with the Brâhmî and the Greek and Latin alphabet than the Egyptian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Writing systems of the world: Alphabets, syllabaries, pictograms .
  • Bibliography on Writing Systems 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www.blatner.com [Source type: News]

^ Besides, the Indus script is one of the oldest writings that were conceived by the human mind going back to the era of the bull 3000 years before the beginning of our era.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Egyptian. But, as in Chinese, the fact that it was so long in use led to the conventionalizing of the pictures, and in many cases to a complete divorcement between the symbol and the sound represented, the original word having often become obsolete.^ Learn the differences between “sound-alikes” and commonly confused words, and use them correctly : You want your reader to focus on what you have to say, but mistakes are distractions that will grab a reader’s attention and interrupt the flow of your writing.

^ If you can write three different sentences using a word, then it will become part of your vocabulary.

^ Motorcycle Guy on 21.04.2007 at 22:57 ( Reply ) I definitely agree with not using big words when a long one will do.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

In this case it is no longer possible to trace it. .Attempts have been made to connect the three great pictographic systems of the Old World, some authorities holding that the Chinese migrated eastwards from Babylonia, while others contend that the civilization of Egypt sprang originally from the valley of the Euphrates, and that the ancient Egyptians were of the same stock as the Somali and were overlaid and permeated by a Semitic conquest and civilization.^ Many scholars believe that the Brâhmî alphabet is based on the Old Semitic script going back to the Phoenicians who are said to have developed it from the Egyptian script at a time when it was still pictographic.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ This has promoted already the deciphering of other ancient scripts like the Egyptian and the Mesopotamian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Especially in our ever changing world, we consistently need to be on top of the “game” and “thinking outside of the box” to contend with the other products and services… Snappy Sentences .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.But there is no clear evidence that the Egyptian system of writing was not a development in the Nile Valley itself, or that it was either the descendant or the parent of the pictographic system which developed into the cuneiform of Assyria and neighbouring lands.^ There is no secret to good writing.

^ If our people are not capable of making fine products, or if they haven’t the will to do so, then not only will XYZ fall short of our goals, but there will be no hope of growth and development.

^ Even though there is no teacher grading our writing, evaluations continue – and grammar counts, spelling counts, capitalization counts.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

.Egyptian started from the same point as every other pictographic system - the representation of the object or the concrete expression of the idea.^ Writes the text representation of a specified object to the System.Console.Out TextWriter .
  • System.Console Class 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Otherwise, the object's System.Object.ToString method is called to produce the string representation, and the resulting string is written to the output stream.
  • System.Console Class 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Writes the text representation of a specified object followed by a line terminator to the System.Console.Out TextWriter .
  • System.Console Class 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: Reference]

.But, like the Chinese, it took the further step, short of which the American Indian pictographs stopped; it converted its pictures into a syllabary from which there was an imperfect development towards an alphabet.^ If our people are not capable of making fine products, or if they haven’t the will to do so, then not only will XYZ fall short of our goals, but there will be no hope of growth and development.

^ Because if the book wasn't listed, like there's no possible way in a million years they would even take this conversation any further.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Egyptian, however, never became alphabetic in the sense in which the western languages of modern Europe are alphabetic.^ It will be accepted, however, by modern Western society, when a woman has two lovers.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It is more likely, however, that it is based on the Indus script, whose geometric signs have much more similarity with the Brâhmî and the Greek and Latin alphabet than the Egyptian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

This is attributed to the natural conservatism of the people, and the influence of the artist scribes, who, as Mr F. Ll. .Griffith has pointed out, "fully appreciated the effect of decorative writing; to have limited their choice of signs by alphabetic signs would have constituted a serious loss to that highly important body."^ The most striking parallel is that some pictograms look identical, as was pointed out already by G. de Hevesy, though he relied on insufficient renderings of the signs.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The most important point of objection is, however, that even if the signs of the Indus script were similar to Rongorongo signs, they need not have the same meaning.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m grateful to John Wesley for pointing them out in his article George Orwell’s 5 Rules for Effective Writing.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

.The effect of this love for decoration, combined with a desire for precision, is shown by the repetition several times over in the symbols of the sounds contained in a word.^ If you re-read a paragraph you’ve written and find that you’ve used the same word several times, you can vary it with alternatives found in your thesaurus.

