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Official scripts at the national level, with selected regional and minority scripts.
Alphabet Latin Cyrillic&Latin Greek Georgian Armenian Logographic+Syllabic Hanzi (L) Kana (2S)+Kanji(L) Hangul(Featural-alphabetic S)+limited Hanja(L)
Abjad Arabic&Latin Hebrew Abugida N, S Indic Ethiopic Thaana Canadian Syllabic
Writing systems of the world today.      Latin (alphabetic)      Cyrillic (alphabetic)      Hangul (featural alphabetic)      Other alphabets      Arabic (abjad)      Other abjads      Devanagari (abugida)      Other abugidas      Syllabaries      Chinese characters (logographic)
Kielitynkäkuva.png
Writing systems
History
Grapheme
List of writing systems
Types
Featural alphabet
Alphabet
Abjad
Abugida
Syllabary
Logography
Related topics
Pictogram
Ideogram
.A writing system is a type of symbolic system used to represent elements or statements expressible in language.^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ At any rate, the word decipherment should not be used by those who have nothing more to tell, but that symbolic writings are no writings at all.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It cannot be denied, however, that both writing systems make use of a similar method of rendering words by pictograms and word sequences by ligatures and fusions.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Contents

General properties

.Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that one must usually understand something of the associated spoken language to comprehend the text.^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ I am one of those traditionalists who believe that, in order to write a good crime novel today, you must have read and studied the greats of the genre.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ To read a syllabic writing is not more difficult than reading a letter script, if one is conversant with the oral tradition and the symbolic conception behind the pictograms.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

By contrast, other possible symbolic systems such as information signs, painting, maps and mathematics often do not require prior knowledge of a spoken language.
Every human community possesses language, a feature regarded by many as an innate and defining condition of mankind. .However the development of writing systems, and the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication has been sporadic, uneven and slow.^ If we do not succeed in reading the pictograms of a remote writing system, we are not entitled to hold this system and those who have developed it, responsible for it.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not necessary to write grammatical forms, if the oral tradition is known to the writer and the reader alike.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ These kinds of decisions are just going to slow down the writing process.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Once established, writing systems on the whole change more slowly than their spoken counterparts, and often preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language.^ Most people in business are more comfortable speaking than writing, so why not… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The only reason I write is because it interests me more than any other activity I've ever found.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ To read a syllabic writing is not more difficult than reading a letter script, if one is conversant with the oral tradition and the symbolic conception behind the pictograms.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The great benefit of writing systems is their ability to maintain a persistent record of information expressed in a language, which can be retrieved independently of the initial act of formulation.^ I have lately kept praising the age in which we live, because of the great, indeed divine gift of the new kind of writing (delivery system).
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

All writing systems require:
  • at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed characters and collectively called a script;
  • at least one set of rules and conventions (orthography) understood and shared by a community, which arbitrarily assign meaning to the base elements (graphemes), their ordering and relations to one another;
  • at least one language (generally spoken) whose constructions are represented and able to be recalled by the interpretation of these elements and rules;
  • some physical means of distinctly representing the symbols by application to a permanent or semi-permanent medium, so they may be interpreted (usually visually, but tactile systems have also been devised).

Basic terminology

A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia.
.The study of writing systems has developed along partially independent lines in the examination of individual scripts and as such the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field.^ If we do not succeed in reading the pictograms of a remote writing system, we are not entitled to hold this system and those who have developed it, responsible for it.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ History renders no example for a true symbolic writing having developed from a letter script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Two Systems of Symbolic Writing Two Systems of Symbolic Writing - The Indus Script and the Rongorongo Script of Easter Island .
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The generic term text may be used to refer to an individual product of a writing system.^ Brian Shone writes: I work for the NHS and I attend many meetings during the week, a common term used throughout each meeting is “and also” this I believe is incorrect.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It cannot be denied, however, that both writing systems make use of a similar method of rendering words by pictograms and word sequences by ligatures and fusions.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

The act of composing a text may be referred to as writing, and the act of interpreting the text as reading. .In the study of writing systems, orthography refers to the method and rules of observed writing structure (literal meaning, "correct writing"), and in particular for alphabetic systems, includes the concept of spelling.^ It cannot be denied, however, that both writing systems make use of a similar method of rendering words by pictograms and word sequences by ligatures and fusions.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

A grapheme is the technical term coined to refer to the specific base or atomic units of a given writing system. .Graphemes are the minimally significant elements which taken together comprise the set of "building blocks" out of which texts of a given writing system may be constructed, along with rules of correspondence and use.^ George Orwell’s 5 Rules of Effective Writing (check this out too).
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ I’m grateful to John Wesley for pointing them out in his article George Orwell’s 5 Rules for Effective Writing.
  • Effective Writing - George Orwell - PickTheBrain | Motivation and Self Improvement 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.pickthebrain.com [Source type: General]

^ While whom may sound outdated, it can pose a problem, especially if you’re writing for an erudite audience, or if you are a stickler for using words properly and adhering to the rules of grammar.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

