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Yakuza
"Yakuza" written in katakana
"Yakuza" written in katakana
Presumed Origin the Kabuki-mono
Creation 17th century
Actual Number 86 300 members[1]
Principals clans
  1. Yamaguchi-gumi
  2. Sumiyoshi-kai
  3. Inagawa-kai
  4. Toa-kai
Activities Blackmail, Illegal gambling, Casino, Prostitution, Smuggling
.Yakuza (ヤクザ or やくざ ?), also known as gokudō (極道?) are members of traditional organized crime syndicates in Japan.^ Did the Japanese organized crime underworld known as the yakuza come from one of these two groups?
  • Teleport City » Blog Archive » Velvet Hustler 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC teleport-city.com [Source type: General]

^ While less organized than Italian or Japanese crime syndicates, Russian mobsters have shown an enterprise and a ruthlessness that has enabled them to expand worldwide at alarming speed.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Brazil has its share of organized crime problems without the yakuza: a rising cocaine trade spilling over from nearby Bolivia and Peru, active associates of the Italian Mafiosi, and down-and-out members of the country's varied ethnic groups.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.The Japanese police call them bōryokudan (暴力団), literally "violence group", while the yakuza call themselves "ninkyō dantai" (任侠団体 (or 仁侠団体), "chivalrous organizations").^ So influential were the yakuza that in 1993, when Japanese police held a seminar for their countrymen in Bangkok on how to deal with the gangs, more than 140 companies sent people.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Did the Japanese organized crime underworld known as the yakuza come from one of these two groups?
  • Teleport City » Blog Archive » Velvet Hustler 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC teleport-city.com [Source type: General]

^ Cracking down on the Japanese mob is not a high priority for Thai law enforcement, who have enough trouble policing themselves.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

Contents

Divisions of origin

Yakuza are a popular subject in film
.Despite uncertainty about the single origin of Yakuza organizations, most modern Yakuza derive from two classifications which emerged in the mid-Edo Period: tekiya, those who primarily peddled illicit, stolen or shoddy goods; and bakuto, those who were involved in or participated in gambling.^ Employing some well-honed techniques from Japan, the yakuza have made important political connections among those who rule over the Philippines' 80 million people.
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^ Or take Masaru Takumi, the notorious number two man in the Yamaguchi-gumi, one of the most successful keizai yakuza, nicknamed "the man who never sleeps."
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^ The yakuza made another media splash in Brazil in 1979, when police cornered two gangsters involved in a murder-for-insurance scheme strikingly similar to those occurring in the Philippines at about the same time.
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[2]
.Tekiya (peddlers) were considered one of the lowest social groups in Edo.^ They were one of the lowest social groups in Medieval Japan.
  • Teleport City » Blog Archive » Velvet Hustler 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC teleport-city.com [Source type: General]

^ Or because in the Edo period, when the yakuza first emerged on the scene, they might have evolved at least in part out of the tekiya and bakuto social groups.
  • Teleport City » Blog Archive » Velvet Hustler 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC teleport-city.com [Source type: General]

As they began to form organizations of their own, they took over some administrative duties relating to commerce, such as stall allocation and protection of their commercial activities. During Shinto festivals, these peddlers opened stalls and some members were hired to act as security. Each peddler paid rent in exchange for a stall assignment and protection during the fair.
The Edo government eventually formally recognized such tekiya organizations and granted the oyabun (servants) of tekiya a surname as well as permission to carry a sword. This was a major step forward for the traders, as formerly only samurai and noblemen were allowed to carry swords.
Bakuto (gamblers) had a much lower social standing even than traders, as gambling was illegal. Many small gambling houses cropped up in abandoned temples or shrines at the edge of towns and villages all over Japan. .Most of these gambling houses ran loan sharking businesses for clients, and they usually maintained their own security personnel.^ Asked why they were traveling abroad, most said they were tourists, traveling for golf, sex, gambling, and gun-firing practice.
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^ They quickly went back to minding their own business as boys stayed clear off of Sakura for a while, not wanting to run into her overprotective boyfriend .
  • Yakuza Chapter 1: Bodyguard, a Naruto fanfic - FanFiction.Net 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.fanfiction.net [Source type: Original source]

