The Full Wiki

Wuhan: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

—  Sub-provincial city  —
From top: Wuhan and the Yangtze River, Yellow Crane Tower, Wuhan Custom House, and Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
Location within Hubei Province
Wuhan is located in China
Location in China
Coordinates: 29°58′20″N 113°53′29″E / 29.97222°N 113.89139°E / 29.97222; 113.89139
Country China
Province Hubei
County-level divisions 13
Township divisions 153
Settled 223 BC
 - CPC Wuhan Yang Song (杨松)
 - Mayor Ruan Chengfa (阮成发)
 - Sub-provincial city 8,467.11 km2 (3,269.2 sq mi)
 - Urban 1,557 km2 (601.2 sq mi)
Population (2007 August)
 - Sub-provincial city 9,700,000
 Density 1,145.6/km2 (2,967.1/sq mi)
 Urban 6,660,000
 - Urban Density 4,277.5/km2 (11,078.6/sq mi)
 - Rank in China 8th
 - Major nationalities Han - 99%
Minorities - 1%
Time zone China Standard Time (UTC+8)
Postal code 430000 - 430400
Area code(s) +86/27
License plate prefixes 鄂A
鄂O (police and authorities)
ISO 3166-2 cn-??
GDP (2008) CNY 396 billion (13th)[citation needed]
GDP per capita CNY 44,148 (43rd)[citation needed]
[citation needed]

About this sound Wuhan (simplified Chinese: 武汉traditional Chinese: 武漢pinyin: Wǔhàn) is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in central China. It lies at the east of Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han River. Arising out of the conglomeration of three boroughs, Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang, Wuhan is known as the "thoroughfare of nine provinces"; it is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city. The city of Wuhan, first termed as such in 1927, has a population of approximately 9,100,000 people (2006), with about 6,100,000 residents in its urban area. In the 1920s, Wuhan was the capital of a leftist Kuomintang (KMT) government led by Wang Jingwei in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek, now Wuhan is recognized as the political, economic, financial, cultural, educational and transportation center of central China.



The area was first settled more than 3,000 years ago. During the Han Dynasty, Hanyang became a fairly busy port. In the 3rd century AD one of the most famous battles in Chinese history and a central event in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms—the Battle of Red Cliffs—took place in the vicinity of the cliffs near Wuhan. Around that time, walls were built to protect Hanyang (AD 206) and Wuchang (AD 223). The latter event marks the foundation of Wuhan. In AD 223, the Yellow Crane Tower (黄鹤楼) was constructed on the Wuchang side of the Yangtze River. Cui Hao, a celebrated poet of Tang Dynasty, visited the building in the early 8th century; his poem made the building the most celebrated building in southern China. The city has long been renowned as a center for the arts (especially poetry) and for intellectual studies. Under the Mongol rulers (Yuan Dynasty), Wuchang was promoted to the status of provincial capital. By approximately 300 years ago, Hankou had become one of the country's top four trading towns.

Wuhan Custom House, opened in 1862

In the late 1800s railroads were extended on a north-south axis through this city, which then became an important transshipment point between rail and river traffic. At this time foreign powers extracted mercantile concessions, with the riverfront of Hankou being divided up into various foreign controlled merchant districts. These districts contained trading firm offices, warehouses, and docking facilities.

In 1911, Sun Yat-sen's followers launched the Wuchang Uprising that led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China. Wuhan was the capital of a leftist Kuomintang government led by Wang Jingwei, in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek during the 1920s.

In 1938, Wuhan and its proximities became the battlefield of the Battle of Wuhan, a major conflict in the Second Sino-Japanese War. After being taken by the Japanese in 1938, Wuhan became a major Japanese logistics center for operations in southern China. In December 1944, the city was largely destroyed by U.S. firebombing raids conducted by the Fourteenth Air Force. In 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan Incident as a result of tension brought by the Cultural Revolution.

The city has been subject to numerous devastating floods, which are supposed to be controlled by the ambitious Three Gorges Dam. That project is set to be completed in 2011.

Significant Historical Events in Wuhan History

Opening Hankou as a Trading Port

During the Second Opium War (known in the West as the Arrow War, 1856–1860), the Government of Qing Dynasty was defeated by the western powers and signed Treaties of Tianjin and Convention of Peking, which stipulated eleven cities or regions including Hankou as trading ports. In December 1858, James Bruce (the 8th Earl of Elgin), the head of the British Royal Navy, led four warships up the Yangtze River in Wuhan to collect the information needed for opening the trading port in Wuhan. And in the spring of 1861, Counselor Harry Parkes and Admiral Herbert were sent to Wuhan to open a trading port. On the basis of Convention of Peking, Harry Parkes concluded the Hankou Lend-Lease Treaty with Guan Wen, the governor-general of Hunan and Hubei. It brought an area of 30.53 square kilometers along the Yangtze River (from Jianghan Road to Hezuo Road today) to become British Concession and permitted Britain to set up their consulate in the British Concession. Thus, Hankou became an open trading port finally.

Hubei under Zhang Zhidong

In the fifteenth year of Guangxu Period (1889) of the Qing Dynasty, Zhang Zhidong was transferred from Guangdong to be the governor-general of Hunan and Hubei. By 1906, he had governed Hubei for 17 years. During this period, he elucidated the theory of “Chinese learning as the basis, Western learning for application,” known as the ti-yong ideal. He set up many heavy industries, founded Hanyang Steel Plant, Daye Iron Mine, Pingxiang Coal Mine and Hubei Arsenal and set up local textile industries, boosting the flourishing modern industry in Wuhan. Meanwhile, he initiated educational reform, opened dozens of modern educational organizations successively, such as Lianghu (Hunan and Hubei) Academy of Classical Learning, Civil General Institute, Military General Institute, Foreign Languages Institute and Lianghu (Hunan and Hubei) General Normal School, and selected a great many students for study overseas, which well promoted the development of China’s modern education. Furthermore, he trained modern military and organized a modern army including a zhen and a xie (both zhen and xie are military units in the Qing Dynasty) in Hubei. All of these laid a solid foundation for the modernization of Wuhan.

