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State of Wyoming
Flag of Wyoming State seal of Wyoming
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Equality State (official);
Cowboy State; Big Wyoming
Motto(s): Equal rights
before statehood, known as
the Wyoming Territory
Map of the United States with Wyoming highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym Wyomingite
Capital Cheyenne
Largest city Cheyenne
Area  Ranked 10th in the US
 - Total 97,818 sq mi
(253,348 km2)
 - Width 280 miles (450 km)
 - Length 360 miles (581 km)
 - % water 0.7
 - Latitude 41°N to 45°N
 - Longitude 104°3'W to 111°3'W
Population  Ranked 50th in the US
 - Total 544,270 (2009 est.)[1]
 - Density 5.4/sq mi  (2.08/km2)
Ranked 49th in the US
Elevation  
 - Highest point Gannett Peak[2]
13,809 ft  (4,210 m)
 - Mean 6,700 ft  (2,044 m)
 - Lowest point Belle Fourche River[2]
3,099 ft  (945 m)
Admission to Union  July 10, 1890 (44th)
Governor Dave Freudenthal (D)
Lieutenant Governor None[3]
U.S. Senators Mike Enzi (R)
John Barrasso (R)
U.S. House delegation Cynthia Lummis (R) (list)
Time zone Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations WY US-WY
Website http://wyoming.gov
Wyoming Listeni /wˈmɪŋ/ is a state in the Western United States. The majority of the state is dominated by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountain West, while the easternmost section of the state includes part of a high elevation prairie region known as the High Plains. While the tenth largest U.S. state by size, Wyoming is the least populous, with a U.S. Census estimated population of 544,270 in 2009, a 5.9% increase since 2000.[4] The capital and the most populous city of Wyoming is Cheyenne.

Contents

Geography and climate

Location and size

As specified in the designating legislation for the territory of Wyoming, the state is defined as a geoellipsoidal rectangle bounded by lines of latitude and longitude.[5] Wyoming is one of only three states (along with Colorado and Utah) to have only latitudinal and longitudinal, rather than naturally defined, boundaries. In reality, due to survey errors during the 19th century, Wyoming's border deviates from the latitude or longitude lines by up to half of a mile (.8 km) in some spots, especially in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel.[6] .Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho.^ Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana ; on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska ; on the south by Colorado ; and on the west by Utah and Idaho .

^ Nearby neighbors include South Dakota, Montana, Utah, Idaho, Colorado and Nebraska.
  • Wyoming, Share your views with the Wyoming community, read facts and figures about your favorite state. 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.bizymoms.com [Source type: General]

^ From the north border to the south border it is 276 mile s (444 km); and from the east to the west border is 375 miles (603 km).

It is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97,818 square miles (253,350 km2) and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles (444 km); and from the east to the west border is 365 miles (587 km) at its south end and 342 miles (550 km) at the north end.

Mountain ranges

The Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau broken by a number of mountain ranges. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet (4,207 m), to the Belle Fourche River valley in the state’s northeast corner, at 3,125 feet (953 m). In the northwest are the Absaroka, Owl Creek, Gros Ventre, Wind River and the Teton ranges. In the north central are the Big Horn Mountains; in the northeast, the Black Hills; and in the southern region the Laramie, Snowy and Sierra Madre ranges.
Dead Indian Pass, Wyoming
The Snowy Range in the south central part of the state is an extension of the Colorado Rockies in both geology and appearance. The Wind River Range in the west central part of the state is remote and includes more than 40 mountain peaks in excess of 13,000 ft (4,000 m) tall in addition to Gannett Peak, the highest peak in the state. The Big Horn Mountains in the north central portion are somewhat isolated from the bulk of the Rocky Mountains.
Wyoming terrain
The Teton Range in the northwest extends for 50 miles (80 km), part of which is included in Grand Teton National Park. The park includes the Grand Teton, the second highest peak in Wyoming.
The Continental Divide spans north-south across the central portion of the state. Rivers east of the divide drain into the Missouri River Basin and eventually the Gulf of Mexico. They are the North Platte, Wind, Big Horn and the Yellowstone rivers. The Snake River in northwest Wyoming eventually drains into the Columbia River and the Pacific Ocean, as does the Green River through the Colorado River Basin.
The continental divide forks in the south central part of the state in an area known as the Great Divide Basin where the waters that flow or precipitate into this area remain there and cannot flow to any ocean. Instead, because of the overall aridity of Wyoming, water in the Great Divide Basin simply sinks into the soil or evaporates.
Several rivers begin or flow through the state, including the Yellowstone River, Bighorn River, Green River, and the Snake River.

Public lands

Map of Wyoming: National Parks and NPS sites
More than 48% of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U.S. Government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth in the US in total acres and fifth in percentage of a state's land owned by the Federal government.[7] This amounts to about 30,099,430 acres (121,808.1 km2) owned and managed by the U.S. Government. The state government owns an additional 6% of all Wyoming lands, or another 3,864,800 acres (15,640 km2).[7]
The vast majority of this government land is managed by the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service in numerous National Forests, a National Grassland, and a number of vast swaths of public land.
In addition, Wyoming contains a number of specific areas that are under the management of the National Park Service and other agencies. They include:
An eruption of Castle Geyser in Yellowstone National Park.

Parks

Recreation areas

National monuments

National historic trails and sites

National parkways

Wildlife refuges and hatcheries


Panoramic view of the Teton Range looking west from Jackson Hole, Grand Teton National Park.

Climate

Wyoming state welcome sign on Interstate 80 in Uinta County (at the Utah border).
Wyoming's climate is generally a semi-arid continental climate (Koppen climate classification BSk), which is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with temperature extremes. Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 °F (29 °C) and 95 °F (35 °C) in most of the state. With increasing elevation, however, this average drops rapidly with locations above 9,000 feet (2,700 m) averaging around 70 °F (21 °C). Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with even the hottest locations averaging in the 50–60 °F (10–16 °C) range at night. In most of the state, the late spring and early summer is when most of the precipitation tends to fall. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between generally mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is an arid state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches (250 mm) of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging 5–8 inches (130–200 mm) (making the area nearly a true desert). The lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains typically average around 10–12 inches (250–300 mm), making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches (510 mm) or more, much of it as snow, sometimes 200 inches (510 cm) or more annually.
The climate of any area in Wyoming is largely determined by its latitude, altitude and local topography. When put together, these factors have a lot to do with airflow patterns, temperature variations, precipitation and humidity brought in by the weather systems that migrate eastward. In winter, Wyoming is often beneath the jet stream, or north of it, which accounts for its frequent strong winds, blasts of Arctic air and precipitation, all the necessary ingredients for great snow conditions at Wyoming's northwestern ski areas. In summer, the jet stream retreats northward to Canada, leaving the state's weather mild and pleasant at a time when the majority of Wyoming's visitors choose to arrive. Jackson, located at 6,230 feet (1,900 m) above sea level and surrounded by mountains, can expect a high temperature in July of 80 °F (27 °C). The average is more likely to be 65 °F (18 °C). The closest National Weather Station (in Riverton on the other side of the Wind River Mountains at 4,955 feet (1,510 m)) reports slightly warmer July weather.
The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during the late spring and early summer. The southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops dramatically with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those which occur a little further east.
Casper climate: Average maximum and minimum temperatures, and average rainfall.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average max. temperature °F (°C) 32
(0)
37
(3)
45
(7)
56
(13)
66
(19)
78
(26)
87
(31)
85
(29)
74
(23)
60
(16)
44
(7)
34
(1)
58
(14)
Average min. temperature
°F (°C)
12
(-11)
16
(-9)
21
(-6)
28
(-2)
37
(3)
46
(8)
54
(12)
51
(11)
41
(5)
32
(0)
21
(-6)
14
(-10)
31
(-1)
Average rainfall
inches (mm)
0.6
(15.2)
0.6
(15.2)
1.0
(25.4)
1.6
(40.6)
2.1
(53.3)
1.5
(38.1)
1.3
(33.0)
0.7
(17.8)
0.9
(22.9)
1.0
(25.4)
0.8
(20.3)
0.7
(17.8)
12.8
(325.1)
Source:[8]
Jackson climate: Average maximum and minimum temperatures, and average rainfall.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average max. temperature °F (°C) 24
(-4)
28
(-2)
37
(3)
47
(8)
58
(14)
68
(20)
78
(26)
77
(25)
67
(19)
54
(12)
37
(3)
24
(-4)
49
(9)
Average min. temperature
°F (°C)
-1
(-18)
2
(-17)
10
(-12)
21
(-6)
30
(-1)
36
(2)
41
(5)
38
(3)
31
(-1)
22
(-6)
14
(-10)
0
(-18)
20
(-7)
Average rainfall
inches (mm)
2.6
(66.0)
1.9
(48.3)
1.6
(40.6)
1.4
(35.6)
1.9
(48.3)
1.8
(45.7)
1.3
(33.0)
1.3
(33.0)
1.5
(38.1)
1.3
(33.0)
2.3
(58.4)
2.5
(63.5)
21.4
(543.6)
Source:[9]

History

A 12 pounder mountain howitzer on display at Fort Laramie in eastern Wyoming.
Several Native American groups originally inhabited the region now known as Wyoming. The Crow, Arapaho, Lakota, and Shoshone were but a few of the original inhabitants encountered when white explorers first entered the region. Although French trappers may have ventured into the northern sections of the state in the late 1700s, John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, first described the region in 1807. His reports of the Yellowstone area were considered at the time to be fictional. Robert Stuart and a party of five men returning from Astoria discovered South Pass in 1812. The Oregon Trail later followed that route. In 1850, Jim Bridger located what is now known as Bridger Pass, which the Union Pacific Railroad used in 1868—as did Interstate 80, 90 years later. Bridger also explored Yellowstone and filed reports on the region that, like those of Colter, were largely regarded as tall tales at the time.
The region may have acquired the name Wyoming as early as 1865, when Representative J. M. Ashley of Ohio introduced a bill to Congress to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming". The name Wyoming derives from the Munsee name xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat", originally applied to the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, made famous by the 1809 poem Gertrude of Wyoming by Thomas Campbell.[10][11]
After the Union Pacific Railroad reached the town of Cheyenne in 1867, the region's population began to grow steadily, and the Federal government established the Wyoming Territory on July 25, 1868.[12] Unlike Colorado to the south, Wyoming enjoyed no significant discovery of such celebrated minerals as gold and silver—nor Colorado's consequent boom in population—although South Pass City experienced a short-lived boom after the Carissa Mine began producing gold in 1867.[13] Moreover, some areas, such as between the Sierra Madre Mountains and the Snowy Range near Grand Encampment, produced copper.[14]
Once government sponsored expeditions to the Yellowstone country were undertaken, the previous reports by men like Colter and Bridger were found to be true. This led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park, which became the world's first national park in 1872. Nearly all of Yellowstone National Park lies within the far northwestern borders of Wyoming.
On December 10, 1869, territorial Gov. John Allen Campbell signed a suffrage act into law, which extended the right to vote to women. And in addition to being the first U.S. state to grant suffrage to women, Wyoming was also the home of other firsts for U.S. women in politics. For the first time, women served on a jury in Wyoming (Laramie in 1870). Wyoming had the first female court bailiff (Mary Atkinson, Laramie, in 1870) and the first female justice of the peace in the country (Esther Hobart Morris, South Pass City, in 1870). Wyoming became the first state in the Union to elect a female governor, Nellie Tayloe Ross, who was elected in 1924 and took office in January 1925. Because of rights given to women, Wyoming earned the nickname of "The Equality State".[15]
Wyoming's constitution included women's suffrage and a pioneering article on water rights.[16] The United States admitted Wyoming into the Union as the 44th state on July 10, 1890.[15]
Wyoming was the location of the Johnson County War of 1892, which erupted between competing groups of cattle ranchers. The passage of the federal Homestead Act led to an influx of small ranchers. A range war broke out when either or both of the groups chose violent conflict over commercial competition in the use of the public land.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1870 9,118
1880 20,789 128.0%
1890 62,555 200.9%
1900 92,531 47.9%
1910 145,965 57.7%
1920 194,402 33.2%
1930 225,565 16.0%
1940 250,742 11.2%
1950 290,529 15.9%
1960 330,066 13.6%
1970 332,416 0.7%
1980 469,557 41.3%
1990 453,588 −3.4%
2000 493,782 8.9%
Est. 2009[1] 544,270 10.2%
Wyoming Population Density Map

Population

The center of population of Wyoming is located in Natrona County.[17]
As of 2005, Wyoming had an estimated population of 509,293, which was an increase of 3,407, or 0.7%, from the prior year and an increase of 15,512, or 3.1%, since the 2000 census. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 12,165 people (that is 33,704 births minus 21,539 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 4,035 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 2,264 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 1,771 people. In 2004, the foreign-born population was 11,000 (2.2%). In 2005, total births in Wyoming numbered 7,231 (Birth Rate of 14.04).[18]
Wyoming is the least populous (total number of people) state of the United States, and has the second lowest population density, behind Alaska.
Demographics of Wyoming (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 96.19% 1.01% 3.06% 0.84% 0.13%
2000 (Hispanic only) 6.05% 0.11% 0.32% 0.06% 0.02%
2005 (total population) 96.01% 1.15% 3.06% 0.90% 0.12%
2005 (Hispanic only) 6.38% 0.15% 0.27% 0.05% 0.01%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 2.95% 17.26% 3.16% 10.32% -3.47%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 2.57% 14.20% 4.95% 12.17% 0.18%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 8.66% 42.08% -12.31% -14.09% -28.40%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
The largest ancestry groups in Wyoming are: German (25.9%), English (15.9%), Irish (13.3%), American (6.5%), Norwegian (4.3%), and Swedish (3.5%).

Religion

The religious affiliations of the people of Wyoming are shown in the table below:
Jewish – 0%
  • Other Religions – 1%
  • Non-Religious – 18%
The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 80,421; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as of December 31, 2008 recorded 61,430; and the Southern Baptist Convention in 1980 counted 17,101.[19]

Economy

Electricity generating wind farm in Uinta County.
According to the 2005 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Wyoming’s gross state product was $27.4 billion. Wyoming’s unemployment rate for 2006 was approximately 3.3%, which was lower than the national average of 4.6%. Components of Wyoming's economy differ significantly from those of other states. The mineral extraction industry and the travel and tourism sector are the main drivers behind Wyoming’s economy. The Federal government owns about 50% of its landmass, while 6% is controlled by the state. Total taxable values of mining production in Wyoming for 2001 was over $6.7 billion. The tourism industry accounts for over $2 billion in revenue for the state. Wyoming was the first state in the United States to adopt a statute permitting the formation of limited liability companies as a business form in 1977.[citation needed]
In 2002, more than six million people visited Wyoming’s national parks and monuments. The key tourist attractions in Wyoming include Grand Teton National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Devils Tower National Monument and Fossil Butte National Monument. .Each year Yellowstone National Park receives three million visitors.^ Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Battle of Little Bighorn site, and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park.
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^ Cody and two miles from the east entrance to Yellowstone National Park.
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Historically, agriculture has been an important component of Wyoming’s economy. Its overall importance to the performance of Wyoming’s economy has waned. However, agriculture is still an essential part of Wyoming’s culture and lifestyle. The main agricultural commodities produced in Wyoming include livestock (beef), hay, sugar beets, grain (wheat and barley), and wool. More than 91% of land in Wyoming is classified as rural.