^ The words atu ki are transformed by her several times into tuki , to unite (in a sexual sense), which is philologically wrong, but gives a good suggestion of the meaning of the text.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ They have been transmitted orally until our time, but nonetheless they contain several words that can be related to writing and writer.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

The development of Egyptian was exactly parallel to Chinese. A combination of sounds, which was originally the name of an object, was represented by the picture of that object. .This picture again, like Chinese, and like the Indian name "Little-Ring," required at the end a determinative - a picture of the kind of object intended - in order to avoid ambiguity.^ I asked to read the law to the court but John L. objected, so I asked if he knew the Louisiana law requires a judge or magistrate to issue a restraining order.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

.As the alphabet represented only consonants and semiconsonants, and the Egyptian roots consisted mostly of only three letters, the parallelism with Chinese is remarkably close.^ With no money I ate mostly from citrus trees, getting only enough for one meal, six oranges, six tangerines, or three grapefruit.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

.The cuneiform script spread to other people who spoke tongues in no way akin to those of either its inventors, the Sumerians, or their conquerors, the Semitic Babylonians.^ The cause for no erections is the internal natures of the two people are not opposing each other to manifest in the flesh as a sexual attraction.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before that time, what man is to do must be shown, what is expected of our lives must be made known, readying others for that, those who will and can, is what I am about.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While we cannot solicit donations from people in states where we are not yet registered, we know of no prohibition against accepting donations from donors in these states who approach us with an offer to donate.
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

.A widespread Hittite. series of inscriptions, found in many parts of Asia and even in the Aegean, which are generally described as Hittite (q.v.^ Surprisingly, the parts of the elephant that are touched by the blind are all found in the inscription of the broken unicorn-seal 2317 .
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

) are written in a script of pictographic origin, though probably independent of Babylonian in its development.
It is noteworthy that at a very early period a colony of Greeks from the Peloponnese, speaking a dialect closely akin to the Arcadian dialect (which is known to us only from a much later C yprian. period), had settled in the island of Cyprus. .Alone among the Greeks this colony did not write in an alphabet, but under some Asiatic influence adopted a syllabary.^ Some business owners don’t recognize – or care to acknowledge – how their employees’ writing influences the success of the business.

.Even when the island came again closely in touch with their Greek kinsfolk, after the Persian wars, the Greek inhabitants continued to write in their syllabary.^ Even though there is no teacher grading our writing, evaluations continue – and grammar counts, spelling counts, capitalization counts.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

.In the recent excavations made by the authorities of the British Museum an inscription of the 4th century B.C. was discovered, whereon a dedication to Demeter and Persephone was given first in Greek letters and repeated below in the syllabary, the Greek (as universally at so late a period) reading from left to right, the syllabary from right to left.^ In Akkadian the three signs of the seal render, read from left to right, sak-ku-i.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Right around a year ago now, I made my first cent online.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The pictorial form of the sign has been retained in several inscriptions, the most famous among them is from Dholavira and has been excavated only recently.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.This syllabary has five vowel symbols, but it could not distinguish between long and short vowels.^ The settlement of Easter Island and the war between the long-ears and the short-ears .
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The settlement of Easter Island and the war between the long-ears and the short-ears 3.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

In its consonant system it is unable to distinguish between breathed, voiced and aspirated stops, thus having but one symbol to represent re, Se and 0€. It is, of course, unable to represent a final consonant, but this is achieved by using the symbol for a syllable ending in e conventionally for the final consonant. Thus ka-se stands for Kas, the Cyprian equivalent of Kai, " and." There are symbols for ta, for te, for ti, for to, for tit, though none for t, and similarly for most of the other consonants. There is, however, no symbol for wu (Fv); ya, ye, yi occur, but no yo or yu. Angirrpc is expressed by ta-ma-ti-ri, where ti stands for t alone; sa-ta-sa-to-ro stands or ET avavSpcw (genitive). .Here it is to be observed (I) that v preceding another consonant is omitted altogether, the vowel being probably nasalized as in French; (2) that, as in the previous word, there is a sort of vowel euphony whereby the unnecessary vowel accompanying t takes the colour of the succeeding vowel.^ We all want to be successful freelancers and the key to getting there comes in just one simple word: ACTION If you want to be a successful freelancer you need to take action.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