Yellow Crane Tower

Wuchang Uprising

On October 10 of the third year of Xuantong Period of the Qing Dynasty (1911), an armed uprising broke out in Wuchang. Before uprising, with the purpose of overthrowing the Manchu Dynasty, bourgeois revolutionaries conducted deep and wide propaganda and mobilization and founded various revolutionary organizations in Wuhan. In earlier September 1911, the Qing Government moved part of the Hubei new army to Sichuan for suppressing the people’s uprising there, which made a good chance for the uprising in Wuhan. On September 14 Literature Society and gongjinhui, the two greatest revolutionary organizations in Hubei, jointly founded the uprising headquarters in Wuchang and decided to rise up. On the morning of October 9 the bomb at the office of the political arrangement exploded accidentally and unfortunately, and the uprising proclamation, beadroll and official seal fell into the hands of Rui Cheng, the governor-general of Hunan and Hubei, who demolished the uprising headquarters in Wuchang the same day, and decided to raid the revolutionaries according to the beadroll. At this critical moment, the conductors from the basal backbones of revolutionary organizations contacted each other secretly and made a decision of immediate uprising. On the night of 10th, the revolutionaries fired to rise in revolt at the engineering barracks of new army, and then led on the new army of all barracks to rise up successively. Under the guidance of Wu Zhaolin, Cai Jimin, etc., the revolutionary army seized the official residence of the governor and government offices including fan, nie, etc. in Hubei. Rui Cheng fled in panic into the Chu-Yu Ship anchored by the river, and Zhang Biao, the controller of Qing army, also discarded the city and fled away. On the morning of 11th, the revolutionary army took the whole city of Wuchang. But the leaders such as Jiang Yiwu, Sun Wu disappeared then, thus the acephalous revolutionary army recommended Li Yuanhong, the assistant governor of Qing army, as the commander-in-chief, founded Hubei Military Government, proclaimed the abolishment of the Qing Dynasty’s imperialism and the founding of Republic of China, as well as published an open telegram for call to uprising of every province. As the beginning of the Revolution of 1911 (led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, which overthrew the Qing Dynasty), Wuchang Uprising played a most important role in raising upsurge of the democratic revolution, which also was called “the lead in launching the Revolution of 1911” since 1911 was the year of xinhai in traditional Chinese chronology.

National government moved its capital to Wuhan

In 1926, with the north extension of Northern Expedition, the center of Great Revolution shifted from the Pearl River basin to the Yangtze River basin. On November 26, the KMT Central Political Committee decided to move the capital to Wuhan. In middle December, most of the KMT central executive commissioners and National Government commissioners arrived in Wuhan, set up the temporary joint conference of central executive commissioners and National Government commissioners, performed the top functions of central party headquarters and National Government, and declared they would work in Wuhan on January 1, 1927 and decided to combined the three towns of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang into Wuhan City, called “Capital District”. The National Government was located in the Nanyang Building in Hankou, while the central party headquarters and other organizations chose their locations in Hankou or Wuchang.

The Castaway Zhongshan warship in Jinkou

See also: Battle of Wuhan

In early October in 1938, Japanese aggressors moved east and north respectively upon outskirts of Wuhan. As a result, the Party and government institution, large quantities of companies and enterprises and numerous people had to withdraw from Wuhan to the west of Hubei and Sichuan. The KMT navy undertook the responsibility of defending Yangtze River on patrol and covering the withdrawal. On 24 October, when seeing over the waters of the Yangtze River near Jinkou town (Jiangxia District in Wuhan) in Wuchang, the famous navy warship of the KMT Zhongshan warship come up against 6 Japanese planes. The planes took turns to dive to strafe and bomb Zhongshan warship crazily. Though Captain Sha Shijun led the whole officers and soldiers and shot down two hostile planes, the Zhongshan warship eventually sank down due to serious ravages with 25 officers and soldiers sacrificing their valuable lives. Originally named Yongfeng warship, the Zhongshan warship, 62.1 meters long and 8.9 meters wide, was a gunboat ordered in Japanese Mitsubishi Shipyard by the Qing Government in 1910 with a tonnage of 836 tons and a speed of 13.5 sea miles/h. In 1913, Zhongshan warship with 138 seamen was incorporated in the first armada of Chinese navy, which then took part under the guidance of Cheng Biguang in the constitution defending movement launched by Sun Yat-sen in July 1917. Moreover, Sun Yat-sen stayed on Yongfeng warship for over 50 days in the command of putting down the rebellion raised by Chen Jiongming in June 1922 personally. To commemorate Sun Yat-sen, Yongfeng warship was renamed as Zhongshan warship on 13 April in 1925, which was even utilized by Jiang Jieshi to fabricate the 320 Event for excluding Communists in 1926. In view of Zhongshan warship’s significant historical values, the cultural relic department of Hubei province endeavored for years to salvage it and finally succeeded in 1996, and built a Zhongshan warship exhibition hall in Jinkou after it was repaired.

Completion and opening-to-traffic of the first Yangtze River bridge

The project of building the first Yangtze River Bridge was regarded as one of the key projects during the period of the first five-year plan. The Engineering Bureau of the First Yangtze River Bridge, set up by the Ministry of Railway in April 1953, was responsible for the design and construction of the bridge. The document “Resolutions on Building the First Yangtze River Bridge” was passed in the 203rd conference of State Council on 15 January 1954. The technical conference on the routes of the bridge, was held in Hankou on 15 January 1955, determined that the route from Tortoise Hill to Snake Hill was the best choice. On 25 October, the bridge proper was under construction. The same day in 1957 the whole project was completed and an opening-to-traffic ceremony was held on 15 October. The whole bridge was 1,670 m (5,479.00 ft) long, of which the superstratum was a highway with a width of 22.5 m (73.82 ft) and the substratum was a double-line railway with a width of 18 m (59.06 ft). The bridge proper was 1,156 m (3,792.65 ft) long with two pairs of eight piers and nine arches with a space of 128 m (419.95 ft) between each arch. Thanks to the First Yangtze River Bridge, Beijing-Wuhan and Guangdong-Wuhan railways were available and any place could be reached from Wuchang, Hankou to Hanyang. Thus Wuhan was a thoroughfare to nine provinces not only in reality but in name as well.

