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Hand mit Ringen (Hand with Rings): print of Wilhelm Roentgen's first "medical" X-ray, of his wife's hand, taken on December 22, 1895 and presented to Professor Ludwig Zehnder of the Physik Institut, University of Freiburg, on 1 January 1896[1][2]
X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. .X-rays have a wavelength in the range of 10 to 0.01 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3 × 1016 Hz to 3 × 1019 Hz) and energies in the range 12 eV to 120 keV.^ BlueJays07 2007.02.27 at 10:01:19 PST .
  • Steve Irwin himself pictures from australia photos on webshots 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC travel.webshots.com [Source type: General]

^ September 10, 2006 12:30 am (Pacific time) i miss him a lot.
  • Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin Dies in Freak Accident on Barrier Reef - Salem-News.Com 13 January 2010 11:59 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: General]

They are shorter in wavelength than UV rays. .In many languages, X-radiation is called Roentgen radiation, after Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, who is generally credited as their discoverer, and who had named them X-rays to signify an unknown type of radiation.^ I could never get over the bourgoise type (one of only 8 men) who got the job of dubbing the Crocman into the local language which with only 10 million speakers & too many vowel sounds is considered a "minority tongue".
  • Crocodile man Steve Irwin is dead - 1962-2006 RIP - Indymedia Ireland 13 January 2010 11:59 UTC www.indymedia.ie [Source type: General]

^ His legacy in this way will not just be remembered by those who watched his TV show, but by many generations to come.

[3]:1-2
X-rays from about 0.12 to 12 keV (100 to 0.10 nm wavelength), are classified as "soft" X-rays, and from about 12 to 120 keV (0.10 to 0.010 nm wavelength) as "hard" X-rays, due to their penetrating abilities.
Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography. .As a result, the term X-ray is metonymically used to refer to a radiographic image produced using this method, in addition to the method itself.^ An x-ray or radiologic technician uses radiographic imaging machines to produce x-rays of specific areas of patients’ bodies.
  • X-Ray Technician & Assistant Schools, Radiology Training & Certification 17 September 2009 2:33 UTC www.guidetohealthcareschools.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All use of such applications or features is governed by Additional Terms as set forth in the Virtual Reality Applications - Terms .
  • Steve Irwin Interview | SPIKE 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.By contrast, soft X-rays can hardly be said to penetrate matter at all; for instance, the attenuation length of 600 eV (~ 2 nm) x-rays in water is less than 1 micrometer[2] X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation, and exposure to them can be a health hazard.^ "For the most part people get stung on the foot when they accidentally tread on a ray and this can be no worse than a bacterial infection," Ms Brims said.
  • Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin was Killed (Wizbang) 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

The distinction between X-rays and gamma rays has changed in recent decades. Originally, the electromagnetic radiation emitted by X-ray tubes had a longer wavelength than the radiation emitted by radioactive nuclei (gamma rays).[4] So older literature distinguished between X- and gamma radiation on the basis of wavelength, with radiation shorter than some arbitrary wavelength, such as 10−11 m, defined as gamma rays.[5] However, as shorter wavelength continuous spectrum "X-ray" sources such as linear accelerators and longer wavelength "gamma ray" emitters were discovered, the wavelength bands largely overlapped. The two types of radiation are now usually distinguished by their origin: X-rays are emitted by electrons outside the nucleus, while gamma rays are emitted by the nucleus.[4][6][7][8]

Contents

Units of measure and exposure

The measure of X-rays ionizing ability is called the exposure:
  • The coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) is the SI unit of ionizing radiation exposure, and it is the amount of radiation required to create one coulomb of charge of each polarity in one kilogram of matter.
  • The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air. 1.00 roentgen = 2.58×10−4 C/kg
.However, the effect of ionizing radiation on matter (especially living tissue) is more closely related to the amount of energy deposited into them rather than the charge generated.^ He crammed more living into his 44 years than A-holes like Steve, Lizzy or Natucket will ever experience even if they live to be 97.
  • Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin is Dead - Gothamist 13 January 2010 11:59 UTC gothamist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted by: Sara on September 4, 2006 10:24 PM A tragedy & lesson to us all about the fragility of life that he lived more than I ever will.

^ I watched him more in Singapore than when living in Australia...i true global wildlife iconic figure.

This measure of energy absorbed is called the absorbed dose:
  • The gray (Gy), which has units of (Joules/kilogram), is the SI unit of absorbed dose, and it is the amount of radiation required to deposit one joule of energy in one kilogram of any kind of matter.
  • The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. 100 rad = 1.00 gray.
The equivalent dose is the measure of the biological effect of radiation on human tissue. For X-rays it is equal to the absorbed dose.
  • The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy).
  • The Roentgen equivalent man (rem) is the traditional unit of equivalent dose. For X-rays it is equal to the rad or 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. 1.00 Sv = 100 rem.
Medical X-rays are a significant source of manmade radiation exposure, accounting for 58% in the United States in 1987, but since most radiation exposure is natural (82%), X-rays only account for 10% of total American radiation exposure.[9]
Reported dosage due to dental X-rays seems to vary significantly. .Depending on the source, a typical dental X-ray of a human results in an exposure of perhaps, 3,[10] 40,[11] 300,[12] or as many as 900[13] mrems (30 to 9,000 μSv).^ Posted by: Mitch Ellis on September 4, 2006 10:12 PM What a beautiful human being, the effect his passing has had on so many people around the world and the number of tributes on this site is testament to the powerful personality Steve Irwin was.

^ Albert Marnell May 11, 2007 10:28 am (Pacific time) The fact that so many people put this guy as a priority is obscene.
  • Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin Dies in Freak Accident on Barrier Reef - Salem-News.Com 13 January 2010 11:59 UTC www.salem-news.com [Source type: General]

^ Sep 7th, 2006 10:13:11 AM .
  • Rest In Peace Steve Irwin -- Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 13 January 2010 11:59 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Medical physics

X-ray K-series spectral line wavelengths (nm) for some common target materials.[14]
Target Kβ₁ Kβ₂ Kα₁ Kα₂
Fe 0.17566 0.17442 0.193604 0.193998
Co 0.162079 0.160891 0.178897 0.179285
Ni 0.15001 0.14886 0.165791 0.166175
Cu 0.139222 0.138109 0.154056 0.154439
Zr 0.070173 0.068993 0.078593 0.079015
Mo 0.063229 0.062099 0.070930 0.071359
X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity. The high velocity electrons collide with a metal target, the anode, creating the X-rays.[15] .In medical X-ray tubes the target is usually tungsten or a more crack-resistant alloy of rhenium (5%) and tungsten (95%), but sometimes molybdenum for more specialized applications, such as when soft X-rays are needed as in mammography.^ I think a sensitive woman may sometimes be influenced in a bodily way from the approach of such a thing, like an X ray apparatus or anything that to her is new or mysterious.
  • Fincke - Provings Of The X Ray 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.julianwinston.com [Source type: Original source]

In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem.
The maximum energy of the produced X-ray photon is limited by the energy of the incident electron, which is equal to the voltage on the tube, so an 80 kV tube cannot create X-rays with an energy greater than 80 keV. When the electrons hit the target, X-rays are created by two different atomic processes:
  1. X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines. The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines. .Usually these are transitions from upper shells into K shell (called K lines), into L shell (called L lines) and so on.
  2. Bremsstrahlung: This is radiation given off by the electrons as they are scattered by the strong electric field near the high-Z (proton number) nuclei.^ I...I get off the plane and there's...there's some way that they've got into the computer...cyberspace and worked, you know, "He's coming in."
    • ENOUGH ROPE with Andrew Denton - episode 30: Steve Irwin (06/10/2003) 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    These X-rays have a continuous spectrum. The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube.
So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines. The voltages used in diagnostic X-ray tubes, and thus the highest energies of the X-rays, range from roughly 20 to 150 kV.[16]
In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose. .Hence, a thin metal sheet, often of aluminum, called an X-ray filter) is usually placed over the window of the X-ray tube, filtering out the low energy components in the spectrum.^ The man was doing what he loved best, out in the wild with natures creatures as he often called them.
  • Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin was Killed (Wizbang) 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The film-makers maintain that the ray that took Irwin out was a “bull ray”, or Dasyatis brevicaudata, but this is not usually found as far north as Port Douglas.
  • Tim Blair 13 January 2010 11:59 UTC timblair.net [Source type: General]

This is called hardening the beam.
.Both of these X-ray production processes are very inefficient, with a production efficiency of only about one percent, and hence, to produce a usable flux of X-rays, a high percentage of the electric power inputted is released as waste heat.^ "I have swum with many rays, and I have only had one do that to me."
  • Steve Irwin "Crocodile Hunter" biography, information, news, links, pictures (pics) and products (TV personlity) 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC www.popstarsplus.com [Source type: General]

^ The paper, however, is a remarkably valuable one, and I think we are going to learn a great deal more about the X ray, by and by, as a curative agent.
  • Fincke - Provings Of The X Ray 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.julianwinston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is not the only death in north QLD from a stingray, a little kid was killed by one a few years ago in a town about 1-2hrs south of where he was.
  • Steve Irwin passes away (1962 - 2006) - The Superficial - www.thesuperficial.com 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Superficial - Steve Irwin passes away (1962 - 2006) 13 January 2010 11:59 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The designers must design the X-ray tube to dissipate this excess heat.
Radiographs obtained using X-rays can be used to identify a wide spectrum of pathologies. .Due to their short wavelengths, in medical applications X-rays act more like particles than waves.^ He was an unbridled legend, and if there were more people like him, the world WOULD be a far better of than it is today.

^ You are more likely to be bitten by a shark anywhere in Florida than “stung” by a stingray.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Steve Irwin, RIP 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He might have made mistakes like the rest of us but he made a lot of people happy and now we all feel his loss none more than his family .

.This is in strong contrast to the application of X-rays in crystallography, X-ray crystallography, where their wave-like nature is more important.^ He was like the male version of mother nature we will miss you this planet will miss you even more..

.To make an X-ray image of human or animal bones, short X-ray pulses illuminate the body or limb, with radiographic film placed behind it.^ If the X ray penetrates certain tissues of the body in order to make the condition of the opaque organs, such as the bones and foreign bodies contained in the body, visible, it also shows its penetration into that invisible interior of the human being, which is under the dominion of the life-force.
  • Fincke - Provings Of The X Ray 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.julianwinston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Maybe the stingray was making his own film, showing how dangerous humans can be.
  • The call of the wild | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ We have watched Steve's TV shows for many years with our 2 daughters enjoying his great love of life, human and animal.The world is a poorer place with Steve's passing.

Any bones that are present absorb most of the X-ray photons by photoelectric processes. This is because bones have a higher electron density than soft tissues. [Note that bones contain a high percentage of calcium (20 electrons per atom), potassium (19 electrons per atom) magnesium (12 electrons per atom), and phosphorus (15 electrons per atom). The X-rays that pass through the flesh leave a latent image in the photographic film. When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film.
To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest. A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area. These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels. The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel.
A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators. .Its unique features are X-ray outputs many orders of magnitude greater than those of X-ray tubes, wide X-ray spectra, excellent collimation, and linear polarization.^ Those odds are greater than what happened too I believe..
  • Steve Irwin passes away (1962 - 2006) - The Superficial - www.thesuperficial.com 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Superficial - Steve Irwin passes away (1962 - 2006) 13 January 2010 11:59 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]

Detectors

Photographic plate

.The detection of X-rays is based on various methods.^ The detection of X-rays is based on various methods.
  • X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An increasingly common method of detecting X-rays is the use of Photostimulable Luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s.
  • X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tesla stated the facts of his methods concerning various experiments in his 1897 X-ray lecture before the New York Academy of Sciences .
  • X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens. .Regardless of what is "catching" the image, they are all categorized as "Image Receptors" (IR).^ He was a man that truly loved all animals, regardless of whether they were fanged, barbed, aggressive or poisonous, and that is a very special trait.
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Steve Irwin, RIP 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC hotair.com [Source type: Original source]

Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images. The images were produced right on the glass plates. Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images. In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g. to inspect welded seams). Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history. The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource. Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology. Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not. The digital archiving of images utilizing these new technologies also saves storage space.
Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised. .They allow a lower dose to the patient, because the screens take the X-ray information and intensify it so that it can be recorded on film positioned next to the intensifying screen.^ Campbell — Dr. Fincke presented each of us with a bottle of the X rays, and he merely said: "It is is a sample, you can take a dose."
  • Fincke - Provings Of The X Ray 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.julianwinston.com [Source type: Original source]

.The part of the patient to be X-rayed is placed between the X-ray source and the image receptor to produce a shadow of the internal structure of that particular part of the body.^ Twitching internally in various parts of body.
  • Fincke - Provings Of The X Ray 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.julianwinston.com [Source type: Original source]

.X-rays are partially blocked ("attenuated") by dense tissues such as bone, and pass more easily through soft tissues.^ If the X ray penetrates certain tissues of the body in order to make the condition of the opaque organs, such as the bones and foreign bodies contained in the body, visible, it also shows its penetration into that invisible interior of the human being, which is under the dominion of the life-force.
  • Fincke - Provings Of The X Ray 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.julianwinston.com [Source type: Original source]

Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue.
Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels. The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen. In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated. For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels. .Unfortunately, some elements chosen proved to be harmful – for example, thorium was once used as a contrast medium (Thorotrast) – which turned out to be toxic in some cases (causing injury and occasionally death from the effects of thorium poisoning).^ Unfortunately, in my line of work, I have to deal in some really heavy-duty places, you know, like, um, East Timor, for example.
  • ENOUGH ROPE with Andrew Denton - episode 30: Steve Irwin (06/10/2003) 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This propaganda has been established by some very credible, very powerful players, and it seems to me that people are using the camouflage of science to make money out of animals.

^ TERRI: And you watch her right after the demo because all of sudden she's so turned on 'cause he drove this thing out of the— STEVE : I'm the ugly monster, and he drove me out his territory.

.Modern contrast material has improved, and while there is no way to determine who may have a sensitivity to the contrast, the incidence of "allergic-type reactions" are low.^ Even if I didn't agree with all the risks he took, there is no doubt that he channelled all his passion and talent in the most powerful way possible.

^ I think a sensitive woman may sometimes be influenced in a bodily way from the approach of such a thing, like an X ray apparatus or anything that to her is new or mysterious.
  • Fincke - Provings Of The X Ray 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.julianwinston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know how it feels to lose a father so young, and there is no positive way of talking about it, except for the fact...

(The risk is comparable to that associated with penicillin.[citation needed])

Photostimulable phosphors (PSPs)

An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s. In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate. After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface. .The light given off during laser stimulation is collected by a photomultiplier tube and the resulting signal is converted into a digital image by computer technology, which gives this process its common name, computed radiography (also referred to as digital radiography).^ I...I get off the plane and there's...there's some way that they've got into the computer...cyberspace and worked, you know, "He's coming in."
  • ENOUGH ROPE with Andrew Denton - episode 30: Steve Irwin (06/10/2003) 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them.

Geiger counter

Initially, most common detection methods were based on the ionization of gases, as in the Geiger-Müller counter: a sealed volume, usually a cylinder, with a mica, polymer or thin metal window contains a gas, a cylindrical cathode and a wire anode; a high voltage is applied between the cathode and the anode. When an X-ray photon enters the cylinder, it ionizes the gas and forms ions and electrons. Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory. This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event".
.In order to gain energy spectrum information, a diffracting crystal may be used to first separate the different photons.^ If an order consists of multiple items, they may be shipped separately depending on availability.
  • Steve Irwin Interview | SPIKE 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Depending on the Promotion, we may also collect an Internet email address or other Information and, depending on the Information collected, the user may also be required to confirm his or her agreement to this Privacy Policy and the Terms of Use Agreement.
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  • Steve Irwin Interview | SPIKE 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

The method is called wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDX or WDS). .Position-sensitive detectors are often used in conjunction with dispersive elements.^ Position-sensitive detectors are often used in conjunction with dispersive elements.
  • X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The film used in conventional X-ray radiography is an excellent detector in that it consists, in essence, of a very large number of small and sensitive detectors.

^ Cadmium telluride ( CdTe ) and its alloy with zinc , cadmium zinc telluride detectors have an increased sensitivity, which allows lower doses of X-rays to be used.
  • X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other detection equipment that is inherently energy-resolving may be used, such as the aforementioned proportional counters.^ If the burden or expense of providing access to your Information is disproportionate to the risks to your privacy or if the legitimate rights of others would be violated, we may decide not to provide access to such Information.
  • Steve Irwin Interview | SPIKE 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Your user name and password are personal to you and you may not allow any others to use your user name or password under any circumstances.
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^ Depending on the Promotion, we may also collect an Internet email address or other Information and, depending on the Information collected, the user may also be required to confirm his or her agreement to this Privacy Policy and the Terms of Use Agreement.
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.In either case, use of suitable pulse-processing (MCA) equipment allows digital spectra to be created for later analysis.^ In either case, use of suitable pulse-processing (MCA) equipment allows digital spectra to be created for later analysis.
  • X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pulsing can take place either by using a pulse control at the X-ray generator, or with a grid-controlled X-ray tube; however, the grid control leads to a lower level of radiation exposure.
  • GE Healthcare-Training -Education: X-ray Dose - X-ray dose concept and reduction measures 17 September 2009 2:33 UTC www.gehealthcare.com [Source type: Academic]

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  • Steve Irwin Memorial 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC www.dogster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Steve Irwin Memorial 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC www.catster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging. These are called "flow counters".

Scintillators

Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier. .These detectors are called "scintillators", filmscreens or "scintillation counters". The main advantage of using these is that an adequate image can be obtained while subjecting the patient to a much lower dose of X-rays.^ But what it is, these wildlife perpetrators now kill animals and call it 'sustainable use'.
  • ENOUGH ROPE with Andrew Denton - episode 30: Steve Irwin (06/10/2003) 3 February 2010 18:10 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Image intensification

X-ray during cholecystectomy
.X-rays are also used in "real-time" procedures such as angiography or contrast studies of the hollow organs (e.g.^ X-rays are also used in "real-time" procedures such as angiography or contrast studies of the hollow organs (e.g.
  • X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the dangers in the use of X rays is that they can destroy living tissue and can cause severe skin burns on human flesh exposed for too long a time.
  • X ray Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about X ray 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some cases, the use of X-rays is debatable, such as gallstones (which are rarely radiopaque ) or kidney stones (which are often visible, but not always).
  • X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

barium enema of the small or large intestine) using fluoroscopy acquired using an X-ray image intensifier. Angioplasty, medical interventions of the arterial system, rely heavily on X-ray-sensitive contrast to identify potentially treatable lesions.