In other cases, however, it follows the preceding vowel, as in a-ri-si-to-pa-to-o-a-ri-si-ta-gora-u ='Apw-rbcbavTo(s) 6 'Apcvray6pov.
.For literature on the history of writing, see the bibliographies to the articles Alphabet, &c., and under the headings of the various languages and peoples.^ With fiction writing exercises that focus on character creation, you can start building skills that allow you get under your character’s skin and get inside his head.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ George Orwell’s 5 Rules for Effective Writing In our society, the study of language and literature is the domain of poets, novelists, and literary critics.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ George Orwell’s 5 Rules for Effective Writing Filed under: Uncategorized — recar @ 10:00 am George Orwell’s 5 Rules for Effective Writing In our society, the study of language and literature is the domain of poets, novelists, and literary critics.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]



Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

.
The art of writing must have been known in the time of the early Pharaohs.
^ Before that time, what man is to do must be shown, what is expected of our lives must be made known, readying others for that, those who will and can, is what I am about.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Spend even a short time reading through blogs and you’ll quickly realize that a lot of blog-space is spent discussing the art of writing.

^ A reprise from the early days of the Literary Ladies blog:Dear Literary Ladies,I always thought that one needed great swathes of time to get any writing done.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Moses is commanded "to write for a memorial in a book" (Ex 17:14) a record of the attack of Amalek. .Frequent mention is afterwards made of writing (28:11, 21, 29, 36; 31:18; 32:15, 16; 34:1, 28; 39:6, 14, 30).^ Welcome to the March 30, 2007 edition of blog promotion carnival « Savvyhua on 16.12.2009 at 13:18 [...
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ Net Writing on 25.11.2007 at 13:32 [...
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ What would Orwell say of theological writing> at once more with feeling on 14.08.2007 at 21:04 [...
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

.The origin of this art is unknown, but there is reason to conclude that in the age of Moses it was well known.^ Though the number may be exaggerated, there is no reason to attribute the origin of the script to another source than that of the first settlers.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The inspired books of Moses are the most ancient extant writings, although there are written monuments as old as about B.C. 2000. The words expressive of "writing," "book," and "ink," are common to all the branches or dialects of the Semitic language, and hence it has been concluded that this art must have been known to the earliest Semites before they separated into their various tribes, and nations, and families.^ Write each new word into the book along with its definition.

^ It took thirty years of writing and publishing poetry, huge critical aclaim, years of experience of teaching and reading before Heaney had the competence and confidence in his own mastery of language that he dared to write a poem containing the word “soul”.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ The spoken contraction sounds more like “would of” than “would have”, but only “would have” is correct when you’re writing the phrase as two separate words.

."The Old Testament and the discoveries of Oriental archaeology alike tell us that the age of the Exodus was throughout the world of Western Asia an age of literature and books, of readers and writers, and that the cities of Palestine were stored with the contemporaneous records of past events inscribed on imperishable clay.^ It is not necessary to write grammatical forms, if the oral tradition is known to the writer and the reader alike.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Choice Specimens of American Literature, and Literary Reader Being Selections from the Chief American Writers (English) (as Author) Martin, Bob .
  • Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.They further tell us that the kinsfolk and neighbours of the Israelites were already acquainted with alphabetic writing, that the wanderers in the desert and the tribes of Edom were in contact with the cultured scribes and traders of Ma'in [Southern Arabia], and that the 'house of bondage' from which Israel had escaped was a land where the art of writing was blazoned not only on the temples of the gods, but also on the dwellings of the rich and powerful.", Sayce.^ Regular readers are familiar with you and your content, so they’re already keyed into how you write and what you’re about.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ What are our supreme overlords going to do to us that they’re not already doing to us today?
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ What does this tell us about headline writing for the Web?
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

(See DEBIR �T0000995; PHOENICIA.)
The "Book of the Dead" was a collection of prayers and formulae, by the use of which the souls of the dead were supposed to attain to rest and peace in the next world. It was composed at various periods from the earliest time to the Persian conquest. .It affords an interesting glimpse into the religious life and system of belief among the ancient Egyptians.^ History of Religion A Sketch of Primitive Religious Beliefs and Practices, and of the Origin and Character of the Great Systems (English) (as Author) Menzies, Sutherland, fl.
  • Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.We learn from it that they believed in the existence of one Supreme Being, the immortality of the soul, judgement after death, and the resurrection of the body.^ I envy death the body far less than the oppressors the minds of those whom they have torn from me.
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Without being aware of them, they at one time acted on his suggestions, and gained the day.
  • The Complete Poetical Works ofPercy Bysshe Shelley - Mary Shelley - Famous Creator Series 15 January 2010 6:42 UTC www.writersmugs.com [Source type: Original source]