Geography and climate

Wuhan is situated in the middle of Hubei Province, 113°41′-115°05′ East, 29°58′-31°22′ North, east of the Jianghan Plain, and the confluence of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and Hanshui River.

The metropolitan area comprises three parts - Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang, commonly called the "Three Towns of Wuhan" (hence the name "Wuhan", combining "Wu" from the first city and "Han" from the other two). The consolidation of these three cities occurred in 1927 and Wuhan was thereby established. These three parts face each other across the rivers and are linked by bridges, including one of the first modern bridges in China, known as the "First Bridge". It is simple in geographical structure - low and flat in the middle and hilly in the south, with the Yangtze and Han rivers winding through the city. Wuhan occupies a land area of 8494.41 km2, most of which is plain and decorated with hills and a great number of lakes and pools.

Wuhan's climate is humid subtropical with abundant rainfall and four distinctive seasons. Wuhan is known for its oppressively humid summers, when dewpoints can often reach 26 °C (79 °F) or more.[1] Because of its hot summer weather, Wuhan is commonly known as one of the Three Furnaces of China, along with Nanjing and Chongqing. Spring and autumn are generally mild, while winter is cool with occasional snow. In recent thirty years, the average annual rainfall is 1269 mm, mainly from June to August; annual temperature is 15.8℃-17.5℃, annual frost free period lasts 211 to 272 days and annual sunlight duration is 1810 to 2100 hours.

Climate chart (explanation)
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
Climate data for Wuhan (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.0
Average low °C (°F) 0.4
Precipitation mm (inches) 43.4
Sunshine hours 106.5 102.8 115.5 151.2 181.4 179.5 232.1 241.0 176.7 161.2 144.3 136.5 1,928.6
% Humidity 77 76 78 78 77 80 79 79 78 78 76 74 77
Source: 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 2009-03-17

Administrative divisions

View slightly south of east from the Yellow Crane Tower
View westerly toward Tortoise Hill from the Yellow Crane Tower

The sub-provincial city of Wuhan has direct jurisdiction over 13 districts (区 qu):

Subdivisions of Wuhan-China.png Subdivision
Wuhan City Proper   Wuhan Suburban and Rural
Jiang'an-qu 江岸区   Hongshan-qu 洪山区
Jianghan-qu 江汉区   Caidian-qu 蔡甸区
Qiaokou-qu 硚口区   Dongxihu-qu 东西湖区
Hanyang-qu 汉阳区   Hannan-qu 汉南区
Wuchang-qu 武昌区   Jiangxia-qu 江夏区
Qingshan-qu 青山区   Huangpi-qu 黄陂区
  Xinzhou-qu 新洲区

Along with 3 economic development districts:

  1. Wuhan Economic and Technology Development District (武汉经济技术开发区)
  2. Donghu New Technology District (东湖新技术开发区)
  3. Wujiashan Taishang Investment District (吴家山台商投资区)


The First Bridge at Wuhan. This view is upstream, toward the distant Three Gorges and Chongqing


Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, also called the First Bridge, was built over the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in 1957, carrying the railroad directly across the river between Snake Hill (on the left in the picture below) and Turtle Hill. Before this bridge was built it could take up to an entire day to barge railcars across. Including its approaches, it is 5,511 feet (1680 m) long, and it accommodates both a double-track railway on a lower deck and a four lane roadway above. It was built with the assistance of advisers from the Soviet Union.

The Second Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge, built of pre-stressed concrete, has a central span of 400 meters; it is 4,678 meters in length (including 1,877 meters of the main bridge) and 26.5 to 33.5 meters in width. Its main bridgeheads are 90 meters high each, pulling 392 thick slanting cables together in the shape of double fans, so that the central span of the bridge is well poised on the piers and the bridge's stability and vibration resistance are ensured. With six lanes on the deck, the bridge is designed to handle 50,000 motor vehicles passing every day. The bridge was completed in 1995.[citation needed]

First bridge, as seen from Hanyang

The Third Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge was completed in September 2000. Located 8.6 kilometers southwest of the First Bridge, construction of Baishazhou Bridge started in 1997. With an investment of over 1.4 billion yuan (about 170 million U.S. dollars), the bridge, which is 3,586 meters long and 26.5 meters wide, has six lanes and has a capacity of 50,000 vehicles a day. The bridge is expected to serve as a major passage for the future Wuhan Ring Road, enormously easing the city's traffic and aiding local economic development.


The old Dazhimen Station (大智门火车站), the original terminus of the Beijing-Hankou Railway. Constructed in 1900-1903, it was closed in 1991, after the opening of the present Hankou Railway Station

Until the late 2009, the city proper in Wuhan was served by two railway stations, namely the Hankou Railway Station in Hankou and the Wuchang Railway Station in Wuchang. As a result, the railway system in China actually did not have a unique designation for the name "Wuhan", and trains heading to Wuhan are marked with the respective borough's station name, and not the city's.

Unlike such cities as New York and Moscow, where different stations serve different directions, both Hankou and Wuchang stations are served by trains going to all directions.

With the opening of the Hefei-Wuhan high-speed railway on April 1, 2009,[2] Wuhan became served by high-speed trains with Hefei, Nanjing, and Shanghai; several trains a day now connect the city with Shanghai, getting there in under 6 hours. As of the early 2010, most of these express trains leave from the Hankou Railway Station.