The concept is similar to that of the phoneme used in the study of spoken languages. .For example, in the Latin-based writing system of standard contemporary English, examples of graphemes include the majuscule and minuscule forms of the twenty-six letters of the alphabet (corresponding to various phonemes), marks of punctuation (mostly non-phonemic), and a few other symbols such as those for numerals (logograms for numbers).^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If we do not succeed in reading the pictograms of a remote writing system, we are not entitled to hold this system and those who have developed it, responsible for it.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It is more likely, however, that it is based on the Indus script, whose geometric signs have much more similarity with the Brâhmî and the Greek and Latin alphabet than the Egyptian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Note that an individual grapheme may be represented in a wide variety of ways, where each variation is visually distinct in some regard, but all are interpreted as representing the "same" grapheme.^ In the same way as these two lines, all the four tablets that were read by Metoro can be translated.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of you may have noticed my short tweet last night about a special treat for you all on the site.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In some ways, the title of this post says it all.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

These individual variations are known as allographs of a grapheme (compare with the term allophone used in linguistic study). For example, the minuscule letter a has different allographs when written as a cursive, block, or typed letter. .The selection between different allographs may be influenced by the medium used, the writing instrument, the stylistic choice of the writer and the largely unconscious features of an individual's handwriting.^ Choice Specimens of American Literature, and Literary Reader Being Selections from the Chief American Writers (English) (as Author) Martin, Bob .
  • Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The terms glyph, sign and character are sometimes used to refer to a grapheme. Common usage varies from discipline to discipline; compare cuneiform sign, Maya glyph, Chinese character. .The glyphs of most writing systems are made up of lines (or strokes) and are therefore called linear, but there are glyphs in non-linear writing systems made up of other types of marks, such as Cuneiform and Braille.^ Pick up a book or magazine or check out a writing website such as… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Freelance writing jobs are probably the most popular types of internet based jobs.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Thanks for all the feedback to my post, Making More Time To Write: Cleaning Up Your Inbox and Improving Your E-mail System.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Writing systems are conceptual systems, as are the languages to which they refer. .Writing systems may be regarded as complete according to the extent to which they are able to represent all that may be expressed in the spoken language.^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If they can be read as Melu hh a, as is suggested by the fish-sign, a similar appellation in another language may be found in the upper line.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ They are sometimes even composed according to the rule of tension, climax and balance found in all works of poetry and music.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

History of writing systems

Table of scripts in the introduction to Sanskrit-English Dictionary by Monier Monier-Williams
.Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic and/or early mnemonic symbols.^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Two Systems of Symbolic Writing Two Systems of Symbolic Writing - The Indus Script and the Rongorongo Script of Easter Island .
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

The best known examples are:
The invention of the first writing systems is roughly contemporary with the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic of the late 4th millennium BC. .The Sumerian archaic cuneiform script and the Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400–3200 BC with earliest coherent texts from about 2600 BC.^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Before my eyes drooped so low I had to crawl between the covers, about 2500 words had bubbled forth, and they were nothing I’d envisioned or considered writing.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In the meantime, the rules that have been applied for the decipherment of the Indus script and the Easter Island script have also been proved successful in reading the Disk of Phaistos, which is inscribed by another unknown symbolic writing, the Cretan hieroglyphs (cf.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The Chinese script likely developed independently of the Middle Eastern scripts, around 1600 BC.^ Ure Vaeiko had been a cook of Ngaara, the last independent king of Easter Island, who died around 1850, and had learnt the script from the king directly.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The pre-Columbian Mesoamerican writing systems (including among others Olmec and Maya scripts) are also generally believed to have had independent origins.^ Two Systems of Symbolic Writing Two Systems of Symbolic Writing - The Indus Script and the Rongorongo Script of Easter Island .
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.It is thought that the first true alphabetic writing appeared around 2000 BC, as a representation of language developed for Semitic slaves in Egypt by Egyptians (see History of the alphabet).^ Plan first or write and see where it goes?
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ History renders no example for a true symbolic writing having developed from a letter script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m not sure of the exact date of publication for this piece, but I believe it was in early 2000…around the same time those “Totally Organic (and extremely inappropriate ) Experience” commercials were all over TV. It’s fun to see how my writing has… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Most other alphabets in the world today either descended from this one innovation, many via the Phoenician alphabet, or were directly inspired by its design.^ If the Easter Islanders had had obtained any knowledge of a script in their former homeland, it can either be a derivative of Chinese or one of the many branches of the Brâhmî script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Other people have written about the power of one word, something I’ve read a lot about via singer-songwriter-blogger-coach Christine Kane.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ One person inspired this particular story, but her story is the story of many people I know.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Functional classification of writing systems

