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Location of the Scranton-Wilkes-Barre Metropolitan Statistical Area in Pennsylvania
This article refers to the valley region in Pennsylvania. A lesser-known Wyoming Valley exists in western New York in Wyoming County, where the valley of Oatka Creek is commonly known as the Wyoming Valley and includes the villages of Wyoming and Warsaw.

Wyoming Valley is a region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The valley is a crescent-shaped depression, a part of the ridge-and-valley or folded Appalachians. The valley includes and is generally centered on the metropolitan area of Pittston and Wilkes-Barre. The Susquehanna River does occupy the entire valley.

The valley is notable for its deposits of anthracite which have been extensively mined. Deep mining has declined, however, following the Knox Mine Disaster when the roof of a mine under the river collapsed and the Susquehanna flowed into the mine, flooding it and drowning miners.

Contents

Metropolitan area

The Wilkes-Barre Metropolitan Statistical Area covers Lackawanna, Luzerne and Wyoming counties.[1] It had a combined population of 560,625 at the 2000 census.[2] The area also has the highest percentage of non-Hispanic whites of any U.S. metropolitan area with a population over 500,000, with 96.2% of the population stating their race as white alone and not claiming Hispanic ethnicity.[3]

A 19th century depiction of the Battle of Wyoming.

History

According to the Jesuit Relation of 1635, the Wyoming Valley was inhabited by the Scahentoarrhonon people; it was known as the Scahentowanen Valley. By 1744 it was inhabited by Lenape, Mahican, Shawnee and others. Pennsylvania and Connecticut's conflicting claims to the territory in the 18th century led to military skirmishes known as the Pennamite Wars. The conflict arose from the fact that King Charles II of England had granted the land to Connecticut in 1662, and also to William Penn in 1681. Yankee settlers from Connecticut arrived in the area and founded the town of Wilkes-Barre in 1769. Armed bands of Pennsylvanians (Pennamites) tried without success to expel them in 1769-70, and again in 1775.

During the American Revolution the area was the site of the Battle of Wyoming on July 3, 1778, in which more than three hundred Revolutionaries died at the hands of Loyalist and their Iroquois allies. The incident was famously depicted by the Scottish poet Thomas Campbell in his 1809 poem Gertrude of Wyoming. At the time, it was widely believed that the attack was led by Joseph Brant; in the poem, Brant is described as the "Monster Brant" because of the atrocities committed, although it was later determined that Brant had not actually been present. The popularity of the poem may have led to the state of Wyoming being named after the valley.

Another theory holds that the territory which would come to be known as 'Wyoming' was founded by emigrants from Pennsylvania's Wyoming Valley.

See also

References

The following printed resources are in the collection of the Connecticut State Library (CSL)

  • Boyd, J. P. The Susquehanna Company, 1753-1803. [CSL call number: F157 .W9 B69 1931]
  • Henry, William (ed.). Documents Relating to the Connecticut Settlement in the Wyoming Valley. Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., 1990 [CSL call number: F157 .W9 D63 1990 v1, 2].
  • Joyce, Mary Hinchcliffe. Pioneer Days in the Wyoming Valley. Philadelphia: 1928 [CSL call number: F157 .W9 J89].
  • Smith, William. An Examination of the Connecticut Claim to Lands in Pennsylvania: With an Appendix, Containing Extracts and Copies Taken from Original Papers. Philadelphia: Joseph Crukshank, 1774 [CSL call number: Wells Collection F157 .W9 S55].
  • Stark, S. Judson. The Wyoming Valley: Probate Records... Wilkes-Barre, PA: Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, 1923 [CSL call number: F157 .W9 S72].
  • Warfle, Richard Thomas. Connecticut's Western Colony; the Susquehannah Affair. (Connecticut Bicentennial Series, #32). Hartford, CT: American Revolutionary Bicentennial Commission of Connecticut, 1979 [CSL call number: Conn Doc Am35 cb num 32].
  • Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Wilkes-Barre (the "Diamond City"), Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Wilkes-Barre, PA: The Committee on Souvenir and Program, 1906 [CSL call number: F159 .W6 W65 1906].

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

WYOMING VALLEY, a valley on the N. branch of the Susquehanna river, in Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Its name is a corruption of a Delaware Indian word meaning "large plains." The valley, properly speaking, is about 31 m. wide and about 25 m. long, but the term is sometimes used historically in a broader sense to include all of the territory in the N.E. of the state once in dispute between Pennsylvania and Connecticut. In Connecticut the Susquehanna Land Company was formed in 1753 to colonize the valley, and the Delaware Land Company was formed in 1754 for the region immediately W. of the Delaware river. The rights of the Six Nations to all this territory were purchased at Albany, New York, by the Susquehanna Company in 1754, but the work of colonization was delayed for a time by the Seven Years' War. A few colonists sent out by the Susque hanna Company settled at Mill Creek near the present site of 1 In place of De Forest Richards, deceased.