The new Wuhan Railway Station, opened in 2009

In 2006, construction began on the new Wuhan Railway Station with 11 platforms, located on the northeastern outskirts of the city. In December 2009, the station was opened, as China unveiled its second high-speed train with scheduled runs from Guangzhou to Wuhan. Billed as the fastest train in the world, it can reach a speed of 394 kph. The travel time between the two cities has been reduced from ten and a half hours to just three. Eventually, the rail service will extend north to Beijing.[3]

As of the early 2010, the new Wuhan Railway Station is primarily used by the Wuhan-Guangzhou high-speed trains, while most regular trains to other destinations continue to use the Hankou and Wuchang stations.

Public transit

Wuhan Metro In September 2004, Wuhan became the sixth Chinese city with a subway system (after Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen). The first 10.2 km line (10 stations) is an elevated rail (and therefore called 'light rail' in Chinese terminology). It runs from Huangpu to Zongguan in the downtown area of the Hankou District, and it is the first one in the country to use a communication-based train control system (a Moving Block signalling system, provided by Alcatel). The designed minimum interval is only 90 seconds between two trains and it features driverless operation.[citation needed]


Opened in April 1995, Wuhan Tianhe International Airport is one of the busiest airports in central China and it is located 26 km north of Wuhan. It has also been selected as China's fourth international hub airport after Beijing Capital International Airport, Shanghai-Pudong and Guangzhou Baiyun. A second terminal was completed in March 2008, having been started in February 2005 with an investment of RMB3.372 billion.


Tourist sites

Replica instruments of ancient originals are played at the Hubei Provincial Museum. A replica set of bronze concert bells is in the background and a set of stone chimes is to the right
  • Wuchang has the largest lake within a city in China, the East Lake, as well as the South Lake.
  • The Hubei Provincial Museum includes many artifacts excavated from ancient tombs, including a concert bell set (bianzhong). A dance and orchestral show is frequently performed here, using reproductions of the original instruments.
  • The Rock and Bonsai Museum includes a mounted platybelodon skeleton, many unique stones, a quartz crystal the size of an automobile, and an outdoor garden with miniature trees in the penjing ("Chinese Bonsai") style.
    East lake
  • Jiqing Street(吉庆街) holds many roadside restaurants and street performers during the evening, and is the site of a Live Show (生活秀) with stories of events on this street by contemporary writer Chi Li.
  • The Lute Platform in Hanyang was where the legendary musician Yu Boya is said to have played. According to the story of 知音 (zhi yin, "understanding music"), Yu Boya played for the last time over the grave of his friend Zhong Ziqi, then smashed his lute because the only person able to appreciate his music was dead.[citation needed]
Ancient bronze concert bells at the Hubei Provincial Museum
  • Some luxury riverboat tours begin here after a flight from Beijing or Shanghai, with several days of flatland cruising and then climbing through the Three Gorges with passage upstream past the Gezhouba and Three Gorges dams to the city of Chongqing. With the completion of the dam a number of cruises now start from the upstream side and continue west, with tourists traveling by motor coach from Wuhan.
    Chu Tiantai
  • The Yellow Crane Tower (Huanghelou) is presumed to have been first built in approximately 220 AD. The tower has been destroyed and reconstructed numerous times, was burned last according to some sources in 1884. The tower underwent complete reconstruction in 1981. The reconstruction utilized modern materials and added an elevator, while maintaining the traditional design in the tower's outward appearance.


Wuhan is a sub-provincial city. Its GDP was 396 billion CNY [4] and GDP per capita was approximately 44,290 CNY[4] as of 2008. In 2008, the city's annual average disposable income was 16,360 CNY.[5] Wuhan has currently attracted about 50 French companies, over one third of French investment in China, the most among Chinese cities.[6]

Wuhan is an important center for economy, trade, finance, transportation, information technology, and education in Central China. Its major industries includes optic-electronic, automobile manufacturing, steel manufacturing, new pharmaceutical sector, biology engineering, new materials industry and environmental protection. Wuhan Iron & Steel (Group) Co. and Dongfeng-Citroen Automobile Co., Ltd headquartered in the city. There are 35 higher educational institutions including the well-known Wuhan University, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 3 state-level development zones and many enterprise incubators. Wuhan ranks third in China in overall strength of science and technology.[7]

Industrial zones

Major industrial zones in Wuhan include:

  • Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone
  • Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone

Colleges and universities

Wuhan is the scientific and educational center in Central China, with 35 higher educational institutions such as Wuhan University and Huazhong University of Science and Technology, which cover all the fields of science and technology and employ elites and explorers in these fields. Wuhan has formed a comprehensive scientific and educational strength ranking the 3rd in China with its main force: three national development zones and four scientific and technologic development parks as well as numerous enterprise incubators, over 350 research institutes, 1470 hi-tech enterprises, and over 400,000 experts and technicians. There are eight national colleges and universities,[8] and fourteen public colleges and universities[9] in Wuhan.


Wuhan University (founded in 1893)
Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST,founded in 1953)
Wuhan University of Technology(WHUT)
China University of Geosciences
中国地质大学 (武汉)
Huazhong Agricultural University (founded in 1898)
Central China Normal University(founded in 1903) (Huazhong Normal University)
Zhongnan University of Economics and Law(founded in 1948)
South-Central University for Nationalities


Hubei University
Wuhan University of Science and Technology
Jianghan University
Hubei University of Technology
Wuhan Institute of Technology
Wuhan University of Science and Engineering
Wuhan Polytechnic University
Hubei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Wuhan Institute of Physical Education
Hubei Institute of Fine Arts
Hubei Police College
Wuhan Conservatory of Music
Hubei University of Economics
Wuhan Bioengineering Institute
Hubei University of Education

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.