This textbook for Puyi shows the English alphabet. Although the English letters run from left to right, the Chinese explanations run from top to bottom, as traditionally written.
.The oldest-known forms of writing were primarily logographic in nature, based on pictographic and ideographic elements.^ It is not necessary to write grammatical forms, if the oral tradition is known to the writer and the reader alike.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Most writing systems can be broadly divided into three categories: logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic (or segmental); however, all three may be found in any given writing system in varying proportions, often making it difficult to categorise a system uniquely.^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Constant interruptions and turmoil make it difficult to write as a profession.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ His rendering does not agree at all with the philological data, however: May it rain from the sky on the two earths of Hotu-matua!
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The term complex system is sometimes used to describe those where the admixture makes classification problematic.^ Well, I found a little system that helped me make better use of the information I come across while,… Fritinancy .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It cannot be denied, however, that both writing systems make use of a similar method of rendering words by pictograms and word sequences by ligatures and fusions.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Type Each symbol represents Example
Logographic morpheme Chinese characters
Syllabic syllable Japanese kana
Alphabetic phoneme (consonant or vowel) Latin alphabet
Abugida phoneme (consonant+vowel) Indian Devanāgarī
Abjad phoneme (consonant) Arabic alphabet
Featural phonetic feature Korean hangul

Logographic writing systems

Early Chinese character for sun (ri), 1200 B.C.
Modern Chinese character (ri) with meaning of sun or day
A logogram is a single written character which represents a complete grammatical word. Most Chinese characters are classified as logograms.
.As each character represents a single word (or, more precisely, a morpheme), many logograms are required to write all the words of language.^ Thanks for all the feedback to my post, Making More Time To Write: Cleaning Up Your Inbox and Improving Your E-mail System.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ At any rate, the word decipherment should not be used by those who have nothing more to tell, but that symbolic writings are no writings at all.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ What I did I’ve turned off all desktop icons (no more using the desktop as a storage area), gotten rid of as many menubar status… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

The vast array of logograms and the memorization of what they mean are the major disadvantage of the logographic systems over alphabetic systems. .However, since the meaning is inherent to the symbol, the same logographic system can theoretically be used to represent different languages.^ The most important point of objection is, however, that even if the signs of the Indus script were similar to Rongorongo signs, they need not have the same meaning.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It is unimportant in this regard, whether different signs have the same meaning and same signs a different meaning.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The thing I found is different cultures use metaphors with different terms meaning the same as the terms in metaphors of other cultures.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

.In practice, this is only true for closely related languages, like the Chinese languages, as syntactical constraints reduce the portability of a given logographic system.^ It can only be surmised that the language of the Indus script is related to some of the languages spoken today in the Indus Valley or in the neighbouring areas.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Japanese uses Chinese logograms extensively in its writing systems, with most of the symbols carrying the same or similar meanings.^ Should we be using two words together that mean the same?
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s fun to find, among the many strange ancient forms, a word that is still in use, with the same meaning, a thousand years later.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Also is an adverb meaning “in the same manner, in addition, as well.” It’s useful when… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.However, the semantics, and especially the grammar, are different enough that a long Chinese text is not readily understandable to a Japanese reader without any knowledge of basic Chinese grammar, though short and concise phrases such as those on signs and newspaper headlines are much easier to comprehend.^ Though crosschecking does not prove that the particular reading of a sign is correct as long as the basic meaning has not been ascertained, it is an indispensable for systematisation and the only way to arrive at a sign-list with lexical qualities (Richter-Ushanas 2008; 249).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ This was partly be cause many verses are similar though occurring in different hymns, partly due to the shortness of the inscriptions, and partly by the ambiguity of the signs.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It is more likely, however, that it is based on the Indus script, whose geometric signs have much more similarity with the Brâhmî and the Greek and Latin alphabet than the Egyptian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.While most languages do not use wholly logographic writing systems many languages use some logograms.^ Brian Shone writes: I work for the NHS and I attend many meetings during the week, a common term used throughout each meeting is “and also” this I believe is incorrect.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Sometimes I found it easier to write some things in poetry rather than in prose, so I wrote many poems.
  • author 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC prop1.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a book with a history that deserves some brief explanation, as it’s a great example of an author using social media technologies in an innovative way to both write and publish a book.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.A good example of modern western logograms are the Hindu-Arabic numerals — everyone who uses those symbols understands what 1 means whether he or she calls it one, eins, uno, yi, ichi, ehad or jedan.^ Modern colloquial speakers expect something more along the lines of Who did you send those letters to?
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I am one of those traditionalists who believe that, in order to write a good crime novel today, you must have read and studied the greats of the genre.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In the example above, the second sentence (Who did you send those letters to?
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Other western logograms include the ampersand &, used for and, the at sign @, used in many contexts for at, the percent sign % and the many signs representing units of currency ($, ¢, , £, ¥ and so on.^ This is either representative of a shift in the way people use the internet, or just conclusive proof that I don’t have many friends.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