Direct semiconductor detectors

Since the 1970s, new semiconductor detectors have been developed (silicon or germanium doped with lithium, Si(Li) or Ge(Li)). .X-ray photons are converted to electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor and are collected to detect the X-rays.^ X-ray photons are converted to electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor and are collected to detect the X-rays.
  • X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is easier to detect a photon that hits with x-ray energy as opposed to say a photon that hits with I don’t know, visible light energy, radio wave [Laughter] right?
  • Astronomy Cast - Ep. 135: X-Ray Astronomy 14 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.astronomycast.com [Source type: General]

^ The ideal situation would be if most of the electrons created x-ray photons rather than heat.
  • X-Ray Production</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.sprawls.org/ppmi2/XRAYPRO/">www.sprawls.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__302" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="302">When the temperature is low enough (the detector is cooled by <a href="/Peltier_effect" title="Peltier effect" class="mw-redirect">Peltier effect</a> or even cooler <a href="/Liquid_nitrogen" title="Liquid nitrogen">liquid nitrogen</a>), it is possible to directly determine the X-ray energy spectrum; this method is called <a href="/Energy_dispersive_X-ray_spectroscopy" title="Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy" class="mw-redirect">energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy</a> (EDX or EDS); it is often used in small <a href="/X-ray_fluorescence" title="X-ray fluorescence">X-ray fluorescence</a> <a href="/Spectroscopy" title="Spectroscopy">spectrometers</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="302"><a href="#citable__302"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Most important that we teach, is that animals are our fellow who should be treated with affection, but also with respect and who often can learn a lot from them, however small, even if it appears that not ...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin Dies in Freak Accident on Barrier Reef - Salem-News.Com</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salem-news.com/articles/september072006/steve_irwin_1_9306.php">www.salem-news.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__337" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="337">These detectors are sometimes called "<a href="/Solid_state_(electronics)" title="Solid state (electronics)">solid state</a> detectors". Detectors based on <a href="/Cadmium_telluride" title="Cadmium telluride">cadmium telluride</a> (<a href="/Cadmium" title="Cadmium">Cd</a>Te) and its alloy with <a href="/Zinc" title="Zinc">zinc</a>, <a href="/Cadmium_zinc_telluride" title="Cadmium zinc telluride">cadmium zinc telluride</a>, have an increased sensitivity, which allows lower doses of X-rays to be used.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="337"><a href="#citable__337"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But what it is, these wildlife perpetrators now kill animals and call it 'sustainable use'.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ENOUGH ROPE with Andrew Denton - episode 30: Steve Irwin (06/10/2003)</c_title></em> <c_date>3 February 2010 18:10 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abc.net.au/tv/enoughrope/transcripts/s960998.htm">www.abc.net.au</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Practical application in <a href="/Medical_imaging" title="Medical imaging">medical imaging</a> started in the 1990s. Currently amorphous <a href="/Selenium" title="Selenium">selenium</a> is used in commercial large area flat panel X-ray detectors for <a href="/Mammography" title="Mammography">mammography</a> and chest <a href="/Radiography" title="Radiography">radiography</a>. <a name="citable__20" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="20">Current research and development is focused around pixel detectors, such as <a href="/CERN" title="CERN">CERN</a>'s energy resolving <a href="/Medipix" title="Medipix">Medipix</a> detector.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>His passion and his energy were inspirational, it is such a rare person who can touch so many different people around the world, the way that he did.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Note: A standard <a href="/Semiconductor" title="Semiconductor">semiconductor</a> <a href="/Diode" title="Diode">diode</a>, such as a 1N4007, will produce a small amount of current when placed in an X-ray beam. <a name="citable__406" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="406">A test device once used by Medical Imaging Service personnel was a small project box that contained several diodes of this type in <a href="/Series_and_parallel_circuits" title="Series and parallel circuits">series</a>, which could be connected to an <a href="/Oscilloscope" title="Oscilloscope">oscilloscope</a> as a quick diagnostic.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="406"><a href="#citable__406"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In addition, the use or availability of certain Mobile Application Services may be prohibited or restricted by your wireless carrier, and not all Mobile Application Services may work with all wireless carriers or Devices.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Steve Irwin Interview | SPIKE </c_title></em> <c_date>3 February 2010 18:10 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.spike.com/video/steve-irwin/2762856">www.spike.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/Silicon_drift_detector" title="Silicon drift detector">Silicon drift detectors</a> (SDDs), produced by conventional <a href="/Semiconductor_fabrication" title="Semiconductor fabrication" class="mw-redirect">semiconductor fabrication</a>, now provide a cost-effective and high resolving power radiation measurement. Unlike conventional X-ray detectors, such as Si(Li)s, they do not need to be cooled with liquid nitrogen.</div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Scintillator_plus_semiconductor_detectors__28indirect_detection_29">Scintillator plus semiconductor detectors (indirect detection)</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__184" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="184">With the advent of large semiconductor array detectors it has become possible to design detector systems using a scintillator screen to convert from X-rays to visible light which is then converted to electrical signals in an array detector.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="184"><a href="#citable__184"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The scintillator absorbs the X-rays and converts them into visible light photons that then pass onto the photodiode array.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.reference.com/browse/X-ray">www.reference.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="184"><a href="#citable__184"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>With the advent of large semiconductor array detectors it has become possible to design detector systems using a scintillator screen to convert from X-rays to visible light which is then converted to electrical signals in an array detector.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.reference.com/browse/X-ray">www.reference.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="184"><a href="#citable__184"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The RLS (Radiographic Line Scanner) detector consists of a single 0.25 mm-thick gadolinium oxysulfide scintillator screen connected to a 2048-channel linear photodiode array using a fiber optic taper.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Tomography overview</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ctlab.geo.utexas.edu/overview/index.html">www.ctlab.geo.utexas.edu</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Indirect <a href="/Flat_panel_detectors" title="Flat panel detectors">Flat Panel Detectors</a> (FPDs) are in widespread use today in medical, dental, veterinary and industrial applications.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">The array technology is a variant on the amorphous silicon TFT arrays used in many <a href="/Flat_panel_display" title="Flat panel display">flat panel displays</a>, like the ones in computer laptops. The array consists of a sheet of glass covered with a thin layer of silicon that is in an amorphous or disordered state. At a microscopic scale, the silicon has been imprinted with millions of transistors arranged in a highly ordered array, like the grid on a sheet of graph paper. Each of these <a href="/Thin_film_transistor" title="Thin film transistor" class="mw-redirect">thin film transistors</a> (TFTs) is attached to a light-absorbing photodiode making up an individual <a href="/Pixel" title="Pixel">pixel</a> (picture element). <a name="citable__205" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="205">Photons striking the photodiode are converted into two <a href="/Charge_carrier" title="Charge carrier">carriers of electrical charge</a>, called electron-hole pairs.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="205"><a href="#citable__205"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I had to call my two boys ages 6 and 8 into the room to explain to them what had happened to Steve.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Since the number of charge carriers produced will vary with the intensity of incoming light photons, an electrical pattern is created that can be swiftly converted to a voltage and then a digital signal, which is interpreted by a computer to produce a digital image. Although silicon has outstanding electronic properties, it is not a particularly good absorber of X-ray photons. For this reason, X-rays first impinge upon <a href="/Scintillator" title="Scintillator">scintillators</a> made from e.g. <a href="/Gadolinium_oxysulfide" title="Gadolinium oxysulfide">gadolinium oxysulfide</a> or <a href="/Caesium_iodide" title="Caesium iodide">caesium iodide</a>. The scintillator absorbs the X-rays and converts them into visible light photons that then pass onto the photodiode array.</div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Visibility_to_the_human_eye">Visibility to the human eye</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__47" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="47">While generally considered invisible to the human eye, in special circumstances X-rays can be visible.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="47"><a href="#citable__47"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If the X ray penetrates certain tissues of the body in order to make the condition of the opaque organs, such as the bones and foreign bodies contained in the body, visible, it also shows its penetration into that invisible interior of the human being, which is under the dominion of the life-force.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Fincke - Provings Of The X Ray</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.julianwinston.com/archives/fincke/fincke_proving_xray.php">www.julianwinston.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_17" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-17"><span>[</span>18<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__285" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="285">Brandes, in an experiment a short time after <a href="/Wilhelm_R%C3%B6ntgen" title="Wilhelm Röntgen">Röntgen's</a> landmark 1895 paper, reported after dark adaptation and placing his eye close to an X-ray tube, seeing a faint "blue-gray" glow which seemed to originate within the eye itself.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="285"><a href="#citable__285"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The world is a better place for your having been with us, and we are richer for your having allowed us to see it through your eyes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="285"><a href="#citable__285"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I am from Chile, and here many people are sad … In this short time there was one documentary I had left to see….</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin Dies in Freak Accident on Barrier Reef - Salem-News.Com</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salem-news.com/articles/september072006/steve_irwin_1_9306.php">www.salem-news.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_18" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-18"><span>[</span>19<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__282" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="282">Upon hearing this, Röntgen reviewed his record books and found he too had seen the effect.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="282"><a href="#citable__282"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The testimony I have seen about these effects is not sufficiently authoritative to make it worth while to bring it to this meeting, or else I should have collected it, and given you a paper upon it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Fincke - Provings Of The X Ray</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.julianwinston.com/archives/fincke/fincke_proving_xray.php">www.julianwinston.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__179" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="179">When placing an X-ray tube on the opposite side of a wooden door Röntgen had noted the same blue glow, seeming to emanate from the eye itself, but thought his observations to be spurious because he only saw the effect when he used one type of tube.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="179"><a href="#citable__179"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Dillingham — I wish Dr. James would give us what we might call the pathological effects of the X rays, that is, the material changes which took place after their use, discoloration of the finger nails, which I think I have seen notes on, and falling out of the hair.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Fincke - Provings Of The X Ray</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.julianwinston.com/archives/fincke/fincke_proving_xray.php">www.julianwinston.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="179"><a href="#citable__179"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because you were raised to have no fear of animals - and it seems to me you naturally didn't - is Bindi the same?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ENOUGH ROPE with Andrew Denton - episode 30: Steve Irwin (06/10/2003)</c_title></em> <c_date>3 February 2010 18:10 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.abc.net.au/tv/enoughrope/transcripts/s960998.htm">www.abc.net.au</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="179"><a href="#citable__179"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>If some kid had gone and picked up a rattlesnake and got bitten, only because he saw Steve Irwin do it and thought it was cool would have displayed the true message he was teaching.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Superficial - Steve Irwin passes away (1962 - 2006)</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://thesuperficial.com/2006/09/steve_irwin_passes_away_1962_2.php">thesuperficial.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__289" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="289">Later he realized that the tube which had created the effect was the only one powerful enough to make the glow plainly visible and the <a href="/Experiment" title="Experiment">experiment</a> was thereafter readily repeatable.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="289"><a href="#citable__289"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Who said one is only supposed to make fun out of another only in life?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Superficial - Steve Irwin passes away (1962 - 2006)</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://thesuperficial.com/2006/09/steve_irwin_passes_away_1962_2.php">thesuperficial.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="289"><a href="#citable__289"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We went to the zoo last year where it isn't just a zoo but a unique and interactive experience, only he (and his family) could create.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="289"><a href="#citable__289"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I loved to poke fun at him but now he's gone I am so sad; I will miss him because no one is good enough to make fun of out there like Steve!</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__41" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="41">The knowledge that X-rays are actually faintly visible to the dark-adapted naked eye has largely been forgotten today; this is probably due to the desire not to repeat what would now be seen as a recklessly dangerous and potentially harmful experiment with <a href="/Ionizing_radiation" title="Ionizing radiation">ionizing radiation</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="41"><a href="#citable__41"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>She said if she hadn't seen our show, her little boy probably would have died.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> - A Q&A with Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin</c_title></em> <c_date>3 February 2010 18:10 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.africanconservation.org/dcforum/DCForumID5/378.html">www.africanconservation.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> It is not known what exact mechanism in the eye produces the visibility: it could be due to conventional detection (excitation of <a href="/Rhodopsin" title="Rhodopsin">rhodopsin</a> molecules in the retina), direct excitation of retinal nerve cells, or secondary detection via, for instance, X-ray induction of <a href="/Phosphorescence" title="Phosphorescence">phosphorescence</a> in the eyeball with conventional retinal detection of the secondarily produced visible light.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Though X-rays are otherwise invisible it is possible to see the <a href="/Ionization" title="Ionization">ionization</a> of the air molecules if the intensity of the X-ray beam is high enough. The beamline from the <a href="/Wiggler_(synchrotron)" title="Wiggler (synchrotron)">wiggler</a> at the <a href="http://www.esrf.eu/UsersAndScience/Experiments/MaterialsScience/faisceau" class="external text" rel="nofollow">ID11</a> at <a href="/ESRF" title="ESRF" class="mw-redirect">ESRF</a> is one example of such high intensity.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_19" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-19"><span>[</span>20<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Medical_uses">Medical uses</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:152px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/11/2/6/6/67538792045830210.jpg" width="150" height="219" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> X-ray image of the <a href="/Paranasal_sinuses" title="Paranasal sinuses">paranasal sinuses</a>, lateral projection</div> </div> </div> <div class="thumb tleft"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:152px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/03/8/5/5/1748793036614320.jpg" width="150" height="187" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Head <a href="/CT_scan" title="CT scan" class="mw-redirect">CT scan</a> (transverse plane) slice – a modern application of X-rays</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Since Röntgen's discovery that X-rays can identify bone structures, X-rays have been developed for their use in <a href="/Medical_imaging" title="Medical imaging">medical imaging</a>. <a name="citable__230" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="230"><a href="/Radiology" title="Radiology">Radiology</a> is a specialized field of <a href="/Medicine" title="Medicine">medicine</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="230"><a href="#citable__230"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Radiology is a specialized field of medicine .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.reference.com/browse/X-ray">www.reference.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Radiologists employ <a href="/Radiography" title="Radiography">radiography</a> and other techniques for <a href="/Diagnostic_imaging" title="Diagnostic imaging" class="mw-redirect">diagnostic imaging</a>. This is probably the most common use of X-ray technology.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">X-rays are especially useful in the detection of pathology of the <a href="/Bone" title="Bone">skeletal system</a>, but are also useful for detecting some disease processes in <a href="/Soft_tissue" title="Soft tissue">soft tissue</a>. <a name="citable__137" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="137">Some notable examples are the very common <a href="/Chest_X-ray" title="Chest X-ray" class="mw-redirect">chest X-ray</a>, which can be used to identify lung diseases such as <a href="/Pneumonia" title="Pneumonia">pneumonia</a>, <a href="/Lung_cancer" title="Lung cancer">lung cancer</a> or <a href="/Pulmonary_edema" title="Pulmonary edema">pulmonary edema</a>, and the <a href="/Abdominal_X-ray" title="Abdominal X-ray" class="mw-redirect">abdominal X-ray</a>, which can detect <a href="/Intestine" title="Intestine">intestinal</a> obstruction, free air (from visceral perforations) and free fluid (in <a href="/Ascites" title="Ascites">ascites</a>).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="137"><a href="#citable__137"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This propaganda has been established by some very credible, very powerful players, and it seems to me that people are using the camouflage of science to make money out of animals.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> - A Q&A with Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin</c_title></em> <c_date>3 February 2010 18:10 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.africanconservation.org/dcforum/DCForumID5/378.html">www.africanconservation.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> X-rays may also be used to detect pathology such as <a href="/Gallstone" title="Gallstone">gallstones</a> (which are rarely <a href="/Radiopaque" title="Radiopaque" class="mw-redirect">radiopaque</a>) or <a href="/Kidney_stone" title="Kidney stone">kidney stones</a> which are often (but not always) visible. Traditional plain X-rays are less useful in the imaging of soft tissues such as the <a href="/Brain" title="Brain">brain</a> or <a href="/Muscle" title="Muscle">muscle</a>. Imaging alternatives for soft tissues are <a href="/Computed_axial_tomography" title="Computed axial tomography" class="mw-redirect">computed axial tomography</a> (CAT or CT scanning)<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_ref1_20_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ref1-20"><span>[</span>21<span>]</span></a></sup>, <a href="/Magnetic_resonance_imaging" title="Magnetic resonance imaging">magnetic resonance imaging</a> (MRI) or <a href="/Medical_ultrasonography" title="Medical ultrasonography">ultrasound</a>. Since 2005, X-rays are listed as a <a href="/Carcinogen" title="Carcinogen">carcinogen</a> by the U.S. government.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21"><span>[</span>22<span>]</span></a></sup>. The use of X-rays as a treatment is known as <a href="/Radiotherapy" title="Radiotherapy" class="mw-redirect">radiotherapy</a> and is largely used for the management (including <a href="/Palliation" title="Palliation" class="mw-redirect">palliation</a>) of <a href="/Cancer" title="Cancer">cancer</a>; it requires higher radiation energies than for imaging alone.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">X-rays are a relatively safe method of investigation and the radiation exposure is low. But in pregnant patients, the benefits of the investigation (X-ray) should be balanced with the potential hazards to the unborn fetus.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22"><span>[</span>23<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_23" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-23"><span>[</span>24<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Shielding_against_X_Rays">Shielding against X-Rays</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/Lead" title="Lead">Lead</a> is the most common shield against X-rays because of its high density (11340 kg/m<sup>3</sup>), stopping power, ease of installation and low cost. The maximum range of a high-energy photon such as an X-ray in matter is infinite; at every point in the matter traversed by the photon, there is a probability of interaction. Thus there is a very small probability of no interaction over very large distances. The shielding of photon beam is therefore exponential (with an <a href="/Attenuation_length" title="Attenuation length">attenuation length</a> being close to the <a href="/Radiation_length" title="Radiation length">radiation length</a> of the material); doubling the thickness of shielding will square the shielding effect.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">The following table shows the recommended thickness of lead shielding in function of X-ray energy, from the Recommendations by the Second International Congress of Radiology.