Wuhan natives speak a variety of Southwestern Mandarin Chinese. Because it also has a blend of southern Chinese elements, the Wuhan variety was once promoted as the ideal basis for a Standard Chinese dialect.[citation needed]

Popular foods

Doupi on the left and Re-gan mian on the right
  • Hot and Dry Noodles, Re-gan mian (热干面) consists of long freshly boiled noodles mixed with sesame paste. The Chinese word re means hot and gan means dry. It is considered to be the most typical local food for breakfast.
  • Duck's Neck or Ya Bozi (鸭脖子) is a local version of this popular Chinese dish, made of duck necks and spices.
  • Bean Pan or Doupi (豆皮)is a popular local dish with a filling of egg, rice, beef, mushrooms and beans cooked between two large round soybean skins and cut into pieces, structurally like a stuffed pizza without enclosing edges.
  • Soup dumpling or Xiaolongbao(小笼包)is a kind of dumpling with thin skin made of flour, steamed with very juicy meat inside, it is called Tang (soup) Bao (bun), because every time one takes a bite from it the soup inside spills out.
  • Salty Doughnut or Mianwo (面窝) is a kind of doughnut with salty taste. It's much thinner than common doughnut, and is a typical Wuhan local food.

Famous people


In 2005, Wuhan FC won CSL (China Super League) Cup, for the first time since the Chinese professional football league was formed in 1994.
In May 2006 top Chinese soccer team Wuhan Huanghelou announced that they had formed a lucrative deal with top English team Bolton Wanderers which would see both coaching and commercial methods exchanged.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Wuhan is twinned with:

A karaoke bar near the HUST campus

Diplomatic representation

The United States,[10] France,[11] have consulates in Wuhan and South Korea will open a consulate soon.[12] The U.S. Consul General, the Honorable Ms. Diane L. Sovereign, has been stationed in Wuhan since 30 November 2009. The office of the U.S. Consulate General, Central China (located in Wuhan) celebrated its official opening on 20 November 2008 and is the first new American consulate in China in over 20 years.[13][14]

Image gallery

See also



  • Chi, Li (2000). Lao Wuhan (Old Wuhan): Yong Yuan De Lang Man... (part of the "Lao Cheng Shi" series). Nanjing: Jiangsu Meishu Chubanshe. 
  • Coe, John L. (1962). Huachung University (Huazhong Daxue). New York: United Board for Christian Higher Education. 
  • Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "The Three Wuhan Cities," pp.1-96 in The Three Gorges and the Upper Yangzi. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. 
  • Latimer, James V. (1934). Wuhan Trips: A Book on Short Trips in and Around Hankow. Hankow: Navy YMCA. 
  • MacKinnon, Stephen R. (2000). "Wuhan's Search for Identity in the Republican Period," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900-1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
  • Rowe, William T. (1984). Hankou: Commerce and Society, 1796-1889. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 
  • Rowe, William T. (1988). Hankou: Conflict and Community in a Chinese City, 1796-1895. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 
  • Song, Xiaodan and Zhu, Li (1999). Wuhan Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Wuhan). Beijing: Renmin Meishu Chubanshe (People's Fine Arts Publishing House). 


  1. ^ Wunderground Archives (2008-01-09). "Temperatures in Wuhan". Wunderground. Retrieved 2008-01-09. 
  2. ^ Two high-speed rail links start April 1
  3. ^ [Source: Beijing (AFP, Sat Dec 26, 7:54 am ET]
  4. ^ a b Almanac of Wuhan 2009: Wuhan Bureau of Statistics, Chapter 1 Section 9
  5. ^ With monthly disposable income:1392.7 CNY. Almanac of Wuhan 2009: Wuhan Bureau of Statistics, Chapter 1 Section 8
  6. ^ People's Daily Online (2005-10-25). "Wuhan absorbs most French investment in China". People's Daily. Retrieved 2006-10-23. 
  7. ^ 大汉网络 (2004-09-03). "The Thoroughfare to Nine Provinces-Wuhan City". Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  8. ^ "National Colleges and Universities (in Simple Chinese)". Hubei Provincial Department of Education. 2006-08-31. 
  9. ^ "Public Colleges and Universities (in Simple Chinese)". Hubei Provincial Department of Education. 2006-08-31. 
  10. ^ US Department of State (2008-11-23). "Consulate General of the United States Wuhan, China". 
  11. ^ French Foreign Ministry (2008-11-23). "Consulat General de France a Wuhan". 
  12. ^ Xinhua News Agency (2009-01-21). "ROK to open consulate in central China city". 
  13. ^ "U.S. Opens Consulate in China Industry Center Wuhan". Associated Press. 20 November 2008. 
  14. ^ US Department of State (20 November 2008). "The United States Consulate General in Wuhan, China Opens on November 20, 2008". 

External links

Preceded by
(wartime) Capital of China
Succeeded by
Chongqing (wartime)

Coordinates: 30°34′21″N 114°16′45″E / 30.5725°N 114.27917°E / 30.5725; 114.27917

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Wuhan (武汉; Wǔhàn)[1][2] is the capital of Hubei Province in China and a major port on the Yangtse River.

Climate Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Daily highs (°C) 7 8 13 20 25 28 32 39 42 22 15 10
Nightly lows (°C) 0 2 6 13 18 22 25 25 20 14 7 2
Precipitation (cm) 4 5 9 13 16 21 16 11 7 7 4 3

Wuhan is humid year-round

Wuhan is an amalgamation of three smaller cities, Hankou, Hanyang and Wuchang, each separated from the other by a river. Hankou is the business center and it sits to the northwest with the Yangtze River separating it from Wuchang and the Han River separating it from Hanyang. Wuchang is the education center hosting a bewildering variety of universities, institutes and colleges. It is separated from both Hankou and Hanyang by the Yangtze River. Hanyang is the industrial center, home to dozens of pollution-spewing industries including the Citroen car company. It is separated from Hankou by the Han River and from Wuchang by the Yangtze River.

The Number One Yangtze River Bridge, an old, Soviet-era colossus of engineering incorporating both rail and automobile traffic in a dual-layer setup, connects Wuchang with Hanyang. The more graceful Number Two Yangtze River Bridge, currently only open to automobile traffic, connects Wuchang with Hankou to the north. There are two major bridges across the Han River shuttling automobile traffic between Hanyang and Hankou. These two bridges are within sight of each other on the few smog-free days that exist. The Number Three Yangtze River Bridge, connects the outskirts of Wuchang with the outskirts of Hanyang to the distant south.