Mineral production

A Wyoming coal mine.
Wyoming’s mineral commodities include coal, natural gas, coalbed methane, crude oil, uranium, and trona.
  • Coal: Wyoming produced 395.5 million short tons (358.8 million metric tons) of coal in 2004. The state is the number one producer of coal in the U.S.[20] Wyoming possesses a reserve of 68.7 billion tons (62.3 billion metric tons) of coal. Major coal areas include the Powder River Basin and the Green River Basin
  • Natural gas: Wyoming produced 2,254 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in 2007. The state ranked 2nd nationwide for natural gas production in 2007.[21] The major markets for natural gas include industrial, commercial, and domestic heating.
A Drilling rig drills for natural gas just west of the Wind River Range in the Wyoming Rockies
  • Coal Bed Methane (CBM): The boom for CBM began in the mid-1990s. CBM is characterized as methane gas that is extracted from Wyoming’s coal bed seams. It is another means of natural gas production. There has been substantial CBM production in the Powder River Basin. In 2002, the CBM production yield was 327.5 billion cubic feet (9.3 km³).
  • Crude oil: Wyoming produced 53.4 million barrels of crude oil in 2007. The state ranked 5th nationwide in oil production in 2007.[21] Petroleum is most often used as a motor fuel, but it is also utilized in the manufacture of plastics, paints, and synthetic rubber.
  • Trona: Wyoming possesses the largest known reserve of trona in the world[22] Trona is used for manufacturing glass, paper, soaps, baking soda, water softeners, and pharmaceuticals. In 2008 Wyoming produced 46 million short tons (41.7 million metric tons) of trona, 25% of the world's production.[22]
  • Uranium: Although uranium mining in Wyoming is much less active than it was in previous decades, recent increases in the price of uranium have generated new interest in uranium prospecting and mining.

Taxes

Unlike most other states, Wyoming does not levy an individual or corporate income tax. In addition, Wyoming does not assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Wyoming has a state sales tax of 4%. Counties have the option of collecting an additional 1% tax for general revenue and a 1% tax for specific purposes, if approved by voters. Food for human consumption is not subject to sales tax.[23] There also is a county lodging tax that varies from 2% to 5%. The state collects a use tax of 5% on items purchased elsewhere and brought into Wyoming. All property tax is based on the assessed value of the property and Wyoming's Department of Revenue's Ad Valorem Tax Division supports, trains, and guides local government agencies in the uniform assessment, valuation and taxation of locally assessed property. "Assessed value" means taxable value; "taxable value" means a percent of the fair market value of property in a particular class. Statutes limit property tax increases. For county revenue, the property tax rate cannot exceed 12 mills (or 1.2%) of assessed value. For cities and towns, the rate is limited to 8 mills (0.8%). With very few exceptions, state law limits the property tax rate for all governmental purposes.
Personal property held for personal use is tax-exempt. Inventory if held for resale, pollution control equipment, cash, accounts receivable, stocks and bonds are also exempt. Other exemptions include property used for religious, educational, charitable, fraternal, benevolent and government purposes and improvements for handicapped access. Minerals are exempt from property tax but companies must pay a gross products tax and a severance tax when produced. Underground mining equipment is tax exempt.
Wyoming does not collect inheritance taxes. Because of the phase-out of the federal estate tax credit, Wyoming's estate tax is not imposed on estates of persons who died in 2005. There is limited estate tax related to federal estate tax collection.
In 2008 the Tax Foundation ranked Wyoming as having the single most "business friendly" tax climate of all 50 states.[24] Wyoming state and local governments in fiscal year 2007 collected $2.242 billion in taxes, levies, and royalties from the oil and gas industry. The state's mineral industry, including oil, gas, trona, and coal provided $1.3 billion in property taxes from 2006 mineral production.[21]

Transportation

Map of Wyoming - PDF
The largest airport in Wyoming is Jackson Hole Airport.Three interstate highways and thirteen U.S. highways pass through Wyoming. In addition, the state is served by the Wyoming state highway system.
Interstate 25 enters the state south of Cheyenne and runs north, intersecting Interstate 80 in Cheyenne. It passes through Casper and ends at Interstate 90 near Buffalo. Interstate 80 crosses the Utah border west of Evanston and runs east through the southern half of the state, passing through Cheyenne before entering Nebraska near Pine Bluffs. Interstate 90 comes into Wyoming near Parkman and cuts through the northern part of the state. It serves Gillette and enters South Dakota east of Sundance. In addition, Interstate 180 services Cheyenne, and not only is it the only three-digit interstate highway in the state, it is the only non-freeway in the country that is signed as an interstate.[citation needed]
The U.S. highways that pass through the state are U.S. Highways 14, 16, 18, 20, 26, 30, 85, 87, 89, 189, 191, 212, and 287.

Wind River Indian Reservation

The Wind River Indian Reservation is shared by the Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho tribes of Amerindians in the central western portion of the state near Lander. It is the seventh-largest Indian reservation in the United States, with a land area of 8,995.733 km2 (3,473.272 sq mi), encompassing most of Fremont County and part of neighboring Hot Springs County.[25] The reservation is home to 2,500 Eastern Shoshone and 5,000 Northern Arapaho.[26]
Chief Washakie established the reservation in 1868[25] as the result of negotiations with the federal government in the Fort Bridger Treaty.[27] However, the Northern Arapaho were forced onto the Shoshone reservation in 1876 by the federal government after the government failed to provide a promised separate reservation.[27]
Today the Wind River Indian Reservation is jointly owned, with each tribe having a 50% interest in the land, water, and other natural resources.[28] The reservation is a sovereign, self-governed land with two independent governing bodies: the Eastern Shoshone Tribal Government and the Northern Arapaho Tribal Government. The Eastern Shoshone Business Council meets jointly with the Northern Arapaho Business Council as the Joint Business Council to decide matters that affect both tribes.[25] Six elected council members from each tribe serve on the joint council.

State law and government

Wyoming's Constitution established three branches of government: the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
The Wyoming state legislature comprises a House of Representatives with 60 members and a Senate with 30 members.
The executive branch is headed by the governor and includes a secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Wyoming does not have a lieutenant governor. Instead the secretary of state stands first in the line of succession.
Wyoming's sparse population warrants it only a single at-large seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, and hence only three votes in the Electoral College. Its low population renders Wyoming voters effectively more powerful in presidential elections than those in more populous states. .For example, while Montana had a 2000 census population of 902,195 to Wyoming's 493,782, they both have the same number of electoral votes.^ The population was 53,011 at the 2000 census, making it the second smallest city to be the largest city in its state, after Burlington, Vermont.
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Judicial system

Wyoming's highest court is the Supreme Court of Wyoming, with five justices presiding over appeals from the state's lower courts. Wyoming is unusual in that it does not have an intermediate appellate court, like most states. This is largely attributable to the state's size and correspondingly lower caseload. .Appeals from the state district courts go directly to the Wyoming Supreme Court.^ The Wyoming Supreme Court has struck down term limits on state legislators but has not ruled in reference to limitations on how long one can serve as governor.
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Wyoming also has state circuit courts (formerly county courts), of limited jurisdiction, which handle certain types of cases, such as civil claims with lower dollar amounts, misdemeanor criminal offenses, and felony arraignments. Circuit court judges also commonly hear small claims cases as well. .All state court judges in Wyoming are nominated by the Judicial Nominating Commission and appointed by the Governor.^ The Wyoming Supreme Court has struck down term limits on state legislators but has not ruled in reference to limitations on how long one can serve as governor.
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They are then subject to a retention vote by the electorate.

Politics

Presidential elections results[29]
Year Republicans Democrats
2008 64.78% 164,958 32.54% 82,868
2004 68.86% 167,629 29.07% 70,776
2000 67.76% 147,947 27.70% 60,481
1996 49.81% 105,388 36.84% 77,934
1992 39.70% 79,347 34.10% 68,160
1988 60.53% 106,867 38.01% 67,113
1984 70.51% 133,241 28.24% 53,370
1980 62.64% 110,700 27.97% 49,427
1976 59.30% 92,717 39.81% 62,239
1972 69.01% 100,464 30.47% 44,358
1968 55.76% 70,927 35.51% 45,173
1964 43.44% 61,998 56.56% 80,718
1960 55.01% 77,451 44.99% 63,331
Wyoming's political history defies easy classification. The state was the first to grant women the right to vote and to elect a woman governor. While the state elected notable Democrats to federal office in the 60's and 70's, politics have become decidedly more conservative since the 1980's as the Republican party came to dominate the state's congressional delegation. Today, Wyoming is represented in Washington by its two Senators, Mike Enzi and John Barrasso, and its one member of the House of Representatives, Congresswoman Cynthia Lummis. All three are Republicans. The state has not voted for a Democrat for president since 1964, one of only five times since statehood. At present, there is only one reliably Democratic county in the state: Teton. In the 2004 presidential election, George W. Bush won his second-largest victory, with 69% of the vote. Former Vice President Dick Cheney is a Wyoming resident and represented the state in Congress from 1979 to 1989. However, after his term, he resided primarily in Texas, a fact that drew mild criticism from his political opponents when he changed his voter registration back to Wyoming prior to joining George W. Bush's ticket in the 2000 Presidential election in order to comply with the Twelfth Amendment's prohibition against both Presidential and Vice-Presidential candidates residing in the same state.[citation needed]
Republicans are no less dominant at the state level. They have held a majority in the state senate continuously since 1936 and in the state house since 1964. However, Democrats have held the governorship for all but eight years since 1975. Democrat Dave Freudenthal was elected in 2002 and has one of the highest approval ratings of any governor in the USA.[citation needed] Uniquely, Wyoming elected Democrat Nellie Tayloe Ross as the first woman in US history to serve as state governor. She served from 1925 to 1927 after winning a special election after her husband, governor at the time, unexpectedly died.[30]

Counties

.The State of Wyoming has 23 counties.^ Cheyenne Population: 11,320 County: Laramie County Cheyenne is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County.
  • Wyoming - US State | Juggle.com 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wyoming Counties Ranked By 2008 Population[31]
Rank County Population Rank County Population
1 Laramie County 87,542 13 Converse County 13,267
2 Natrona County 73,129 14 Goshen County 12,072
3 Campbell County 41,473 15 Big Horn County 11,322
4 Sweetwater County 39,944 16 Johnson County 8,464
5 Fremont County 38,113 17 Sublette County 8,456
6 Albany County 32,758 18 Platte County 8,294
7 Sheridan County 28,662 19 Washakie County 7,821
8 Park County 27,574 20 Weston County 7,022
9 Uinta County 20,617 21 Crook County 6,457
10 Teton County 20,376 22 Hot Springs County 4,622
11 Lincoln County 16,631 23 Niobrara County 2,428
12 Carbon County 15,624 Wyoming Total 532,668
Map of Wyoming showing the 23 counties.
In 2005, 52.4% of Wyomingites lived in one of the five most populous Wyoming counties.
Wyoming license plates contain a number on the left that indicates the county in which the vehicle is registered. The county license plate numbers are as follows:
Number on
License Plate
County Number on
License Plate
County Number on
License Plate
County
1 Natrona 9 Big Horn 17 Campbell
2 Laramie 10 Fremont 18 Crook
3 Sheridan 11 Park 19 Uinta
4 Sweetwater 12 Lincoln 20 Washakie
5 Albany 13 Converse 21 Weston
6 Carbon 14 Niobrara 22 Teton
7 Goshen 15 Hot Springs 23 Sublette
8 Platte 16 Johnson    

Cities and towns

The State of Wyoming has 98 incorporated municipalities.
The 20 Most Populous Wyoming Cities and Towns[32]
Rank City County Population
1 City of Cheyenne Laramie County 56,915
2 City of Casper Natrona County 54,047
3 City of Laramie Albany County 27,664
4 City of Gillette Campbell County 26,871
5 City of Rock Springs Sweetwater County 20,200
6 City of Sheridan Sheridan County 17,197
7 City of Green River Sweetwater County 12,149
8 City of Evanston Uinta County 11,781
9 City of Riverton Fremont County 10,032
10 Town of Jackson Teton County 9,806
11 City of Cody Park County 9,309
12 City of Rawlins Carbon County 8,740
13 City of Lander Fremont County 7,264
14 City of Douglas Converse County 5,971
15 City of Powell Park County 5,524
16 City of Torrington Goshen County 5,514
17 City of Worland Washakie County 4,958
18 City of Buffalo Johnson County 4,832
19 Town of Newcastle Weston County 3,390
20 Town of Wheatland Platte County 3,298
In 2005, 50.6% of Wyomingites lived in one of the 13 most populous Wyoming municipalities.

Metropolitan areas

The United States Census Bureau has defined two Metropolitan Statistical Areas and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas for the State of Wyoming.
U.S. Census Bureau Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas of Wyoming[33]
Census Area County Population
Cheyenne, WY, Metropolitan Statistical Area Laramie County, Wyoming 87,542
Casper, WY, Metropolitan Statistical Area Natrona County, Wyoming 73,129
Gillette, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Campbell County, Wyoming 41,473
Rock Springs, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Sweetwater County, Wyoming 39,944
Riverton, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Fremont County, Wyoming 38,113
Laramie, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Albany County, Wyoming 32,758
Sheridan, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Sheridan County, Wyoming 28,662
Jackson, WY-ID, Micropolitan Statistical Area Teton County, Wyoming 20,376
Teton County, Idaho 8,833
Total 29,209
Evanston, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Uinta County, Wyoming 20,617
In 2008, 30.4% of Wyomingites lived in either of the Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and 73% lived in either a Metropolitan Statistical Area or a Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Education

Public education is directed by the state superintendent of public instruction, an elected state official. Educational policies are set by the State Board of Education, a nine-member board appointed by the governor. The constitution prohibits the state from establishing curriculum and text book selections; these are the prerogatives of local school boards. The Wyoming School for the Deaf was the only in-state school dedicated to supporting deaf students in Wyoming, but it closed in summer of 2000.

Higher education

Wyoming has one public four-year institution, the University of Wyoming in Laramie. In addition, there are seven two-year community colleges spread through the state.
Before the passing of a new law in 2006, Wyoming had hosted unaccredited institutions, many of them suspected diploma mills.[34] The 2006 law is forcing unaccredited institutions to make one of three choices: move out of Wyoming, close down, or apply for accreditation. The Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization predicts that in a few years the problem of diploma mills in Wyoming might be resolved.[35]

Sports

Miscellaneous information

State flower of Wyoming: Indian Paintbrush
Wyoming was chosen as the official state for the Free State Wyoming project; a splinter of the Free State Project. The purpose of the project is to relocate Libertarians to a single state, making it possible to live a "free life".
In 2008, The American State Litter Scorecard rated Wyoming a nationally Best state for statewide litter eradication from public properties, having the highest total objective and subjective ranking scores for the Western United States, followed by Oregon.
Rooster Teeth's web series Red Vs Blue created a freelancer character bearing the state name.