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24"><span>[</span>25<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <table class="wikitable"> <tr> <th>X-Rays generated by peak voltages<br /> not exceeding</th> <th>Minimum thickness<br /> of Lead</th> </tr> <tr> <td>75 kV</td> <td>1.0 mm</td> </tr> <tr> <td>100 kV</td> <td>1.5 mm</td> </tr> <tr> <td>125 kV</td> <td>2.0 mm</td> </tr> <tr> <td>150 kV</td> <td>2.5 mm</td> </tr> <tr> <td>175 kV</td> <td>3.0 mm</td> </tr> <tr> <td>200 kV</td> <td>4.0 mm</td> </tr> <tr> <td>225 kV</td> <td>5.0 mm</td> </tr> <tr> <td>300 kV</td> <td>9.0 mm</td> </tr> <tr> <td>400 kV</td> <td>15.0 mm</td> </tr> <tr> <td>500 kV</td> <td>22.0 mm</td> </tr> <tr> <td>600 kV</td> <td>34.0 mm</td> </tr> <tr> <td>900 kV</td> <td>51.0 mm</td> </tr> </table> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Other_uses">Other uses</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/00/3/4/1/8525682753634070.jpg" width="220" height="220" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Each dot, called a reflection, in this diffraction pattern forms from the constructive interference of scattered X-rays passing through a crystal. The data can be used to determine the crystalline structure.</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Other notable uses of X-rays include</div> <ul> <li><a href="/X-ray_crystallography" title="X-ray crystallography">X-ray crystallography</a> in which the pattern produced by the <a href="/Diffraction" title="Diffraction">diffraction</a> of X-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analysed to reveal the nature of that lattice. A related technique, <a href="/Fiber_diffraction" title="Fiber diffraction">fiber diffraction</a>, was used by <a href="/Rosalind_Franklin" title="Rosalind Franklin">Rosalind Franklin</a> to discover the <a href="/Double_helix" title="Double helix">double helical</a> structure of <a href="/DNA" title="DNA">DNA</a>.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25"><span>[</span>26<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_astronomy" title="X-ray astronomy">X-ray astronomy</a>, which is an observational branch of <a href="/Astronomy" title="Astronomy">astronomy</a>, which deals with the study of X-ray emission from celestial objects.</li> <li><a href="/X-ray_microscope" title="X-ray microscope">X-ray microscopic analysis</a>, which uses <a href="/Electromagnetic_radiation" title="Electromagnetic radiation">electromagnetic radiation</a> in the soft X-ray band to produce images of very small objects.</li> <li><a href="/X-ray_fluorescence" title="X-ray fluorescence">X-ray fluorescence</a>, a technique in which X-rays are generated within a specimen and detected. The outgoing energy of the X-ray can be used to identify the composition of the sample.</li> <li><a href="/Industrial_radiography" title="Industrial radiography">Industrial radiography</a> uses X-rays for inspection of industrial parts, particularly <a href="/Welding" title="Welding">welds</a>.</li> <li>Paintings are often X-rayed to reveal the <a href="/Underdrawing" title="Underdrawing">underdrawing</a> and <a href="/Pentimento" title="Pentimento">pentimenti</a> or alterations in the course of painting, or by later restorers. Many <a href="/Pigment" title="Pigment">pigments</a> such as <a href="/Lead_white" title="Lead white" class="mw-redirect">lead white</a> show well in X-ray photographs.</li> <li><a href="/Airport_security" title="Airport security">Airport security</a> luggage scanners use X-rays for inspecting the interior of luggage for security threats before loading on aircraft.</li> <li>Border security truck scanners use X-rays for inspecting the interior of trucks for at country borders.</li> <li>X-ray <a href="/Fine_art_photography" title="Fine art photography">fine art photography</a></li> <li><a href="/Roentgen_Stereophotogrammetry" title="Roentgen Stereophotogrammetry" class="mw-redirect">Roentgen Stereophotogrammetry</a> is used to track movement of bones based on the implantation of markers</li> <li><a href="/X-ray_photoelectron_spectroscopy" title="X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy">X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy</a> is a chemical analysis technique relying on the <a href="/Photoelectric_effect" title="Photoelectric effect">photoelectric effect</a>, usually employed in <a href="/Surface_science" title="Surface science">surface science</a>.</li> </ul> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/08/3/0/9/21591443069524464.jpg" width="220" height="161" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> X-ray fine art photography of <a href="/Needlefish" title="Needlefish">needlefish</a> by <a href="/Peter_Dazeley" title="Peter Dazeley">Peter Dazeley</a></div> </div> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_History">History</span></h2> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Discovery">Discovery</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__175" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="175">German physicist <a href="/Wilhelm_R%C3%B6ntgen" title="Wilhelm Röntgen">Wilhelm Röntgen</a> is usually credited as the discoverer of X-rays because he was the first to systematically study them, though he is not the first to have observed their effects.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="175"><a href="#citable__175"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>At first I laughed because the sound of Irwin getting killed by a sting-ray was like 1000 to 1 compared to all the other animals his documented.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__283" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="283">He is also the one who gave them the name "X-rays", though many referred to these as "Röntgen rays" for several decades after their discovery.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="283"><a href="#citable__283"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Everybody had always joked that Irwin would go too far one of these days and while I always thought it possible, I secretely wished he'd always beat the odds and be entertaining and teaching children and adults alike for many decades to come.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Rest In Peace Steve Irwin -- Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news.</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.aintitcool.com/?q=node/24380">www.aintitcool.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="283"><a href="#citable__283"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Goodbye Steve, I am suree though your work will live on through the many millions of people who are now aware of the need for conservation through your entertaining programmes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Steve Irwin himself pictures from australia photos on webshots</c_title></em> <c_date>3 February 2010 18:10 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://travel.webshots.com/photo/1348018977061781615soIkRo">travel.webshots.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="283"><a href="#citable__283"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>So many have said in their posts one or more of these about him...so he will live on!</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin was Killed (Wizbang)</c_title></em> <c_date>3 February 2010 18:10 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wizbangblog.com/content/2006/09/04/crocodile-hunter-steve-irwin-was-killed.php">wizbangblog.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">X-rays were found emanating from <a href="/Crookes_tube" title="Crookes tube">Crookes tubes</a>, experimental <a href="/Discharge_tube" title="Discharge tube" class="mw-redirect">discharge tubes</a> invented around 1875, by scientists investigating the <a href="/Cathode_ray" title="Cathode ray">cathode rays</a>, that is energetic <a href="/Electron" title="Electron">electron</a> beams, that were first created in the tubes. Crookes tubes created free electrons by <a href="/Ionization" title="Ionization">ionization</a> of the residual air in the tube by a high DC <a href="/Voltage" title="Voltage">voltage</a> of anywhere between a few <a href="/Kilovolt" title="Kilovolt" class="mw-redirect">kilovolts</a> and 100 kV. This voltage accelerated the electrons coming from the <a href="/Cathode" title="Cathode">cathode</a> to a high enough velocity that they created X-rays when they struck the <a href="/Anode" title="Anode">anode</a> or the glass wall of the tube. Many of the early Crookes tubes undoubtedly radiated X-rays, because early researchers noticed effects that were attributable to them, as detailed below. Wilhelm Röntgen was the first to systematically study them, in 1895.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Filler2009b_26_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Filler2009b-26"><span>[</span>27<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Among the important early researchers in X-rays were <a href="/Ivan_Pulyui" title="Ivan Pulyui">Ivan Pulyui</a>, <a href="/William_Crookes" title="William Crookes">William Crookes</a>, <a href="/Johann_Wilhelm_Hittorf" title="Johann Wilhelm Hittorf">Johann Wilhelm Hittorf</a>, <a href="/Eugen_Goldstein" title="Eugen Goldstein">Eugen Goldstein</a>, <a href="/Heinrich_Hertz" title="Heinrich Hertz">Heinrich Hertz</a>, <a href="/Philipp_Lenard" title="Philipp Lenard">Philipp Lenard</a>, <a href="/Hermann_von_Helmholtz" title="Hermann von Helmholtz">Hermann von Helmholtz</a>, <a href="/Nikola_Tesla" title="Nikola Tesla">Nikola Tesla</a>, <a href="/Thomas_Edison" title="Thomas Edison">Thomas Edison</a>, <a href="/Charles_Glover_Barkla" title="Charles Glover Barkla">Charles Glover Barkla</a>, <a href="/Max_von_Laue" title="Max von Laue">Max von Laue</a>, and <a href="/Wilhelm_Conrad_R%C3%B6ntgen" title="Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen" class="mw-redirect">Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen</a>.</div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Johann_Hittorf">Johann Hittorf</span></h4> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">German physicist <a href="/Johann_Hittorf" title="Johann Hittorf" class="mw-redirect">Johann Hittorf</a> (1824–1914), a co-inventor and early researcher of the Crookes tube, found when he placed unexposed <a href="/Photographic_plate" title="Photographic plate">photographic plates</a> near the tube, that some of them were flawed by shadows, though he did not investigate this effect.</div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Ivan_Pulyui">Ivan Pulyui</span></h4> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">In 1877 <a href="/Ukrane" title="Ukrane" class="mw-redirect">Ukranian</a>-born <a href="/Ivan_Pulyui" title="Ivan Pulyui">Pulyui</a>, a lecturer in experimental physics at the <a href="/University_of_Vienna" title="University of Vienna">University of Vienna</a>, constructed various designs of <a href="/Crookes_tube" title="Crookes tube">vacuum discharge tube</a> to investigate their properties.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_mayo_27_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-mayo-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup> He continued his investigations when appointed professor at the <a href="/Czech_Technical_University_in_Prague" title="Czech Technical University in Prague">Prague Polytechnic</a> and in 1886 he found that that sealed photographic plates became dark when exposed to the emanations from the tubes. Early in 1896, just a few weeks after <a href="/Wilhelm_Conrad_R%C3%B6ntgen" title="Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen" class="mw-redirect">Röntgen</a> published his first X-ray photograph, Pulyui published high-quality X-ray images in journals in Paris and London.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_mayo_27_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-mayo-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup> Although Pulyui had studied with Röntgen at the <a href="/University_of_Strasbourg" title="University of Strasbourg">University of Strasbourg</a> in the years 1873–75, his biographer Gaida (1997) asserts that his subsequent research was conducted independently.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_mayo_27_2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-mayo-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Nikola_Tesla">Nikola Tesla</span></h4> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">In April 1887, <a href="/Nikola_Tesla" title="Nikola Tesla">Nikola Tesla</a> began to investigate X-rays using high voltages and tubes of his own design, as well as <a href="/Crookes_tube" title="Crookes tube">Crookes tubes</a>. From his technical publications, it is indicated that he invented and developed a special single-electrode X-ray tube,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_28" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-28"><span>[</span>29<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_29" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-29"><span>[</span>30<span>]</span></a></sup> which differed from other X-ray tubes in having no target electrode. <a name="citable__355" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="355">The principle behind Tesla's device is called the <a href="/Bremsstrahlung" title="Bremsstrahlung">Bremsstrahlung</a> process, in which a high-energy secondary X-ray emission is produced when charged particles (such as electrons) pass through matter.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="355"><a href="#citable__355"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It's hard to believe that someone such as Steve Irwin, who, so full of energy and was high on life could be gone just like that.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> By 1892, Tesla performed several such experiments, but he did not categorize the emissions as what were later called X-rays. Tesla generalized the phenomenon as <a href="/Radiant_energy" title="Radiant energy">radiant energy</a> of "invisible" kinds.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_30" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-30"><span>[</span>31<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_31" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-31"><span>[</span>32<span>]</span></a></sup> Tesla stated the facts of his methods concerning various experiments in his 1897 X-ray lecture before the <a href="/New_York_Academy_of_Sciences" title="New York Academy of Sciences">New York Academy of Sciences</a>.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32"><span>[</span>33<span>]</span></a></sup> Also in this lecture, Tesla stated the method of construction and safe operation of X-ray equipment. His X-ray experimentation by vacuum high field emissions also led him to alert the scientific community to the biological hazards associated with X-ray exposure.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_33" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-33"><span>[</span>34<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Fernando_Sanford">Fernando Sanford</span></h4> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">X-rays were generated and detected by Fernando Sanford (1854–1948), the foundation Professor of Physics at <a href="/Stanford_University" title="Stanford University">Stanford University</a>, in 1891. From 1886 to 1888 he had studied in the <a href="/Hermann_Helmholtz" title="Hermann Helmholtz" class="mw-redirect">Hermann Helmholtz</a> laboratory in Berlin, where he became familiar with the cathode rays generated in vacuum tubes when a voltage was applied across separate electrodes, as previously studied by <a href="/Heinrich_Hertz" title="Heinrich Hertz">Heinrich Hertz</a> and <a href="/Philipp_Lenard" title="Philipp Lenard">Philipp Lenard</a>. His letter of January 6, 1893 (describing his discovery as "electric photography") to The <a href="/Physical_Review" title="Physical Review">Physical Review</a> was duly published and an article entitled <em>Without Lens or Light, Photographs Taken With Plate and Object in Darkness</em> appeared in the <a href="/San_Francisco_Examiner" title="San Francisco Examiner" class="mw-redirect">San Francisco Examiner</a>.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_34" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-34"><span>[</span>35<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Philipp_Lenard">Philipp Lenard</span></h4> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__25" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="25"><a href="/Philipp_Lenard" title="Philipp Lenard">Philipp Lenard</a>, a student of Heinrich Hertz, wanted to see whether cathode rays could pass out of the Crookes tube into the air.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="25"><a href="#citable__25"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ray Charles met Steve at the pearly gates and seeing as there was a bit of a queue Ray asked Steve if he wanted to play a few hands of poker.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Superficial - Steve Irwin passes away (1962 - 2006)</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://thesuperficial.com/2006/09/steve_irwin_passes_away_1962_2.php">thesuperficial.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> He built a Crookes tube (later called a "Lenard tube") with a "window" in the end made of thin aluminum, facing the cathode so the cathode rays would strike it.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Thomson_35_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Thomson-35"><span>[</span>36<span>]</span></a></sup> He found that something came through, that would expose photographic plates and cause fluorescence. He measured the penetrating power of these rays through various materials. It has been suggested that at least some of these "Lenard rays" were actually X-rays.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36"><span>[</span>37<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__453" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="453"><a href="/Hermann_von_Helmholtz" title="Hermann von Helmholtz">Hermann von Helmholtz</a> formulated mathematical equations for X-rays.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="453"><a href="#citable__453"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Hermann von Helmholtz formulated mathematical equations for X-rays.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.reference.com/browse/X-ray">www.reference.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> He postulated a dispersion theory before Röntgen made his discovery and announcement. It was formed on the basis of the electromagnetic theory of light.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37"><span>[</span>38<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__324" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="324">However, he did not work with actual X-rays.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="324"><a href="#citable__324"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, he did not work with actual X-rays.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.reference.com/browse/X-ray">www.reference.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="324"><a href="#citable__324"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>He said: “Although we had different styles of working and I did not know him personally, I am actually completely shocked.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Steve Irwin</c_title></em> <c_date>3 February 2010 18:10 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://gone-hollywood.com/tag/steve-irwin/">gone-hollywood.com</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title>Steve Irwin, The Croc Hunter, RIP</c_title></em> <c_date>3 February 2010 18:10 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/archives/steve_irwin_the_croc_hunter_rip/">www.outsidethebeltway.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Wilhelm_R_C3_B6ntgen">Wilhelm Röntgen</span></h4> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">On November 8, 1895, <a href="/Germany" title="Germany">German</a> physics professor <a href="/Wilhelm_R%C3%B6ntgen" title="Wilhelm Röntgen">Wilhelm Röntgen</a> stumbled on X-rays while experimenting with <a href="/Philipp_Lenard" title="Philipp Lenard">Lenard</a> and <a href="/Crookes_tube" title="Crookes tube">Crookes tubes</a> and began studying them. He wrote an initial report "<em>On a new kind of ray: A preliminary communication</em>" and on December 28, 1895 submitted it to the <a href="/W%C3%BCrzburg" title="Würzburg">Würzburg</a>'s Physical-Medical Society journal.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_38" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-38"><span>[</span>39<span>]</span></a></sup> This was the first paper written on X-rays. <a name="citable__341" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="341">Röntgen referred to the radiation as "X", to indicate that it was an unknown type of radiation.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="341"><a href="#citable__341"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Röntgen referred to the radiation as "X", to indicate that it was an unknown type of radiation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.reference.com/browse/X-ray">www.reference.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__384" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="384">The name stuck, although (over Röntgen's great objections) many of his colleagues suggested calling them <strong>Röntgen rays</strong>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="384"><a href="#citable__384"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although there will never be another, I hope many try, inspired by a truly Great Australian .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> They are still referred to as such in many languages, including German. Röntgen received the first <a href="/Nobel_Prize_in_Physics" title="Nobel Prize in Physics">Nobel Prize in Physics</a> for his discovery.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__459" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="459">There are conflicting accounts of his discovery because Röntgen had his lab notes burned after his death, but this is a likely reconstruction by his biographers:<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_39" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-39"><span>[</span>40<span>]</span></a></sup> Röntgen was investigating cathode rays with a <a href="/Fluorescent" title="Fluorescent" class="mw-redirect">fluorescent</a> screen painted with barium <a href="/Platinocyanide" title="Platinocyanide">platinocyanide</a> and a Crookes tube which he had wrapped in black cardboard so the visible light from the tube wouldn't interfere.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="459"><a href="#citable__459"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The shock I felt definitely is up there with the deaths of the world's great contributors during my lifetime like Diana and Jim Henson.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> He noticed a faint green glow from the screen, about 1 meter away. <a name="citable__218" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="218">He realized some invisible rays coming from the tube were passing through the cardboard to make the screen glow.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="218"><a href="#citable__218"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As a man he seemed full of the joys of life and I hope that this can give his family some sort of peace in years to come and that they can find the strength to get through this time.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> He found they could also pass through books and papers on his desk. Röntgen threw himself into investigating these unknown rays systematically. Two months after his initial discovery, he published his paper.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Röntgen discovered its medical use when he saw a picture of his wife's hand on a photographic plate formed due to X-rays. His wife's hand's photograph was the first ever photograph of a human body part using X-rays.</div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Thomas_Edison">Thomas Edison</span></h4> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/06/3/3/7/40707021566255491.png" width="220" height="130" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Diagram of a water cooled X-ray tube (simplified/outdated)</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">In 1895, <a href="/Thomas_Edison" title="Thomas Edison">Thomas Edison</a> investigated materials' ability to fluoresce when exposed to X-rays, and found that <a href="/Calcium_tungstate" title="Calcium tungstate" class="mw-redirect">calcium tungstate</a> was the most effective substance. Around March 1896, the <a href="/Fluoroscopy" title="Fluoroscopy">fluoroscope</a> he developed became the standard for medical X-ray examinations. <a name="citable__456" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="456">Nevertheless, Edison dropped X-ray research around 1903 after the death of <a href="/Clarence_Madison_Dally" title="Clarence Madison Dally">Clarence Madison Dally</a>, one of his glassblowers.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="456"><a href="#citable__456"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>September 6, 2006 7:31 am (Pacific time) so sorry about the death of a great guy he will be missed a lot to every one around the world!!!!!</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin Dies in Freak Accident on Barrier Reef - Salem-News.Com</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.salem-news.com/articles/september072006/steve_irwin_1_9306.php">www.salem-news.