Hanyang was a busy port as long as 3,000 years ago in the Han Dynasty. Yellow Crane Tower was first built in 223BCE and became a famous buildings in China through the poetry of Cui Hao during the Tang Dynasty. Wuchang has been a center of learning for centuries, especially in the field of the arts. It became a provincial capital in the Yuan Dynasty.

During the 19th century, as a result of concessions granted in the aftermath of the opium wars, large areas of Hankou's riverfront were carved up into foreign mercantile divisions with port and rail facilities. There remain many grand buildings along Hankou's riverfront clearly European in design as a result. In 1911 the city was host to the Wuchang uprising: Sun Yat-sen's revolution that resulted in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. The event is commemorated in many place names beginning with "Shouyi", literally "First Revolution", including a public square with an attached museum. In the ensuing chaos of the Republic of China, Wuchang was the capital of a leftist Guomindang government ruled over by Wang Jingwei in direct opposition to Chiang Kai-shek.

Beneath Wuhan's industrial exterior a rewarding tapestry of history and cultural arts awaits.

Would-be travelers who do not care for the heat should avoid visiting Wuhan in the summer months. As the hottest of all the "four furnaces of China" (along with Chongqing, Nanjing, and Xi'an), temperatures in the summer can easily reach 35C. Combine heat with humidity, a lack of wind, and heavy urban pollution typical to most of the rapidly industrialized cities in China and one encounters a recipe for a cloudy yet simmering day of uncomfortable heat.

Get in

Wuhan is a major city in a central position. It has all the bus, rail, road and air connections you would expect.

By air

Wuhan can be accessed easily from Wuhan Tianhe International Airport (WUH) [3] about an hour outside of the city center. Flights from all major domestic airports are available, including Xian, Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu, Hong Kong and Taipei. International flights operate from Seoul.

By train

Wuhan is a major railway hub, connected by direct trains with most of China's major cities. Overnight express trains (Z series trains) take one from Beijing for ¥263 or Shanghai in 9-12 hours. There are also frequent train connections from Guangzhou taking about 12 hours and a bit less frequent trains from Shenzhen.

Besides over night trains, there are also day-time high-speed trains which connect Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. It takes 05h 38m to Shanghai, 8.5 hours to Beijing and 3-4 hours to Guangzhou.

There are three major passenger train stations: Wuhan, Wuchang and Hankou. High-speed trains arrive at Wuhan station. Hankou station is current being renovated.

By bus

There are two major long distance bus stations, again in Hankou and Wuchang respectively, which tend to have buses visiting both.

By boat

You can also reach Wuhan via boats on the Yangtse River, either from downstream centers such as Shanghai and Nanjing or from Chongqing further upstream, via the famous Three Gorges route.

Get around

By bus

Wuhan has a cheap, efficient, but horribly bewildering bus system in place. The service has vastly improved compared to the past. It is the cheapest way to get around the city. If you have a local to guide you, it can be used to get from place to place with impressive speed (if not comfort or safety). Without a local to guide you, you should better have a very good map and a good grasp of Chinese.

By taxi

Taxis abound in Wuhan, easily outnumbering other private and public vehicles. Rates are relatively cheap at ¥3 on the flag and with around ¥50 getting you between almost any two spots you are likely to want to travel between. It is possible to get higher taxi fares, but usually only because the taxi driver has deliberately taken you on a longer trip (which is, thankfully, not a common occurrence).

Airport taxis are the exception. Foreigners in particular are likely to get ripped off by taxi drivers at the airport. They will demand prices starting at ¥150 to go anywhere in the city. For reference, going from the airport to the middle of Hanyang costs about ¥50 typically. It is advisable to insist on the metre before the taxi starts moving and if the driver refuses, step out, collect your luggage and go back to the taxi stand. Note that this is not a serious problem in the daytime when there is a supervisor at the taxi stand who is an airport employee, rather a taxi driver himself.

One oddity of the taxi system is crossing the bridges. Because of the traffic problems and snarls at the bridges, the city has instituted a system in which half the taxis are not permitted to cross the bridge on half the days. Basically, if the day of the month is odd, odd-numbered taxis are allowed to use the Number One Bridge. If the day of the month is even, even-numbered taxis are allowed to use the Number One Bridge. This system may extend to the Number Two Bridge (this is not yet confirmed) but it does not extend to the Number Three Bridge. In most circumstances, however, it is not advisable to use the Number Three Bridge as it tends to increase the taxi fares dramatically (although it is an interesting ride).

By ferry

The Yangtze River can be crossed by ferry for a very reasonable fee of ¥1.5. The ferry runs frequently starting at 7AM and ending at 9PM. It offers by virtue of its unique location some nice views of the city, the Number One Yangtze River Bridge, Yellow Crane Tower, etc. during the day and an interesting nightscape view after dark.

Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower
A view of Snake Hill Park from the Yellow Crane Tower.
A view of Snake Hill Park from the Yellow Crane Tower.
  • Yellow Crane Tower (黄鹤楼 Huanghelou), [4]. The single largest tourist attraction in Wuhan, the tower is a modern construction built on the site of five previous incarnations. It is considered one of the four great towers in China. The tower sits atop Snake Hill near the Number One Yangtze River Bridge and affords a commanding view of the Yangtze River as well as the mouth of the Han River where it connects. The view can be very impressive depending on local smog conditions. On the few clear days one can see practically the entire city of Wuhan as well as up and down the Yangtze River.
    Entering the park costs ¥50 which gives access to Snake Hill Park, Yellow Crane Tower and the Mao Pavilion (in which many of the poems of Chairman Mao are etched into stone for viewing pleasure). The park as a whole is nicely landscaped with many charming buildings. Of particular interest is the enormous bronze bell located behind Yellow Crane Tower itself as well as a teahouse on the premises which features regular performances of traditional Chu-era music. The performance itself is free, but it is expected that patrons enjoying it order at least a beverage or a small snack.
    The tower itself is a modern building completed in the 1980s using modern materials, most notably, concrete is used instead of wood for all supporting members. It is sited where five previous Yellow Crane Towers have stood, each pervious one destroyed in war or disaster. The ground floor of the tower contains a large entrance hall, two storeys tall, with enormous decorative lamps and a giant ceramic fresco displaying the quasi-mythical story of the tower's initial construction. The second storey, essentially a balcony around the entrance hall, contains the usual souvenir shops as well as displays of traditional Chinese paintings and calligraphy. The third storey has a residence done up in the very ancient, Chu style modelled after the kinds of sitting rooms used by nobility greeting guests in the ancient period. The fourth storey contains a souvenir shop and a set of models displaying the tower in its five previous incarnations. This latter display shows the fascinating development of an essentially military watchtower into an increasingly residence/tourist-oriented showpiece. The top accessible storey has pay telescopes for the view (which are generally not useful in the smog which dominates Wuhan air) and some art displays.
    Yellow Crane Tower (and, in fact, Snake Hill Park in general) is wheelchair-accessible in most areas of interest. The tower even has two elevators suited to the elderly and the handicapped who would otherwise not be able to climb the stairs to the top. Ramps around in most of the areas of interest.
  • Guiyuan Temple (归元寺), 84-842-298, [5]. Open from 9 AM to 5 PM. Built in 1658, Guiyuan Temple is known as the first zen temple to be built in Hubei Province. The most famous and impressive building in the complex is the Arhats Hall, which contains 500 arhat (Buddhist saints) statues. When you enter, from whichever part you choose to begin exploring, you are supposed to count the arhats. When you have counted to your current age, you are then supposed to write down the number above the statue that you stopped on and you can then present it to the small shop outside to purchase a golden card with your fortune, as well as a depiction of that statue. The statues inside are all quite different and intricately designed, so it's well worth the time to thoroughly explore the temple. Entrance is ¥10.  edit
  • Memorial Hall of Wuchang Uprising in 1911 Revolution, (Just below Snake Hill on the south side), [6]. On 10 October 1911 the infamous Wuchang Uprising that later led to the election of Sun Yat-Sen as the provisional president and inspired uprisings all over China. This event is one of the biggest events shaping modern China, making it a must-see for anyone interested in historical travel. The Revolunary Army was officially here, and inside the Red Chamber (the main building) they issued the edict to bring down the Qing Dynasty. In the outside Uprising Plaza, stands a statue of Sun Yat-Sen.   edit
  • Hubei Provincial Museum (湖北省博物馆), +86 27 86794127, [7]. Exhibit of ancient Chinese artifacts excavated from throughout Hubei Province. Displays range from pottery, jewelry, clothing, and even ancient human skulls. One of the highlights are the well-preserved instruments, and a brief concert is played daily on reproduction instruments.  edit
  • Wuhan Zoo, [8]. Although it is technically a zoo, there is more to this zoo than just animals. The zoo contains a small area of amusement park rides, and a beautiful bonsai garden. Of course, those who are interested in seeing the animals will not be disappointed, as the zoo features a Giant Panda (be aware that they occasionally take the panda out to travel to other parts of the country), red pandas, hippos, wolves, zebras, and many other popular zoo animals. No visit to this zoo would be complete without seeing one of the daily shows! Well-trained animals performing unbelievable stunts, from puppies doing tricks to bicycling bears.  edit
  • Baotong Temple.  edit
  • Changchun Taoist Temple.  edit
  • Wuhan Botanical Garden, +86 27 87510290, [9]. Wuhan Botanical Garden was established in 1956 and is known today as one of China's top research botanical gardens. There is an impressive variety of gardens and greenhouses within the grounds of the botanical garden.  edit
  • Moshan Hill. A large park area filled with monuments, temples, and various shops. While most of the monuments in the area were built in the 1990s, Moshan Hill is still a great place to go hiking and enjoy the natural scenery. ¥40.  edit
  • Mao Zedong's Summer Villa, 56 Donghu Lu. Wuhan is home to one of the villas of the infamous Chairman Mao. He returned here annually and typically stayed a few months. The decor was designed in the 1950s fashion, which strikes many visitors as odd, yet there are plenty of indicators that it is no ordinary person's home. One of the most interesting sites is Mao's large indoor swimming pool.  edit
  • Jiqing Street (吉庆街). An ordinary-seeming street by day, becomes transformed by night into a bewildering maze of streetside restaurants and buskers performing music, dance, opera and stand-up comedy. It is a strongly-recommended experience. Food is plentiful and cheap, and it features a lot of unique local cuisine. The performances can be enjoyed by proxy as performers work other tables or they can be purchased. One can expect to pay about ¥10 per song performed. Other performances are more based on contributions—the more you contribute, the longer the performers will do their routines and the more daring/interesting/funny the routines will be.  edit
  • Dragon Boat Festival (Duanwu Festival). May 5 at the East Lake. The famous Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated throughout China however, it's origins lie with the ancient Chu Kingdom that resided in Hubei Province and surrounding provinces during the Warring States Period. The festival was brought about from the story of Qu Yuan, advisor of King Huai, who had made many predictions about the dangers of the surrounding kingdoms to their own. Qu Yuan had advised the king on ways to protect the Chu Kingdom, but the king refused to listen and instead banished his advisor from the court. Years later, when word reached Qu Yuan that all of his predictions had come true, he committed suicide in the river out of despair over the fall of his kingdom. It is said that the people of the town loved him so much that they paddled down the river in dragon boats making music and throwing rice into the river so that the fish would not eat his body. This event is believed to have occurred on May 5, and the festival is celebrated in much the same way today as the event had occurred with the dragon boats and music in the river. People eat zongi, special rice wrapped in bamboo leaves, on this holiday. Although Qu Yuan is said to have drown himself in the Miluo River, just outside of Hubei Province, the festival is believed to have originated in Wuhan.  edit
Jianghan Road by night.
Jianghan Road by night.
  • Jianghan Road (江汉路), (In Hankou). Of potential interest to a visitor, a pedestrian mall almost as long as Shanghai's famed East Nanjing Road. During the day it is an interesting look at rampant consumerism in China's rapidly-growing middle class. At night, starting at 7PM, it is the same but is expanded on each side a few blocks deep by a night market with literally thousands of little stalls hawking every variety of goods imaginable: makeup, souvenirs, clothing, housewares, food, music, movies, etc.  edit
  • Chongwen Book City (Chongwen Shu Cheng), Xiongchu Avenu (Xiongchu Dajie) (Near Loushi South Road (Loushinanlu), about 3km east of Wuchang Train Station). Wuhan's best (or at least biggest) book and map store. It occupies the 3rd floor of a huge building. The place is huge. Most books are categorized by topics, but there are also sections dedicated to specific publishers. Most books are of course in Chinese, but a foreign traveller may be interested in their map department is well stocked. Among other products, they carry a series of road atlases for most of China's provinces and autonomous regions, suitable for both drivers and bicyclists. There is also an internet cafe on the 4th floor.  edit
  • Hubei Province Foreign Languages Book Shop (Waiwen shudian), Zhongnan Road (Just north of Wulou Road, no English sign). Another big book shop. The "foreign languages" in its name seems to refer mostly to the textbooks and dictionaries of foreign languages for the Chinese audience and the books translated into Chinese from foreign languages, but they carry some literature in English as well.  edit
  • Xinhua Bookstores. There are also a few large Xinhua Bookstores throughout the city.  edit