)
.Logograms are sometimes called ideograms, a word that refers to symbols which graphically represent abstract ideas, but linguists avoid this use, as Chinese characters are often semanticphonetic compounds, symbols which include an element that represents the meaning and an element that represents the pronunciation.^ The proto-polynesian word list, compiled by Biggs and Walsh (1966), can sometimes be used as an additional dictionary.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ At any rate, the word decipherment should not be used by those who have nothing more to tell, but that symbolic writings are no writings at all.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It can represent abstract and concrete words, male and female, subject and object, noun and verb, matter and spirit.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Some nonlinguists distinguish between lexigraphy and ideography, where symbols in lexigraphies represent words and symbols in ideographies represent words or morphemes.
.The most important (and, to a degree, the only surviving) modern logographic writing system is the Chinese one, whose characters are or were used, with varying degrees of modification, in Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and other east Asian languages.^ Perhaps one of the most important of these issues is the environmental impact of the book industry, and what some folks are doing to lessen that impact and make publishing more environmentally… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ One goes on writing partly because it is the only available way of earning a living.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ A person with a white skin was regarded as having mana , magical power, whose obtainment was one of the most cherished aims of the Polynesians.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and the Mayan writing system are also systems with certain logographic features, although they have marked phonetic features as well and are no longer in current use.^ Add to that the creaking knee, the twisted ankle, the back that reminds me daily that I am no longer 22 and have not been for years, well, decades and you have a formula for humility.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Well, I found a little system that helped me make better use of the information I come across while,… Fritinancy .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ At any rate, the word decipherment should not be used by those who have nothing more to tell, but that symbolic writings are no writings at all.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Syllabic writing systems

.As logographic writing systems use a single symbol for an entire word, a syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words.^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Collaboration can be used at every stage of the writing process–from idea generation to the final draft–to make your writing stronger.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I rarely make up new words (although certainly some poets do and there's nothing wrong with that) and so I'm using concepts and definitions that we are all familiar with, not simply to say what's already been said.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

A symbol in a syllabary typically represents a consonant sound followed by a vowel sound, or just a vowel alone.
.In a "true syllabary", there is no systematic graphic similarity between phonetically related characters (though some do have graphic similarity for the vowels).^ Though no European influence on the script can be maintained, there are strong arguments for a contact of the Polynesians with the Indo-Javanese Madhajapahit-culture.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ But even if there would be a closer relation between the Indus script and Rongorongo, it would not be helpful in the decipherment of each of the two, because we do only compare the unknown with the unknown.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, there are no similarities between the Easter Island script and the European, as is admitted by Fischer (1997: 375).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

That is, the characters for /ke/, /ka/ and /ko/ have no similarity to indicate their common "k" sound (voiceless velar plosive). More recent creations such as the Cree syllabary embody a system of varying signs, which can best be seen when arranging the syllabogram set in an onsetcoda or onset–rime table.
.Another type of writing system with systematic syllabic linear symbols, the abugidas, is discussed below.^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ To read a syllabic writing is not more difficult than reading a letter script, if one is conversant with the oral tradition and the symbolic conception behind the pictograms.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Two Systems of Symbolic Writing Two Systems of Symbolic Writing - The Indus Script and the Rongorongo Script of Easter Island .
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Syllabaries are best suited to languages with relatively simple syllable structure, such as Japanese.^ Let us guide you finding out which language course best suits you!
  • Linguist List - Web Resource Listings 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC linguistlist.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ADP E9 ) P.3.1.3.6-8 Through varied but relatively simple transitional language (e.g., for example , like , as in ), show the connections between the supporting evidence, inferences and main claim(s).
  • English and Communication Benchmarks – Grades 6 – 8 | Achieve.org 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC www.achieve.org [Source type: Academic]

.The English language, on the other hand, allows complex syllable structures, with a relatively large inventory of vowels and complex consonant clusters, making it cumbersome to write English words with a syllabary.^ Exemplar is an online corpus of scientific English that allows users to find examples of how a word or phrase is used in published scientific literature.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ It means I’m pushing the words instead of being pulled by them.” — Raymond Chandler When it comes to your writing, is your muse pulling you or is the other way around?
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two basic ways to make money writing: write content for others to sell (or otherwise monetize) or write content that you sell (or otherwise monetize).
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.To write English using a syllabary, every possible syllable in English would have to have a separate symbol, and whereas the number of possible syllables in Japanese is no more than about fifty to sixty, in English there are many thousands.^ Fiction Channel is a website where visitors can enjoy the literary works of many great writers who write in English, from Shakespeare to James Herriot.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Magic is a very great word, and can be used in many situations, but I am really sick of hearing it in every book that has, well, magical things happening in it.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Writing and reading are about engagement, about participating in a conversation, and inasmuch as technology can play a role in this interaction, it only draws more people in.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Other languages that use true syllabaries include Mycenaean Greek (Linear B) and Native American languages such as Cherokee. .Several languages of the Ancient Near East used forms of cuneiform, which is a syllabary with some non-syllabic elements.^ It’s fun to find, among the many strange ancient forms, a word that is still in use, with the same meaning, a thousand years later.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Segmental writing systems: Alphabets