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__129" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="129">Dally had a habit of testing X-ray tubes on his hands, and acquired a <a href="/Cancer" title="Cancer">cancer</a> in them so tenacious that both arms were <a href="/Amputation" title="Amputation">amputated</a> in a futile attempt to save his life.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="129"><a href="#citable__129"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Dally had a habit of testing X-ray tubes on his hands, and acquired a cancer in them so tenacious that both arms were amputated in a futile attempt to save his life.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.reference.com/browse/X-ray">www.reference.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="129"><a href="#citable__129"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In 1908, he had to have his left arm amputated owing to the spread of X-ray dermatitis The X-ray microscope was invented in the 1950s.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>X-ray encyclopedia topics | Reference.com</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.reference.com/browse/X-ray">www.reference.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="129"><a href="#citable__129"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>STEVE: Nothing is more important than that small boy's life, and I'm very proud that I would've had a hand in saving him.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> - A Q&A with Crocodile Hunter Steve Irwin</c_title></em> <c_date>3 February 2010 18:10 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.africanconservation.org/dcforum/DCForumID5/378.html">www.africanconservation.org</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> At the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, an assassin <a href="/William_McKinley_assassination" title="William McKinley assassination" class="mw-redirect">shot President William McKinley</a> twice at close range with a .32 caliber revolver. The first bullet was removed but the second remained lodged somewhere in his stomach. <a name="citable__329" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="329">McKinley survived for some time and requested that Thomas Edison "rush an X-ray machine to Buffalo to find the stray bullet.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="329"><a href="#citable__329"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As a man he seemed full of the joys of life and I hope that this can give his family some sort of peace in years to come and that they can find the strength to get through this time.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> It arrived <em>but wasn't used</em> ... McKinley died of septic shock due to bacterial infection."<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_40" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-40"><span>[</span>41<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Frank_Austin_and_the_Frost_brothers">Frank Austin and the Frost brothers</span></h4> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">The first medical X-ray made in the United States was obtained using a discharge tube of Pulyui's design. In January 1896, on reading of Röntgen's discovery, Frank Austin of <a href="/Dartmouth_College" title="Dartmouth College">Dartmouth College</a> tested all of the discharge tubes in the physics laboratory and found that only the Pulyui tube produced X-rays. This was a result of Pulyui's inclusion of an oblique "target" of <a href="/Mica" title="Mica">mica</a>, used for holding samples of <a href="/Fluorescent" title="Fluorescent" class="mw-redirect">fluorescent</a> material, within the tube. On 3 February 1896 Gilman Frost, professor of medicine at the college, and his brother Edwin Frost, professor of physics, exposed the wrist of Eddie McCarthy, whom Edwin had treated some weeks earlier for a fracture, to the X-rays and collected the resulting image of the broken bone on <a href="/Photographic_plate" title="Photographic plate">gelatin photographic plates</a> obtained from Howard Langill, a local photographer also interested in Röntgen's work.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_41" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-41"><span>[</span>42<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_The_20th_century_and_beyond">The 20th century and beyond</span></h3> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/11/2/4/6/693860365250683.jpg" width="220" height="147" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> A male technician taking an x-ray of a female patient in 1940. This image was used to argue that exposure to radiation during the x-ray procedure would be a <a href="/Myth" title="Myth" class="mw-redirect">myth</a>.</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">The many applications of X-rays immediately generated enormous interest. Workshops began making specialized versions of Crookes tubes for generating X-rays, and these first generation <a href="/Cold_cathode" title="Cold cathode">cold cathode</a> or Crookes X-ray tubes were used until about 1920.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Crookes tubes were unreliable. They had to contain a small quantity of gas (invariably air) as a current will not flow in such a tube if they are fully evacuated. However as time passed the X-rays caused the glass to absorb the gas, causing the tube to generate "harder" X-rays until it soon stopped operating. <a name="citable__133" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="133">Larger and more frequently used tubes were provided with devices for restoring the air, known as "softeners". These often took the form of a small side tube which contained a small piece of mica: a substance that traps comparatively large quantities of air within its structure.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Though he used these traits to benefit a more than deserving cause.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> A small electrical heater heated the mica and caused it to release a small amount of air, thus restoring the tube's efficiency. However the mica had a limited life and the restore process was consequently difficult to control.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">In 1904, <a href="/John_Ambrose_Fleming" title="John Ambrose Fleming">John Ambrose Fleming</a> invented the <a href="/Thermionic_valve" title="Thermionic valve" class="mw-redirect">thermionic diode valve</a> (vacuum tube). This used a <a href="/Hot_cathode" title="Hot cathode">hot cathode</a> which permitted current to flow in a vacuum. This idea was quickly applied to X-ray tubes, and heated cathode X-ray tubes, called Coolidge tubes, replaced the troublesome cold cathode tubes by about 1920.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Two years later, physicist <a href="/Charles_Glover_Barkla" title="Charles Glover Barkla">Charles Barkla</a> discovered that X-rays could be scattered by gases, and that each element had a characteristic X-ray. He won the 1917 <a href="/Nobel_Prize_in_Physics" title="Nobel Prize in Physics">Nobel Prize in Physics</a> for this discovery. <a href="/Max_von_Laue" title="Max von Laue">Max von Laue</a>, Paul Knipping and Walter Friedrich observed for the first time the <a href="/Diffraction" title="Diffraction">diffraction</a> of X-rays by crystals in 1912. This discovery, along with the early works of <a href="/Paul_Peter_Ewald" title="Paul Peter Ewald">Paul Peter Ewald</a>, <a href="/William_Henry_Bragg" title="William Henry Bragg">William Henry Bragg</a> and <a href="/William_Lawrence_Bragg" title="William Lawrence Bragg">William Lawrence Bragg</a> gave birth to the field of X-ray <a href="/Crystallography" title="Crystallography">crystallography</a>. <a name="citable__163" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="163">The <a href="/X-ray_tube" title="X-ray tube">Coolidge tube</a> was invented the following year by <a href="/William_D._Coolidge" title="William D. Coolidge">William D. Coolidge</a> which permitted continuous production of X-rays; this type of tube is still in use today.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="163"><a href="#citable__163"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Still, it's a bit of a surprise that he should fall to a ray after years of toying with venomous snakes and spiders, not to mention crocs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Age Blogs: Your Say</c_title></em> <c_date>13 January 2010 11:59 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.theage.com.au/yoursay/archives/2006/09/steve_irwin.html">blogs.theage.com.au</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:224px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/07/2/4/3/43089433615034078.gif" width="222" height="180" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> <a href="/ROSAT" title="ROSAT">ROSAT</a> image of X-ray <a href="/Fluorescence" title="Fluorescence">fluorescence</a> of, and <a href="/Occultation" title="Occultation">occultation</a> of the <a href="/X-ray_background" title="X-ray background">X-ray background</a> by, the <a href="/Moon" title="Moon">Moon</a></div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">The use of X-rays for medical purposes (to develop into the field of <a href="/Radiation_therapy" title="Radiation therapy">radiation therapy</a>) was pioneered by Major John Hall-Edwards in <a href="/Birmingham" title="Birmingham">Birmingham</a>, <a href="/England" title="England">England</a>. In 1908, he had to have his left arm amputated owing to the spread of X-ray dermatitis.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_42" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-42"><span>[</span>43<span>]</span></a></sup> The <a href="/X-ray_microscope" title="X-ray microscope">X-ray microscope</a> was invented in the 1950s.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">The <a href="/Chandra_X-ray_Observatory" title="Chandra X-ray Observatory">Chandra X-ray Observatory</a>, launched on July 23, 1999, has been allowing the exploration of the very violent processes in the universe which produce X-rays. Unlike visible light, which is a relatively stable view of the universe, the X-ray universe is unstable, it features stars being torn apart by <a href="/Black_hole" title="Black hole">black holes</a>, galactic collisions, and novas, <a href="/Neutron_star" title="Neutron star">neutron stars</a> that build up layers of plasma that then explode into space.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">An <a href="/X-ray_laser" title="X-ray laser" class="mw-redirect">X-ray laser</a> device was proposed as part of the <a href="/Presidency_of_Ronald_Reagan" title="Presidency of Ronald Reagan">Reagan Administration</a>'s <a href="/Strategic_Defense_Initiative" title="Strategic Defense Initiative">Strategic Defense Initiative</a> in the 1980s, but the first and only test of the device (a sort of laser "blaster", or <a href="/Death_ray" title="Death ray">death ray</a>, powered by a thermonuclear explosion) gave inconclusive results. For technical and political reasons, the overall project (including the X-ray laser) was de-funded (though was later revived by the second <a href="/Presidency_of_George_W._Bush" title="Presidency of George W. Bush">Bush Administration</a> as <a href="/National_Missile_Defense" title="National Missile Defense" class="mw-redirect">National Missile Defense</a> using different technologies).</div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_See_also">See also</span></h2> <div style="-moz-column-count:4; column-count:4;"> <ul> <li><a href="/Backscatter_X-ray" title="Backscatter X-ray">Backscatter X-ray</a></li> <li><a href="/Fluoroscopy" title="Fluoroscopy">Fluoroscopy</a></li> <li><a href="/Geiger_counter" title="Geiger counter">Geiger counter</a></li> <li><a href="/High_energy_X-rays" title="High energy X-rays">High energy X-rays</a></li> <li><a href="/N_ray" title="N ray">N-ray</a></li> <li><a href="/Neutron_radiation" title="Neutron radiation">Neutron radiation</a></li> <li><a href="/Radiography" title="Radiography">Radiography</a></li> <li><a href="/Radiologic_technologist" title="Radiologic technologist">Radiologic technologist</a></li> <li><a href="/Radiology" title="Radiology">Radiology</a></li> <li><a href="/Resonant_inelastic_X-ray_scattering" title="Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering">Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering</a> (RIXS)</li> <li><a href="/Small_angle_X-ray_scattering_(SAXS)" title="Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)" class="mw-redirect">Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_absorption_spectroscopy" title="X-ray absorption spectroscopy">X-ray absorption spectroscopy</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_astronomy" title="X-ray astronomy">X-ray astronomy</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_crystallography" title="X-ray crystallography">X-ray crystallography</a></li> <li><a href="/X-Ray_filters" title="X-Ray filters" class="mw-redirect">X-Ray filters</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_machine" title="X-ray machine" class="mw-redirect">X-ray machine</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_marker" title="X-ray marker">X-ray marker</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_microscope" title="X-ray microscope">X-ray microscope</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_nanoprobe" title="X-ray nanoprobe">X-ray nanoprobe</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_optics" title="X-ray optics">X-ray optics</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_vision" title="X-ray vision">X-ray vision</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_welding" title="X-ray welding">X-ray welding</a></li> </ul> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Notes">Notes</span></h2> <div class="references-small references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width:30em; column-width:30em;"> <ol class="references"> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_0"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Kevles, Bettyann Holtzmann (1996). <em>Naked to the Bone Medical Imaging in the Twentieth Century</em>. Camden, NJ: <a href="/Rutgers_University_Press" title="Rutgers University Press">Rutgers University Press</a>. pp. 19–22. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0813523583.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Naked+to+the+Bone+Medical+Imaging+in+the+Twentieth+Century&rft.aulast=Kevles&rft.aufirst=Bettyann+Holtzmann&rft.au=Kevles%2C%26%2332%3BBettyann+Holtzmann&rft.date=1996&rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B19%E2%80%9322&rft.place=Camden%2C+NJ&rft.pub=%5B%5BRutgers+University+Press%5D%5D&rft.isbn=0813523583&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:X-ray"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_1"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web">Sample, Sharron (2007-03-27). <a href="http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/xrays.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"X-Rays"</a>. <em>The Electromagnetic Spectrum</em>. <a href="/NASA" title="NASA">NASA</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/xrays.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/xrays.html</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-12-03</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=X-Rays&rft.atitle=The+Electromagnetic+Spectrum&rft.aulast=Sample&rft.aufirst=Sharron&rft.au=Sample%2C%26%2332%3BSharron&rft.date=2007-03-27&rft.pub=%5B%5BNASA%5D%5D&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fscience.hq.nasa.gov%2Fkids%2Fimagers%2Fems%2Fxrays.html&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:X-ray"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_squires_2"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-squires_2-0">^</a></strong> Novelline, Robert. <em>Squire's Fundamentals of Radiology</em>. Harvard University Press. 5th edition. 1997. ISBN 0674833392.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_Dendy_3">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Dendy_3-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Dendy_3-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <span class="citation book">Dendy, P. P.; B. Heaton (1999). <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=1BTQvsQIs4wC&pg=PA12" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>Physics for Diagnostic Radiology</em></a>. USA: CRC Press. p. 12. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0750305916<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=1BTQvsQIs4wC&pg=PA12" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://books.google.com/books?id=1BTQvsQIs4wC&pg=PA12</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Physics+for+Diagnostic+Radiology&rft.aulast=Dendy&rft.aufirst=P.+P.&rft.au=Dendy%2C%26%2332%3BP.+P.&rft.au=B.+Heaton&rft.date=1999&rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B12&rft.place=USA&rft.pub=CRC+Press&rft.isbn=0750305916&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D1BTQvsQIs4wC%26pg%3DPA12&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:X-ray"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_4"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Charles Hodgman, Ed. (1961). <em>CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 44th Ed.</em>. USA: Chemical Rubber Co.. p. 2850.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=CRC+Handbook+of+Chemistry+and+Physics%2C+44th+Ed.&rft.aulast=Charles+Hodgman%2C+Ed.&rft.au=Charles+Hodgman%2C+Ed.&rft.date=1961&rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B2850&rft.place=USA&rft.pub=Chemical+Rubber+Co.&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:X-ray"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_5"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Feynman, Richard; Robert Leighton, Matthew Sands (1963). <em>The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1</em>. USA: Addison-Wesley. pp. 2–5. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0201021161.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Feynman+Lectures+on+Physics%2C+Vol.1&rft.aulast=Feynman&rft.aufirst=Richard&rft.au=Feynman%2C%26%2332%3BRichard&rft.au=Robert+Leighton%2C+Matthew+Sands&rft.date=1963&rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B2%E2%80%935&rft.place=USA&rft.pub=Addison-Wesley&rft.isbn=0201021161&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:X-ray"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_6"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">L'Annunziata, Michael; Mohammad Baradei (2003). <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=b519e10OPT0C&pg=PA58&dq=gamma+x-ray&lr=&as_brr=3&client=opera" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis</em></a>. Academic Press. p. 58. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0124366031<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=b519e10OPT0C&pg=PA58&dq=gamma+x-ray&lr=&as_brr=3&client=opera" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://books.google.com/books?id=b519e10OPT0C&pg=PA58&dq=gamma+x-ray&lr=&as_brr=3&client=opera</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Handbook+of+Radioactivity+Analysis&rft.aulast=L%27Annunziata&rft.aufirst=Michael&rft.au=L%27Annunziata%2C%26%2332%3BMichael&rft.au=Mohammad+Baradei&rft.date=2003&rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B58&rft.pub=Academic+Press&rft.isbn=0124366031&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3Db519e10OPT0C%26pg%3DPA58%26dq%3Dgamma%2Bx-ray%26lr%3D%26as_brr%3D3%26client%3Dopera&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:X-ray"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_7"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Grupen, Claus; G. Cowan, S. D. Eidelman, T. Stroh (2005). <em>Astroparticle Physics</em>. Springer. p. 109. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 3540253122.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Astroparticle+Physics&rft.aulast=Grupen&rft.aufirst=Claus&rft.au=Grupen%2C%26%2332%3BClaus&rft.au=G.+Cowan%2C+S.+D.+Eidelman%2C+T.+Stroh&rft.date=2005&rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B109&rft.pub=Springer&rft.isbn=3540253122&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:X-ray"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_8"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">US National Research Council (2006). <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=Uqj4OzBKlHwC&pg=PA5" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>Health Risks from Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation, BEIR 7 phase 2</em></a>. National Academies Press. pp. 5, fig.PS–2. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 030909156X<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=Uqj4OzBKlHwC&pg=PA5" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://books.google.com/books?id=Uqj4OzBKlHwC&pg=PA5</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Health+Risks+from+Low+Levels+of+Ionizing+Radiation%2C+BEIR+7+phase+2&rft.aulast=US+National+Research+Council&rft.au=US+National+Research+Council&rft.date=2006&rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B5%2C+fig.PS%E2%80%932&rft.pub=National+Academies+Press&rft.isbn=030909156X&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DUqj4OzBKlHwC%26pg%3DPA5&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:X-ray"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span>, data credited to NCRP (US National Committee on Radiation Protection) 1987</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_9"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.doctorspiller.com/Dental%20_X-Rays.htm" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.doctorspiller.com/Dental%20_X-Rays.htm</a> and <a href="http://www.dentalgentlecare.com/x-ray_safety.htm" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.dentalgentlecare.com/x-ray_safety.htm</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_10"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></strong> <a href="http://hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/NSEA/fire/trainingdocs/radem3.pdf" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://hss.energy.gov/NuclearSafety/NSEA/fire/trainingdocs/radem3.pdf</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_11"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.hawkhill.com/114s.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.hawkhill.com/114s.html</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_12"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-12">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.solarstorms.org/SWChapter8.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.solarstorms.org/SWChapter8.html</a> and <a href="http://www.powerattunements.com/x-ray.html" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.powerattunements.com/x-ray.html</a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_13"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-13">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">David R. Lide, ed (1994). <em>CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 75th edition</em>. CRC Press. pp. 10–227. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0-8493-0475-X.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=CRC+Handbook+of+Chemistry+and+Physics+75th+edition&rft.date=1994&rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B10%E2%80%93227&rft.pub=CRC+Press&rft.isbn=0-8493-0475-X&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:X-ray"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_14"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-14">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Whaites, Eric; Roderick Cawson (2002). <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=x6ThiifBPcsC&dq=radiography+kilovolt+x-ray+machine&lr=&as_brr=3&client=opera&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology</em></a>. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 15–20. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 044307027X<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=x6ThiifBPcsC&dq=radiography+kilovolt+x-ray+machine&lr=&as_brr=3&client=opera&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://books.google.com/books?id=x6ThiifBPcsC&dq=radiography+kilovolt+x-ray+machine&lr=&as_brr=3&client=opera&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=Essentials+of+Dental+Radiography+and+Radiology&rft.aulast=Whaites&rft.aufirst=Eric&rft.au=Whaites%2C%26%2332%3BEric&rft.au=Roderick+Cawson&rft.date=2002&rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3B15%E2%80%9320&rft.pub=Elsevier+Health+Sciences&rft.isbn=044307027X&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3Dx6ThiifBPcsC%26dq%3Dradiography%2Bkilovolt%2Bx-ray%2Bmachine%26lr%3D%26as_brr%3D3%26client%3Dopera%26source%3Dgbs_summary_s%26cad%3D0&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:X-ray"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_15"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-15">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Bushburg, Jerrold; Anthony Seibert, Edwin Leidholdt, John Boone (2002). <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=VZvqqaQ5DvoC&pg=PT33&dq=radiography+kerma+rem+Sievert&lr=&as_brr=3&client=opera" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging</em></a>. USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 116. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 0683301187<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=VZvqqaQ5DvoC&pg=PT33&dq=radiography+kerma+rem+Sievert&lr=&as_brr=3&client=opera" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://books.google.com/books?id=VZvqqaQ5DvoC&pg=PT33&dq=radiography+kerma+rem+Sievert&lr=&as_brr=3&client=opera</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=book&rft.btitle=The+Essential+Physics+of+Medical+Imaging&rft.aulast=Bushburg&rft.aufirst=Jerrold&rft.au=Bushburg%2C%26%2332%3BJerrold&rft.au=Anthony+Seibert%2C+Edwin+Leidholdt%2C+John+Boone&rft.date=2002&rft.pages=p.%26nbsp%3B116&rft.place=USA&rft.pub=Lippincott+Williams+%26+Wilkins&rft.isbn=0683301187&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DVZvqqaQ5DvoC%26pg%3DPT33%26dq%3Dradiography%2Bkerma%2Brem%2BSievert%26lr%3D%26as_brr%3D3%26client%3Dopera&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:X-ray"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_16"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></strong> <span class="citation book">Emilio, Burattini; Antonella Ballerna (1994). <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=VEld4080nekC&pg=PA129&dq=%22synchrotron+radiation%22+x-ray+advantages&as_brr=3" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Preface"</a>. <em>Biomedical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation: Proceedings of the 128th Course at the International School of Physics -Enrico Fermi- 12–22 July 1994, Varenna, Italy</em>. IOS Press. pp. xv. <a href="/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> 9051992483<span class="printonly">. <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=VEld4080nekC&pg=PA129&dq=%22synchrotron+radiation%22+x-ray+advantages&as_brr=3" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://books.google.com/books?id=VEld4080nekC&pg=PA129&dq=%22synchrotron+radiation%22+x-ray+advantages&as_brr=3</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2008-11-11</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=Preface&rft.atitle=Biomedical+Applications+of+Synchrotron+Radiation%3A+Proceedings+of+the+128th+Course+at+the+International+School+of+Physics+-Enrico+Fermi-+12%E2%80%9322+July+1994%2C+Varenna%2C+Italy&rft.aulast=Emilio&rft.aufirst=Burattini&rft.au=Emilio%2C%26%2332%3BBurattini&rft.au=Antonella+Ballerna&rft.date=1994&rft.pages=pp.%26nbsp%3Bxv&rft.pub=IOS+Press&rft.isbn=9051992483&rft_id=&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:X-ray"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_17"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-17">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web">Martin, Dylan (2005). <a href="http://www.u.arizona.edu/~dwmartin/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"X-Ray Detection"</a>. 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rel="nofollow">[1]</a></li> </ol> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_References">References</span></h2> <ul> <li><a href="http://imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/ems/xrays.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">NASA</a> Goddard Space Flight centre introduction to X-rays.</li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_External_links">External links</span></h2> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.onlinetelemedicine.com/html/product/sam_images/X-Ray.jpg" class="external text" rel="nofollow">An Example of a Radiograph</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.iuk.edu/~koalhe/img/Equipment/xray.jpg" class="external text" rel="nofollow">A Photograph of an X-ray Machine</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.x-raysafety.com" class="external text" rel="nofollow">X-ray Safety</a></li> </ul> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.ionactive.co.uk/multi-media_video.html?m=4" class="external text" rel="nofollow">An X-ray tube demonstration (Animation)</a></li> <li><a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20070710033139/http://deutsche.nature.com/physics/7.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">1896 Article: "On a New Kind of Rays"</a></li> <li><a href="http://docs.google.com/fileview?id=0B89CZuXbiY7mNmQxYmVlNDktNjBiZS00NjcwLTg0ODgtZjc3NWUwOWUxZDg5&hl=tr" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"Digital X-Ray Technologies Project"</a></li> <li><a href="http://nursing-resource.com/?p=198#videolink" class="external text" rel="nofollow">A video of a medical X-ray procedure example</a></li> <li><a href="http://rad.usuhs.edu/whatis.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">What is Radiology?</a> a simple tutorial</li> <li><a href="http://rad.usuhs.edu/medpix" class="external text" rel="nofollow">50,000 X-ray, MRI, and CT pictures</a> MedPix medical image database</li> </ul> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Electromagnetic_spectrum" title="Electromagnetic spectrum">Electromagnetic spectrum</a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-abovebelow" style=";line-height:1.3em; padding:0.75em;" colspan="2"><em><big>←</big> shorter wavelengths<span style="white-space:nowrap;">       </span>longer wavelengths <big>→</big></em><br /> <strong><a href="/Gamma_ray" title="Gamma ray">Gamma rays</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong class="selflink">X-rays</strong><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ultraviolet" title="Ultraviolet">Ultraviolet</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Visible_spectrum" title="Visible spectrum">Visible</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Infrared" title="Infrared">Infrared</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Terahertz_radiation" title="Terahertz radiation">Terahertz radiation</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Microwave" title="Microwave">Microwave</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Radio_waves" title="Radio waves">Radio</a></strong></td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:lavender;;"><a href="/Visible_spectrum" title="Visible spectrum">Visible (optical)</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;line-height:1.5em;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Violet_(color)" title="Violet (color)">Violet</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Blue" title="Blue">Blue</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Green" title="Green">Green</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Yellow" title="Yellow">Yellow</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Orange_(colour)" title="Orange (colour)">Orange</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Red" title="Red">Red</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:lavender;;"><a href="/Microwave" title="Microwave">Microwaves</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;line-height:1.5em;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/W_band" title="W band">W band</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/V_band" title="V band">V band</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Q_band" title="Q band">Q band</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ka_band" title="Ka band">K<sub>a</sub> band</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/K_band" title="K band">K band</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ku_band" title="Ku band">K<sub>u</sub> band</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/X_band" title="X band">X band</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/S_band" title="S band">S band</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/C_band" title="C band">C band</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/L_band" title="L band">L band</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:lavender;;"><a href="/Radio_frequency" title="Radio frequency">Radio</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;line-height:1.5em;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Extremely_high_frequency" title="Extremely high frequency">EHF</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Super_high_frequency" title="Super high frequency">SHF</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ultra_high_frequency" title="Ultra high frequency">UHF</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Very_high_frequency" title="Very high frequency">VHF</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/High_frequency" title="High frequency">HF</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Medium_frequency" title="Medium frequency">MF</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Low_frequency" title="Low frequency">LF</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Very_low_frequency" title="Very low frequency">VLF</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ultra_low_frequency" title="Ultra low frequency">ULF</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Super_low_frequency" title="Super low frequency">SLF</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Extremely_low_frequency" title="Extremely low frequency">ELF</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background:lavender;;"><a href="/Wavelength" title="Wavelength">Wavelength types</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;line-height:1.5em;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Microwave" title="Microwave">Microwave</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Shortwave" title="Shortwave">Shortwave</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Medium_wave" title="Medium wave">Medium wave</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Longwave" title="Longwave">Longwave</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Nuclear_technology" title="Nuclear technology">Nuclear technology</a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;">Science</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_physics" title="Nuclear physics">Physics</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_fission" title="Nuclear fission">Fission</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_fusion" title="Nuclear fusion">Fusion</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Radiation" title="Radiation">Radiation</a> <small>(<a href="/Ionizing_radiation" title="Ionizing radiation">ionizing</a>)</small> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Atomic_nucleus" title="Atomic nucleus">Nucleus</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_chemistry" title="Nuclear chemistry">Chemistry</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_engineering" title="Nuclear engineering">Engineering</a></span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Nuclear_fuel" title="Nuclear fuel">Fuel</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Fissile" title="Fissile">Fissile</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Fertile_material" title="Fertile material">Fertile</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Thorium" title="Thorium">Thorium</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Uranium" title="Uranium">Uranium</a> <small>(<a href="/Enriched_uranium" title="Enriched uranium">enriched</a> •</small></span> <small><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Depleted_uranium" title="Depleted uranium">depleted</a>)</span></small><span style="white-space:nowrap"> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Plutonium" title="Plutonium">Plutonium</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Deuterium" title="Deuterium">Deuterium</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Tritium" title="Tritium">Tritium</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Isotope_separation" title="Isotope separation">Isotope separation</a></span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Neutron" title="Neutron">Neutron</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Neutron_temperature" title="Neutron temperature">Temp</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Thermal_neutron" title="Thermal neutron" class="mw-redirect">Thermal</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Fast_neutron" title="Fast neutron" class="mw-redirect">Fast</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Fusion_neutron" title="Fusion neutron" class="mw-redirect">Fusion</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Neutron_cross-section" title="Neutron cross-section">Cross section</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Neutron_capture" title="Neutron capture">Capture</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Neutron_activation" title="Neutron activation">Activation</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Neutron_poison" title="Neutron poison" class="mw-redirect">Poison</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Neutron_radiation" title="Neutron radiation">Radiation</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Neutron_generator" title="Neutron generator">Generator</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Neutron_reflector" title="Neutron reflector">Reflector</a></span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Nuclear_reactor_technology" title="Nuclear reactor technology">Fission<br /> reactors</a><br /> <small>by<br /> <a href="/Neutron_moderator" title="Neutron moderator">moderator</a></small></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Light_water_reactor" title="Light water reactor">Water</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Pressurized_water_reactor" title="Pressurized water reactor">Pressurized (PWR)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Boiling_water_reactor" title="Boiling water reactor">Boiling (BWR)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Supercritical_water_reactor" title="Supercritical water reactor">Supercritical (SCWR)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Heavy_water_reactor" title="Heavy water reactor">Heavy</a> (<a href="/Pressurised_heavy_water_reactor" title="Pressurised heavy water reactor">PHWR</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/CANDU_reactor" title="CANDU reactor">CANDU</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/SGHWR" title="SGHWR">SGHWR</a>)</span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Graphite_moderated_reactor" title="Graphite moderated reactor">Carbon</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Pebble_bed_reactor" title="Pebble bed reactor">Pebble bed (PBMR)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Very_high_temperature_reactor" title="Very high temperature reactor">Very high temperature (VHTR)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/UHTREX" title="UHTREX">UHTREX</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/RBMK" title="RBMK">RBMK</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Magnox" title="Magnox">Magnox</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Advanced_gas-cooled_reactor" title="Advanced gas-cooled reactor">AGR</a></span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/FLiBe" title="FLiBe">FLiBe</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Molten_salt_reactor" title="Molten salt reactor">Molten salt (MSR)</a></span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">None<br /> <a href="/Fast_neutron_reactor" title="Fast neutron reactor" class="mw-redirect">(Fast)</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Fast_breeder_reactor" title="Fast breeder reactor">Breeder (FBR)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Liquid_metal_cooled_reactor" title="Liquid metal cooled reactor">Liquid-metal-cooled (LMFR)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Integral_Fast_Reactor" title="Integral Fast Reactor">Integral (IFR)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Traveling_wave_reactor" title="Traveling wave reactor">Traveling Wave (TWR)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/SSTAR" title="SSTAR">SSTAR</a><br /> <a href="/Generation_IV_reactor" title="Generation IV reactor">Generation IV</a> by <a href="/Nuclear_reactor_coolant" title="Nuclear reactor coolant">coolant</a>: (<a href="/Gas-cooled_fast_reactor" title="Gas-cooled fast reactor">Gas (GFR)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Lead_cooled_fast_reactor" title="Lead cooled fast reactor">Lead (LFR)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Sodium-cooled_fast_reactor" title="Sodium-cooled fast reactor">Sodium (SFR)</a>)</span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Nuclear_power" title="Nuclear power">Power</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_power_by_country" title="Nuclear power by country">By country</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Economics_of_new_nuclear_power_plants" title="Economics of new nuclear power plants">Economics</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_safety" title="Nuclear safety">Safety</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Fusion_power" title="Fusion power">Fusion</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Radioisotope_thermoelectric_generator" title="Radioisotope thermoelectric generator">Isotope thermoelectric (RTG)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_propulsion" title="Nuclear propulsion">Propulsion</a> <small>(<a href="/Nuclear_thermal_rocket" title="Nuclear thermal rocket">rocket</a>)</small></span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Nuclear_medicine" title="Nuclear medicine">Medicine</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Medical_imaging" title="Medical imaging">Imaging</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Positron_emission_tomography" title="Positron emission tomography">Positron emission (PET)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Single_photon_emission_computed_tomography" title="Single photon emission computed tomography">Single photon emission (SPECT)</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Gamma_camera" title="Gamma camera">Gamma camera</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><strong class="selflink">X-ray</strong></span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Therapy</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Radiation_therapy" title="Radiation therapy">Radiation therapy</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Tomotherapy" title="Tomotherapy">Tomotherapy</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Proton_therapy" title="Proton therapy">Proton</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Brachytherapy" title="Brachytherapy">Brachytherapy</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Boron_Neutron_Capture_Therapy" title="Boron Neutron Capture Therapy" class="mw-redirect">Boron neutron capture (BNCT)</a></span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Nuclear_weapon" title="Nuclear weapon">Weapon</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Topics</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/History_of_nuclear_weapons" title="History of nuclear weapons">History</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_weapon_design" title="Nuclear weapon design">Design</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_warfare" title="Nuclear warfare">War</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_arms_race" title="Nuclear arms race">Race</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_explosion" title="Nuclear explosion">Explosion</a> <small>(<a href="/Effects_of_nuclear_explosions" title="Effects of nuclear explosions">effects</a>)</small> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_testing" title="Nuclear testing" class="mw-redirect">Test</a> <small>(<a href="/Underground_nuclear_testing" title="Underground nuclear testing">underground</a>)</small> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_weapons_delivery" title="Nuclear weapons delivery">Delivery</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_proliferation" title="Nuclear proliferation">Proliferation</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_weapon_yield" title="Nuclear weapon yield">Yield</a> <small>(<a href="/TNT_equivalent" title="TNT equivalent">TNTe</a>)</small></span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Lists</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/List_of_states_with_nuclear_weapons" title="List of states with nuclear weapons">States</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/List_of_nuclear_tests" title="List of nuclear tests">Tests</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/List_of_nuclear_weapons" title="List of nuclear weapons">Weapons</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear-Weapon-Free_Zone" title="Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone" class="mw-redirect">Free zones</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/List_of_weapons_of_mass_destruction_treaties" title="List of weapons of mass destruction treaties">Treaties</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_weapons_in_popular_culture" title="Nuclear weapons in popular culture">Pop culture</a></span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Radioactive_waste" title="Radioactive waste">Waste</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Products</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Fission_product" title="Fission product" class="mw-redirect">Fission</a> <small>(<a href="/Long-lived_fission_product" title="Long-lived fission product">LLFP</a>)</small> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Activation_product" title="Activation product">Activation</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Actinide" title="Actinide">Actinide</a>: (<a href="/Reprocessed_uranium" title="Reprocessed uranium">Reprocessed uranium</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Reactor-grade_plutonium" title="Reactor-grade plutonium">Reactor-grade plutonium</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Minor_actinide" title="Minor actinide">Minor actinide</a>)</span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Disposal</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_fuel_cycle" title="Nuclear fuel cycle">Fuel cycle</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Spent_nuclear_fuel" title="Spent nuclear fuel">Spent fuel</a> <small>(<a href="/Spent_fuel_pool" title="Spent fuel pool">pool</a> •</small></span> <small><span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Dry_cask_storage" title="Dry cask storage">cask</a>)</span></small><span style="white-space:nowrap"> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/High_level_waste" title="High level waste">HLW</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Low_level_waste" title="Low level waste">LLW</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Deep_geological_repository" title="Deep geological repository">Repository</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_reprocessing" title="Nuclear reprocessing">Reprocessing</a> <strong>·</strong></span> <span style="white-space:nowrap"><a href="/Nuclear_transmutation" title="Nuclear transmutation">Transmutation</a></span></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Radiation" title="Radiation">Radiation</a> (Physics & Health)</span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;">Main articles</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Non-ionizing_radiation" title="Non-ionizing radiation">Non-ionizing radiation</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Ultraviolet_light" title="Ultraviolet light" class="mw-redirect">Ultraviolet light</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Near_ultraviolet" title="Near ultraviolet" class="mw-redirect">Near ultraviolet</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Visible_light" title="Visible light" class="mw-redirect">Visible light</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Infrared_light" title="Infrared light" class="mw-redirect">Infrared light</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Microwave" title="Microwave">Microwave</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Radio_waves" title="Radio waves">Radio waves</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Acoustic_Radiation" title="Acoustic Radiation" class="mw-redirect">Acoustic Radiation</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Ionizing_radiation" title="Ionizing radiation">Ionizing radiation</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><strong class="selflink">X-ray</strong><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Cosmic_ray" title="Cosmic ray">Cosmic radiation</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Gamma_ray" title="Gamma ray">Gamma ray</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Background_radiation" title="Background radiation">Background radiation</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nuclear_fission" title="Nuclear fission">Nuclear fission</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nuclear_fusion" title="Nuclear fusion">Nuclear fusion</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Particle_accelerator" title="Particle accelerator">Particle accelerators</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nuclear_radiation" title="Nuclear radiation" class="mw-redirect">Nuclear radiation</a> <small>(<a href="/Nuclear_weapons" title="Nuclear weapons" class="mw-redirect">nuclear weapons</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nuclear_reactor" title="Nuclear reactor" class="mw-redirect">Nuclear reactors</a>)</small><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Radionuclide" title="Radionuclide">Radioactive materials</a> <small>(<a href="/Radioactive_decay" title="Radioactive decay">Radioactive decay</a>)</small></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Thermal_radiation" title="Thermal radiation">Thermal radiation</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Electromagnetic_radiation" title="Electromagnetic radiation">Electromagnetic radiation</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Earth%27s_radiation_balance" title="Earth's