Wilkes-Barre in 1763, but were (October 15th) attacked and driven away by the Indians. In December 1768 the company divided a part of the valley into five townships of 5 sq. m. each, granting to forty proprietors the choice of one of these on condition that they should take possession of it by the ist of February 1769, and the other four townships to 200 settlers on condition that they should follow by the ist of May. The first group arrived on the 8th of February, the first division of the larger body on the 12th of May, and the five original towns of WilkesBarre (q.v.), Kingston, Hanover, 2 Plymouth and Pittston were soon founded.

In the meantime the Six Nations (in 1768) had repudiated their sale of the region to the Susquehanna Company and had sold it to the Penns; the Penns had erected here the manors of Stoke and Sunbury, the government of Pennsylvania had commissioned Charles Stewart, Amos Ogden and others to lay out these manors, and they had arrived and taken possession of the block-house and huts at Mill Creek in January 1769. The conflict which followed between the Pennsylvania and the Connecticut settlers is known as the first Pennamite-Yankee War. Although defeated in the early stages of the conflict, the Yankees or Connecticut settlers finally rallied in August 1771 and compelled the Pennsylvanians to retreat, and the war terminated with the defeat of Colonel William Plunket (1720-1791) and about 700 Pennsylvanians by a force of 300 Yankees under Colonel Zebulon Butler (1731-179, 5)5) in the battle of "Rampart Rocks" on the 25th of December 1775. The General Assembly of Connecticut, in January 1774, erected the valley into the township of Westmoreland and attached it to Litchfield (disambiguation)|Litchfield county, and in October 1776 the same body erected it into Westmoreland county. On the 3rd of July 1778, while a considerable number of the able-bodied men were absent in the Connecticut service, a motley force of about 400 men and boys under Colonel Zebulon Butler were attacked and defeated near Kingston in the "battle of Wyoming" by about I 100 British, Provincial (Tory) and Indian troops under Major John Butler, and nearly three-fourths were killed or taken prisoners and subsequently massacred. Thomas Campbell's poem, Gertrude of Wyoming (1809), is based on this episode, various liberties being taken with the facts. As the War of Independence came to a close the old trouble with Pennsylvania was revived. A court of arbitration appointed by the Continental Congress met at Trenton, New Jersey, in 1782, and on December 30th gave a unanimous decision in favour of Pennsylvania. The refusal of the Pennsylvania government to confirm the private land titles of the settlers, and the arbitrary conduct of a certain Alexander Patterson whom they sent up to take charge of affairs, resulted in 1784 in the outbreak of the second Pennamite-Yankee War. The Yankees were dispossessed, but they took up arms and the government of Pennsylvania despatched General John Armstrong with a force of 400 men to aid Patterson. Armstrong induced both parties to give up their arms with a promise of impartial justice and protection, and as soon as the Yankees were defenceless he made them prisoners. This treachery and the harsh treatment by Patterson created a strong public opinion in favour of the Yankees, and the government was compelled to adopt a milder policy. Patterson was withdrawn, the disputed territory was erected into the new county of Luzerne (1786), the land titles were confirmed (1787), and Colonel Timothy Pickering was commissioned to organize the new county and to effect a reconciliation. But a few of the settlers under the lead of Colonel John Franklin (1749-1831) attempted to form a separate state government. Franklin was seized and imprisoned, under a warrant from the State Supreme Court. As Pickering was held responsible for Franklin's imprisonment, some of Franklin's followers in retaliation kidnapped Pickering and carrying him into the woods, tried in vain for nearly three weeks to get from him a promise to intercede for Franklin's pardon. The trouble was again revived by the repeal in 1790 of the confirming act 2 Several Scotch-Irish families from Lancaster (disambiguation)|Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, accepted Connecticut titles and settled at Hanover under Captain Lazarus Stewart.

of 1787 and by a subsequent decision of the United States Circuit Court, unfavourable to the Yankees, in the case of Van Horn versus Dorrance. All of the claims were finally confirmed, by a series of statutes passed in 1799, 1802 and 1807. Since 1808, mainly through the development of its coal mines (see Pittston, Pa.), the valley has made remarkable progress both in wealth and in population.

For a thorough study of the early history of Wyoming Valley see 0. J. Harvey, A History of Wilkes-Barre (3 vols., Wilkes-Barre, 1909-1910); see also H. M. Hoyt, Brief of a Title in the Seventeen Townships in the County of Luzerne (Harrisburg, 1879).


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