An alphabet is a small set of letters — basic written symbols — each of which roughly represents or represented historically a phoneme of a spoken language. The word alphabet is derived from alpha and beta, the first two symbols of the Greek alphabet.
.In a perfectly phonemic alphabet, the phonemes and letters would correspond perfectly in two directions: a writer could predict the spelling of a word given its pronunciation, and a speaker could predict the pronunciation of a word given its spelling.^ It would also mean that this line would mainly belong to the category of ta'u , which does not correspond to its contents and to its first significant word.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If the word decipherment could be altogether discarded in regard to these writings, I would do so.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The letters or syllables of the alphabet are words at the same time.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Each language has general rules that govern the association between letters and phonemes, but, depending on the language, these rules may or may not be consistently followed.
.Perfectly phonemic alphabets are very easy to use and learn and languages that have them (for example Serbocroatian or Slovenian or Finnish) have much lower barriers to literacy than languages such as English, which has a very complex and irregular spelling system.^ Languages with more than 50 books: Chinese Dutch English Esperanto Finnish French German Italian Latin Portuguese Spanish Swedish Tagalog .
  • Browse By Author: M - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 14:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Exemplar is an online corpus of scientific English that allows users to find examples of how a word or phrase is used in published scientific literature.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I don't know how much I can help because I am very new to learning proper grammar and writing.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.As languages often evolve independently of their writing systems, and writing systems have been borrowed for languages for which they were not designed, the degree to which letters of an alphabet correspond to phonemes of a language varies greatly from one language to another and even within a single language.^ Since cloth patterns cannot render grammatical forms even in a rudimentary form, they do not deserve the name writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If they can be read as Melu hh a, as is suggested by the fish-sign, a similar appellation in another language may be found in the upper line.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you think your writing will change anybody?Carver: … Good fiction is partly a bringing of the news from one world to another.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.In modern times, when linguists invent a writing system for a language that didn't previously have one, the goal is usually to develop a phonemic alphabet.^ If we do not succeed in reading the pictograms of a remote writing system, we are not entitled to hold this system and those who have developed it, responsible for it.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ One of my goals for this year is to streamline my social media time.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Thanks for all the feedback to my post, Making More Time To Write: Cleaning Up Your Inbox and Improving Your E-mail System.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.It should be noted that a truly phonetic alphabet for a natural spoken language would be very cumbersome, as it would have to have a huge variety of phonetic variation.^ A bilingual could be helpful in finding out this value and it would also give us greater security in regard to the language spoken in the Indus Valley at that time.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

An example of such a writing system is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

Consonantal writing systems: Abjads

The first type of alphabet that was developed was the abjad. .An abjad is an alphabetic writing system where there is one symbol per consonant.^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ There's just one cure: you have to write.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ I’ve written about it on several occasions and I truly believe that it is one of the best tools out there to get your writing work noticed.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Abjads differ from other alphabets in that they have characters only for consonantal sounds.^ The only difference between me and others is that I'm out there doing it.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Vowels are not usually marked in abjad.
All known abjads (except maybe Tifinagh) belong to the Semitic family of scripts, and derive from the original Northern Linear Abjad. .The reason for this is that Semitic languages and the related Berber languages have a morphemic structure which makes the denotation of vowels redundant in most cases.^ The additional strokes of the sign C for earth in the fourth case that can either be explained as plants of the earth or as the hair of the vulva, do not make any difference for Metoro nor in the structural analysis.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Some abjads (such as Arabic and Hebrew) have markings for vowels as well, but use them only in special contexts, such as for teaching. .Many scripts derived from abjads have been extended with vowel symbols to become full alphabets, the most famous case being the derivation of the Greek alphabet from the Phoenician abjad.^ It is more likely, however, that it is based on the Indus script, whose geometric signs have much more similarity with the Brâhmî and the Greek and Latin alphabet than the Egyptian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Many scholars believe that the Brâhmî alphabet is based on the Old Semitic script going back to the Phoenicians who are said to have developed it from the Egyptian script at a time when it was still pictographic.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Easter Islanders had had obtained any knowledge of a script in their former homeland, it can either be a derivative of Chinese or one of the many branches of the Brâhmî script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

This has mostly happened when the script was adapted to a non-Semitic language.
.The term abjad takes its name from the old order of the Arabic alphabet's consonants Alif, Bá, Jim, Dál, though the word may have earlier roots in Phoenician or Ugaritic.^ In Marquesian the word means 'far away' and may have been given to the new living place in memory of the earlier homeland of the Marquesians (being in the West, too).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ This may be the reason why the Akkadians called the land at the Indus by this name, though me is a separate syllable and has another meaning.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Abjad is still the word for alphabet in Arabic, Malay and Indonesian.