radiation balance">Earth's radiation balance</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Electromagnetic_radiation_and_health" title="Electromagnetic radiation and health">Radiation health effects</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Radiation_therapy" title="Radiation therapy">Radiation therapy</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Radiation_poisoning" title="Radiation poisoning">Radiation poisoning</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Skin_effect" title="Skin effect">Skin effect</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Radioactivity_in_biological_research" title="Radioactivity in biological research">Radioactivity in biological research</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/List_of_civilian_radiation_accidents" title="List of civilian radiation accidents">List of civilian radiation accidents</a><br /> <a href="/Mobile_phone_radiation_and_health" title="Mobile phone radiation and health">Mobile phone radiation and health</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Wireless_electronic_devices_and_health" title="Wireless electronic devices and health">Wireless electronic devices and health</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Health_physics" title="Health physics">Health physics</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Laser_safety" title="Laser safety">Laser safety</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Lasers_and_aviation_safety" title="Lasers and aviation safety">Lasers and aviation safety</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;">Related articles</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Radiation_hardening" title="Radiation hardening">Radiation hardening</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Half-life" title="Half-life">Half-life</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Radiobiology" title="Radiobiology">Radiobiology</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nuclear_physics" title="Nuclear physics">Nuclear physics</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-abovebelow" style=";" colspan="2">See also: <a href="/Category:Radiation_effects" title="Category:Radiation effects">Category:Radiation effects</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Category:Radioactivity" title="Category:Radioactivity">Category:Radioactivity</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Category:Radiation_health_effects" title="Category:Radiation health effects">Category:Radiation health effects</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Category:Radiobiology" title="Category:Radiobiology">Category:Radiobiology</a></td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'> <div id="wikipedia_mw_normal_catlinks">Categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Radiography" title="Category:Radiography">Radiography</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:X-rays" title="Category:X-rays">X-rays</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Electromagnetic_spectrum" title="Category:Electromagnetic spectrum">Electromagnetic spectrum</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:IARC_Group_1_carcinogens" title="Category:IARC Group 1 carcinogens">IARC Group 1 carcinogens</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Medical_physics" title="Category:Medical physics">Medical physics</a></span></div> <div id="wikipedia_mw_hidden_catlinks" class="mw-hidden-cats-hidden">Hidden categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:All_articles_with_unsourced_statements" title="Category:All articles with unsourced statements">All articles with unsourced statements</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_with_unsourced_statements_from_December_2008" title="Category:Articles with unsourced statements from December 2008">Articles with unsourced statements from December 2008</a></span></div> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="wiktionary"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="wiktionary">Wiktionary</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of January 14, 2010</span> <br> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="citable_wikis_fragments"> <div id="wiktionary_bodyContent"> <h3 id="wiktionary_siteSub">Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary</h3> <table id="wiktionary_toc" class="toc"> <tr> <td> <div id="wiktionary_toctitle"> <h2>Contents</h2> </div> <ul> <li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#English"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">English</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-2"><a href="#Etymology"><span class="tocnumber">1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Etymology</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-3"><a href="#Pronunciation"><span class="tocnumber">1.2</span> <span class="toctext">Pronunciation</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#Noun"><span class="tocnumber">1.3</span> <span class="toctext">Noun</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-5"><a href="#Translations"><span class="tocnumber">1.3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Translations</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-6"><a href="#Synonyms"><span class="tocnumber">1.3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Synonyms</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-7"><a href="#Derived_terms"><span class="tocnumber">1.3.3</span> <span class="toctext">Derived terms</span></a></li> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-8"><a href="#Related_terms"><span class="tocnumber">1.3.4</span> <span class="toctext">Related terms</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#Verb"><span class="tocnumber">1.4</span> <span class="toctext">Verb</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-10"><a href="#Translations_2"><span class="tocnumber">1.4.1</span> <span class="toctext">Translations</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Adjective"><span class="tocnumber">1.5</span> <span class="toctext">Adjective</span></a> <ul> <li class="toclevel-3 tocsection-12"><a href="#Translations_3"><span class="tocnumber">1.5.1</span> <span class="toctext">Translations</span></a></li> </ul> </li> <li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">1.6</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> <script type="text/javascript"> //<![CDATA[ if (window.showTocToggle) { var tocShowText = "show"; var tocHideText = "hide"; showTocToggle(); } //]]> </script> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_English">English</span></h2> <div class="sister-wikipedia sister-project noprint floatright" style="border: solid #aaa 1px; font-size: 90%; background: #f9f9f9; width: 250px; padding: 4px; text-align: left;"> <div style="float: left;"> <div class="floatnone"><img alt="Wikipedia-logo.png" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/00/3/3/3/17390162291655514.png" width="44" height="44" /></div> </div> <div style="margin-left: 60px;"><a href="/Wikipedia" title="Wikipedia">Wikipedia</a> has an article on: <div style="margin-left: 10px;"><strong lang="en" xml:lang="en"><a href="/X-ray#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:X-ray">X-ray</a></strong></div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span class="interProject"><a href="/X-ray#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:X-ray">Wikipedia</a></span></div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Etymology">Etymology</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__85" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="85">Transliteration of <a href="/German_language#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:German language">German</a> <span class="mention-Latn" lang="de" xml:lang="de">X-Strahl</span>, coined by <a href="/Wilhelm_Conrad_R%C3%B6ntgen#wikipedia" class="extiw" title="w:Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen">Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen</a> upon his discovery of the rays in 1895, <span class="mention-Latn"><a href="/x" title="x">x</a></span> signifying their <a href="/unknown" title="unknown">unknown</a> nature.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered x-rays in 1895.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Chest X-ray - Medpedia</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://wiki.medpedia.com/Chest_X-ray">wiki.medpedia.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays in 1895.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> X-ray – FREE X-ray information | Encyclopedia.com: Find X-ray research</c_title></em> <c_date>17 September 2009 2:33 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-Xray.html">www.encyclopedia.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="85"><a href="#citable__85"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Early X-ray photograph by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, c.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>X-ray (radiation beam) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/650351/X-ray">www.britannica.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Pronunciation">Pronunciation</span></h3> <ul> <li><span class="unicode audiolink"> <a href="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/En-us-X-ray.ogg" class="internal" title="en-us-X-ray.ogg">Audio (US)</a></span><sup>help, file</sup></li> </ul> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Noun">Noun</span></h3> <div class="infl-table"> <table border="0" width="100%"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="49%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Singular<br /> <strong><a href="/X" title="X">X</a>-<a href="/ray" title="ray">ray</a></strong></div> </td> <td width="0.5%"></td> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="49%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Plural<br /> <span class="form-of plural-form-of lang-en"><strong><a href="/X-rays" title="X-rays">X-rays</a></strong></span></div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span class="infl-inline"><strong><a href="/X" title="X">X</a>-<a href="/ray" title="ray">ray</a></strong> (<em>plural</em> <span class="form-of plural-form-of lang-en"><strong><a href="/X-rays" title="X-rays">X-rays</a></strong></span>)</span></div> <a name="citable__229" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="229"><ol> <li>Short <a href="/wavelength" title="wavelength">wavelength</a> <a href="/electromagnetic" title="electromagnetic">electromagnetic</a> <a href="/radiation" title="radiation">radiation</a> usually produced by <a href="/bombard" title="bombard">bombarding</a> a metal target in a vacuum.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="229"><a href="#citable__229"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Short wavelength electromagnetic radiation usually produced by bombarding a metal target in a vacuum.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Definition of X-ray</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.allwords.com/query.php?SearchType=3&Keyword=X-ray&goquery=Find+it%21&Language=ENG">www.allwords.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="229"><a href="#citable__229"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Source of coherent short wavelength radiation .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pulse forming x-ray laser (US6026099)</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.delphion.com/details?&pn=US06026099__">www.delphion.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="229"><a href="#citable__229"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>X-Ray , penetrating electromagnetic radiation, having a shorter wavelength than light, and produced by bombarding a target, usually made of tungsten,...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>X-Ray - Search Results - ninemsn Encarta</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 13:11 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://au.encarta.msn.com/X-Ray.html">au.encarta.msn.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__385" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="385">Used to create <a href="/image" title="image">images</a> of the <a href="/internal" title="internal">internal</a> structure of objects; this is possible because X-rays pass through most objects and can <a href="/expose" title="expose">expose</a> <a href="/photographic" title="photographic">photographic</a> <a href="/film" title="film">film</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="385"><a href="#citable__385"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The possible diagnostic uses of the x-ray were astounding.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>"Roland W. Clements X-Ray Tube Collection Exhibit"</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://hml.org/mmhc/exhibits/xraytubes/xray.html">hml.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="385"><a href="#citable__385"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Used to create images of the internal structure of objects; this is possible because X-rays pass through most objects and can expose photographic film.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Definition of X-ray</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.allwords.com/query.php?SearchType=3&Keyword=X-ray&goquery=Find+it%21&Language=ENG">www.allwords.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="385"><a href="#citable__385"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>X ray: Applications of X Rays - Applications of X Rays Most applications of X rays are based on their ability to pass through ...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/sci/A0852903.html</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/sci/A0852903.html">www.factmonster.com</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <dl> <dd><em><strong>X-rays</strong> are light with a wavelength between 0.1 and 10 nm.</em></dd> <a name="citable__98" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="98"></dl> </li> <li>A <a href="/radiograph" title="radiograph">radiograph</a>: a <a href="/photograph" title="photograph">photograph</a> made with X-rays.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Photographs made with X rays are known as radiographs or skiagraphs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> X ray Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about X ray</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/X_ray.aspx">www.encyclopedia.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A photograph made with X-rays.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Definition of X-ray</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.allwords.com/query.php?SearchType=3&Keyword=X-ray&goquery=Find+it%21&Language=ENG">www.allwords.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Within months of their discovery, X-rays became indispensable in orthopedic and dental medicine to develop the X-ray photographs ( radiographs ) of the human body's interior.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Light - X-Rays</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 13:013 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://library.thinkquest.org/C006027/html-ver/es-xrays.html">library.thinkquest.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <dl> <dd><em>"The doctor ordered some <strong>X-rays</strong> of my injured wrist."</em></dd> </dl> </li> <li>An X-ray <a href="/machine" title="machine">machine</a>.</li> <li>The letter <em>X</em> in the <a href="/ICAO_spelling_alphabet" title="ICAO spelling alphabet">ICAO spelling alphabet</a>.</li> </ol> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Translations">Translations</span></h4> <div class="NavFrame"> <div class="NavHead" align="left">short wavelength electromagnetic radiation</div> <div class="NavContent"> <table border="0" width="100%" class="translations"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" width="48%" align="left"> <ul> <li>Arabic: <span class="Arab" dir="rtl">أشعة إكس</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ar.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D8%A3%D8%B4%D8%B9%D8%A9_%D8%A5%D9%83%D8%B3" class="extiw" title="ar:أشعة إكس"><span class="tlc">ar</span><span class="tlcp">(ar)</span></a></span> ('ashi33at 'eks) <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span> <span class="number p" title="plural number"><em>pl<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span>, <span class="Arab" dir="rtl">أشعة سينية</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ar.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D8%A3%D8%B4%D8%B9%D8%A9_%D8%B3%D9%8A%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A9" class="extiw" title="ar:أشعة سينية"><span class="tlc">ar</span><span class="tlcp">(ar)</span></a></span> ('ashi33a siniyya) <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span> <span class="number p" title="plural number"><em>pl<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li><a href="/Catalan" title="Catalan">Catalan</a>: <span lang="ca" xml:lang="ca">raig X</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ca.wiktionary.org/wiki/raig_X" class="extiw" title="ca:raig X"><span class="tlc">ca</span><span class="tlcp">(ca)</span></a></span> <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Chinese: <dl> <dd>Mandarin: <span class="Hani" lang="cmn-Hani" xml:lang="cmn-Hani">艾克斯射線</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://zh.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E8%89%BE%E5%85%8B%E6%96%AF%E5%B0%84%E7%B7%9A" class="extiw" title="zh:艾克斯射線"><span class="tlc">cmn</span><span class="tlcp">(cmn)</span></a></span>, <span class="Hani" lang="cmn-Hani" xml:lang="cmn-Hani">艾克斯射线</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://zh.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E8%89%BE%E5%85%8B%E6%96%AF%E5%B0%84%E7%BA%BF" class="extiw" title="zh:艾克斯射线"><span class="tlc">cmn</span><span class="tlcp">(cmn)</span></a></span> (àikèsī-shèxiàn), <span class="Hani" lang="cmn-Hani" xml:lang="cmn-Hani">愛克斯射線</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://zh.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E6%84%9B%E5%85%8B%E6%96%AF%E5%B0%84%E7%B7%9A" class="extiw" title="zh:愛克斯射線"><span class="tlc">cmn</span><span class="tlcp">(cmn)</span></a></span>, <span class="Hani" lang="cmn-Hani" xml:lang="cmn-Hani">爱克斯射线</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://zh.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E7%88%B1%E5%85%8B%E6%96%AF%E5%B0%84%E7%BA%BF" class="extiw" title="zh:爱克斯射线"><span class="tlc">cmn</span><span class="tlcp">(cmn)</span></a></span> (àikèsī-shèxiàn), <span class="Hani" lang="cmn-Hani" xml:lang="cmn-Hani">X射線</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://zh.wiktionary.org/wiki/X%E5%B0%84%E7%B7%9A" class="extiw" title="zh:X射線"><span class="tlc">cmn</span><span class="tlcp">(cmn)</span></a></span>, <span class="Hani" lang="cmn-Hani" xml:lang="cmn-Hani">X射线</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://zh.wiktionary.org/wiki/X%E5%B0%84%E7%BA%BF" class="extiw" title="zh:X射线"><span class="tlc">cmn</span><span class="tlcp">(cmn)</span></a></span> (eks-shèxiàn), <span class="Hani" lang="cmn-Hani" xml:lang="cmn-Hani">X光</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://zh.wiktionary.org/wiki/X%E5%85%89" class="extiw" title="zh:X光"><span class="tlc">cmn</span><span class="tlcp">(cmn)</span></a></span> (eks-guāng)</dd> </dl> </li> <li>Czech: <a href="/rentgen" title="rentgen"><span lang="cs" xml:lang="cs">rentgen</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://cs.wiktionary.org/wiki/rentgen" class="extiw" title="cs:rentgen"><span class="tlc">cs</span><span class="tlcp">(cs)</span></a></span> <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Danish: <span lang="da" xml:lang="da">røntgenstråling</span><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://da.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B8ntgenstr%C3%A5ling" class="extiw" title="da:røntgenstråling"><span class="tlc">da</span><span class="tlcp">(da)</span></a></span></li> <li>Dutch: röntgenstraal <span class="gender f" title="feminine gender"><em>f<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Finnish: <a href="/r%C3%B6ntgens%C3%A4teily" title="röntgensäteily"><span lang="fi" xml:lang="fi">röntgensäteily</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://fi.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgens%C3%A4teily" class="extiw" title="fi:röntgensäteily"><span class="tlc">fi</span><span class="tlcp">(fi)</span></a></span></li> <li>French: <a href="/rayon_X" title="rayon X"><span lang="fr" xml:lang="fr">rayon X</span></a><span class="tpos"> <a href="http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/rayon_X" class="extiw" title="fr:rayon X"><span class="tlc">fr</span><span class="tlcp">(fr)</span></a></span> <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span>, <span lang="fr" xml:lang="fr">rayon Röntgen</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/rayon_R%C3%B6ntgen" class="extiw" title="fr:rayon Röntgen"><span class="tlc">fr</span><span class="tlcp">(fr)</span></a></span> <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> </ul> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" align="left" width="48%"> <ul> <li>German: <span lang="de" xml:lang="de">Röntgenstrahl</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://de.wiktionary.org/wiki/R%C3%B6ntgenstrahl" class="extiw" title="de:Röntgenstrahl"><span class="tlc">de</span><span class="tlcp">(de)</span></a></span> <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Hebrew: <span class="Hebr" dir="rtl">קרני רנטגן</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://he.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D7%A7%D7%A8%D7%A0%D7%99_%D7%A8%D7%A0%D7%98%D7%92%D7%9F" class="extiw" title="he:קרני רנטגן"><span class="tlc">he</span><span class="tlcp">(he)</span></a></span> (qārney rentgen)</li> <li>Hungarian: <span lang="hu" xml:lang="hu">röntgensugárzás</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://hu.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgensug%C3%A1rz%C3%A1s" class="extiw" title="hu:röntgensugárzás"><span class="tlc">hu</span><span class="tlcp">(hu)</span></a></span></li> <li>Indonesian: <span lang="id" xml:lang="id">ronsen</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://id.wiktionary.org/wiki/ronsen" class="extiw" title="id:ronsen"><span class="tlc">id</span><span class="tlcp">(id)</span></a></span>, <span lang="id" xml:lang="id">rontgen</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://id.wiktionary.org/wiki/rontgen" class="extiw" title="id:rontgen"><span class="tlc">id</span><span class="tlcp">(id)</span></a></span></li> <li><a href="/Interlingua" title="Interlingua">Interlingua</a>: <span lang="ia" xml:lang="ia">rayos röntgen</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ia.wiktionary.org/wiki/rayos_r%C3%B6ntgen" class="extiw" title="ia:rayos röntgen"><span class="tlc">ia</span><span class="tlcp">(ia)</span></a></span></li> <li>Japanese: <span class="Jpan JA" lang="ja" xml:lang="ja">X線</span><span class="tpos"> <a href="http://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/X%E7%B7%9A" class="extiw" title="ja:X線"><span class="tlc">ja</span><span class="tlcp">(ja)</span></a></span> (ekkusu-sen), <span class="Jpan JA" lang="ja" xml:lang="ja">エックス線</span><span class="tpos"> <a href="http://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E3%82%A8%E3%83%83%E3%82%AF%E3%82%B9%E7%B7%9A" class="extiw" title="ja:エックス線"><span class="tlc">ja</span><span class="tlcp">(ja)</span></a></span> (ekkusu-sen), <span class="Jpan JA" lang="ja" xml:lang="ja">レントゲン</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E3%83%AC%E3%83%B3%E3%83%88%E3%82%B2%E3%83%B3" class="extiw" title="ja:レントゲン"><span class="tlc">ja</span><span class="tlcp">(ja)</span></a></span> (rentogen)</li> <li>Russian: <span class="Cyrl">рентгеновский луч</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B3%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%BB%D1%83%D1%87" class="extiw" title="ru:рентгеновский луч"><span class="tlc">ru</span><span class="tlcp">(ru)</span></a></span> (rentgénovskij luč) <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span>, <span class="Cyrl">рентген</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B3%D0%B5%D0%BD" class="extiw" title="ru:рентген"><span class="tlc">ru</span><span class="tlcp">(ru)</span></a></span> (rentgén) <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Spanish: <a href="/rayo_X" title="rayo X"><span lang="es" xml:lang="es">rayo X</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://es.wiktionary.org/wiki/rayo_X" class="extiw" title="es:rayo X"><span class="tlc">es</span><span class="tlcp">(es)</span></a></span> <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Swedish: <span lang="sv" xml:lang="sv">röntgenstråle</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://sv.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgenstr%C3%A5le" class="extiw" title="sv:röntgenstråle"><span class="tlc">sv</span><span class="tlcp">(sv)</span></a></span> <span class="gender c" title="common gender"><em>c<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li><a href="/Volap%C3%BCk" title="Volapük">Volapük</a>: <span lang="vo" xml:lang="vo">räyastrals</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://vo.