It shows, too, a high state of literary activity in Egypt in the time of Moses. It refers to extensive libraries then existing. That of Ramessium, in Thebes, e.g., built by Rameses II., contained 20,000 books.
.When the Hebrews entered Canaan it is evident that the art of writing was known to the original inhabitants, as appears, e.g., from the name of the city Debir having been at first Kirjath-sepher, i.e., the "city of the book," or the "book town" (Josh 10:38; 15:15; Jdg 1:11).^ March Contests originally appeared on About.com Fiction Writing on Monday, January 25th, 2010 at 07:28:50.Permalink .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The first report of the settlement of the Island goes also under the name of J.W. Thomson, but the real author is probably A. Salmon, since the original in Rapanui is missing here.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ I reached Jacksonville the first part of March where I attended a Baptist minister's allowance and was told "write it in a book, people will read what you have to say but they will not listen."
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first mention of letter-writing is in the time of David (2 Sam 11:14, 15).^ Try to read the letter as though you were reading it for the first time.

^ Blog Archive » George Orwells 5 Rules for Effective Writing on 14.11.2007 at 07:24 [...
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ I can’t tell you how many times people have come to me, holding an empty piece of paper, saying, “I have to write this letter and I don’t know how to begin.” .

.Letters are afterwards frequently spoken of (1 Kg 21:8, 9, 11; 2Kg 10:1, 3, 6, 7; 19:14; 2Chr 21:12-15; 30:1, 6-9, etc.^ Blog Archive » 10 Most Annoying Phrases on 30.11.2008 at 14:11 [...
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ Comment 10 (asdf at 21.03.2007 12:59) .
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ Revelation 19:10-1 6 Zechariah 14:4 7 John 1:46 8 Genesis 49:8-12 & Micah.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

).
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)
This article needs to be merged with WRITING (Jewish Encyclopedia).

Simple English

File:Edwin Smith Papyrus
The Edwin Smith papyrus, the world's oldest surviving surgical document. Written in hieratic script in ancient Egypt around 1600 B.C., the text describes anatomical observations and the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of 48 types of medical problems in exquisite detail. Plate 6 and 7 of the papyrus, pictured here, discuss facial trauma.

Writing is the act of recording language on a visual medium using a set of symbols. The symbols must be known to others, so that the text may be read.

A text may also use other visual systems, such as illustrations and decorations. These are not called writing, but may help the message work. Usually, all educated people in a country use the same writing system to record the same language. To be able to read and write is to be literate.

Writing differs from speech because the readers need not be present at the time. We can read writing from long ago, and from different parts of the world. It works across time and space. It stores and communicates knowledge. Writing is one of the greatest inventions of the human species. It was invented after people had settled in towns, and after agriculture had started. Writing dates from about 3,300BC, which is over 5000 years ago, in the Middle East. [[File:|thumb|right|200px|Scribe at work.]]

A variety of writing materials were invented, long before paper. Clay, papyrus, wood, slate and parchment (prepared animal skins) have all been used. The Romans wrote on waxed tablets with a pointed pen; this was popular for temporary notes and messages. The later invention of paper by the Chinese was a big step forward.[1][2][3][4]

The medium used today is usually paper, though there is technology to print on almost any surface. Media such as television and movie screens can also be used to display writing, and so can computer screens.

Writing is traditionally done using a hand tool such as a pencil, a pen, or a brush. More and more, however, text is created by input on a computer keyboard.

Contents

History of writing

Writing was invented independently a number of times. The Sumerian, the Ancient Egyptian, the Chinese and the Mayan writings are separate in their invention.[5][6]p85 All these writing systems started with pictographs, symbols that stood for things. Then they developed a mixture of methods. Our own alphabetic system is different. It is based on the sounds of spoken language. All alphabets are modified versions of the first one, which originated with the Phoenicians and the Ancient Greeks.