State symbols

The Bear River flowing through the southwest part of the state.
Though the horned lizard is the Wyoming state reptile, a sign northwest of Thermopolis acknowledges the presence of prairie rattlesnakes, "feared by many and respected by most".

Notable Wyomingites

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2008-01.csv. Retrieved 2009-01-26. 
  2. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 April 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 9, 2006. 
  3. ^ In the event of a vacancy in the office of Governor, the Secretary of State is first in line for succession.
  4. ^ "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". 2009 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. 2007-12-27. http://eadiv.state.wy.us/pop/st-07est.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-05. 
  5. ^ Willam J. Gribb; Lawrence M. Ostrech. Databases and Algorithms to Determine the Boundary of Wyoming. University of Wyoming, Department of Geography. http://gis.esri.com/library/userconf/proc04/docs/pap1718.pdf. Retrieved 14 December, 2008. 
  6. ^ Ivars Peterson. "Rectangular States and Kinky Borders". http://www.maa.org/mathtourist/mathtourist_08_30_07.html. Retrieved 14 December, 2008. 
  7. ^ a b MainEnvironment.org Public Land Ownership by State, 1995 Main Environment.org
  8. ^ CountryStudies.us
  9. ^ Countrystudies.us
  10. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 576
  11. ^ State of Wyoming - Narrative
  12. ^ State of Wyoming - General Facts About Wyoming
  13. ^ "South Pass City Historic Site.". http://wyoparks.state.wy.us/Site/Brochure/SouthPassCity.pdf.  Wyoming State Parks, Historic Sites & Trails
  14. ^ "Mines Register: Successor to the Mines Handbook and the Copper Handbook, Describing the Non-ferrous Metal Mining Companies in the Western Hemisphere". http://books.google.com/books?id=M8pIAAAAMAAJ.  Mines Publication, 1911. Original from the University of Michigan.
  15. ^ a b "General Facts about Wyoming", wyoming.gov, Retrieved on July 2, 2008.
  16. ^ Sodaro, Craig; Adams, Randy (1996). Frontier Spirit: The Story of Wyoming. Johnson Books. pp. 136–139. ISBN 1-55566-163-7. 
  17. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". U. S. Census Bureau. 2000. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  18. ^ "Hispanics fastest growing ethnic group in Wyoming". Billings Gazette via AP. 2007-05-21. http://www.billingsgazette.net/articles/2007/05/21/news/wyoming/40-growing.txt. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  19. ^ TheArda.com
  20. ^ "EIA State Energy Profiles: Wyoming". 2008-06-12. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=WY. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 
  21. ^ a b c "Petroleum Association of Wyoming". http://www.pawyo.org/facts.html. 
  22. ^ a b Gearino, Jeff (February 16, 2009). "Soda ash companies enjoy record year". Casper Star Tribune. http://www.casperstartribune.net/articles/2009/02/16/news/wyoming/4b7e9a771fe4bd868725755e00268e51.txt. 
  23. ^ Votes back repeal of food tax, Billings Gazette, March 3, 2006
  24. ^ The Tax Foundation – Tax Research Areas – Wyoming
  25. ^ a b c Background of Wind River Reservation
  26. ^ "Wind River Country: Wind River Indian Reservation.". http://www.wind-river.org/info/communities/reservation.php. 
  27. ^ a b "Chiefe: The Rez". http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/chiefs/rez.html.  PBS. Independent Lens
  28. ^ "Background: Northern Arapaho Tribe.". http://www.northernarapaho.com/background. 
  29. ^ Leip, David. "Presidential General Election Results Comparison - New York". US Election Atlas. http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2008&fips=56&f=1&off=0&elect=0&type=state. Retrieved January 10, 2010. 
  30. ^ Teva J. Scheer (2005). Governor lady: the life and times of Nellie Tayloe Ross. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. pp. 73. ISBN 0-8262-1626-9. 
  31. ^ "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Counties of Wyoming: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008" (CSV). 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. 2006-03-16. http://www.census.gov/popest/counties/tables/CO-EST2005-01-56.csv. Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  32. ^ "Table 4: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Wyoming, Listed Alphabetically: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008" (CSV). 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. 2006-06-20. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2005-04-56.csv. Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  33. ^ "Census.gov: Population Estimates and Estimated Components of Change for Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas and Their Geographic Components: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008" (CSV). 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. 2006-08-18. http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/metropop/2008/cbsa-01-fmt.csv. Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  34. ^ Alleged "diploma mills" flocking to Wyoming, by Mead Gruver, Seattle Times, February 9, 2005
  35. ^ Unaccredited Colleges, Potential problems with degree suppliers located in these states - Wyoming, Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization
  36. ^ World Almanac & Book of Facts, Reader's Digest Publishing, 2008

External links


Preceded by
Idaho
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on July 10, 1890 (44th)
Succeeded by
Utah

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Wyoming (disambiguation).
Sunrise, Grand Teton National Park
Sunrise, Grand Teton National Park
Wyoming [1] is a state in the Rocky Mountains region of the United States of America.
Central Wyoming
Northeast Wyoming
Northwest Wyoming
Southeast Wyoming
Southwest Wyoming

Understand

Wyoming is extremely rural and the least populated US state. Vast expanses of uninhabited land separate many of even the smallest towns, while the largest of cities in Wyoming (such as Cheyenne and Casper) would be considered small towns in many other states. Wyoming offers a wealth of outdoor recreation and sightseeing opportunities among its many world famous mountain ranges and national parks.

Talk

English is the mother tongue of 93.6% of the Wyoming population.
Federal lands in Wyoming
Federal lands in Wyoming

Stay safe

Throughout the winter months, pay special attention to the weather when travelling on highways in Wyoming. If the snow gates are down, do NOT ignore them. There are large expanses of land between towns that are wholly uninhabited, and getting stuck out on the interstate in whiteout conditions is an extraordinarily hazardous predicament to be caught in to say the least!
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

WYOMING, one of the Central Western states of the United States of America, situated between the parallels of latitude 41° and 45° N., and the meridians of longitude 27° and 34° W. of Washington. It is bounded on the N. by Montana, on the E. by S. Dakota and Nebraska, on the S. by Colorado and Utah, and on the W. by Utah, Idaho, and a small southward projection of Montana. The state has a length of about 375 m. E. and W. along its southern border and a breadth of 276 in. N. and S. It has an area of 97,914 sq. m., of which 3 20 sq. m. are water surface.
Table of contents

Physical Features

The greater portion of the state belongs to the Great Plains Province, which extends from N. to S. across the United States between the Tooth meridian and the Rocky Mountains. Within this province are found the Black Hills of S. Dakota, and their W. slopes extend across the boundary into N.E. Wyoming. The N.W. portion of the state is occupied by the S. end of the XXVIII. 28 Northern Rocky Mountain Province; and the N. end of the Southern Rockies extends across the Colorado line into southern Wyoming. The Great Plains in Wyoming have an elevation of from 5000 to 7000 ft. over much of the state, and consist of flat or gently rolling country, barren of tree growth, but often covered with nutritious grasses, and affording pasturage for vast numbers of live stock. Erosion buttes and mesas occasionally rise as picturesque monuments above the general level of the plains, and in the vicinity of the mountains the plains strata, elsewhere nearly horizontal, are bent sharply upward and carved by erosion into " hogback " ridges. These features are well developed about the Bighorn Mountains,. an outlying member of the Rockies which boldly interrupts the continuity of the plains in north-central Wyoming. The plains sediments contain important coal beds, which are worked in nearly every county in the state. In the region between the Northern and Southern Rockies, the plains are interrupted by minor Mountain groups, volcanic buttes and lava flows, among which the Leucite Hills and Pilot Butte are prominent examples.
Notwithstanding these elevations, this portion of the state makes a distinct break in the continuity of the Northern and Southern Rockies, giving a broad, relatively low pass utilized by the Oregon Trail in early days, and by the Union Pacific railway at a later period. The Black Hills District in the N.E. contains the Little Missouri Buttes and the Mato Tepee (or Devil's Tower), prominent erosion remnants of volcanic intrusions. Local glaciation has modified the higher levels of the Bighorn Mountains, giving glacial cirques, alpine peaks and many mountain lakes and waterfalls. Several small glaciers still remain about the base of Cloud Peak, the highest summit in the range (13,165 ft.). The Southern Rockies end in broken ranges with elevations of 9000 ft. and over. That portion of the Northern Rockies extending into the N.W. of the state affords the most magnificent scenery. Here is the Yellowstone National Park: (q.v.). Just S. of the Park the Teton Mountains, rising abruptly from. the low basin of Jackson's Hole to elevations of Io,000 and I I,000 ft.,, form a striking feature. In the Wind River Range, farther S.E., areGannett Peak (13,775 ft.), the highest point in the state, and Fremont: Peak (13,720 ft.). In addition to the hot springs of the Yellowstone region, mention should be made of large hot springs at Thermopolis and Saratoga, where the water has a temperature of about 135° F.
Much of the state is drained by branches of the Missouri river, the most important being the Yellowstone, Bighorn and Powder rivers flowing N., and the Cheyenne and North Platte flowing E. The Green river, a branch of the Colorado, flows S. from the S.W. of the state, while the Snake river rises farther N. and flows W. to the Pacific drainage. S.W. of the centre of the state is an area with no outward drainage, the streams emptying into desert lakes.

Fauna

Great herds of bison formerly ranged the plains and a few are still preserved in the National Park. The white-tailed Virginia deer inhabits the bottom lands and the mule deer the more open country. Lewis's prairie dog, the cottontail rabbit, the coyote, the grey wolf and the kit fox are all animals of the plains. In the mountains are elk, puma, lynx, the varying hare and snowshoe rabbit, the yellow-haired porcupine, Fremont's and Bailey's squirrels, the mountain sheep, the four-striped chipmunk, Townsend's spermophile, the prong-horned antelope, the cinnamon pack-rat, grizzly, brown, silvertip and black bears and the wolverine. Other animals, more or less common, are the black-tailed deer, the jackrabbit, the badger, the skunk, the beaver, the moose and the weasel. The prairie rattlesnake is common in the dry plains country.
The streams are well stocked with rainbow and brook trout. The former fish were introduced from California in 1885. They thrive in the Wyoming streams and rivers and are superior game fish. Specimens of eight and ten pounds weight have been taken by rod and fly fishermen from the Big Laramie river. Other fish native to the waters of the state are the sturgeon, catfish, perch (locally called pike), buffalo fish, flathead and sucker.
There is a great variety of birds. Eared grebes and ring-billed gulls breed on the sloughs of the plains, and rarely the white pelican nests about the lake shores. Here, too, breed many species of ducks, the mallard, gadwall, baldpate, three species of teal, shoveler, pintail, hooded mergansers, and Canada geese; other ducks and geese are migrants only. Formerly the trumpeter swan nested here. On the plains a few waders breed, as the avocet, western willet and longbilled curlew; but most are birds of passage. At high altitudes the mountain plover is found; the dusky grouse haunts the forests above 8000 ft.; the white-tailed ptarmigan is resident in the alpine regions; and on the plains are found the prairie sharp-tailed grouse and the sage-hen. The turkey-buzzard is found mainly in the plains country. Various hawks and owls are common; the golden eagle nests on the mountain crags and the burrowing owl on the plains. The red-naped sapsucker and Lewis's woodpecker are conspicuous in wooded lands; Nuttall's poor-will, Say's phoebe, the desert horned lark, Bullock's. oriole, the yellow-headed blackbird and McCown's longspur are characteristic of the open lowlands.

Flora

Forest growth in Wyoming is limited to the highest mountain ranges, the most important forests being in the Black Hills region in the N.E., on the lower slopes of the Bighorn Mountains, and in the Rocky Mountain ranges of the N.W. of the state, including Yellowstone National Park. The yellow pine is the most important tree in the Bighorns, and small lodge-pole pine makes up the greater part of the N.W. forests. White fir is found above the foot hill zone, and heavy growths of cottonwood along the streams in the Bighorn region. The Douglas spruce and Rocky Mountain white pine are common in the forests of the Medicine Bow Mountains, from which much of the native lumber used in the S. of the state is secured. Other trees are the juniper, willow, green ash, box elder, scrub oak, wild plum and wild cherry. Occasional cottonwoods along streams are the only trees on the plains. The common sage brush, artemisia, is the characteristic shrub of the plains where the soil is comparatively free from alkali, and is abundant in the valleys of the arid foothills. Where alkali is present, the plains may be nearly barren, or covered with grease wood and species of atriplex, including the so-called white sage. Grease wood is likewise abundant in the foothills wherever the soil contains alkali. Various species of nutritious grasses cover much of the plains and foothills, and even clothe the apparently barren mountain peaks.

Climate

In the lower Bighorn Valley, summer temperatures rise to 95° or toe, but at heights of 6000 to 7000 ft. on neighbouring ranges, summer temperatures seldom rise above 90°, and frosts may occur at any time. Elevations under 6000 ft. have a mean annual temperature of from 40° to 47°, but high mountain areas and cold valleys may have mean temperatures as low as 34°. The air is clear and dry, and although temperatures of 100° are recorded, sunstrokes are practically unknown. Winter temperatures as low as - 51° have been recorded, but these very low temperatures occur in the valleys rather than on the higher elevations. The cold is sharp and bracing rather than disagreeable, on account of the dryness of the air; and the periods of cold weather are generally of short duration. The winter climate is remarkably pleasant as a rule, and outdoor work may usually be carried on without discomfort.
The following figures give some idea of the climatic variations. At Basin, in the Bighorn Valley, the mean winter temperature is 16°, the summer mean 72°. Thayne, on the mountainous W. border of the state, has a winter mean of 19°, and a summer mean of but 59°; Cheyenne, in the S.E., has a winter mean of 27°, and a summer mean of 65°. The percentage of sunshine in the state is high. Precipitation varies in different areas from 8 to 20 in., the average for the state being 12.5 in. Wyoming thus belongs with the arid states, and irrigation is necessary for agriculture. A greater precipitation doubtless prevails on the higher mountains, but trustworthy records are not available. Spring is the wettest season. The prevailing winds are W. and reach a high velocity on the level plains.

Soil

While some of the more arid districts have soils so strongly alkaline as to be practically unreclaimable, there are extensive areas of fertile lands which only require irrigation to make them highly productive. Alluvial deposits brought down by mountain streams, and strips of floodplain along larger streams on the plains are very fertile and well repay irrigation. Lack of water rather than poverty of soil renders most of the plains region fit for grazing only. In the mountains, ruggedness combines with thin and scattered soil to make these districts of small agricultural value.