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%A4yastrals" class="extiw" title="vo:räyastrals"><span class="tlc">vo</span><span class="tlcp">(vo)</span></a></span></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </div> <div class="NavFrame"> <div class="NavHead" align="left">photograph made with X-rays</div> <div class="NavContent"> <table border="0" width="100%" class="translations"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" width="48%" align="left"> <ul> <li><a href="/Catalan" title="Catalan">Catalan</a>: <a href="/radiografia" title="radiografia"><span lang="ca" xml:lang="ca">radiografia</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://ca.wiktionary.org/wiki/radiografia" class="extiw" title="ca:radiografia"><span class="tlc">ca</span><span class="tlcp">(ca)</span></a></span> <span class="gender f" title="feminine gender"><em>f<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Chinese: <dl> <dd>Mandarin: {{t|zh|X光照片|tr=eks-guāngzhàopiàn|sc=Hani}</dd> </dl> </li> <li>Czech: <a href="/RTG" title="RTG"><span lang="cs" xml:lang="cs">RTG</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://cs.wiktionary.org/wiki/RTG" class="extiw" title="cs:RTG"><span class="tlc">cs</span><span class="tlcp">(cs)</span></a></span> <span class="gender n" title="neuter gender"><em>n<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Danish: <span lang="da" xml:lang="da">røntgenbillede</span><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://da.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B8ntgenbillede" class="extiw" title="da:røntgenbillede"><span class="tlc">da</span><span class="tlcp">(da)</span></a></span> <span class="gender n" title="neuter gender"><em>n<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Dutch: <a href="/r%C3%B6ntgenfoto" title="röntgenfoto"><span lang="nl" xml:lang="nl">röntgenfoto</span></a><span class="tpos"> <a href="http://nl.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgenfoto" class="extiw" title="nl:röntgenfoto"><span class="tlc">nl</span><span class="tlcp">(nl)</span></a></span> <span class="gender f" title="feminine gender"><em>f<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Finnish: <a href="/r%C3%B6ntgenkuva" title="röntgenkuva"><span lang="fi" xml:lang="fi">röntgenkuva</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://fi.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgenkuva" class="extiw" title="fi:röntgenkuva"><span class="tlc">fi</span><span class="tlcp">(fi)</span></a></span></li> <li>French: <a href="/radiographie" title="radiographie"><span lang="fr" xml:lang="fr">radiographie</span></a><span class="tpos"> <a href="http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/radiographie" class="extiw" title="fr:radiographie"><span class="tlc">fr</span><span class="tlcp">(fr)</span></a></span> <span class="gender f" title="feminine gender"><em>f<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>German: <span lang="de" xml:lang="de">Röntgenbild</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://de.wiktionary.org/wiki/R%C3%B6ntgenbild" class="extiw" title="de:Röntgenbild"><span class="tlc">de</span><span class="tlcp">(de)</span></a></span> <span class="gender n" title="neuter gender"><em>n<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Hebrew: <span class="Hebr" dir="rtl">צילום רנטגן</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://he.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D7%A6%D7%99%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%9D_%D7%A8%D7%A0%D7%98%D7%92%D7%9F" class="extiw" title="he:צילום רנטגן"><span class="tlc">he</span><span class="tlcp">(he)</span></a></span> (tsilum rentgen) <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> </ul> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" align="left" width="48%"> <ul> <li>Hungarian: <a href="/r%C3%B6ntgen" title="röntgen"><span lang="hu" xml:lang="hu">röntgen</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://hu.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgen" class="extiw" title="hu:röntgen"><span class="tlc">hu</span><span class="tlcp">(hu)</span></a></span></li> <li>Indonesian: <span lang="id" xml:lang="id">sinar-X</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://id.wiktionary.org/wiki/sinar-X" class="extiw" title="id:sinar-X"><span class="tlc">id</span><span class="tlcp">(id)</span></a></span></li> <li><a href="/Interlingua" title="Interlingua">Interlingua</a>: <span lang="ia" xml:lang="ia">röntgenogramma</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ia.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgenogramma" class="extiw" title="ia:röntgenogramma"><span class="tlc">ia</span><span class="tlcp">(ia)</span></a></span></li> <li>Italian: <a href="/radiografia" title="radiografia"><span lang="it" xml:lang="it">radiografia</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/radiografia" class="extiw" title="it:radiografia"><span class="tlc">it</span><span class="tlcp">(it)</span></a></span> <span class="gender f" title="feminine gender"><em>f<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Japanese: <span class="Jpan JA" lang="ja" xml:lang="ja">レントゲン写真</span><span class="tpos"> <a href="http://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E3%83%AC%E3%83%B3%E3%83%88%E3%82%B2%E3%83%B3%E5%86%99%E7%9C%9F" class="extiw" title="ja:レントゲン写真"><span class="tlc">ja</span><span class="tlcp">(ja)</span></a></span> (rentogen-shashin)</li> <li>Russian: <span class="Cyrl">рентген</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B3%D0%B5%D0%BD" class="extiw" title="ru:рентген"><span class="tlc">ru</span><span class="tlcp">(ru)</span></a></span> (rentgén) <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span>, <span class="Cyrl">рентгенограмма</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B3%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%BC%D0%B0" class="extiw" title="ru:рентгенограмма"><span class="tlc">ru</span><span class="tlcp">(ru)</span></a></span> (rentgenográmma) <span class="gender f" title="feminine gender"><em>f<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Spanish: <a href="/radiograf%C3%ADa" title="radiografía"><span lang="es" xml:lang="es">radiografía</span></a><span class="tpos"> <a href="http://es.wiktionary.org/wiki/radiograf%C3%ADa" class="extiw" title="es:radiografía"><span class="tlc">es</span><span class="tlcp">(es)</span></a></span> <span class="gender f" title="feminine gender"><em>f<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Swedish: <span lang="sv" xml:lang="sv">röntgenbild</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://sv.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgenbild" class="extiw" title="sv:röntgenbild"><span class="tlc">sv</span><span class="tlcp">(sv)</span></a></span> <span class="gender c" title="common gender"><em>c<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li><a href="/Volap%C3%BCk" title="Volapük">Volapük</a>: <span lang="vo" xml:lang="vo">räyöf</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://vo.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%A4y%C3%B6f" class="extiw" title="vo:räyöf"><span class="tlc">vo</span><span class="tlcp">(vo)</span></a></span></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </div> <div class="NavFrame"> <div class="NavHead" align="left">X-ray machine</div> <div class="NavContent"> <table border="0" width="100%" class="translations"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" width="48%" align="left"> <ul> <li>Czech: <a href="/rentgen" title="rentgen"><span lang="cs" xml:lang="cs">rentgen</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://cs.wiktionary.org/wiki/rentgen" class="extiw" title="cs:rentgen"><span class="tlc">cs</span><span class="tlcp">(cs)</span></a></span> <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Dutch: <a href="/r%C3%B6ntgenapparaat" title="röntgenapparaat"><span lang="nl" xml:lang="nl">röntgenapparaat</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://nl.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgenapparaat" class="extiw" title="nl:röntgenapparaat"><span class="tlc">nl</span><span class="tlcp">(nl)</span></a></span> <span class="gender n" title="neuter gender"><em>n<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Finnish: <span lang="fi" xml:lang="fi">röntgenlaite</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://fi.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgenlaite" class="extiw" title="fi:röntgenlaite"><span class="tlc">fi</span><span class="tlcp">(fi)</span></a></span></li> <li>German: <span lang="de" xml:lang="de">Röntgenapparat</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://de.wiktionary.org/wiki/R%C3%B6ntgenapparat" class="extiw" title="de:Röntgenapparat"><span class="tlc">de</span><span class="tlcp">(de)</span></a></span> <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Hebrew: <span class="Hebr" dir="rtl">מכונת רנטגן</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://he.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D7%9E%D7%9B%D7%95%D7%A0%D7%AA_%D7%A8%D7%A0%D7%98%D7%92%D7%9F" class="extiw" title="he:מכונת רנטגן"><span class="tlc">he</span><span class="tlcp">(he)</span></a></span> (meḥonāt rentgen) <span class="gender f" title="feminine gender"><em>f<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Hungarian: <span lang="hu" xml:lang="hu">röntgenberendezés</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://hu.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgenberendez%C3%A9s" class="extiw" title="hu:röntgenberendezés"><span class="tlc">hu</span><span class="tlcp">(hu)</span></a></span></li> </ul> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" align="left" width="48%"> <ul> <li>Japanese: <span class="Jpan JA" lang="ja" xml:lang="ja">レントゲン撮影装置</span><span class="tpos"> <a href="http://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E3%83%AC%E3%83%B3%E3%83%88%E3%82%B2%E3%83%B3%E6%92%AE%E5%BD%B1%E8%A3%85%E7%BD%AE" class="extiw" title="ja:レントゲン撮影装置"><span class="tlc">ja</span><span class="tlcp">(ja)</span></a></span> (rentogen-satsueisochi), <span class="Jpan JA" lang="ja" xml:lang="ja">エックス線撮影装置</span><span class="tpos"> <a href="http://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E3%82%A8%E3%83%83%E3%82%AF%E3%82%B9%E7%B7%9A%E6%92%AE%E5%BD%B1%E8%A3%85%E7%BD%AE" class="extiw" title="ja:エックス線撮影装置"><span class="tlc">ja</span><span class="tlcp">(ja)</span></a></span> (ekkusu-sensatsueisōchi)</li> <li>Navajo: <span lang="nv" xml:lang="nv">beeʼaghádaʼdildlaadí</span></li> <li>Russian: <span class="Cyrl">рентген</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B3%D0%B5%D0%BD" class="extiw" title="ru:рентген"><span class="tlc">ru</span><span class="tlcp">(ru)</span></a></span> (rentgén) <span class="gender m" title="masculine gender"><em>m<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li>Swedish: <span lang="sv" xml:lang="sv">röntgenapparat</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://sv.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgenapparat" class="extiw" title="sv:röntgenapparat"><span class="tlc">sv</span><span class="tlcp">(sv)</span></a></span> <span class="gender c" title="common gender"><em>c<span class="gender-period">.</span></em></span></li> <li><a href="/Volap%C3%BCk" title="Volapük">Volapük</a>: <span lang="vo" xml:lang="vo">räyöm</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://vo.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%A4y%C3%B6m" class="extiw" title="vo:räyöm"><span class="tlc">vo</span><span class="tlcp">(vo)</span></a></span></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </div> <div class="NavFrame"> <div class="NavHead" align="left">the letter "X" in ICAO spelling alphabet</div> <div class="NavContent"> <table border="0" width="100%" class="translations"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" width="48%" align="left"> <ul> <li>Estonian: <span lang="et" xml:lang="et">Iks</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://et.wiktionary.org/wiki/Iks" class="extiw" title="et:Iks"><span class="tlc">et</span><span class="tlcp">(et)</span></a></span></li> </ul> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" align="left" width="48%"> <ul> <li>Finnish: <a href="/%C3%A4ks%C3%A4" title="äksä"><span lang="fi" xml:lang="fi">äksä</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://fi.wiktionary.org/wiki/%C3%A4ks%C3%A4" class="extiw" title="fi:äksä"><span class="tlc">fi</span><span class="tlcp">(fi)</span></a></span></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </div> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Synonyms">Synonyms</span></h4> <ul> <li><span class="ib-brac"><span class="qualifier-brac">(</span></span><span class="ib-content"><span class="qualifier-content">radiation</span></span><span class="ib-brac"><span class="qualifier-brac">)</span></span><span class="ib-colon"><span class="sense-qualifier-colon">:</span></span> Röntgen radiation / Rontgen radiation / Roentgen radiation</li> <li><span class="ib-brac"><span class="qualifier-brac">(</span></span><span class="ib-content"><span class="qualifier-content">radiation</span></span><span class="ib-brac"><span class="qualifier-brac">)</span></span><span class="ib-colon"><span class="sense-qualifier-colon">:</span></span> Röntgen rays / Rontgen rays / Roentgen rays</li> <li><span class="ib-brac"><span class="qualifier-brac">(</span></span><span class="ib-content"><span class="qualifier-content">radiation</span></span><span class="ib-brac"><span class="qualifier-brac">)</span></span><span class="ib-colon"><span class="sense-qualifier-colon">:</span></span> <a href="/X-ray_radiation" title="X-ray radiation">X-ray radiation</a></li> </ul> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Derived_terms">Derived terms</span></h4> <ul> <li><a href="/X-ray_astronomy" title="X-ray astronomy">X-ray astronomy</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_crystallography" title="X-ray crystallography">X-ray crystallography</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_diffraction" title="X-ray diffraction">X-ray diffraction</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_fluorescence" title="X-ray fluorescence">X-ray fluorescence</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_microscope" title="X-ray microscope">X-ray microscope</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_spectrometry" title="X-ray spectrometry" class="mw-redirect">X-ray spectrometry</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_telescope" title="X-ray telescope">X-ray telescope</a></li> <li><a href="/X-ray_tube" title="X-ray tube">X-ray tube</a></li> <li><a href="/soft_X-ray" title="soft X-ray">soft X-ray</a></li> <li>hard X-ray</li> </ul> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Related_terms">Related terms</span></h4> <ul> <li><a href="/T-ray" title="T-ray">T-ray</a></li> <li><a href="/gamma_ray" title="gamma ray">gamma ray</a></li> </ul> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Verb">Verb</span></h3> <div class="infl-table"> <table border="0" width="100%"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="19%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Infinitive<br /> <strong>to X-ray</strong></div> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="20%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Third person singular<br /> <strong><a href="/X-rays" title="X-rays">X-rays</a></strong></div> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="19%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Simple past<br /> <strong><a href="/X-rayed" title="X-rayed">X-rayed</a></strong></div> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="19%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Past participle<br /> <strong><a href="/X-rayed" title="X-rayed">X-rayed</a></strong></div> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="19%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Present participle<br /> <strong><a href="/X-raying" title="X-raying">X-raying</a></strong></div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span class="infl-inline"><strong>to X-ray</strong> (<em>third-person singular simple present</em> <span class="form-of third-person-singular-form-of"><strong><a href="/X-rays" title="X-rays">X-rays</a></strong></span>, <em>present participle</em> <span class="form-of present-participle-form-of"><strong><a href="/X-raying" title="X-raying">X-raying</a></strong></span>, <em>simple past and past participle</em> <span class="form-of simple-past-and-participle-form-of"><strong><a href="/X-rayed" title="X-rayed">X-rayed</a></strong></span>)</span></div> <a name="citable__201" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="201"><ol> <li><span class="ib-brac"><span class="qualifier-brac">(</span></span><span class="ib-content"><span class="qualifier-content">transitive<span class="ib-comma"><span class="qualifier-comma">,</span></span> <a href="/Appendix:Glossary" title="Appendix:Glossary">informal</a></span></span><span class="ib-brac"><span class="qualifier-brac">)</span></span> To take a <a href="/radiograph" title="radiograph">radiograph</a> of; to obtain an image of using X-ray <a href="/radiation" title="radiation">radiation</a>, <em>especially</em> for the purpose of <a href="/medical" title="medical">medical</a> <a href="/diagnostic" title="diagnostic">diagnostic</a> <a href="/evaluation" title="evaluation">evaluation</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="201"><a href="#citable__201"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because x-rays are used to obtain the IVPs, radiation exposure is a risk.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Diagnostic Imaging Associates - General X-Ray</c_title></em> <c_date>17 September 2009 2:33 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.diaxray.com/general-xray.html">www.diaxray.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="201"><a href="#citable__201"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The X-rays use small amounts of radiation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Dental X-rays - Yahoo! Health</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 13:013 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://health.yahoo.com/oralcare-overview/dental-x-rays/healthwise--hw211991.html">health.yahoo.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="201"><a href="#citable__201"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The possible diagnostic uses of the x-ray were astounding.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>"Roland W. Clements X-Ray Tube Collection Exhibit"</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://hml.org/mmhc/exhibits/xraytubes/xray.html">hml.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <dl> <dd><em><a name="citable__342" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="342">Of course there was nothing wrong with my left wrist.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="342"><a href="#citable__342"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There is nothing wrong with eating meat.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Jennifer Marohasy » Reject ‘Steve Irwin’: Whalers Plea to Australian Government</c_title></em> <c_date>3 February 2010 18:10 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jennifermarohasy.com/blog/2009/01/reject-steve-irwin-whalers-plea-to-australian-government/">jennifermarohasy.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="342"><a href="#citable__342"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Of course there were plenty of detours through other decades along the way, but you get my drift.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>X-Ray Records - Regina's Indie Music Source</c_title></em> <c_date>14 January 2010 3:03 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://xrayrecords.ca/">xrayrecords.ca</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="342"><a href="#citable__342"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There is nothing wrong with taking Minke whales in a managed fishery in order to obtain whale meat and other products, just as there is nothing wrong in harvesting any other fishery sustainably….</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Jennifer Marohasy » Reject ‘Steve Irwin’: Whalers Plea to Australian Government</c_title></em> <c_date>3 February 2010 18:10 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jennifermarohasy.com/blog/2009/01/reject-steve-irwin-whalers-plea-to-australian-government/">jennifermarohasy.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> They <strong>X-rayed</strong> the wrong arm!</em></dd> </dl> </li> </ol> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Translations_2">Translations</span></h4> <div class="NavFrame"> <div class="NavHead" align="left">to take a radiograph of</div> <div class="NavContent"> <table border="0" width="100%" class="translations"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" width="48%" align="left"> <ul> <li>Dutch: <span lang="nl" xml:lang="nl">doorlichten</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://nl.wiktionary.org/wiki/doorlichten" class="extiw" title="nl:doorlichten"><span class="tlc">nl</span><span class="tlcp">(nl)</span></a></span>, <a href="/bestralen" title="bestralen"><span lang="nl" xml:lang="nl">bestralen</span></a><span class="tpos"> <a href="http://nl.wiktionary.org/wiki/bestralen" class="extiw" title="nl:bestralen"><span class="tlc">nl</span><span class="tlcp">(nl)</span></a></span>, <span lang="nl" xml:lang="nl">röntgenen</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://nl.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgenen" class="extiw" title="nl:röntgenen"><span class="tlc">nl</span><span class="tlcp">(nl)</span></a></span>, <span lang="nl" xml:lang="nl">met röntgenstralen onderzoeken</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://nl.wiktionary.org/wiki/met_r%C3%B6ntgenstralen_onderzoeken" class="extiw" title="nl:met röntgenstralen onderzoeken"><span class="tlc">nl</span><span class="tlcp">(nl)</span></a></span></li> <li>Finnish: <span lang="fi" xml:lang="fi">ottaa röntgenkuva</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://fi.wiktionary.org/wiki/ottaa_r%C3%B6ntgenkuva" class="extiw" title="fi:ottaa röntgenkuva"><span class="tlc">fi</span><span class="tlcp">(fi)</span></a></span>, <span lang="fi" xml:lang="fi">röntgenkuvata</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://fi.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgenkuvata" class="extiw" title="fi:röntgenkuvata"><span class="tlc">fi</span><span class="tlcp">(fi)</span></a></span></li> <li>French: <a href="/radiographier" title="radiographier"><span lang="fr" xml:lang="fr">radiographier</span></a><span class="tpos"> <a href="http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/radiographier" class="extiw" title="fr:radiographier"><span class="tlc">fr</span><span class="tlcp">(fr)</span></a></span>, <span lang="fr" xml:lang="fr">soumettre à un examen radiographique</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/soumettre_%C3%A0_un_examen_radiographique" class="extiw" title="fr:soumettre à un examen radiographique"><span class="tlc">fr</span><span class="tlcp">(fr)</span></a></span></li> <li>German: <a href="/r%C3%B6ntgen" title="röntgen"><span lang="de" xml:lang="de">röntgen</span></a><span class="tpos"> <a href="http://de.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgen" class="extiw" title="de:röntgen"><span class="tlc">de</span><span class="tlcp">(de)</span></a></span></li> <li>Hungarian: <span lang="hu" xml:lang="hu">röntgenez</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://hu.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgenez" class="extiw" title="hu:röntgenez"><span class="tlc">hu</span><span class="tlcp">(hu)</span></a></span></li> </ul> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" align="left" width="48%"> <ul> <li>Italian: <a href="/radiografare" title="radiografare"><span lang="it" xml:lang="it">radiografare</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/radiografare" class="extiw" title="it:radiografare"><span class="tlc">it</span><span class="tlcp">(it)</span></a></span></li> <li>Japanese: <span class="Jpan JA" lang="ja" xml:lang="ja">レントゲンを撮る</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E3%83%AC%E3%83%B3%E3%83%88%E3%82%B2%E3%83%B3%E3%82%92%E6%92%AE%E3%82%8B" class="extiw" title="ja:レントゲンを撮る"><span class="tlc">ja</span><span class="tlcp">(ja)</span></a></span> (rentogen wo toru)</li> <li>Russian: <span class="Cyrl">просвечивать</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%87%D0%B8%D0%B2%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C" class="extiw" title="ru:просвечивать"><span class="tlc">ru</span><span class="tlcp">(ru)</span></a></span> (prosv'éčivat')/<span class="Cyrl">просветить</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%B8%D1%82%D1%8C" class="extiw" title="ru:просветить"><span class="tlc">ru</span><span class="tlcp">(ru)</span></a></span> (prosv'etít')</li> <li>Spanish: <a href="/radiografiar" title="radiografiar"><span lang="es" xml:lang="es">radiografiar</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://es.wiktionary.org/wiki/radiografiar" class="extiw" title="es:radiografiar"><span class="tlc">es</span><span class="tlcp">(es)</span></a></span></li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Adjective">Adjective</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span class="infl-inline"><strong>X-ray</strong> (<em>not <a href="/Appendix:Glossary" title="Appendix:Glossary">comparable</a></em>)</span></div> <div class="infl-table"> <table border="0" width="100%"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="33%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Positive<br /> <strong>X-ray</strong></div> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="33%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/Appendix:Glossary" title="Appendix:Glossary">Comparative</a><br /> <em>not <a href="/Appendix:Glossary" title="Appendix:Glossary">comparable</a></em></div> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#F8F8FF" valign="top" width="33%"> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/Appendix:Glossary" title="Appendix:Glossary">Superlative</a><br /> <em>none (<a href="/absolute" title="absolute">absolute</a>)</em></div> </td> </tr> </table> </div> <ol> <li>Of or having to do with x-rays. <dl> <dd><em>I had to put my bags through an <strong>X-ray</strong> scanner at the airport.