Sumer

The Sumerians lived in Mesopotamia,[7] between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. 5000 years ago this was a fertile region and is now mostly in Iraq. The Sumerians developed a form of writing called cuneiform.[8] Triangular marks were pressed into soft clay tablets. After the clay had dried in the sun the tablets were baked. Then they were carried somewhere else for others to read. We know that its first uses were for trade, accounting and administration.

The earliest signs were mostly pictorial, but soon they stood as symbols for objects, ideas and sounds. This writing system was extremely successful, and outlasted the Sumerian empire. It was then used by other civilisations in the Middle East, such as the Old Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Elamite, Hittite, Old Persian and Ugaritic empires. The last cuneiform inscription was dated as AD75. Thus the system had lasted for more than 3000 years.[1]p71 Each version of cuneiform had to be deciphered separately, because all the languages were different. Documents (including stone objects) written in more than one language provided the clues.

Ancient Egypt

[[File:|thumb|right|200px|Hieroglyphs on stone; Ramses II statue behind]] This is the most famous of the old forms of writing, or scripts. It was invented at roughly the same time as cuneiform, yet was quite different in style, and used different materials. Egyptians ended up with three writing systems for the same language. They were:

1. Hieroglyphic: the famous pictorial language on stone monuments.
2. Hieratic: a cursive (writing) script used by the priests.
3. Demotic: a cursive script used by the people.

The two cursive scripts were written with reed pens and carbon inks onto papyrus, also by brush onto cloth. Many examples survive. The hieroglyphs were carved into stone or painted onto stone surfaces. Many survive, some with the original colours intact. The key event in the decipherment of hieroglyphic writing was the discovery of the Rosetta Stone. This is a granite slab with the same message written in hieroglyphic, demotic and in Greek. Ancient Greek is well understood, and made possible the interpretation of the other two scripts.

Chinese

Chinese is the language with the largest number of native speakers. Its history dates back to about 1400BC.[1]p183 The Chinese writing system is idio-syllabic, a mixed method using characters which may have one or more of these elements:

1. Pictographic: representing objects.
2. Visual logic: the number '3' is three horizontal strokes.
3. Complex logic: the sun is a box with a horizontal mid-stroke.
4. Rebus: "sounds like..." the character for wheat is also used for 'come' because the words are homophonous (sound alike).
5. Semantic-phonetic: combination of a character for meaning with another for sound (pronunciation).

s. The black are in traditional Chinese, and the red are in simplified Chinese.]]

Chinese has a huge number of characters: in the region of 50,000.[1]p186 Because of this, printing methods were never really successful in China, despite their early invention. In the 14th century, Wang Tzhen, had sixty thousand wood block characters cut, a huge investment in time and money. He printed 100 copies of a local gazette, and was author of a treatise on agriculture and other technical works. Even with printing machines from Europe in the 19th century, the process was hampered by the huge number of characters, which slowed the composition to a snail's pace.[9]

China has eight regional languages that are mutually unintelligible, and many true dialects. The system appears to work mainly because as many as 70% speak Mandarin. Fluency in Chinese reading and writing is undoubtedly difficult to achieve, and this must act as a brake on the drive for literacy. There have been a number of attempts to reform or simplify the system. The most radical in Pinyin, which is a program to replace Chinese characters with an alphabetic system. This was supported by Mao, but faltered after his death.

Alphabets

It seems that the idea of an alphabet – a script based entirely upon sound – arose only once, and has been copied and adapted to suit many different languages. Although no alphabet fits its language perfectly, it is flexible enough to fit any language approximately. It was a unique invention.[10]p12

File:Causa
13th century calligraphy & illustration

Our alphabet is called the Roman alphabet, as compared with the Cyrillic and other alphabets. All of these come from the ancient Greek alphabet, which dates back to about 1100 to 800BC.[1]p167 The Greek alphabet was probably developed from the Phoenician script, which appeared somewhat earlier, and had some similar letter-shapes.