Agriculture

The total area in farms in 1880 was 124,433 acres, of which 83,122 acres (66.8%) were improved; in 1900 it was 8,124,536 acres, of which 792,332 acres (9.8%) were improved. The large increase in unimproved acreage in farms was principally due to the increased importance in sheep-raising. In 1909 Wyoming ranked first among the states in the number of sheep and the production of wool. The number of sheep in 1909 was 7,316,000, valued at $32,190,000, being more than one-eighth in numbers and nearly oneseventh in value of all sheep in the United States. The production of wool in 1909 was 38,400,000 lb of washed and unwashed wool and 12,288,000 lb of scoured wool. The average weight per fleece was 8 ib. The Bureau of Animal Industry of the U.S. Department of Agriculture has made experiments in breeding range sheep in Wyoming. The total number of neat cattle on farms and ranges in 1910 was 986,000 (including 27,000 milch cows) valued at $26,277,000; horses, 148,000, valued at $12,284,000; 1 mules, 2000, valued at $212,000; and swine, 21,000, valued at $178,000.
In 1909 the hay crop (alfalfa, native hay, timothy hay, &c.) was 665,000 tons, valued at $5,918,000 and raised on 277,000 acres. The cereal crops increased enormously in the decade 1899-1909. The principal cereal crop in 1909 was oats, the product of which was 3,503,000 bushels, grown on 100,000 acres and valued at $1,750,000. The wheat crop increased from 4674 bushels in 1879 to 2,297,000 bushels in 1909, grown on 80,000 acres and valued at $2,274,000. The product of Indian corn in 1909 was 140,000 bushels, grown on 5000 acres and valued at $109,000.

Mining

The development of Wyoming's naturally rich mineral resources has been retarded by inadequate transport and by insufficient capital. The value of the state's mineral product was $5,684,286 in 1902 and $9,453,341 in 1908. In 1908 Wyoming ranked twelfth among the states of the Union in the value of its output of bituminous coal. Other mineral products of the state are 1 The breed of horses in Wyoming has improved rapidly; in 1904, when the U.S. Department of Agriculture purchased eighteen mares and a stallion in hope of improving the American carriage horse, six of the mares were from Wyoming and were principally of Morgan stocks.
copper, gold, iron, petroleum, asbestos, soda, silver and lead, gypsum, stone and clay products. The original coal supply of the present state has been estimated (by the United States Geological Survey) at 424,085,000,000 short tons of the bituminous or sub-bituminous variety, this amount being second only to that for North Dakota, 500,000,000,000 short tons, which, however, is entirely lignite. Coal was first mined in what is now Wyoming in 1865, probably in connexion with the building of the Union Pacific railway, and the product in that year was Boo short tons. Thereafter the industry developed steadily and the product in 1908 was 5,489,902 tons, valued at $8,868,157. In 1908 (and for several years before) the largest product of coal (2,180,933 tons) came from Sweetwater county, in the S.W. of the state, and Uinta county (adjoining Sweetwater county on the W.) had the next largest product, 1,380,488 tons. Sheridan county, in the north-central part of the state, Carton county, in the south-central part and Weston county in the N.E. were the next largest producers. The product of coal to the end of 1908 was 125,000,000 short tons, or 0.029% of the estimated supply.
The mining product next in value to coal in 1908 was copper, taken chiefly in Carbon county in a zone of brecciated quartzite underlying schist, the original ore being chalcopyrite, with possibly some pyrite, a secondary enrichment, which has produced important bodies of chalcocite in the upper workings, but these are replaced by chalcopyrite at greater depth. The production in 1908 was 2,416,197 ib, valued at $318,938. The gypsum product (from the Laramie plains) in 1908 was 31,188 tons, valued at $94,935.
There are extensive deposits of petroleum and natural gas, v hich have become of commercial importance. Oil has been found in eighteen different districts, the fields being known as follows: - The Carter, Hilliard, Spring Valley and Twin Creek in Uinta county; the Popo Agie, Lander, Shoshone, Beaver and a part of Dutton in Fremont county; the Rattlesnake, Arrago, Oil Mountain and a part of Dutton, Powder river and Salt Creek in Natrona county; part of Powder river and Salt Creek in Johnson county; Newcastle in Weston county; Belle Fourche in Crook county; Douglas in Converse county and Bonanza in Bighorn county. The Popo Agie and Lander fields produce the largest quantities of oil, the wells being partly gushers from which a heavy fuel oil is obtained. This is now being used by the Chicago & North Western Railroad Company on its locomotives, and it is also used in Omaha (Nebraska) by manufacturing establishments. There is a great variety in the grades of oils produced in the state, ranging from the heavy asphaltic oils of the Popo Agie and Lander fields to the high-grade lubricants and superior light products obtained from the wells in the Douglas, Salt Creek and Uinta county fields. Natural gas in quantity has been found in the Douglas field and in Bighorn county.
The iron deposits are very extensive, and the ores consist of red haematites, magnetites, titanic, chrome and manganese irons. In nearly every county there are veins of iron ore of varying extent and quality, the most important being at Hartville, Laramie county, Iron Mountain, Albany (disambiguation)|Albany county, the Seminole and Rawlins in Carbon county. The Hartville ores are remarkable for their high grade and purity, running from 60 to 70% metallic iron, with 22 to 5% silica, and only traces of sulphur and phosphorus. The ore is a red haematite occurring in slate. The iron ore from this district obtained the grand prize at the World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893, in competition with iron ores from all parts of the world. The Hartville iron deposits are worked by the Colorado Fuel & Iron Company, which ships large quantities of ore to its furnaces at Pueblo, Colorado. The discovery of natural gas in the Douglas oil field has opened up the possibility of working a smelting plant at the mines by means of this cheap and convenient fuel. The distance to be covered by a pipe line is not prohibitive, and the matter has been under consideration by the owners and lessees of the iron mines.
There are sandstone deposits in Carbon county, which supplied the stone for the Capitol at Cheyenne and the state penitentiary; and from the Iron mountain quarries in Laramie county was taken the white variety used in building the Carnegie library and the Federal building in Cheyenne. Sandstones and quartzites were also quarried in 1902 in Albany, Crook and Uinta counties. Limestone occurs in thick formations near Lava Creek, and in the valley of the East Fork of the Yellowstone river; also near the summit of the Owl Creek range, and in the Wind River range. Gold was discovered on the Sweetwater river in 1867, and placer and quartz deposits have been found in almost every county in the state. Sulphur has been found near Cody and Thermopolis.

Irrigation

The irrigable area of Wyoming is estimated at about 6,200,000 acres, lying chiefly in Bighorn, Sheridan and Johnson counties in the N.W. of the state, and in Laramie, Albany and Carbon counties in the S.E., though there are large tracts around the headwaters of the Bighorn river, in Fremont county in the west-central part, along the North Platte river and its tributaries in Converse county in the central part, and along the Green river and its tributaries in Sweetwater and Uinta counties in the S. W. Under the Carey Act and its amendments Congress had in 1909 given to the state about 2,000,000 acres of desert land on condition that it should be reclaimed, and in that year about 800,000 acres were in process of reclamation, mostly by private companies. Settlers intending to occupy such lands must satisfy the state that they have entered into contracts with the irrigating company for a sufficient water-right and a perpetual interest in the irrigation works. The principal undertaking of the Federal government is the Shoshone project in Bighorn county. This provides for a storage reservoir, controlled by Shoshone dam on Shoshone river, about 8 m. above Cody; a canal diverting water from Shoshone reservoir round the N. of Shoshone dam and covering lands in the vicinity of Cody, Corbett, Eagle Nest and Ralston; a dam at Corbett about 16 m. below the reservoir diverting water to Ralston reservoir and thence to lands in the vicinity of Ralston, Powell, Garland, Mantua and Frannie, and a dam on the Shoshone river near Eagle Nest diverting water into a canal covering the lands of the Shoshone River Valley. This project was authorized in 1904; it will affect, when completed, 131,900 acres, of which in 1909 about 10,000 acres were actually under irrigation. Near Douglas, in Converse county, there is a reinforced concrete dam, impounding the waters of Laprele Creek, to furnish water for over 30,000 acres, and power for transmitting electricity. There are large irrigated areas in Johnson and Sheridan counties.

Forests

The woodland area of Wyoming in 1900 was estimated at 12,500 sq. m. (13% of the area of the state), of which the United States had reserved about 3500 sq. m. in the Yellowstone National Park and 5207 sq. m., chiefly in the Bighorn Mountains in the N., and the Medicine Bow Mountains in the S.E. of the state. The saleable timber consists almost entirely of yellow pine, though there is a relatively small growth of other conifers and of hard-wood trees.

Manufactures

Wyoming's manufacturing industries are relatively unimportant. In the period1900-1905the value of factory products increased from $3,268,555 to $3,523,260; the amount of capital invested, from $2,047,883 to $2,695,889, and the number of establishments from 139 to 169; the average number of employees decreased from 2060 to 1834. In the same period (1900-1905), the value of the products of urban 1 establishments decreased from $1,332,288 to $1,244,223, and the amount of capital invested increased from $871,531 to $988,615; but the value of the products of rural establishments increased from $1,936,267 to $2,279,037, and the capital invested from $1,176,352 to $1,707,274. The values of the products of the principal industries of the state in 1905 were: car and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, $1,640,361; lumber and timber products, $426,433 flour and grist mill products, $283,653; butter, $114,354. Among other manufactures were gypsum wall-plaster, saddlery and harness, malt liquors and tobacco, cigars and cigarettes.

Transport

There has been relatively little development of transport facilities in Wyoming. The railway mileage, which was only 459 m. in 1870, increased to 1002 m. in 1890, 1280 M. in 1905, and 1623 m. on the 1st of January 1909. The Union Pacific railway crosses the S. of the state, connects with the Oregon Short Line at Green river and extends both E. and S. from Cheyenne. The Colorado & Southern (controlled by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company) extends N. from Cheyenne to Orin Junction, where it connects with the Chicago & North Western, which runs across the south-central part of the state as far as Lander (under the name of the Wyoming & North Western railroad). Four branches of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy system enter or cross the state. One extends from Cheyenne S.E. to Holdredge, Nebraska; the main line crosses the N.E. of the state to Billings, Montana, whence it extends S. to Cody and Kirby in the Bighorn basin, Wyoming; while another branch from Alliance, Nebraska, extends to the iron mines at Guernsey. The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy .was building in 1910 a new line from the N.W. to connect with the Colorado & Southern line at Orin Junction, passing through Douglas. When completed to Orin Junction this will be a main through route from the Mexican Gulf to the N.W. Pacific coast. There are also several shorter railways in the state, and various stage lines reach the more inaccessible regions.

Population

The population in 1870 was 9118; in 1880, 20,789; in 1890, 60,705; in 1900, 92,531; in 1910, 145,965. The density of the population was o 6 per sq. m. in 1890 and 1.5 per sq. m. in 1910, there being in this year only one state with a smaller average number of inhabitants to the sq. m., namely Nevada, with 0.7. Of the total population in 1900, 88,051, or 96.2%, were whites; 1686 were Indians; 940 were negroes; 461 were Chinese and 393 were Japanese. The Indians are all taxed. They belong to the Arapaho and Shoshoni tribes.' The Wind River Reservation, under the Shoshoni School, is in the central part of the state. There were 17,415 foreign-born in the state in 1900, of whom 2 596 were English, 2146 Germans, 1727 Swedes, 1591 Irish, 1253 Scotch and 1220 Finns. Of the 4 1 ,993 persons of foreign parentage (i.e. having either or both parents of foreign birth) in that year 4973 were of English, 4571 of German, and 4482 of Irish parentage, i.e. on both the father's and the mother's side. Of the 75,116 born in the United States, That is, those in the two municipalities (Cheyenne and Laramie) having a population in 1900 of more than 8000.
2 The Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1909 gives 8 54 Arapaho and 816 Shoshoni under the Shoshoni School.
19,507 were natives of Wyoming, 6112 were born in Iowa, 5009 in Nebraska, 4923 in Illinois, 4412 in Missouri and 3750 in Utah. Among the numbers of religious denominations in 1906 the Roman Catholics, with 10,264 communicants, had the largest membership, followed by the Latter-day Saints, or Mormons, with 5211 communicants (21.8% of the total church membership for the state), the Protestant Episcopalians with 1741, the Methodists with 1612 and the Presbyterians with 984. The urban population (i.e. the population of places having 4000 inhabitants or more) increased from 18,078 in 1890 to 26,657 in 1900 or 47.5%, the urban being 28.8% of the total population in 1900. The semi-urban population (i.e. population of incorporated places, or the approximate equivalent, having fewer than 4000 inhabitants) decreased in the same period from 14,910 to 12,725, and the rural population (i.e. the population outside of incorporated places) increased from 29,567 to 53,149, which was 78.7% of the total increase. The principal cities of the state (with population) in 1900 were: Cheyenne, 14,087; Laramie, 8207; Rock Springs, 4363; Rawlins, 2317, and Evanston, 2110. After 1900 the population of the centre and N. of the state increased in proportion faster than the older settled portions in the S. In 1910 Sheridan (8408) in Sheridan county, Douglas in Converse county and Lander in Fremont county were as important as some of the older towns of the southern part of the state.

Government

Wyoming is governed under its first constitution, which was adopted in November 1889. An amendment may be proposed by either branch of the legislature. If it is approved by two-thirds of the members of each branch, it must be submitted to the people at the next general election and, if approved by a majority of the electors, it then becomes a part of the constitution. Whenever two-thirds of the members elected to each branch of the legislature vote for a convention to revise or amend the constitution and a majority of the people voting at the next general election favour it, the legislature must provide for calling a convention. Suffrage is conferred upon both men and women, and the right to vote at a general election is given to all citizens of the United States who have attained the age of twenty-one years, are able to read the constitution, and have resided in the state one year and in the county sixty days immediately preceding, with the exception of idiots, insane persons, and persons convicted of an infamous crime; at a school election the voter must also own property on which taxes are paid. General elections are held biennially, in even-numbered years, the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, and each new administration begins the first Monday in the following January.

Executive

The governor is elected for a term of four years. He must be at least thirty years of age, and have resided in the state for five years next preceding his election. If the office becomes vacant the secretary of state becomes acting governor; there is no lieutenant-governor. The governor, with the concurrence of the Senate, appoints the attorney-general, the state engineer and the members of several boards and commissions. He has the power to veto bills, to pardon, to grant reprieves and commutations, and to remit fines and forfeitures, but the Board of Charities and Reform constitutes a Board of Pardons for investigating all applications for executive clemency and advising the governor with respect to them. The secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction are elected for the same term as the governor.