</em></dd> </dl> </li> </ol> <h4><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_Translations_3">Translations</span></h4> <div class="NavFrame"> <div class="NavHead" align="left">of or having to do with x-rays</div> <div class="NavContent"> <table border="0" width="100%" class="translations"> <tr> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" width="48%" align="left"> <ul> <li>Hungarian: <a href="/r%C3%B6ntgen" title="röntgen"><span lang="hu" xml:lang="hu">röntgen</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://hu.wiktionary.org/wiki/r%C3%B6ntgen" class="extiw" title="hu:röntgen"><span class="tlc">hu</span><span class="tlcp">(hu)</span></a></span></li> <li>Italian: <a href="/radiografico" title="radiografico"><span lang="it" xml:lang="it">radiografico</span></a><span class="tneg"> <a href="http://it.wiktionary.org/wiki/radiografico" class="extiw" title="it:radiografico"><span class="tlc">it</span><span class="tlcp">(it)</span></a></span></li> </ul> </td> <td width="1%"></td> <td bgcolor="#FFFFE0" valign="top" align="left" width="48%"> <ul> <li>Russian: <span class="Cyrl">рентгеновский</span><span class="tunk"> <a href="http://ru.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%B3%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9" class="extiw" title="ru:рентгеновский"><span class="tlc">ru</span><span class="tlcp">(ru)</span></a></span> (r'entg'énovskij)</li> </ul> </td> </tr> </table> </div> </div> <h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wiktionary_External_links">External links</span></h3> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.onlinetelemedicine.com/html/product/sam_images/X-Ray.jpg" class="external text" rel="nofollow">A picture of an X-ray photograph.</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.iuk.edu/~koalhe/img/Equipment/xray.jpg" class="external text" rel="nofollow">A picture of an X-ray machine</a></li> </ul> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'> <div id="wiktionary_mw_normal_catlinks">Categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:German_derivations" title="Category:German derivations">German derivations</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:English_nouns" title="Category:English nouns">English nouns</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:English_verbs" title="Category:English verbs">English verbs</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Informal" title="Category:Informal">Informal</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:English_adjectives" title="Category:English adjectives">English adjectives</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:English_uncomparable_adjectives" title="Category:English uncomparable adjectives">English uncomparable adjectives</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Energy" title="Category:Energy">Energy</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Medicine" title="Category:Medicine">Medicine</a></span></div> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="simple_wikipedia"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="simple_wikipedia">Simple English</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="simple_wikipedia_fragments"> <div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:182px;"><a href="/index.php?title=Special:Upload&wpDestFile=Radiograf%C3%ADa_pulmones_Francisca_Lorca." class="new" title="File:Radiografía pulmones Francisca Lorca.">File:Radiografía pulmones Francisca Lorca.</a> <div class="thumbcaption">An X-ray photograph of lungs.</div></div></div> <p><b>X-ray</b> is part of the <a href="/Electromagnetic_spectrum" title="Electromagnetic spectrum">electromagnetic spectrum</a>, with <a href="/Frequency" title="Frequency">frequency</a> higher than <a href="/Ultraviolet" title="Ultraviolet">ultraviolet radiation</a>. The frequency of X-ray covers a wide <a href="http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/simple:range" class="extiw" title="wikt:simple:range">range</a>. It can go through many <a href="/Solid" title="Solid">solid</a> <a href="/Material" title="Material">materials</a>. X-rays can be produced by hitting <a href="/Metal" title="Metal">metal</a> with fast-moving <a href="/Electron" title="Electron">electrons</a>. X-ray <a href="/Photography" title="Photography">photography</a> is used in <a href="/Medicine" title="Medicine">medicine</a> to see <a href="/Bone" title="Bone">bones</a> and <a href="/Cancer" title="Cancer">cancer</a>, and other things inside <a href="/Body" title="Body">bodies</a>. </p><p>X-rays are tiny packets of energy that interact with <a href="/Atoms" title="Atoms" class="mw-redirect">atoms</a> in the body. The way they interact depends on the power of the x-rays. X-rays with low-level energies go through the <a href="/Photoelectric_effect" title="Photoelectric effect">Photoelectric effect</a>, mid-level energies go through <a href="/Compton_scattering" title="Compton scattering">Compton scattering</a>, and high-level energies go through <a href="/Pair_production" title="Pair production">pair production</a>. Medical x-rays can experience the Photoelectric effect and sometimes Compton scattering. <a href="/Radiation_therapy" title="Radiation therapy">Radiation therapy</a> treatments used to treat cancer use Compton scattering and sometimes Pair production. </p><p>[[File:|100px|thumb|left|This is an X-ray photograph of a hand, showing the bones under the skin.]] There are small amounts of X-rays in the atmosphere. X-rays can change living cells. This means that exposing the human body to high doses of x-rays for a long time should be avoided. Changing living cells can be dangerous. It can cause <a href="/Cancer" title="Cancer">cancer</a> and other diseases. It can also be good, as cancer cells can be killed that way. Like with any treatment, there are side-effects. </p><p>X-rays cannot see soft tissue very well. To detect <a href="/Tumor" title="Tumor" class="mw-redirect">tumors</a>, other imaging technologies are used; such as <a href="/Magnetic_resonance_imaging" title="Magnetic resonance imaging">Magnetic resonance imaging</a>. </p> <div class="notice metadata plainlinks" id="stub"><a href="/index.php?title=Special:Upload&wpDestFile=Wiki_letter_w.svg" class="new" title="File:Wiki letter w.svg"></a> <i>This <a href="/Category:Stubs" title="Category:Stubs">short article</a> can be made longer. You can help Wikipedia by <span class="plainlinks"><a href="http://yak.rapint.com/index.php?title=X-ray&action=edit" class="external text" title="http://yak.rapint.com/index.php?title=X-ray&action=edit" rel="nofollow">adding to it</a>. </i></div> <p><br /> </span> </p> </div> <div class="printfooter"> Retrieved from "<a href="http://yak.rapint.com/wiki/X-ray">http://yak.rapint.com/wiki/X-ray</a>"</div> <div class="contents"> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'><div id="mw-normal-catlinks"><a href="/Special:Categories" title="Special:Categories">Categories</a>: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Stubs" title="Category:Stubs">Stubs</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Medicine" title="Category:Medicine">Medicine</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Light" title="Category:Light">Light</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Electromagnetism" title="Category:Electromagnetism">Electromagnetism</a></span></div></div> <div class="bottom"></div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> </div> <div id="core_panel_main" > <div class="section" id="citable_sentences"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="citable_sentences">Citable sentences</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of December 13, 2010</span> <br> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="citable_fragments"> <div id="citableSentencesList"> <p> Here are sentences from other pages on X-ray, which are similar to those in the above article. <div id="citable__sentence_list"> </div> </p> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div id="external_links_revision_history_tooltip"> </div> <script> $(document).ready(function() { $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments a[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', effect: 'toggle', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,2], lazy: true, delay: 100}); $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments img[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,0], lazy: true, effect: 'toggle'}); }); </script> <div class="section" id="related_links"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_links">Related links</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of November 16, 2009</span> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/xray" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Major John Hall-Edwards (1858 - 1926) is important in being the British pioneer of <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> treatment.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>When the Rontgen <B>Ray</B>s were made known, he devoted himself day and night to e<B>x</B>periments, but in 1908 he had to have his left arm amputated owing to the spread of <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> dermatitis.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>In spite of his infirmities, Hall-Edwards was, for over 20 years, Senior Medical Officer in charge of the <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> department of the General Hospital, and also carried on a practice in Newhall Street as a radiographer.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/xray>http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/xray</A>">Major Hall-Edwards</a> - Major John Hall-Edwards</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/pep-red-8x11.jpg" align="bottom" title="We marked this link as controversial because it was removed and readded from Wikipedia <B>43</B> times."><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>88%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.orau.org/ptp/articlesstories/invisiblelight.htm" title="Upon hearing this, Röntgen reviewed his record books and found he too had seen the effect. When placing an <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> tube on the opposite side of a wooden door Röntgen had noted the same blue glow, seeming to emanate from the eye itself, but thought his observations to be spurious because he only saw the effect when he used one type of tube. Later he realized that the tube which had created the effect was the only one powerful enough to make the glow plainly visible and the<br><br><A HREF=http://www.orau.org/ptp/articlesstories/invisiblelight.htm>http://www.orau.org/ptp/articlesstories/invisiblelight.htm</A>">Wilhelm Röntgen and the Invisible Light</a> - A story about how Wilhelm Rontgen saw x-rays</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>64%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/ems/xrays.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>It is also because <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> light tends to act more like a particle than a wave.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> detectors collect actual photons of <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> light - which is very different from the radio telescopes that have large dishes designed to focus radio waves!</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>A week later, he took an <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> photograph of his wife's hand which clearly revealed her wedding ring and her bones.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/ems/xrays.html>http://imagers.gsfc.nasa.gov/ems/xrays.html</A>">NASA</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>61%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://members.chello.nl/~h.dijkstra19/page5.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The classic cold Cathode <B>X</B>-<B>Ray</B> tube was born, a tube with two</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>In the ne<B>x</B>t e<B>x</B>periments he used photographic material and made his first <B>X</B>-<B>Ray</B> picture, the hand of his wife Anna Bertha.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Campbell Swinton did the same e<B>x</B>periments in England with an <B>X</B>-<B>Ray</B> tube made by A.C.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://members.chello.nl/~h.dijkstra19/page5.html>http://members.chello.nl/~h.dijkstra19/page5.html</A>">The Cathode Ray Tube site</a> - The Cathode Ray Tube site, X-Ray tubes.</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://deutsche.nature.com/physics/7.pdf" title="<A HREF=http://deutsche.nature.com/physics/7.pdf>http://deutsche.nature.com/physics/7.pdf</A>">On a New Kind of Rays (PDF-Version of translated article that appeared in ''Nature'' in 1896)</a> - deutsche.nature.com</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ratical.org/radiation/KillingOurOwn/KOO6.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>In 1980 some $6.7 billion was spent on radiology equipment, insurance, and personnel;[3] appro<B>x</B>imately 300,000 people are currently employed operating medical and dental <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> equipment.[4] Yet the doses administered by this industry were hardly insignificant.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>As a result, <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> diagnosis has rightfully taken its place as a vital and necessary part of medical therapy throughout the world.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Human bones, he found, cast a denser shadow than surrounding soft tissues--a property that would form the basis for the global medical <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> industry.[5]</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.ratical.org/radiation/KillingOurOwn/KOO6.html>http://www.ratical.org/radiation/KillingOurOwn/KOO6.html</A>">Chapter 6: The Use and Misuse of Medical X Rays, "KILLING OUR OWN", 1982</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/pep-red-8x11.jpg" align="bottom" title="We marked this link as controversial because it was removed and readded from Wikipedia <B>25</B> times."><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.doctorspiller.com/Dental%20_X-Rays.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>We took an <B>x</B>-<B>ray</B> and saw the decay you can see here.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>But it is certainly visible on the <B>x</B>-<B>ray</B>.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Ordinarily, this type of problem would have been picked up on the ne<B>x</B>t set of bitewing <B>x</B>-<B>ray</B>s scheduled one year hence because, presumably, over the course of a year, the decay would have worsened and become more visible on the <B>x</B>-<B>ray</B>.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.doctorspiller.com/Dental%20_X-Rays.htm>http://www.doctorspiller.com/Dental%20_X-Rays.htm</A>">and http://www.dentalgentlecare.com/x-ray_safety.htm</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/pep-red-8x11.jpg" align="bottom" title="We marked this link as controversial because it was removed and readded from Wikipedia <B>27</B> times."><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.solarstorms.org/SWChapter8.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>When you review these numbers, you might want to consider that a typical chest <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> is worth a trifling 0.020 rads (for <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B>s, remember that one rad is the same as one rem) on the same scale.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Compared to the biologically severe dosages in Table 2, typical annual dosages are thousands of times smaller, and we have to use a unit of 0.001 rem (one millirem) as a more convenient scale (A chest <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B>, on this scale, is about 20 millirems).</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>It's just an educated guess, but it has caused lots of spirited debates and probably a fair measure of an<B>x</B>iety too, hence, the common worry about what that annual chest <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> might do to you.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.solarstorms.org/SWChapter8.html>http://www.solarstorms.org/SWChapter8.html</A>">and http://www.powerattunements.com/x-ray.html</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/pep-red-8x11.jpg" align="bottom" title="We marked this link as controversial because it was removed and readded from Wikipedia <B>12</B> times."><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.onlinetelemedicine.com/html/product/sam_images/X-Ray.jpg" title="<A HREF=http://www.onlinetelemedicine.com/html/product/sam_images/X-Ray.jpg>http://www.onlinetelemedicine.com/html/product/sam_images/X-Ray.jpg</A>">A picture of an X-ray photograph.</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/pep-red-8x11.jpg" align="bottom" title="We marked this link as controversial because it was removed and readded from Wikipedia <B>12</B> times."><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.iuk.edu/~koalhe/img/Equipment/xray.jpg" title="<A HREF=http://www.iuk.edu/~koalhe/img/Equipment/xray.jpg>http://www.iuk.edu/~koalhe/img/Equipment/xray.jpg</A>">A picture of an X-ray machine</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/pep-red-8x11.jpg" align="bottom" title="We marked this link as controversial because it was removed and readded from Wikipedia <B>29</B> times over <B>a 2 year</B> period."><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ketek.biz/x-ray.detectors.php" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>KETEK analytical <B>x</B>-<B>ray</B> acquisition systems combine the SDD, supplies & signal processing in compact housings</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>VITUS H class SDD modules are dedicated for <B>x</B>-<B>ray</B> energies between 250eV and 30keV in applications as EDS and (T)<B>X</B>RF that require e<B>x</B>cellent peak to background ratios up to 20.000</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.ketek.biz/x-ray.detectors.php>http://www.ketek.biz/x-ray.detectors.php</A>">Silicon drift detectors</a> - KETEK Creative Detector Solutions - Halbleitertechnik und Reinraumtechnik - X-Ray Detectors</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.radiologyforums.com" title="<A HREF=http://www.radiologyforums.com>http://www.radiologyforums.com</A>">X-Ray Discussion Group</a> - Radiology Forums - Share Your Knowledge</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/xrays.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>It is also because <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> light tends to act more like a particle than a wave.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> detectors collect actual photons of <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> light - which is very different from the radio telescopes that have large dishes designed to focus radio waves!</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>A week later, he took an <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> photograph of his wife's hand which clearly revealed her wedding ring and her bones.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/xrays.html>http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/xrays.html</A>">X-rays</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.bridgend.gov.uk/Web1/groups/public/documents/services/002225.hcsp" title="<A HREF=http://www.bridgend.gov.uk/Web1/groups/public/documents/services/002225.hcsp>http://www.bridgend.gov.uk/Web1/groups/public/documents/services/002225.hcsp</A>">William Morgan: Bridgend Hall of Fame</a> - Hall of Fame</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0261-0523(1785)75%3C272%3AEEMIOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-S" title="<A HREF=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0261-0523(1785)75%3C272%3AEEMIOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-S>http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0261-0523(1785)75%3C272%3AEEMIOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-S</A>">Electrical Experiments Made in Order to Ascertain the Non-Conducting Power of a Perfect Vacuum</a> - JSTOR: An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/toc11.html" title="11th Report on Carcinogens<br><br><A HREF=http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/toc11.html>http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/toc11.html</A>">11th Report on Carcinogens</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/cases/mckinley.html" title="A worried McKinley aide sent word to inventor Thomas Edison to rush an <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> machine to Buffalo to find the st<B>ray</B> bullet.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/cases/mckinley.html>http://www.nlm.nih.gov/visibleproofs/galleries/cases/mckinley.html</A>">Visible Proofs: Forensic Views of the Body: Galleries: Cases: Could X-rays Have Saved President William McKinley?</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A767225" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>After that, normal people proceed to go to a doctor, who uses a device called an <B>x</B>-<B>ray</B> to e<B>x</B>amine the broken bone(s).</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The whole concept of the <B>x</B>-<B>ray</B> came from the physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, when he discovered in 1895 that electromagnetic radiation passed through most objects easily, but that it was absorbed by the bones of the human body.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>One problem that <B>x</B>-<B>ray</B> technology has, however, is the risk of radiation sickness.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A767225>http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A767225</A>">h2g2 X-Rays Edited Guide Entry</a> - BBC - h2g2 - X-Rays</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.carltonbooks.co.uk/display.asp?isb=9781847960009" title="Once the <B>x</B>-<B>ray</B> has been e<B>x</B>posed on to film it is then scanned at ultra high resolution with special scanning equipment tailored for the process.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.carltonbooks.co.uk/display.asp?isb=9781847960009>http://www.carltonbooks.co.uk/display.asp?isb=9781847960009</A>">X-Ray Art by Nick Veasey</a> - Carlton Publishing Group - X-Ray</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://chandra.harvard.edu" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Overview of <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> Astronomy and <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> sources: black holes to gala<B>x</B>y clusters.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>This activity invites you to compare aerial photographs of our planet taken by Yann Arthus-Bertrand to <B>X</B>-<B>ray</B> images of the cosmos taken by Chandra.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Chandra 101 provides information about topics pertaining to the Chandra <B>X</B>-<B>Ray</B> Observatory.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://chandra.harvard.edu>http://chandra.harvard.edu</A>">Chandra X-Ray Observatory</a> - The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center :: Gateway to the Universe of X-ray Astronomy!</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.rtstudents.com" title="''" RTstudents.com Radiology resources for students and professionals.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.rtstudents.com>http://www.rtstudents.com</A>">Radiology resources for students and professionals</a> - RTstudents.com - Online Radiology Resources</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.xraylinks.com" title="''". <B>X</B><B>ray</B>Links.com<br><br><A HREF=http://www.xraylinks.com>http://www.xraylinks.com</A>">Radiology Website Directory</a> - Radiology Sites - Link Directory</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="related_topics"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_topics">Related topics</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of August 19, 2010</span> <ul> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Ionizing_radiation">Ionizing radiation</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Radiation_therapy">Radiation therapy</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Nuclear_fusion">Nuclear fusion</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Nuclear_fission">Nuclear fission</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Plutonium">Plutonium</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Uranium">Uranium</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Depleted_uranium">Depleted uranium</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Positron_emission_tomography">Positron emission tomography</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Nuclear_technology">Nuclear technology</a> </li> </span> </ul> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div></div> </div> <br/><br/><br/> <script type="text/javascript" language="javascript"><!-- function checkEmail(myForm) { if 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