The Phoenicians spoke a Semitic language, usually called Canaanite. The Semitic group of languages includes Arabic, Maltese, Hebrew and also Aramaic, the language spoken by Jesus. We do not know much about how the alphabetic idea arose, but the Phoenicians, a trading people, came up with letters which were adapted by the early Greeks to produce their alphabet. The one big difference is that the Phoenician script had no pure vowels. Arabic script has vowels which may, but do not have to be, shown by diacritics (small marks above or below the line).[11] The oldest Qu'ran manuscripts had no diacritics,[12] and Israeli children to about the third grade use texts with vowel 'dots' added.[6]p89

No ancient script, alphabetic or not, had pure vowels before the Greeks. The Greek alphabet even has two vowels for 'e' and two for 'o', to distinguish between the long and short sounds.[13] It is fairly clear from this that careful thought went into both the Phoenician invention and the Greek adaptation. However, no details survive of either process.[4]

Semitic scripts apparently derive from Proto-Sinaitic, a script of which only 31 inscriptions (plus 17 doubtful) are known. It is thought by some researchers that the original source of this script was the Egyptian hieratic script. By the late Middle Kingdom (about 1900BC) hieratic had added some alphabetic signs for representing the consonants of foreign names. Egyptian activity in Sinai was at its height at that time.[14] A similar idea had been suggested many years previously.[15]

Undeciphered scripts

There are a number of scripts which have never been deciphered,[16] despite much effort.[1]p145 Perhaps the most famous are the script of the Indus Valley civilization, and the Etruscan script. The Indus River[17] civilisation predates other literate civilisations on the Indian subcontinent, going back to about 2500BC. Their cities of Mohenjo-Daru and Harappa were well-planned, with good drainage. The script is found on seal stones,[18] terracotta,[19] bronze, bone and ivory. All are brief, and the language is unknown.

The Etruscan language used Greek letter-forms, and is found mainly on Etruscan tombs, from Tuscany through to Venice. They were an empire before the Romans, who defeated them, and absorbed their ideas. All knowledge of their language was lost, except that some of the names on tomb memorials can be read from the Greek letters.

Literacy

It is only in the last 150 years that most people have been able to read and write in Europe and North America. In many other parts of the world this did not happen until the 20th century. Until then, literacy was mainly for clerics, that is, people who had training as priests. Even wealthy people were often illiterate, and used scribes to write for them. The invention of printing came before mass literacy. Before 1500, each book had to be created by hand, so there were few books available compared to the billions in the world today. Mass literacy needed cheap books.

Even now, there is still widespread illiteracy.[20]

Handwriting

The ordinary use of writing by means of a pen and paper. Can refer to writing for oneself, as in a diary, but mostly it refers to sending letters. Once it was almost the only means of communication between people who were separated. Now, the telephone and e-mail are the most common means of distance communication.

Other pages

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Robinson. Andrew 1995. The story of writing. Thames & Hudson, London.
  2. Christin, Anne-Marie (ed) A history of writing. Flammarion, Paris.
  3. Gaur, Albertine 1992. A history of writing. 3rd ed.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Diringer, David 1968. The alphabet: a key to the history of mankind. 2 vols, Hutchinson, London.
  5. Some authorities have suggested that Egyptian hieroglyphs arose from Sumeriam writing. There is no direct evidence for this, and their scripts and methods of writing are entirely different.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Ong, Walter J. 1982. Orality and literacy: the technologising of the word. Methuen, London.
  7. Meaning 'between the rivers'.
  8. 'Cuneus' being Latin for 'wedge', hence cuneiform = wedge-shaped.
  9. Composition: the arrangement of the individual characters on a frame for the purpose of printing.
  10. Man, John 2000. Alpha Beta: how our alphabet shaped the western world. Headline, London.
  11. The modern practice in printed Arabic is not to use diacritics
  12. enWP Arabic diacritics
  13. Short 'e' is ε epsilon, long 'e' is η eta. Short 'o' is o o micron; long 'o' is ω o mega. Languages other than Semitic have copied the Greek or Roman alphabets, making such changes as seem right for their particular language.
  14. Sass B. 1988. The genesis of the alphabet, and its development in the 2nd millenium. Wiesbaden.
  15. Gardiner, Alan 1916. The Egyptian origin of the alphabet. J. Egyptian Archaeology III.
  16. Decipher: to translate an unknown text into a known language.
  17. Sindh/Gujarat
  18. Stones used for making a personal mark.
  19. Earthenware
  20. The UN estimated that, in 1998, about 16% of the world's population were illiterate.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of November 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mary Shelley, which are similar to those in the above article.








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