Legislature

The legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The number of representatives must be not less than twice nor more than three times the number of senators. Onehalf the senators and all the representatives are elected every two years. Both senators and representatives are apportioned among the several counties according to their population; each county, however, is entitled to at least one senator and one representative. The legislature meets biennially, in odd-numbered years, on the second Tuesday in January, and the length of its sessions is limited to forty days. All bills for raising a revenue must originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose amendments. The governor has three days (Sundays excepted) in which to veto any bill or any item in an appropriation bill, and a two-thirds vote of the members elected to each house is required to override his veto.

Judiciary

The administration of justice is vested principally in a supreme court, district courts, justices of the peace and municipal courts. The supreme court consists of three justices who are elected by the state at large for a term of eight years, and the one having the shortest term to serve is chief justice. The court has original jurisdiction in quo warranto and mandamus proceedings against state officers and in habeas corpus cases, general appellate jurisdiction, and a superintending control over the inferior courts. It holds two terms annually, at the capital, one beginning the first Monday in April and one beginning the first Monday in October. The state is divided into four judicial districts, and in each of these a district judge is elected for a term of eight years. The district courts have original jurisdiction in all actions and matters not expressly vested in some other court and appellate jurisdiction in cases arising in the lower courts. Justices of the peace, one of whom is elected biennially in each precinct, have jurisdiction in civil actions in which the amount in controversy does not exceed $200 and the title to or boundary of real estate is not involved, and in criminal actions less than a felony and in which the punishment prescribed by law does not exceed a fine of $100 and imprisonment for six months. Each incorporated city or town has a municipal court for the trial of offences arising under its ordinances.

Local Government

A board of three commissioners is elected in each county, one for four years and one for two years at each biennial election. It has the care of the county property, manages the county business, builds and repairs the county buildings, apportions and orders the levying of taxes, and establishes the election precincts. The other county officers are a treasurer, a clerk, an attorney, a surveyor, a sheriff, a coroner and a superintendent of schools, each elected for a term of two years. A justice of the peace and a constable are elected for and by each precinct. Cities and towns are incorporated under general laws.

Miscellaneous Laws

A married woman may hold, acquire, manage and convey property and carry on business independently of her husband. When a husband or a wife dies intestate one-half of the property of the deceased goes to the survivor; if there are no children or descendants of any child three-fourths of it goes to the survivor; if there are no children or descendants of any child and the estate does not exceed $10,000 the whole of it goes to the survivor. The causes for a divorce are adultery, incompetency, conviction of a felony and sentence to imprisonment therefor after marriage, conviction of a felony or infamous crime before marriage provided it was unknown to the other party, habitual drunkenness, extreme cruelty, intolerable indignities, neglect of the husband to provide the common necessaries of life, vagrancy of the husband and pregnancy of the wife before marriage by another man than her husband and without his knowledge. The plaintiff must reside in the state for one year immediately preceding his or her application for a divorce unless the parties were married in the state and the applicant has resided there since the marriage. Neither party is permitted to marry a third party until one year after the divorce has been granted. The desertion of a wife or of children under fifteen years of age is a felony punishable with imprisonment for not more than three years nor less than one year. The homestead of a householder who is the head of a family or of any resident of the state who has attained the age of sixty years is exempt, to the value of $1500, or 160 acres of land, from execution and attachment arising from any debt, contract or civil obligation other than taxes, purchase money or improvements, so long as it is occupied by the owner or his or her family, and the exemption inures for the benefit of a widow, widower or minor children. If the owner is married the homestead can be alienated only with the consent of both husband and wife. The family Bible, school books, a lot in a burying-ground and $500 worth of personal property are likewise exempt to any person who is entitled to a homestead exemption. A day's labour in mines and in works for the reduction of ores is limited to eight hours except in cases of emergency where life or property is in imminent danger. The sale of intoxicating liquors is licensed only in incorporated cities and towns.

Charities and Corrections

The state charitable and penal institutions consist of the Wyoming General Hospital at Rock Springs, with one branch at Sheridan and another branch at Casper; the Big Horn Hot Springs at Thermopolis, the Wyoming State Hospital for the Insane at Evanston, the Wyoming Home for the Feeble-Minded and Epileptic at Lander, the Wyoming Soldiers' and Sailors' Home near Buffalo, and the State Penitentiary at Rawlins. The general supervision and control of all these institutions is vested in the Board of Charities and Reform, consisting of the governor, the secretary of state, the treasurer, the auditor, and the superintendent of public instruction; the same officers also constitute the Board of Pardons. Convicts other than those for life are sentenced to the penitentiary for a maximum and a minimum term, and when one has served his minimum term the governor, under rules prescribed by the Board of Pardons, may release him on parole, but he may be returned to prison at any time upon the request of the Board of Pardons.

Education

The administration of the common school system is vested in the state superintendent of public instruction, county superintendents and district boards. Whenever Ion freeholders request it, the county commissioners must submit to the voters of a proposed high school district the question of establishing a high school district, and each precinct giving a majority vote for it constitutes a part of such a district for establishing and maintaining a high school. All children between seven and fourteen years of age must attend a public, private or parochial school during the entire time that the public school of their district is in session unless excused by the district board. The common schools are maintained with the proceeds of school taxes and an annual income from school funds which are derived principally from lands. At the head of the educational system is the University of Wyoming (1886), at Laramie (q.v.); it is governed by a board of trustees consisting of its president, the superintendent of public instruction, and nine other members appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate for a term of six years. It is maintained with the proceeds from funds derived principally from lands and with a university tax amounting in 1909 to one-half mill on a dollar.

Finance

The principal sources of revenue are a general property tax, a tax on the gross receipts of express companies, a tax on the gross products of mines, an inheritance tax, a poll tax and the sale of liquor licences. Railways, telegraph lines and mines are assessed by the state board of equalization, which consists of the secretary of state, the treasurer and the auditor. Other property is assessed by the county assessors. The county commissioners constitute the county board of equalization. A commissioner of taxation who is appointed by the governor with the concurrence of the Senate for a term of four years exercises a general supervision over all tax officers and the boards of equalization. By a law enacted in 1909 county commissioners are forbidden to levy a tax which will yield more than 10% in excess of that raised the preceding year. The constitution limits the state tax for other than the support of educational and charitable institutions and the payment of the state debt and the interest thereon to four mills on the dollar; the county tax for other than the payment of the county debt and the interest thereon to twelve mills on the dollar; the tax of an incorporated city or town for other than the payment of its debt and the interest thereon to eight mills on the dollar. The constitution also forbids the creation of a state debt in excess of i % of the assessed value of the taxable property in the state; of a county debt in excess of 2 of the assessed value of the taxable property in the county; or of a municipal debt for any other purpose than obtaining a water supply in excess of unless for building sewerage, when a debt of 4% may be authorized. Wyoming entered the Union with a bonded indebtedness of $320,000. This has been reduced as rapidly as the bonds permit, and on the 30th of June 1910 the debt was only $140,000.

History

Spanish historians have claimed that adventurers from the Spanish settlements in the S. penetrated almost to the Missouri river during the first half of the 17th century and even formed settlements within the present limits of Wyoming, but these stories are more than doubtful. The first white men certainly known to have traversed the region were Sieur de la Verendrye and his sons, who working down from Canada spent a part of the year1743-1744examining the possibilities of the fur trade. Apparently no further French explorations were made from that direction, and the transfer of Canada from France to Great Britain (1763)(1763) was followed by lessened interest in exploration. The expedition of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in1804-1806did not touch the region, but a discharged member of the party, John Colter, in 1807 discovered the Yellowstone Park region and then crossed the Rocky Mountains to the head of Green river. Trappers began to cover the N. portion about the same time, and in 1811 the overland party of the Pacific Fur Company crossed the country on their way to Astoria. In 1824 William H. Ashley with a considerable party explored and trapped in the Sweetwater and Green river valleys, and in 1826 wagons were driven from St Louis to Wind river for the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. Captain B. L. E. Bonneville was the first to cross the Rockies with wagons (1832),' and two years later Fort Laramie, near the mouth of the Laramie river, was established to control the fur trade of the Arapahoes, Cheyennes and Sioux.
The United States exploring expedition, commanded by John Charles Fremont, explored the Wind River Mountains and the South Pass in 1842, under the guidance of Kit Carson. From this time the favourite route to the Pacific led through Wyoming but of all the thousands who passed few or none settled permanently within the present limits of the state, partly because of the aridity of the land and partly because of the pronounced hostility of the Indians. For the latter reason the National Congress on the 19th of May 1846 authorized the construction at intervals along the trail of military stations for the protection of the emigrant trains, and Fort Kearny was built (1848) and Fort Laramie was purchased (1849). The great 1 See Washington Irving, Adventures of Captain Bonneville (New York, 1860). 1860).
See Francis Parkman, The Oregon Trail (Boston, 2849).
Mormon migration passed along the trail in 1847-1849, and in 1853 fifty-five Mormons settled on Green river at the trading post of James Bridger, which they purchased and named Fort Supply. This S.W. corner of the present state was at that time a part of Utah. With the approach of United States troops under Albert Sidney Johnston in 1857, Fort Supply was abandoned, and in the next year the Mormon settlers retired to Salt Lake City, again leaving the region almost without permanent inhabitants.
The Indians saw with alarm the movement of so many whites through their hunting grounds and became increasingly unfriendly. By a treaty negotiated at Fort Laramie in 1851, the Arapahoes, Sioux, Cheyennes and others agreed to confine themselves within the territory bounded by 100 and 107° W. longitude and 39° and 44° N. latitude; but, besides minor conflicts, a considerable portion of the garrison of Fort Laramie was killed in 18J4 and there was trouble for more than twenty years. During the Civil War (1861-1865) the Indians were especially bold as they realized that the Federal troops were needed elsewhere. Meanwhile, there began a considerable migration to Montana, and the protection of the N. of the trail demanded the construction of posts, of which the most important were Fort Reno, on the Powder river, and Fort Phil Kearny in the Bighorn Mountains. In spite of the treaty allowing the opening of the road, during a period of six months fifty-one hostile demonstrations were made, and on the 2sst of December 1866 Captain W. J. Fetterman and seventy-eight men from Fort Phil Kearny were ambushed and slain. Hostilities continued in 1867, but the troops were hampered on account of the scarcity of cavalry. Congress in 1867 appointed a commission to arrange a peace, but not until 1868 (29th April, at Fort Laramie) were any terms agreed upon. The posts on the Montana trail "were abandoned, and the Indians agreed to remove farther E. and to cease attacking trains, not to oppose railway construction, &c. The territory N. of the Platte river and E. of the Bighorn Mountains was to be reserved as an Indian hunting ground and no white men were to settle on it without the consent of the Indians. Gold was discovered on the Sweetwater river in 1867, and a large inrush of population followed. ' This unorganized territory E. of the Rocky Mountains was a part of Dakota, and in January 1868 Carter (later Sweetwater) county was erected. Farther E. Cheyenne was laid out by the Union Pacific Railroad (July 1867), a city government was established in August, newspapers began publication, and Laramie county was organized before the arrival of the first railway train on the 13th of November 1867. About six thousand persons spent the winter in Cheyenne, and disorder was checked only by the organization of a vigilance committee. Almost the same scenes followed the laying off of Laramie in April 1868, when 400 lots were sold during the first week and 500 habitations were erected within a fortnight. Albany and Carbon counties were organized farther W. in the same year.
A bill to organize the Territory of Wyoming had been introduced into Congress in 1865, and in 1867 the voters of Laramie county had chosen a delegate to Congress. He was not permitted to take a seat, but his presence in Washington hastened action, and on the 25th of July 1868 the act of Congress establishing a Territory with the present boundaries was approved by President Andrew Johnson. The portion of the Territory E. of the Rocky Mountains was taken from Dakota and that W. from Utah and Idaho, and included parts of the three great additions to the original territory of the United States. That portion E. of the mountains was a part of the Louisiana Purchase (1803), the W. portion above 42° was a part of the Oregon country, and that S. of that parallel came by the Mexican cession of 1848. The first governor, John A. Campbell, was appointed in April 1869, and the organization of the Territory was completed in May of the same year. At the first election, on the 2nd of September 1869, 5266 votes were cast. The legislature established the seat of government at Cheyenne, and granted full suffrage and the right of holding office to women. The first great inrush of population, following the discovery of gold and the opening of the railway, brought many desperate characters, who were held in check only by the stern, swift measures of frontier justice. After the organization of the Territory, except for the appearance of organized bands of highwaymen in 1877-1879, there was little turbulence, in marked contrast with conditions in some of the neighbouring Territories. Agriculture began in the narrow but fertile river valleys, and stock-raising became an important industry, as the native grasses are especially nutritious. The history of the Territory was marked by few striking events other than Indian troubles. The N.E. of the Territory, as has been already said, had been set apart (1868) as a hunting ground for the Sioux Indians, but the rumour of the discovery of gold in the Black Hills and the Bighorn Mountains in1874-1875caused a rush to the region which the military seemed powerless to prevent. The resentful Indians resorted to war. After a long and arduous contest in Wyoming, Montana and Dakota, which lasted from 1874 to 1879, and during which General George A. Custer (q.v.) and his command were killed in 1876 on the Little Bighorn in Montana, the Indians were thoroughly subdued and confined to reservations. The settlers in Wyoming shared the general antipathy to the Chinese, common to the western country. On the 2nd of September 1885 the miners at Rock Springs attacked about 400 Chinamen who had been brought by the railway to work in the mines, killing about fifty of them and driving the remainder from the district. Governor Warren summoned Federal troops and prevented further destruction of life and property.
The Territory increased in population and more rapidly in wealth, owing chiefly to the large profits in cattle raising, though this prosperity suffered a check during the severe winter of 1886-1887, when nearly three-fourths of the range cattle died of exposure. Agitation for statehood increased, and on the 30th of September 1889 a constitution was formed which was adopted by the people in November of the same year. The Constitution, which continued the Territorial provision of full suffrage for women, met the approval of Congress, and on the 10th of July 1890 Wyoming was formally admitted as a state. Since admission the progress of the state has been steady. Extensive irrigation projects have made available many thousand acres of fertile land, and much more will be subjected to cultivation in the future as the large ranges aie broken up into smaller tracts. In some sections a system of dry-farming, by which the scanty rainfall is protected from evaporation by deep ploughing and mulching the soil, has proved profitable.
The transition of the principal stock-raising industry from large herds of cattle to small, and the utilization of the ranges for sheep grazing almost exclusively covered a period of over twenty years preceding 1910, during which time many conflicts occurred between range cattle-owners and sheep flockmasters over the use of the grazing grounds. The settler also, who selected his homestead covering watering places to which the range cattle formerly had free access, came into conflict with the cattlemen. Some of these small settlers owned no cattle, and subsisted by stealing calves and unbranded cattle (mavericks) belonging to the range cattlemen. In parts of the state it became impossible to get a jury composed of these small squatters to convict anybody for stealing or killing cattle, and so bad did this become that, in 1892, certain cattlemen formed a small army of mounted men and invaded the central part of the state with the avowed intention of killing all the men generally considered to be stock thieves, an episode known as the Johnson County Raid. This armed body, consisting of over fifty men, surrounded a log cabin and shot down two of the supposed cattle " rustlers," the latter defending themselves bravely. The country round was roused and large numbers of settlers and others turned out and besieged the cattlemen, who had taken refuge in some ranch buildings. Their case was becoming desperate when a troop of Federal cavalry arrived, raised the siege, and took the cattlemen back to Cheyenne as prisoners. They were subsequently held for murder, but were finally released without trial. Since that time experience has proved that the grazing ranges of the state are better suited to sheep than cattle, the former being much more profitable and better able to stand the cold on the open range.
While many cattlemen have been driven out of business by the encroachments of sheep, the majority of the present flockmasters were range cattle owners in the past and have changed to the more profitable occupation. At the present time serious collisions between sheep and cattle owners are rare. There are still many cattle in the state, but they are divided up into small herds, no longer depending upon the open range for a precarious subsistence during the winter, but are sheltered and fed during winter storms on the hay ranches. The breeds of cattle are far superior now to the old range stock, so that it pays to take care of them; many thousands are fed during the winter on alfalfa hay. Governors Of Wyoming Territorial. John A. Campbell1869-1875John M. Thayer.1875-1878John W. Hoyt.1878-1882William Hale.1882-1885Francis E. Warren1885-1886George W. Baxter (acting).1886-1887Thomas Moonlight1887-1889Francis E. Warren1889-1890State. Francis E. Warren. Republican 1890 Amos W. Barber (acting) .
J. E. Osborne.. Dem.-Populist1892-1895W. A. Richards Republican1895-1899De Forest Richards.1899-1903Fenimore Chatterton 1 (acting).1903-1905Bryant B. Brooks.1905-1911J. M. Carey Democrat 1911 Bibliography. -H. C. Beeler, Report to the Governor of Wyoming by the State Geologist (Cheyenne, 1904), and " Geology and Mineral Resources of Wyoming," pp. 113-118 of Rept. of Proc. Am. Mining Cong., 7th Ann. Sess. (1905), a general account of the geology and mineral resources of Wyoming; C. A. White, " Geology and Physiography of a portion of North-western Colorado and adjacent parts of Utah and Wyoming," pp. 677-712 of 9th Ann. Rept. U.S. Geol. Survey,1887-1888(Washington, 1889); F. E. Mathes, " Glacial Sculpture of Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming," pp. 167-190 of Pt. ii. of 21st Ann. Rept. U.S. Geol. Survey,1899-1900(Washington, 1900); N. H. Darton, " Preliminary Description of the Geology and Water Resources of the Southern Half of the Black Hills and adjoining regions in South Dakota and Wyoming," pp. 489-599 of Pt. iv. of 21st Ann. Rept. U.S. Geol. Survey,1899-1900(Washington, 1901); A. C. Spencer, " Mineral Resources of the Encampment Copper Region, Wyoming," pp. 163-169, U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. No. 213 (Washington, 1903); Mineral Resources of the United States published annually by the U.S. Geological Survey; and material indexed in the various bibliographies (e.g. Bulls. 301,372 and 409) of the U.S. Geological Survey; Aven Nelson, Report on the Flora of Wyoming, Wyoming Experiment Station, Bull. 28 (1896); A. J. Henry, Climatology of the United States, U.S. Weather Bureau Bull. Q (Washington, 1906); for industries, population, &c., the Reports of the U.S. Census generally; Department of Immigration of the state, Some Views of Wyoming (1908); The State of Wyoming, published by authority of the state legislature (1908); F. Chatterton, secretary of state, The State of Wyoming (1904); and reports of the various state officers mentioned in the text; Revised Statutes of Wyoming (Laramie, 1899); Wyoming Irrigation Laws (1908); G. R. Hebard, Government of Wyoming (San Francisco, 1904) H. H. Bancroft, Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming (San Francisco, 1890), and Utah (San Francisco, 1889); E. R. Talbot, My People of the Plains (New York, 1906); W. M. Raine, Wyoming, a Story of the Outdoor West (New York, 1909). An interesting picture of former conditions in Wyoming is given in Owen Wister's novel, The Virginian (1902).