Inherent-vowel writing systems: Abugidas

.An abugida is an alphabetic writing system whose basic signs denote consonants with an inherent vowel and where consistent modifications of the basic sign indicate other following vowels than the inherent one.^ This is indicated in the inscription of the upper line, whose first sign that is similar to the sign can be explained as a woollen sieve.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Through it he becomes a perfect yogi, a siddha, a divine man as denoted by the following cup-sign.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It is more likely, however, that it is based on the Indus script, whose geometric signs have much more similarity with the Brâhmî and the Greek and Latin alphabet than the Egyptian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, in an abugida there may or may not be a sign for "k" with no vowel, but also one for "ka" (if "a" is the inherent vowel), and "ke" is written by modifying the "ka" sign in a way that is consistent with how one would modify "la" to get "le". In many abugidas the modification is the addition of a vowel sign, but other possibilities are imaginable (and used), such as rotation of the basic sign, addition of diacritical marks and so on.^ Since there are two or even three signs for vulva, it can be supposed that each sign has an additional meaning, as it is the case with the signs B 23/24 and B 50 that can also mean shell or earth.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Too Many Choices First, if you know two dozen ways to describe “happy,” how will you choose the one to use?
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Its leaves are almost identical with those of the pipal tree and there is one sign for both in the Indus script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The contrast with "true syllabaries" is that the latter have one distinct symbol per possible syllable, and the signs for each syllable have no systematic graphic similarity.^ Both signs have no similarity with the compound on the seal.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The graphic similarity of most abugidas comes from the fact that they are derived from abjads, and the consonants make up the symbols with the inherent vowel and the new vowel symbols are markings added on to the base symbol.^ The most important point of objection is, however, that even if the signs of the Indus script were similar to Rongorongo signs, they need not have the same meaning.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ He had a severe butt chewing coming his way and Richter had the teeth to make it most unpleasant.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Balinese lontar writing on palm leaf, Southeast Asia. Artifacts can be seen in the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois.
In the Ge'ez script, for which the linguistic term abugida was named, the vowel modifications do not always appear systematic, although they originally were more so. Canadian Aboriginal syllabics can be considered abugidas, although they are rarely thought of in those terms. The largest single group of abugidas is the Brahmic family of scripts, however, which includes nearly all the scripts used in India and Southeast Asia.
.The name abugida is derived from the first four characters of an order of the Ge'ez script used in some contexts.^ Barthel published Metoro's four chants for the first time in total, but without a translation in his monograph on the Easter Island script in 1958.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

It was borrowed from Ethiopian languages as a linguistic term by Peter T. Daniels.

Featural writing systems

.A featural script represents finer detail than an alphabet.^ It is more likely, however, that it is based on the Indus script, whose geometric signs have much more similarity with the Brâhmî and the Greek and Latin alphabet than the Egyptian.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Here symbols do not represent whole phonemes, but rather the elements (features) that make up the phonemes, such as voicing or its place of articulation.^ I began by making a list in my journal of specific features of life in Los Alamos that distinguished it from other places I might have grown up.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Theoretically, each feature could be written with a separate letter; and abjads or abugidas, or indeed syllabaries, could be featural, but the only prominent system of this sort is Korean hangul. .In hangul, the featural symbols are combined into alphabetic letters, and these letters are in turn joined into syllabic blocks, so that the system combines three levels of phonological representation.^ To read a syllabic writing is not more difficult than reading a letter script, if one is conversant with the oral tradition and the symbolic conception behind the pictograms.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ On account of the relatively early decline of the Indus civilization, the Indus script retained its logographic character, it did not develop into a syllabic or a letter script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

Many scholars, e.g. DeFrancis, reject this class or at least labeling hangul as such. The Korean script is a conscious script creation by literate experts, which Daniels calls a “sophisticated grammatogeny”. .These include stenographies and constructed scripts of hobbyists and fiction writers, many of which feature advanced graphic designs corresponding to phonologic properties.^ Fiction Channel is a website where visitors can enjoy the literary works of many great writers who write in English, from Shakespeare to James Herriot.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The basic unit of writing in these systems can map to anything from phones to words.^ If the word decipherment could be altogether discarded in regard to these writings, I would do so.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ It cannot be denied, however, that both writing systems make use of a similar method of rendering words by pictograms and word sequences by ligatures and fusions.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

It has been shown that even the roman script has sub-character “features”.[1]

Ambiguous writing systems

.Most writing systems are not purely one type.^ Freelance writing jobs are probably the most popular types of internet based jobs.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The English writing system, for example, includes numerals and other logograms such as #, $, and &, and the phonemic letter clusters are a complex match to sound.^ History renders no example for a true symbolic writing having developed from a letter script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

As mentioned above, all logographic systems have phonetic components as well, whether that's along the lines of a syllabary, such as Chinese ("logo-syllabic"), or an abjad, as in Egyptian ("logo-consonantal").
Some scripts, however, are truly ambiguous. The semi-syllabaries of ancient Spain were syllabic for plosives such as p, t, k, but alphabetic for other consonants. In some versions, vowels were written redundantly after syllabic letters, conforming to an alphabetic orthography. Old Persian cuneiform was similar. .Of 23 consonants (including null), seven were fully syllabic, thirteen were purely alphabetic, and for the other three, there was one letter for /Cu/ and another for both /Ca/ and /Ci/.^ Since there are two or even three signs for vulva, it can be supposed that each sign has an additional meaning, as it is the case with the signs B 23/24 and B 50 that can also mean shell or earth.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Its leaves are almost identical with those of the pipal tree and there is one sign for both in the Indus script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, there exist cup-signs with one, two, three or four additional strokes.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