Wuhan is famous for its morning xiaochi - a variety of breakfast foods. Hubuhang in Wuchang is Wuhan's famous breakfast alley where you will find all of Wuhan's famous breakfast dishes. Reganmian (hot dry noodle) is the epitome of Wuhan's breakfast food. It is tossed in sesame paste and other seasonings. You will find these noodles for ¥2 from street vendors. Other Wuhan breakfast specialties include mianwo, a type of savory donut; tangbao, small dumpling-buns filled with pork and soup; mibaba, a lightly sweetened pancake made with rice flour; and mijiu tangyuan, a sweet soup of rice wine (fermented from glutinous rice) with rice flour dumplings stuffed with sesame paste.

Real men find their fuel on the streets betwixt the hours of 12:00-5:00 in the AM. On these streets there are generous and well-meaning folk selling dumplings, noodles, wok food, and foies gras. On the odd occasion that the lounge is closed, one is able to sit outside and enjoy the night air, the delightful local dialect, and any foods you order. If you are in the mood for a more romantic night on the town, there are countless 3-wall restaurants with candle lights upon the tables, live music flowing from the muses' mouths, and 4-star restaurants' finest fair at a reasonable and sanitary locale.


It would be considered a sin to visit this city and not taste some of its finest nectars. Included in this list is Jingjiu (a healthy alternative to regular wines), Baijiu (the flavorful but tasty liqueur that that will be the perfect accompaniment to any conversation with a loved one). If you would like to taste something slightly more low key, there is a local micro-brew called Singo (Xingyinge), that will be the beginning of every good night, at just ¥1.5 per bottle.

  • VOX, Luxiang Lumo Road, +86 13437251621 (chinese), 13163308577 (english). The most popular bar in Wuhan for non-Chinese, VOX is a small bar which regularly has shows on weekend playing host to underground Chinese acts ranging from rock/punk/indie/experimental. Has a DJ after shows playing electro, indie-dance-rock among other things. Beers start at ¥5.  edit
  • Topone Bar, 13016464840.  edit
  • Holiday Inn Wuhan Riverside, (At the heart of city a few minutes away from the shopping and entertainment district). Built near the banks of the Yangtze River,opposite to the well-known Yellow Crane Tower,neighbor to the ancient Qing Chuan Pavilion. 315 well-furnished rooms including 10 suites ,80 non-smoking rooms ,2 disabled rooms and 50 rooms on Executive Club floor.  edit
  • Haiyi Jin Jiang Hotel, 1 Hongshan Road, Wuchang District, [10]. An intelligent building in the heart of the Wuchang District, offers 72 rooms with cutting edge amenities that are perfect for busy executives. It also has a variety of event venues to suit every function, as well as dining options where you can have the best of local cuisine.  edit
  • Wuhan Pathfinder International Youth Hostel (武汉探路者国际青年旅舍), 368 Zhongshan Road, Wuchang District (武昌区中山路368号) (Cannot be seen from the street, and may be difficult to find, so make sure to write down the address in Chinese and phone number to give to your taxi), +86 27 88844092, 88851263 (, fax: +86 27 88844092), [11]. Free wireless access, and very nice and extensive common area. Restaurant on site with extensive menu of Chinese and Western foods. Although quiet hours are listed as 11PM-8AM, this is barely suggested and not enforced, even the employees blast music late into the night. Expect noise past 2AM, starting again at 6AM. Not a hotel for light sleepers. Dorm ¥40(¥35 member), single ¥80 (¥70 member), double ¥158 (¥138 member).  edit
  • Super 8 (8酒店), 98 Donghu Road, Wuchang District (武昌区东湖路98号), +86 27 67811788 (fax: +86 27 67811766). Free internet in rooms. Free simple buffet meals. From ¥180.  edit
  • Wuhan Jin Jiang International Hotel, 707 Jianshe Avenue, Jianghan District, [12]. A 5-star business hotel with over 400 guestrooms replete with the essentials for the traveling businessman. Also has fully-equipped ballrooms made for business conferences and other special events that can accommodate up to 400 guests. The hotel has restaurants offering Chinese and Western cuisine, and a cigar bar.  edit
  • Novotel Wuhan Xin Hua (武汉新华诺富特大饭店), (In Hankou), [13]. 5 star hotel.  edit

Get out

There is a train station in Wuchang and in Hankou. There are also long-distance bus stations; one in Hankou, and near the Wuchang train station.

Routes through Wuhan
BeijingZhengzhou  N noframe S  ChangshaGuangzhou
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary


Wikipedia has an article on:






  1. A sub-provincial city in central China; capital of Hubei Province.


Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address