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Wyoming

Etymology

Munsee xwé:wamənk (at the big river flat)

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Wyoming
Plural
-
Wyoming
  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital: Cheyenne.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

External links


French

Etymology

Munsee xwé:wamənk (at the big river flat)

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /wa.jɔ.miŋ/, X-SAMPA: /wa.jO.miN/
  • Rhymes: -iŋ

Proper noun

Wyoming m.
  1. Wyoming

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Wyoming
Flag of Wyoming State seal of Wyoming
Flag of Wyoming Seal of Wyoming
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Equality State, Cowboy State,
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Equal rights
Map of the United States with Wyoming highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Cheyenne
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Cheyenne
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 10thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 97,818 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(253,348 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 280 miles (450 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 360 miles (580 km)
 - % water 0.7
 - Latitude 41°N to 45°N
 - Longitude 104°3'W to 111°3'W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 50thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 493,782
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 5.1/sq mi 
1.96/km² (49th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Gannett Peak[1]
13,804 ft  (4,210 m)
 - Mean 6,700 ft  (2,044 m)
 - Lowest point Belle Fourche River[1]
3,099 ft  (945 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  July 10, 1890 (44th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Dave Freudenthal (D)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Mike Enzi (R)
John Barrasso (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations WYImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-WYImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site wyoming.gov
.
The State of Wyoming (IPA: /waɪˈoʊmɪŋ/) is a state in the western region of the United States of America.
^ Wyoming is a state of the western United States .

^ This certification, which is accredited in the United States of America by the Conference for Food Protection and the American National Standards Institute, is a benchmark for the food industry and part of a global standard in food safety education.

^ The region known today as the state of Wyoming was originally inhabited by several Native American groups.

.The majority of the state is dominated by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountain West, while the easternmost section of the state is a high altitude prairie region known as the High Plains.^ The eastern parts of the state also include a high elevation prairie region which is known as the High Plains.
  • Wyoming, Share your views with the Wyoming community, read facts and figures about your favorite state. 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.bizymoms.com [Source type: General]

^ While the eastern third of the state is within the Great Plains , the majority is dominated by numerous distinct mountain ranges and rangelands.

^ Wyoming is the state of rangelands and mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountain West.
  • Wyoming, Share your views with the Wyoming community, read facts and figures about your favorite state. 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.bizymoms.com [Source type: General]

.While the tenth largest U.S. state by size, Wyoming is the least populous with a U.S. Census estimated population of 515,004 in 2006, a 4.3% increase since 2000.[2] The capital and the most populous city of Wyoming is Cheyenne.^ Wyoming is also the least populous U.S. state with 509,294 people.

^ Population estimates base (April 1) 2000 .
  • Wyoming QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC quickfacts.census.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The capital and largest city of Wyoming is Cheyenne .

Residents of Wyoming are known as Wyomingites.

Contents

Geography

Location and Size

.Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho.^ Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana ; on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska ; on the south by Colorado ; and on the west by Utah and Idaho .

^ Nearby neighbors include South Dakota, Montana, Utah, Idaho, Colorado and Nebraska.
  • Wyoming, Share your views with the Wyoming community, read facts and figures about your favorite state. 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.bizymoms.com [Source type: General]

^ From the north border to the south border it is 276 mile s (444 km); and from the east to the west border is 375 miles (603 km).

.It is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97,818 square miles (253,348 km²) and is made up of 23 counties.^ It is the eleventh largest state in the United States containing 97,818 square mile s (253,348 sq km) and is made up of 23 counties.

^ Over half of the state's 97,914 square miles is public land, wild and free for you to enjoy.

^ Data includes population, housing units, land and water area, and Wyoming State/Wyoming County demographics.
  • Wyoming Gazetteer: City Profiles, Physical & Cultural Features 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC wyoming.hometownlocator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles (444 km); and from the east to the west border is 375 miles (603 km).^ From the north border to the south border it is 276 mile s (444 km); and from the east to the west border is 375 miles (603 km).

^ Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana ; on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska ; on the south by Colorado ; and on the west by Utah and Idaho .

Mountain Ranges

.The Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming.^ While the eastern third of the state is within the Great Plains , the majority is dominated by numerous distinct mountain ranges and rangelands.

^ The Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming.

^ From its broad high plains to its soaring mountains, from its storied past on the frontier to its role in the ancient histories of native peoples, Wyoming is like no place on Earth.

.The state is a great plateau broken by a number of mountain ranges.^ The state is a great plateau broken by a number of important mountain ranges.

^ The Teton Range in the northwest extends for 50 miles (80 km) and represents the most impressive section of mountains in the state.

^ Travel Media The wide open spaces and mountain ranges of the rugged state of Wyoming are populated by a vast array of wildlife.

.Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet (4,207 m), to the Belle Fourche River Valley in the state’s northeast corner, at 3,125 feet (952 m).^ The Teton Range in the northwest extends for 50 miles (80 km) and represents the most impressive section of mountains in the state.

^ Travel Media The wide open spaces and mountain ranges of the rugged state of Wyoming are populated by a vast array of wildlife.

^ Wyoming is the state of rangelands and mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountain West.
  • Wyoming, Share your views with the Wyoming community, read facts and figures about your favorite state. 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.bizymoms.com [Source type: General]

In the northwest are the Absaroka, Owl Creek, Gros Ventre, Wind River and the Teton ranges. In the north central are the Big Horn Mountains; in the northeast, the Black Hills; and in the southern region the Laramie, Snowy and Sierra Madre ranges.]
Wyoming is an arid state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches (25 cm) of rainfall per year.^ By Becky Orr, Wyoming Tribune-Eagle (Cheyenne) A national report card ranks Wyoming first among states for how much it spends on K-12 public education.
  • Wyoming daily news roundup 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.stateline.org [Source type: News]

^ More than 100 students have received support of a state-funded initiative to help keep Wyoming students in the state to begin their teaching careers, says the University of Wyoming's director of teacher education.
  • Wyoming daily news roundup 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.stateline.org [Source type: News]

^ In 1869 , Wyoming extended much suffrage to women, at least partially in an attempt to garner enough votes to be admitted as a state.

Consequently, the land supports few opportunities for farming. Ranching is widespread, especially in areas near the numerous mountain chains. .The Snowy Range in the south central part of the state is an extension of the Colorado Rockies in both geology and appearance.^ The Continental Divide forks in the south central part of the state.

.The Wind River Range in the west central part of the state is remote and includes more than 40 mountain peaks in excess of 13,000 ft.^ More than 4,000 employees of the Rotech family contribute to delivering quality service and the best in professional patient care through more tha ...
  • Wyoming Jobs in Wyoming Job Search. 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC wyoming.jobs.com [Source type: News]

^ The Continental Divide forks in the south central part of the state.

^ It is also due to this low population that individuals in Wyoming technically have a more powerful vote in presidential elections than anyone else in the United States.

tall in addition to Gannett Peak, the highest peak in the state. .The Big Horn Mountains in the north central portion are somewhat isolated from the bulk of the Rocky Mountains.^ In the north central are the Big Horns; in the northeast, the Black Hills; and in the southern portion of Wyoming, the Laramie, Medicine Bow and Sierra Madre ranges.

^ Big Horn Mountain Resorts located in Ten Sleep, Wyoming, is all about recreation and relaxation.
  • Wyoming, Share your views with the Wyoming community, read facts and figures about your favorite state. 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.bizymoms.com [Source type: General]

^ Big Horn Mountain Resorts .
  • Wyoming, Share your views with the Wyoming community, read facts and figures about your favorite state. 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.bizymoms.com [Source type: General]

Ranch road in eastern Wyoming
.The Teton Range in the northwest extends for 50 miles (80 km) and represents the most impressive section of mountains in the state.^ The Teton Range in the northwest extends for 50 miles (80 km) and represents the most impressive section of mountains in the state.

^ It is the eleventh largest state in the United States containing 97,818 square mile s (253,348 sq km) and is made up of 23 counties.

^ It is home to the second highest peak Grand Teton , and Grand Teton National Park , which preserves the most scenic section of the Teton range.

.It is home to Grand Teton, the second highest peak in Wyoming, and to Grand Teton National Park, which preserves the most scenic section of the Teton range.^ It is home to the second highest peak Grand Teton , and Grand Teton National Park , which preserves the most scenic section of the Teton range.

^ Most of the territory that comprises Yellowstone National Park is located in Wyoming.

^ The Teton Range in the northwest extends for 50 miles (80 km) and represents the most impressive section of mountains in the state.

.The Continental Divide spans north-south across the central portion of the state.^ The Continental Divide forks in the south central part of the state.

^ In the north central are the Big Horns; in the northeast, the Black Hills; and in the southern portion of Wyoming, the Laramie, Medicine Bow and Sierra Madre ranges.

.Rivers east of the Divide drain into the Missouri River Basin and eventually the Atlantic Ocean.^ Rivers east of the Divide drain into the Missouri River Basin and eventually the Atlantic Ocean .

^ The Snake River in northwest Wyoming eventually drains into the Columbia River and the Pacific Ocean , as does the Green River through the Colorado River Basin .

^ The waters that flow or precipitate into this area, known as the Great Divide Basin , do not flow to any ocean.

.They are the Platte, Wind, Big Horn and the Yellowstone rivers.^ They are the Platte , Wind , Big Horn and the Yellowstone rivers.

.The Snake River in northwest Wyoming eventually drains into the Columbia River and the Pacific Ocean, as does the Green River through the Colorado River Basin.^ The Snake River in northwest Wyoming eventually drains into the Columbia River and the Pacific Ocean , as does the Green River through the Colorado River Basin .

^ Rivers east of the Divide drain into the Missouri River Basin and eventually the Atlantic Ocean .

^ Several river s begin or flow through the state, including the Yellowstone River , Powder River, and the Snake River .

.The Continental Divide forks in the south central part of the state in an area known as the Great Divide Basin where the waters that flow or precipitate into this area remain there and cannot flow to any ocean.^ The waters that flow or precipitate into this area, known as the Great Divide Basin , do not flow to any ocean.

^ The Continental Divide forks in the south central part of the state.

^ Rivers east of the Divide drain into the Missouri River Basin and eventually the Atlantic Ocean .

Instead, because of the overall aridity of Wyoming, water in the Great Divide Basin simply sinks into the soil or evaporates.
.Several rivers begin or flow through the state, including the Yellowstone River, Powder River, Green River, and the Snake River.^ Several river s begin or flow through the state, including the Yellowstone River , Powder River, and the Snake River .

^ The Snake River in northwest Wyoming eventually drains into the Columbia River and the Pacific Ocean , as does the Green River through the Colorado River Basin .

National Parks

An eruption of Castle Geyser in Yellowstone National Park.
Areas in Wyoming under the management of the National Park Service include:
Panoramic view of the Teton Range looking west from Jackson Hole, Grand Teton National Park.
Panoramic view of the Teton Range looking west from Jackson Hole, Grand Teton National Park.