However, all vowels were written overtly regardless; as in the Brahmic abugidas, the /Ca/ letter was used for a bare consonant.
The zhuyin phonetic glossing script for Chinese divides syllables in two or three, but into onset, medial, and rime rather than consonant and vowel. Pahawh Hmong is similar, but can be considered to divide syllables into either onset-rime or consonant-vowel (all consonant clusters and diphthongs are written with single letters); as the latter, it is equivalent to an abugida but with the roles of consonant and vowel reversed. .Other scripts are intermediate between the categories of alphabet, abjad and abugida, so there may be disagreement on how they should be classified.^ Moreover, there are no similarities between the Easter Island script and the European, as is admitted by Fischer (1997: 375).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m not content to let others tell me how my books are going to look or even if they get published.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The only difference between me and others is that I'm out there doing it.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Graphic classification of writing systems

.Perhaps the primary graphic distinction made in classifications is that of linearity. Linear writing systems are those in which the characters are composed of lines, such as the Latin alphabet and Chinese characters.^ If we do not succeed in reading the pictograms of a remote writing system, we are not entitled to hold this system and those who have developed it, responsible for it.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Chinese characters are considered linear whether they're written with a ball-point pen or a calligraphic brush, or cast in bronze.^ All the buzz surrounding Google today is concerning the fact that they’re attempting to play hard ball with the Chinese government, and the havoc caused by the imminence of the caffeine update.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Similarly, Egyptian hieroglyphs and Maya glyphs were often painted in linear outline form, but in formal situations they were carved in bas-relief. .Non-linear systems, on the other hand, such as braille, are not composed of lines, no matter which instrument is used to write them.^ At any rate, the word decipherment should not be used by those who have nothing more to tell, but that symbolic writings are no writings at all.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The root grabh is not used in this sense in the Veda, but we come across the roots rî , to let flow (the line of writing) and rsh , to pierce, which can mean to write, too.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ You can use article marketing, post new articles to your blog or website or write guest posts for other blog owners.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.The earliest examples of writing are linear: the Sumerian script of c.^ History renders no example for a true symbolic writing having developed from a letter script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

3300 BCE was linear, though its cuneiform descendants were not.
Cuneiform was probably the earliest non-linear writing. Its glyphs were formed by pressing the end of a reed stylus into moist clay, not by tracing lines in the clay with the stylus as had been done previously. The result was a radical transformation of the appearance of the script.
Braille is a non-linear adaptation of the Latin alphabet that completely abandoned the Latin forms. The letters are composed of raised bumps on the writing substrate, which can be leather (Louis Braille's original material), stiff paper, plastic or metal.
There are also transient non-linear adaptations of the Latin alphabet, including Morse code, the manual alphabets of various sign languages, and semaphore, in which flags or bars are positioned at prescribed angles. .However, if "writing" is defined as a potentially permanent means of recording information, then these systems do not qualify as writing at all, since the symbols disappear as soon as they are used.^ This is the case with all symbolic systems of writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Since cloth patterns cannot render grammatical forms even in a rudimentary form, they do not deserve the name writing.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If commas are used, however, they should appear both before and after the suffix: John, Jr., is the son of John.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.If the Edo script is indeed a complete writing system, it may be the only natural example of a script in which the color of the graphemes is contrastive.^ History renders no example for a true symbolic writing having developed from a letter script.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Only after I was sure that the Rongorongo script can be read as a word script indeed, I came back to my former logographic word readings of the Indus script published in 1992.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ I have lately kept praising the age in which we live, because of the great, indeed divine gift of the new kind of writing (delivery system).
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Directionality

Scripts are also graphically characterized by the direction in which they are written. .Egyptian hieroglyphs were written in either horizontal direction, with the animal and human glyphs turned to face the beginning of the line.^ As the animal mostly has a human face, it may replace a human sacrifice, probably that of the the king.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The early alphabet could be written in multiple directions,[citation needed] horizontally (left-to-right or right-to-left) or vertically (up or down).^ From the Sumerian signs of the name written vertically on the seal we obtain , when they are written from left to right.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Occasionally (often), it’s difficult (impossible) for me to come up with an idea right off the top of my head to sit down and write about.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The inscription of the first line that belongs to the Indus script is rendered as in the Finnish Concordance II (read in the direction from right to left of the impression).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

It was commonly written boustrophedonically: starting in one (horizontal) direction, then turning at the end of the line and reversing direction.
The Greek alphabet and its successors settled on a left-to-right pattern, from the top to the bottom of the page. .In Timed Text (TT) Authoring Format, this pattern is abbreviated LRTB.[2] Other scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew, came to be written right-to-left.^ From the Sumerian signs of the name written vertically on the seal we obtain , when they are written from left to right.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The inscription of the first line that belongs to the Indus script is rendered as in the Finnish Concordance II (read in the direction from right to left of the impression).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.Scripts that incorporate Chinese characters have traditionally been written vertically (top-to-bottom), from the right to the left of the page, but nowadays are frequently written left-to-right, top-to-bottom, due to Western influence, a growing need to accommodate terms in the Roman alphabet, and technical limitations in popular electronic document formats.^ From the Sumerian signs of the name written vertically on the seal we obtain , when they are written from left to right.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ The inscription of the first line that belongs to the Indus script is rendered as in the Finnish Concordance II (read in the direction from right to left of the impression).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