The places themselves, as well as the bakuto, were regarded with disdain by society at large, and much of the undesirable image of the Yakuza originates from bakuto; this includes the name yakuza itself.
.Because of the economic situation during the mid-period and the predominance of the merchant class, developing Yakuza groups were composed of misfits and delinquents that had joined or formed Yakuza groups to extort customers in local markets by selling fake or shoddy goods.^ Working through a front company, the group then exported the goods to Japan and sold them at a small loss—leaving the yakuza with plentiful cash that was now "clean."
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[2]
The roots of the Yakuza can still be seen today in initiation ceremonies, which incorporate tekiya or bakuto rituals. .Although the modern Yakuza has diversified, some gangs still identify with one group or the other; for example, a gang whose primary source of income is illegal gambling may refer to themselves as bakuto.^ Along with the next-largest group, the Four Seas Gang, they control much of the nation's prostitution, gambling, and protection rackets.
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^ Working with the increasingly sophisticated Filipino gangs, the yakuza expanded into gambling, fraud, and money laundering.
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^ The mastermind of the gang, one Hiroaki Kumitomo, a thirty-one-year-old yakuza, had earlier been found dead in a parked car in suburban Manila.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

Burakumin

The Burakumin are a group that is socially discriminated against in Japanese society. The burakumin are descendants of outcast communities of the feudal era, which mainly comprised those with occupations considered tainted with death or ritual impurity, such as executioners, undertakers or leather workers. They traditionally lived in their own secluded hamlets and ghettos. Discrimination against the Burakumin continues into the present day, a legacy of the Japanese feudal/caste system.
.According to David E. Kaplan and Alec Dubro, burakumin account for about 70 percent of the members of Yamaguchi-gumi, the biggest Yakuza syndicate in Japan.^ Both times, the couriers had ties to Yamaguchi-gumi; one was a Tokyo yakuza member, another a retired cop.
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^ Still, it was a shock to a Japanese police commissioner visiting Paris for a seminar when he bumped into several leading members of the Yamaguchi-gumi.
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^ And in 1988 the NPA reported that about thirty Yamaguchi-gumi members entered Australia on tourist visas and were surveilled as they frolicked on the Gold Coast beach.
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[3]
Mitsuhiro Suganuma, ex-officer of the Public Security Intelligence Agency, testified that burakumin account for about 60 percent of the members of the entire Yakuza.[4]

Organization and activities

Structure

Yakuza hierarchy
During the formation of the yakuza, they adopted the traditional Japanese hierarchical structure of oyabun-kobun where kobun (子分; lit. foster child) owe their allegiance to the oyabun (親分; lit. foster parent). In a much later period, the code of jingi (仁義, justice and duty) was developed where loyalty and respect are a way of life.
The oyabun-kobun relationship is formalized by ceremonial sharing of sake from a single cup. .This ritual is not exclusive to the yakuza—it is also commonly performed in traditional Japanese Shinto weddings, and may have been a part of sworn brotherhood[5] relationships.^ For the Japanese, who like to think of their society as homogenous, it came as a shock that organized crime in Japan was no longer the exclusive domain of the yakuza.
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.During the World War II period in Japan, the more traditional tekiya/bakuto form of organization declined as the entire population was mobilised to participate in the war effort and society came under strict military government.^ After Hong Kong fell to Japan during the war, the colony's new masters formed the cooperative triads into the Hing Ah Kee Kwa, the "Aid Asia Flourishing Association," and used them to help keep order.
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^ More than 200,000 Latin Americans of Japanese descent poured into Japan during the 1990s.
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^ After the end of World War II, a huge wave of immigrants arrived, many of them former soldiers who, once repatriated to Japan, left their wartorn homeland to seek a new life abroad.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