Climate

The climate in Wyoming is generally a semi-arid continental climate (Koppen climate classification BSk) which is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with temperature extremes. Much of this is due to the topography of the state. .Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 °F (29°C) and 95 °F (35°C) in most of the state.^ Wyoming is unique in that it does not have a intermediate appellate court, like most states.

^ Unlike most other states, Wyoming does not levy an individual or corporate income tax .

With increasing elevation, however, this average drops rapidly with locations above 9,000 feet (2,743 m) averaging around 70 °F (21°C). .Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with even the hottest locations averaging in the 50-60 °F (10-14°C) range at night.^ Search from more than 330,000 lawyers, located throughout the United States.
  • Wyoming Attorney Directory - Wyoming Lawyer Directory - Find an Attorney in Wyoming - Find a Lawyer in Wyoming 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC wyoming.statelawyers.com [Source type: Original source]

In most of the state, the late spring and early summer is when most of the precipitation tends to fall. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between generally mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. .Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging 5-8 inches (125 - 200 mm) (making the area nearly a true desert).^ The waters that flow or precipitate into this area, known as the Great Divide Basin , do not flow to any ocean.

^ Big Horn Basin Children's Center .
  • NAMI Wyoming | Resources 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.nami.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Basin Manufacturers, Basin Industry, Manufacturing in Basin, Big Horn County, WY .
  • Wyoming Manufacturers - Wyoming Manufacturing - Wyoming Industry - Wyoming Industrial Information 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.manufacturersnews.com [Source type: News]

The lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains typically average around 10-12 inches (250-300 mm), making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches (510 mm) or more, much of it as snow, sometimes 200 inches (510 cm) or more annually.
The climate of any area in Wyoming is largely determined by its latitude, altitude and local topography. When put together, these factors have a lot to do with airflow patterns, temperature variations, precipitation and humidity brought in by the weather systems that migrate eastward. In winter, Wyoming is often beneath the jet stream, or north of it, which accounts for its frequent strong winds, blasts of Arctic air and precipitation, all the necessary ingredients for great snow conditions at Wyoming's northwestern ski areas. In summer, the jet stream retreats northward to somewhere over Canada, leaving the state's weather mild and pleasant at a time when the majority of Wyoming's visitors choose to arrive. Jackson, located at 6,230 feet (1,899 m) above sea level and surrounded by mountains, can expect a high temperature in July of 80˚ F (26.6°C). The average is more likely to be 65˚ F (18.3°C). The closest National Weather Station (in Riverton on the other side of the Wind River Mountains at 4,955 feet (1,510 m)) reports slightly warmer July weather.
.Weather and topography in Wyoming both have more contrast than in most other states.^ Search from more than 330,000 lawyers, located throughout the United States.
  • Wyoming Attorney Directory - Wyoming Lawyer Directory - Find an Attorney in Wyoming - Find a Lawyer in Wyoming 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC wyoming.statelawyers.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to being the first U.S. state to extend suffrage to women, Wyoming was also the home of many other firsts for U.S. women in politics.

^ Wyoming is unique in that it does not have a intermediate appellate court, like most states.

.Severe weather is not uncommon in Wyoming, with the state being one of the leading states for hail damage in the United States.^ Wyoming is a state of the western United States .

^ The state is the number one producer of coal in the U.S. Wyoming possesses a reserve of 68.7 billion tons (62.3 billion tonnes) of coal.

^ In addition to being the first U.S. state to extend suffrage to women, Wyoming was also the home of many other firsts for U.S. women in politics.

The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during the late spring and early summer. The southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops dramatically with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those which occur a little further east.
Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Wyoming Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Casper 32/12 37/16 47/23 56/29 66/38 79/47 87/53 85/52 73/42 60/32 43/21 34/14
Cheyenne 37/15 40/17 46/22 54/29 64/38 75/48 82/53 80/52 70/43 58/32 44/22 38/16
Lander 32/9 37/14 48/24 56/31 66/40 78/49 86/55 85/54 73/44 60/33 42/19 33/10
Sheridan 33/10 39/15 48/22 58/30 66/39 76/47 85/52 85/52 73/41 60/30 43/18 34/10
[1]

History

A 12 pounder mountain howitzer on display at Fort Laramie in eastern Wyoming.
The region known today as the state of Wyoming was originally inhabited by several Native American groups. .The name Wyoming is derived from the Delaware (Munsee) name xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat", originally applied to the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania.^ Nebraska probably gets its name from the archaic Otoe words Ñí Brásge, pronounced [ˌɲĩˈbɾaskɛ] , or the Omaha Ní Btháska, pronounced [ˌnĩˈbɫᶞaska], meaning "flat water," after the Platte River that flows through the state.
  • Wyoming - US State | Juggle.com 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] The Crow, Arapaho, Lakota, and Shoshone were but a few of the original inhabitants encountered when white explorers first entered the region. Although French trappers may have ventured into the northern sections of the state in the late 1700s, John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, was probably the first white American to enter the region in 1807. His reports of the Yellowstone area were considered at the time to be fictional. Robert Stuart and a party of five men returning from Astoria discovered South Pass in 1812. The route was later followed by the Oregon Trail. .In 1850, Jim Bridger located what is now known as Bridger Pass, which was later used by both the Union Pacific Railroad in 1868, and in the 20th century by Interstate 80.^ This site was chosen as the point at which the Union Pacific Railroad crossed Crow Creek, a tributary of the South Platte River.
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Bridger also explored the Yellowstone region and like Colter, most of his reports on that region of the state were considered at the time to be tall tales.
.After the Union Pacific Railroad reached the town of Cheyenne, which later became the state capital, in 1867, the population began to grow steadily in the Wyoming Territory, which was established on July 25, 1868.^ This site was chosen as the point at which the Union Pacific Railroad crossed Crow Creek, a tributary of the South Platte River.
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^ Cheyenne Population: 11,320 County: Laramie County Cheyenne is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County.
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^ On July 4, 1867, General Grenville M. Dodge and his survey crew platted the site now known as Cheyenne in Dakota Territory .
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[4] .Unlike Colorado to the south, Wyoming never experienced a rapid population boom from any major mineral discoveries such as gold or silver.^ Utah is bordered by Arizona on the south, Colorado on the east, Wyoming on the northeast, Idaho on the north and Nevada on the west.
  • Wyoming - US State | Juggle.com 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Copper was found in some areas of the state.
Once government sponsored expeditions to the Yellowstone country were undertaken, the previous reports by men like Colter and Bridger were found to be true. .This led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park, which became the world's first National Park in 1872. It is located in the far northwestern portion of the state.^ Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Battle of Little Bighorn site, and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park.
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^ Fort Laramie National Historic Site Fort Laramie was a significant 19th century trading post and diplomatic site located in the U.S. state of Wyoming.
  • Wyoming - US State | Juggle.com 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cody and two miles from the east entrance to Yellowstone National Park.
  • Wyoming - US State | Juggle.com 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the territory that comprises Yellowstone National Park is located in Wyoming.^ Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Battle of Little Bighorn site, and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park.
  • Wyoming - US State | Juggle.com 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cody and two miles from the east entrance to Yellowstone National Park.
  • Wyoming - US State | Juggle.com 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fort Laramie National Historic Site Fort Laramie was a significant 19th century trading post and diplomatic site located in the U.S. state of Wyoming.
  • Wyoming - US State | Juggle.com 14 January 2010 22:49 UTC www.juggle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wyoming was admitted to the Union on July 10, 1890.^ Idaho was admitted to the Union on 3 July 1890 as the 43rd state.
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It was named after the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania, made famous by the 1809 poem Gertrude of Wyoming by Thomas Campbell. The name was suggested by Representative J. M. Ashley of Ohio.
In 1869, Wyoming extended much suffrage to women, at least partially in an attempt to garner enough votes to be admitted as a state. .In addition to being the first U.S. state to extend suffrage to women, Wyoming was also the home of many other firsts for U.S. women in politics.^ Many of the first farm settlers built their homes out of sod because they found so few trees on the grassy land.
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^ Juggle.com Home > Places > US States > Wyoming Wyoming .
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For the first time, women served on a jury in Wyoming (Laramie in 1870). Wyoming had the first female court bailiff (Mary Atkinson, Laramie, in 1870) and the first female justice of the peace in the country (Esther Hobart Morris, South Pass City, in 1870). Wyoming became the first state in the Union to elect a female governor, Nellie Tayloe Ross, who was elected in 1924 and took office in January 1925.
Wyoming was the location of the Johnson County War of 1892 which was fought between large cattle operators and free ranging interest groups. This war was fought because of the new ranchers moving in following the passage of the homestead act.

Demographics

Wyoming Population Density Map

Population

The center of population of Wyoming is located in Natrona County. [2].
As of 2005, Wyoming has an estimated population of 509,294, which is an increase of 3,407, or 0.7%, from the prior year and an increase of 15,512, or 3.1%, since the 2000 census. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 12,165 people (that is 33,704 births minus 21,539 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 4,035 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 2,264 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 1,771 people. In 2004, the foreign-born population was 11,000 (2.2%). In 2005, total births in Wyoming numbered 7,231 (Birth Rate of 14.04). [3]
Wyoming is the least populous of any state (or the District of Columbia) and has the lowest population density of the continental 48 states (Alaska's population density is lower although its total population is higher).
{{US DemogTable|Wyoming|03-56.csv|= | 96.19| 1.01| 3.06| 0.84| 0.13|= | 6.05| 0.11| 0.32| 0.06| 0.02|= | 96.01| 1.15| 3.06| 0.90| 0.12|= | 6.38| 0.15| 0.27| 0.05| 0.01|= | 2.95| 17.26| 3.16| 10.32| -3.47|= | 2.57| 14.20| 4.95| 12.17| 0.18|= | 8.66| 42.08| -12.31| -14.09| -28.40}} The largest ancestry groups in Wyoming are: German (25.9%), English (15.9%), Irish (13.3%), American (6.5%), Norwegian (4.3%), Swedish (3.5%)

Religion

The religious affiliations of the people of Wyoming are shown in the table below:

Economy

According to the 2005 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Wyoming’s gross state product was $27.4 billion. Wyoming’s unemployment rate for 2006 was approximately 3.3%, which is lower than the national average of 4.6%. Components of Wyoming's economy differ significantly from those of other states. The mineral extraction industry and the travel and tourism sector are the main drivers behind Wyoming’s economy. The Federal government owns 50% of its landmass, while 6% is controlled by the state. Total taxable values of mining production in Wyoming for 2001 was over $6.7 billion. The tourism industry accounts for over $2 billion in revenue for the state.
.In 2002, over six million people visited Wyoming’s national parks and monuments.^ Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Battle of Little Bighorn site, and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park.
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^ Jenny Lake in Grand Teton National Park in the U.S. state of Wyoming.
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^ Teton National Park in the U.S. state of Wyoming.
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.The key tourist attractions in Wyoming include Grand Teton National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Devil’s Tower National Monument, and Fossil Butte National Monument.^ Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Battle of Little Bighorn site, and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park.
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^ The cabin was acquired by the National Park Service upon the designation of Grand Teton National Park on February 26, 1929 and placed on the National Register of Historic Places on April 23, 1990.
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^ Cody and two miles from the east entrance to Yellowstone National Park.
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.Each year Yellowstone National Park receives three million visitors.^ Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Battle of Little Bighorn site, and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park.
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^ Cody and two miles from the east entrance to Yellowstone National Park.
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Historically, agriculture has been an important component of Wyoming’s economic identity. Its overall importance to the performance of Wyoming’s economy has waned. However, it is still an essential part of Wyoming’s culture and lifestyle. The main agricultural commodities produced in Wyoming include livestock (beef), hay, sugar beets, grain (wheat and barley), and wool. Over 91% of land in Wyoming is classified as rural.

Mineral production

A Wyoming coal mine.
Wyoming’s mineral commodities include coal, natural gas, coalbed methane, crude oil, uranium, and trona. .Wyoming ranks highest in mining employment in the U.S. In fiscal year 2002, Wyoming collected over $48 million in sales taxes from the mining industry.^ Revenue: 800,000 Industries: Metal Ore Mining Colleges and universities in Wyoming .
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.
  • Coal: Wyoming produced 395.5 million short tons (358.8 tonnes) of coal in 2004. The state is the number one producer of coal in the U.S.[5] Wyoming possesses a reserve of 68.7 billion tons (62.3 billion tonnes) of coal.^ The Wyoming Supreme Court has struck down term limits on state legislators but has not ruled in reference to limitations on how long one can serve as governor.
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    Major coal areas include the Powder River Basin and the Green River Basin
  • Natural Gas: In 2004, natural gas production was 1,929 billion cubic feet (54.6 billion m3). Wyoming ranks 5th nationwide for natural gas production. The major markets for natural gas include industrial, commercial, and domestic heating.
A Drilling rig drills for Natural Gas just west of the Wind River Range in the Wyoming Rockies
*Coal Bed Methane (CBM): The boom for CBM began in the mid-1990s. CBM is characterized as methane gas that is extracted from Wyoming’s coal bed seams. It is another means of natural gas production. There has been substantial CBM production the Powder River Basin. In 2002, the CBM production yield was 327.5 billion cubic feet (9.3 billion m3).
  • Crude Oil: Production of Wyoming crude oil in 2004 was 51.7 million barrels. .The state is ranked 7th among producers of oil in the U.S. Petroleum is most often used as a motor fuel, but it is also utilized in the manufacture of plastics, paints, and synthetic rubber.
  • Trona: Wyoming possesses the largest known reserve of trona in the world.^ Cheyenne Population: 11,320 County: Laramie County Cheyenne is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County.
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    Trona is used for manufacturing glass, paper, soaps, baking soda, water softeners, and pharmaceuticals. In 2002 Wyoming produced 17.3 million short tons (15.7 million tonnes) of trona.
  • Uranium: Although Uranium mining in Wyoming is much less active than it was in previous decades, recent increases in the price of uranium have generated new interest in uranium prospecting and mining.

Taxes

Unlike most other states, Wyoming does not levy an individual or corporate income tax. In addition, Wyoming does not assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Wyoming has a state sales tax of 4%. Counties have the option of collecting an additional 1% tax for general revenue and a 2% tax for specific purposes, if approved by voters. There also is a county lodging tax that varies from 2% to 5%. The state collects a use tax of 5% on items purchased elsewhere and brought into Wyoming. All property tax is based on the assessed value of the property and Wyoming's Department of Revenue's Ad Valorem Tax Division supports, trains, and guides local government agencies in the uniform assessment, valuation and taxation of locally assessed property. "Assessed value" means taxable value; "taxable value" means a percent of the fair market value of property in a particular class. Statutes limit property tax increases. For county revenue, the property tax rate cannot exceed 12 mills (or 1.2%) of assessed value. For cities and towns, the rate is limited to 8 mills (0.8%). With very few exceptions, state law limits the property tax rate for all governmental purposes.
Personal property held for personal use is tax-exempt. Inventory if held for resale, pollution control equipment, cash, accounts receivable, stocks and bonds are also exempt. Other exemptions include property used for religious, educational, charitable, fraternal, benevolent and government purposes and improvements for handicapped access. Minerals are exempt from property tax but companies must pay a gross products tax and a severance tax when produced. Underground mining equipment is tax exempt.
Wyoming does not collect inheritance taxes. Because of the phase-out of the federal estate tax credit, Wyoming's estate tax is not imposed on estates of persons who died in 2005. There is limited estate tax related to federal estate tax collection.