.The Uighur alphabet and its descendants are unique in being the only scripts written top-to-bottom, left-to-right; this direction originated from an ancestral Semitic direction by rotating the page 90° counter-clockwise to conform to the appearance of vertical Chinese writing.^ And why is it supposed that only the script is dependant on a European origin, why not the works of art, too?
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ From the Sumerian signs of the name written vertically on the seal we obtain , when they are written from left to right.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Occasionally (often), it’s difficult (impossible) for me to come up with an idea right off the top of my head to sit down and write about.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Several scripts used in the Philippines and Indonesia, such as Hanunó'o, are traditionally written with lines moving away from the writer, from bottom to top, but are read horizontally left to right.^ In Akkadian the three signs of the seal render, read from left to right, sak-ku-i.
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Read from left to right the inscription renders: May we have children, Rudra, may our lord be blessed ( R V II.33.1).
  • Two Systems of Symbolic Writing 9 February 2010 17:19 UTC www-user.uni-bremen.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Yesterday, I wrote part one in this series on things I learned at the Writer's Loft last weekend, and you can read that post right here.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Writing systems on computers

.Different ISO/IEC standards are defined to deal with each individual writing systems to implement them in computers.^ The difference between a chiclet and a standard computer keyboard key is the individual keys no longer have slanted edges, but… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Today most of those standards are re-defined in a collective standard, the ISO/IEC 10646 "Universal Character Set", and a parallel, closely related work, The Unicode Standard. Both are generally encompassed by the term Unicode. In Unicode, each character, in every language's writing system, is (simplifying slightly) given a unique identification number, known as its code point. .The computer's software uses the code point to look up the appropriate character in the font file, so the characters can be displayed on the page or screen.^ I got quite a surprise when I opened the file because while I was expecting a short ebook, this is a full-fledged book with 294 pages of useful information about writing for the web.
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

A keyboard is the device most commonly used for writing via computer. .Each key is associated with a standard code which the keyboard sends to the computer when it is pressed.^ The difference between a chiclet and a standard computer keyboard key is the individual keys no longer have slanted edges, but… .
  • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

By using a combination of alphabetic keys with modifier keys such as Ctrl, Alt, Shift and AltGr, various character codes are generated and sent to the CPU. The operating system intercepts and converts those signals to the appropriate characters based on the keyboard layout and input method, and then delivers those converted codes and characters to the running application software, which in turn looks up the appropriate glyph in the currently used font file, and requests the operating system to draw these on the screen.
In computers and telecommunication systems, graphemes and other grapheme-like units that are required for text processing are represented by "characters" that typically manifest in encoded form. For technical aspects of computer support for various writing systems, see Universal Character Set, CJK (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) and Bi-directional text, as well as Category:Character encoding.

See also

References

  • Coulmas, Florian. 1996. The Blackwell encyclopedia of writing systems. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Daniels, Peter T., and William Bright, eds. 1996. The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507993-0.
  • DeFrancis, John. 1990. The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1068-6
  • Hannas, William. C. 1997. Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1892-X (paperback); ISBN 0-8248-1842-3 (hardcover)
  • Rogers, Henry. 2005. Writing Systems: A Linguistic Approach. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-23463-2 (hardcover); ISBN 0-631-23464-0 (paperback)
  • Sampson, Geoffrey. 1985. Writing Systems. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1756-7 (paper), ISBN 0-8047-1254-9 (cloth).
  • Smalley, W. A. (ed.) .1964. Orthography studies: articles on new writing systems.^ I have lately kept praising the age in which we live, because of the great, indeed divine gift of the new kind of writing (delivery system).
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You can use article marketing, post new articles to your blog or website or write guest posts for other blog owners.
    • Alltop - Top Writing News 31 January 2010 14:22 UTC writing.alltop.com [Source type: General]

    London: United Bible Society.

External links


Simple English


A writing system is a system of symbols that are used to represent language.

There are different kinds of writing systems, with symbols that represent different things: logographic, syllabic and alphabetic. Beside natural scripts, there are also constructed scripts.

=Logographic system

= A logographic system, is a writing system with symbols that mean whole words, symbols that represent things or ideas. These symbols are called logogram or logograph. An example for a logographic writing system is the system used for the Chinese language.

Syllabary

A syllabary is a writing system with symbols that mean a syllable. An example for syllabaries are the hiragana and katakana used for the Japanese language.

Alphabet

An alphabet is a writing system with symbols that mean a sound. An example for an alphabetic writing system is the Roman alphabet, which is used in large parts of the world.


krc:Джазма


Citable sentences

Up to date as of November 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mary Shelley, which are similar to those in the above article.








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