Transportation

File:National-atlas-wyoming.PNG
Map of Wyoming - PDF
Three interstate highways and seven U.S. highways pass through Wyoming. .In addition, the state is served by the Wyoming state highway system.^ The Wyoming Supreme Court has struck down term limits on state legislators but has not ruled in reference to limitations on how long one can serve as governor.
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Interstate 25 enters the state south of Cheyenne and runs north, crossing Interstate 80 in Cheyenne. It passes through Casper and ends at Interstate 90 near Buffalo. .Interstate 80 crosses the Utah border west of Evanston and runs east through the southern half of the state, passing through Cheyenne before entering Nebraska near Pine Bluffs.^ South Dakota is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing the state into two socioeconomically distinct halves, known to residents as "West River" and "East River".
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^ Utah is bordered by Arizona on the south, Colorado on the east, Wyoming on the northeast, Idaho on the north and Nevada on the west.
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^ Montana is bordered by Idaho on the west, Wyoming on the south and North Dakota and South Dakota on the east.
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Interstate 90 comes into Wyoming near Parkman and cuts through the northern part of the state. .It serves Gillette and enters South Dakota east of Sundance.^ South Dakota is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing the state into two socioeconomically distinct halves, known to residents as "West River" and "East River".
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^ Montana is bordered by Idaho on the west, Wyoming on the south and North Dakota and South Dakota on the east.
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The U.S. highways that pass through the state are U.S. Routes 14, 16, 20, 26, 30, 89, 191, and 287.

Law and government

Wyoming law establishes three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
The current governor is Dave Freudenthal (Democrat). The current U.S. Congressional delegation includes Sen. Mike Enzi (Republican), Sen. John Barrasso (Republican) and Rep. at-large Barbara Cubin (Republican).
.The Wyoming State Legislature is comprised of a House of Representatives with 60 members and a Senate with 30 members.^ Wyoming House Speaker Colin Simpson of Cody, son of former U.S. Senator Alan K. Simpson, has registered the Simpson Exploratory Committee 2010 with the Secretary of State's office.
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Because of its low population, Wyoming only has three votes in the electoral college. .It is also due to this low population that individuals in Wyoming technically have a more powerful vote in presidential elections than anyone else in the United States.^ The state ranks fourth in area, but 44th in population, and therefore has the third lowest population density in the United States.
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^ Cheyenne Population: 11,320 County: Laramie County Cheyenne is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County.
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.For example, while Montana had a 2000 census population of 902,195 to Wyoming's 493,782, they both have the same number of electoral votes.^ The population was 53,011 at the 2000 census, making it the second smallest city to be the largest city in its state, after Burlington, Vermont.
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Judicial System

.Wyoming's highest court is the Supreme Court of Wyoming, with five justices presiding over appeals from the state's lower courts.^ The Wyoming Supreme Court has struck down term limits on state legislators but has not ruled in reference to limitations on how long one can serve as governor.
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.Wyoming is unique in that it does not have an intermediate appellate court, like most states.^ The Wyoming Supreme Court has struck down term limits on state legislators but has not ruled in reference to limitations on how long one can serve as governor.
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This is largely attributable to the state's size and correspondingly lower caseload. .Appeals from the state district courts go directly to the Wyoming Supreme Court.^ The Wyoming Supreme Court has struck down term limits on state legislators but has not ruled in reference to limitations on how long one can serve as governor.
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.Wyoming also has state circuit courts (formerly county courts), of limited jurisdiction, which handle certain types of cases, such as civil claims with lower dollar amounts, misdemeanor criminal offenses, and felony arraignments.^ The Wyoming Supreme Court has struck down term limits on state legislators but has not ruled in reference to limitations on how long one can serve as governor.
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^ Cheyenne Population: 11,320 County: Laramie County Cheyenne is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County.
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Circuit court judges also commonly hear small claims cases as well. .All state court judges in Wyoming are nominated by the Judicial Nominating Commission and appointed by the Governor.^ The Wyoming Supreme Court has struck down term limits on state legislators but has not ruled in reference to limitations on how long one can serve as governor.
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They are then subject to a retention vote by the electorate.

Politics

Downtown Cheyenne
Wyoming is predominantly conservative and politically Republican. The state has not voted for a Democrat for president since 1964, and there are only two reliably Democratic counties. In the 2004 presidential election, George W. Bush won his second-largest victory, with 69% of the vote. Current Vice President Dick Cheney is a Wyoming resident and represented the state in Congress from 1979 to 1989. However, after his term, he resided primarily in Texas, a fact that drew mild criticism from his political opponents when he changed his voter registration back to Wyoming prior to joining George W. Bush's ticket in the 2000 Presidential election.
.Despite Wyoming's clear preference for Republicans in national offices, Democrats have held the governorship for all but eight years since 1975. Governor Dave Freudenthal was elected in 2002 and has one of the highest approval ratings of any governor in the USA. Wyoming in 2006 reelected incumbent Republican Congresswoman Barbara Cubin by just over 1,200 votes.^ The Wyoming Supreme Court has struck down term limits on state legislators but has not ruled in reference to limitations on how long one can serve as governor.
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^ A Democrat, he was reelected to his second term on November 7, 2006, and is term-limited in the 2010 election.
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^ Dave Freudenthal Age: 59 Birthplace: Thermopolis Education: Amherst College , University of Wyoming Term began: January 6, 2003 David Duane Freudenthal, or Dave Freudenthal , is the current Governor of Wyoming.
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Counties

.The State of Wyoming has 23 counties.^ Cheyenne Population: 11,320 County: Laramie County Cheyenne is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County.
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Wyoming Counties Ranked By 2005 Population[6]
Rank County Population
1 Laramie County 85,163 13 Converse County 12,766
2 Natrona County 69,799 14 Goshen County 12,243
3 Sweetwater County 37,975 15 Big Horn County 11,333
4 Campbell County 37,405 16 Platte County 8,619
5 Fremont County 36,491 17 Washakie County 7,933
6 Albany County 30,890 18 Johnson County 7,721
7 Sheridan County 27,389 19 Sublette County 6,926
8 Park County 26,664 20 Weston County 6,671
9 Uinta County 19,939 21 Crook County 6,182
10 Teton County 19,032 22 Hot Springs County 4,537
11 Lincoln County 15,999 23 Niobrara County 2,286
12 Carbon County 15,331 Wyoming Total 509,294
In 2005, 52.4% of Wyomingites lived in one of the 5 most populous Wyoming counties.
Wyoming license plates contain a number on the left that indicates which county the vehicle is from. The county license plate numbers are as follows:
# on License Plate County
1 Natrona
2 Laramie
3 Sheridan
4 Sweetwater
5 Albany
6 Carbon
7 Goshen
8 Platte
9 Big Horn
10 Fremont
11 Park
12 Lincoln
13 Converse
14 Niobrara
15 Hot Springs
16 Johnson
17 Campbell
18 Crook
19 Uinta
20 Washakie
21 Weston
22 Teton
23 Sublette

Cities & Towns

The State of Wyoming has 98 incorporated municipalities.
The 20 Most Populous Wyoming Cities and Towns[7]
Rank City County Population
1 City of Cheyenne Laramie County 55,731
2 City of Casper Natrona County 51,738
3 City of Laramie Albany County 26,050
4 City of Gillette Campbell County 22,685
5 City of Rock Springs Sweetwater County 18,772
6 City of Sheridan Sheridan County 16,333
7 City of Green River Sweetwater County 11,787
8 City of Evanston Uinta County 11,459
9 City of Riverton Fremont County 9,430
10 City of Cody Park County 9,100
11 Town of Jackson Teton County 9,038
12 City of Rawlins Carbon County 8,658
13 City of Lander Fremont County 6,898
14 City of Douglas Converse County 5,581
15 City of Torrington Goshen County 5,533
16 City of Powell Park County 5,288
17 City of Worland Washakie County 4,967
18 City of Buffalo Johnson County 4,290
19 Town of Wheatland Platte County 3,464
20 City of Newcastle Weston County 3,221
In 2005, 50.6% of Wyomingites lived in one of the 13 most populous Wyoming municipalities.

Metropolitan Areas

The United States Census Bureau has defined two Metropolitan Statistical Areas and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas for the State of Wyoming.
U.S. Census Bureau Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas of Wyoming[8]
Census Area County Population
Cheyenne, WY, Metropolitan Statistical Area Laramie County 85,163
Casper, WY, Metropolitan Statistical Area Natrona County 69,799
Rock Springs, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Sweetwater County 37,975
Gillette, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Campbell County 37,405
Riverton, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Fremont County 36,491
Laramie, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Albany County 30,890
Sheridan, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Sheridan County 27,389
Jackson, WY-ID, Micropolitan Statistical Area Teton County 19,032
Teton County 7,467
Total 26,499
Evanston, WY, Micropolitan Statistical Area Uinta County 19,939
In 2005, 30.4% of Wyomingites lived in either of the Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and 73% lived in either a Metropolitan Statistical Area or a Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Education

Main article: List of high schools in Wyoming
Public education is directed by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, an elected state official. Educational policies are set by the State Board of Education, a nine-member board appointed by the governor. The constitution prohibits the state from establishing curriculum and text book selections; these are the prerogatives of local school boards.
The Wyoming School for the Deaf in Casper, operated by the State Department of Education, serves approximately 44 students either at the Deaf School or in public schools of the state. Many students attending the school in Casper are residents of other communities who are housed in private residences in Casper during the school year.
Wyoming was also notable in being the only state in the U.S to have only one four-year college, the University of Wyoming until the Wyoming Catholic College was founded in 2007 in Lander.

Sports

Miscellaneous information

State flower of Wyoming: Indian Paintbrush

State symbols

Nickname: Big Wonderful Wyoming, Equality State, Cowboy State
State motto: "Equal Rights"
State flower: Indian Paintbrush
State mammal: Bison
State bird: Western Meadowlark
State tree: Plains Cottonwood
State gemstone: Jade
State fish: Cutthroat Trout
State reptile: Horned Toad
State Fossil: Knightia
State dinosaur: Triceratops
State coin: Golden Dollar
State Song: Wyoming by Charles E. Winter & George E. Knapp
State Mythical Creature: Jackalope
State Grass: Western Wheatgrass
State Soil: Forkwood

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 9, 2006.
  2. ^ Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 ({{subst:#ifexist:comma-separated values|CSV|CSV}}). 2006 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division ({{subst:#ifexist:2006-12-22|[[2006-12-22|]]|[[Wikipedia:2006-12-22|]]}}). Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
  3. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 576
  4. ^ http://wyoming.gov/state/wyoming_news/general/history.asp
  5. ^ U.S. Overview. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
  6. ^ Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Counties of Wyoming: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005 ({{subst:#ifexist:comma-separated values|CSV|CSV}}). 2005 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division ({{subst:#ifexist:2006-03-16|[[2006-03-16|]]|[[Wikipedia:2006-03-16|]]}}). Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  7. ^ Table 4: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Wyoming, Listed Alphabetically: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005 ({{subst:#ifexist:comma-separated values|CSV|CSV}}). 2005 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division ({{subst:#ifexist:2006-06-20|[[2006-06-20|]]|[[Wikipedia:2006-06-20|]]}}). Retrieved on 2007-01-09.
  8. ^ CBSA-EST2005-alldata: Population Estimates and Estimated Components of Change for Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas and Their Geographic Components: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005 ({{subst:#ifexist:comma-separated values|CSV|CSV}}). 2005 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division ({{subst:#ifexist:2006-08-18|[[2006-08-18|]]|[[Wikipedia:2006-08-18|]]}}). Retrieved on 2007-01-09.

External links

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Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Wyoming

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Simple English

State of Wyoming
File:Flag of File:Seal of
Flag of Wyoming Seal of Wyoming
Also called: Equality State, Cowboy State
Saying(s): Equal rights
Official language(s) English
Capital Cheyenne
Largest city Cheyenne
Area  Ranked 10th
 - Total 97,818 sq mi
(253,348 km²)
 - Width 280 miles (450 km)
 - Length 360 miles (580 km)
 - % water 0.7
 - Latitude 41°N to 45°N
 - Longitude 104°3'W to 111°3'W
Number of people  Ranked 52th
 - Total (2010) 563,626[1]
 - Density 5.8/sq mi 
2.2/km² (51th)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Gannett Peak[2]
13,804 ft  (4,210 m)
 - Average 6,700 ft  (2,044 m)
 - Lowest point Belle Fourche River[2]
3,099 ft  (945 m)
Became part of the U.S.  July 10, 1890 (44th)
Governor Dave Freudenthal (D)
U.S. Senators John Barrasso (R)
Mike Enzi (R)
Time zone Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations WY US-WY
Web site wyoming.gov

Wyoming is a state in the western United States. Most of the state is in the Rocky Mountains, a large mountain range in the United States. Wyoming is the least crowded state in the U.S., and it has 509,294 people. Its capital and biggest city is Cheyenne.

Wyoming is know for many things including Yellowstone National Park, Cowboys, the Teton Mountains and coal.

Famous People from Wyoming

Cities and Towns in Wyoming

  • Afton
  • Baggs
  • Basin
  • Big Piney
  • Buffalo
  • Burlington
  • Byron
  • Casper
  • Cheyenne
  • Clark
  • Clearmont
  • Cody
  • Cokeville
  • Cowley
  • Crowheart
  • Dayton
  • Deaver
  • Douglas
  • Dubois
  • Emblem
  • Encampment
  • Evanston
  • Farson
  • Frannie
  • Garland
  • Gillette
  • Green River
  • Greybull
  • Hanna
  • Harriman
  • Hot Springs
  • Hudson
  • Hyattville
  • Jackson
  • Jackson Hole
  • Kemerer
  • Kirby
  • La Barge
  • Lance Creek
  • Lander
  • Laramie
  • Lovell
  • Lusk
  • Lyman
  • Manderson
  • Meeteetse
  • Otto
  • Pine Bluffs
  • Pinedale
  • Powell
  • Ralston
  • Rawlins
  • Recluse
  • Riverside
  • Riverton
  • Rock Springs
  • Saratoga
  • Shell
  • Sheridan
  • Shoshoni
  • Story
  • Sundance
  • Ten Sleep
  • Thermopolis
  • Wapiti
  • Wheatland
  • Worland
  • Wright

References

frr:Wyoming


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Wyoming, which are similar to those in the above article.








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