However, after the war, the yakuza adapted again.
Prospective yakuza come from all walks of life. .The most romantic tales tell how yakuza accept sons who have been abandoned or exiled by their parents.^ Or take Masaru Takumi, the notorious number two man in the Yamaguchi-gumi, one of the most successful keizai yakuza, nicknamed "the man who never sleeps."
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.Many yakuza start out in junior high school or high school as common street thugs or members of bōsōzoku gangs.^ In a sign of the times, Tokyo police in 1991 found over 1,000 foreigners active as members or associates of the city's yakuza gangs.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Sensational media reports told of how ruthless Chinese thugs had pushed the yakuza out of their old haunt of Kabukicho, a sleazy nightlife district in Tokyo.
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^ First, the gangs would intimidate businessmen in Japan into taking out huge insurance policies, listing the gang members as beneficiaries.
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Perhaps because of its lower socio-economic status, numerous yakuza members come from Burakumin and ethnic Korean backgrounds.
Yakuza groups are headed by an Oyabun or Kumichō (組長, family head) who gives orders to his subordinates, the kobun. In this respect, the organization is a variation of the traditional Japanese senpai-kōhai (senior-junior) model. .Members of yakuza gangs cut their family ties and transfer their loyalty to the gang boss.^ In a sign of the times, Tokyo police in 1991 found over 1,000 foreigners active as members or associates of the city's yakuza gangs.
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^ Both times, the couriers had ties to Yamaguchi-gumi; one was a Tokyo yakuza member, another a retired cop.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Run by a former yakuza boss, the gang shipped over $20 million worth of cars before authorities caught up with them.
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They refer to each other as family members - fathers and elder and younger brothers. .The Yakuza is populated almost entirely by men, and there are very few women involved who are called "nee-san" (姐さん older sister).^ There, the yakuza can shop for guns and women and get needed rest and relaxation, too.
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^ While foreign gangs are making their mark in Japan, organized crime there remains very much a yakuza affair.
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^ Those involved have rightly been called gurentai, or hoodlums, by the Japanese community there.
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.When the Yamaguchi-gumi (Family) boss was shot in the late nineties, his wife took over as boss of Yamaguchi-gumi, albeit for a short time.^ Both times, the couriers had ties to Yamaguchi-gumi; one was a Tokyo yakuza member, another a retired cop.
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^ By the late 1990s, Sun Yee On, the largest triad, claimed at least 30,000 members, rivaling the Yamaguchi-gumi.
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^ So popular has Paris been with the Japanese mob that Masaru Takumi, the notorious number two boss of the Yamaguchi-gumi, tried to enter the city in 1992.
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.The Yakuza have a very complex organizational structure.^ While foreign gangs are making their mark in Japan, organized crime there remains very much a yakuza affair.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ The vast majority of racketeering, extortion, and organized vice crime remains very much in the hands of the yakuza.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

There is an overall boss of the syndicate, the kumicho, and directly beneath him are the saiko komon (senior advisor) and so-honbucho (headquarters chief). The second in the chain of command is the wakagashira, who governs several gangs in a region with the help of a fuku-honbucho who is himself responsible for several gangs. The regional gangs themselves are governed by their local boss, the shateigashira.[6]
Each member's connection is ranked by the hierarchy of sakazuki (sake sharing). Kumicho are at the top, and control various saikō-komon (最高顧問, senior advisors). The saikō-komon control their own turfs in different areas or cities. They have their own underlings, including other underbosses, advisors, accountants and enforcers.
Those who have received sake from oyabun are part of the immediate family and ranked in terms of elder or younger brothers. However, each kobun, in turn, can offer sakazuki as oyabun to his underling to form an affiliated organisation, which might in turn form lower ranked organisations. .In the Yamaguchi-gumi, which controls some 2,500 businesses and 500 yakuza groups, there are even 5th rank subsidiary organisations.^ Both times, the couriers had ties to Yamaguchi-gumi; one was a Tokyo yakuza member, another a retired cop.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Or take Masaru Takumi, the notorious number two man in the Yamaguchi-gumi, one of the most successful keizai yakuza, nicknamed "the man who never sleeps."
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ At one point, yakuza were even targeted for execution by Philippine guerilla groups.
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Rituals

Yubitsume, or the cutting of one's finger, is a form of penance or apology. .Upon a first offence, the transgressor must cut off the tip of his left little finger and hand the severed portion to his boss.^ These young gangsters don't cut off their fingers or go in for tattooing.
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Sometimes an underboss may do this in penance to the oyabun if he wants to spare a member of his own gang from further retaliation.
Its origin stems from the traditional way of holding a Japanese sword. The bottom three fingers of each hand are used to grip the sword tightly, with the thumb and index fingers slightly loose. .The removal of digits starting with the little finger moving up the hand to the index finger progressively weakens a person's sword grip.^ Ryuchi, you aren’t done with push-ups yet so start moving!” he turned around to see Sakura smile brightly at him.
  • Yakuza Chapter 1: Bodyguard, a Naruto fanfic - FanFiction.Net 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.fanfiction.net [Source type: Original source]

The idea is that a person with a weak sword grip then has to rely more on the group for protection—reducing individual action. In recent years, prosthetic fingertips have been developed to disguise this distinctive appearance.[7]
Many Yakuza have full-body tattoos. .These tattoos, known as irezumi in Japan, are still often "hand-poked", that is, the ink is inserted beneath the skin using non-electrical, hand-made and hand held tools with needles of sharpened bamboo or steel.^ Pushed by the crackdown on sokaiya in Japan, a handful of these professional extortionists have explored Europe as a new hunting ground.
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The procedure is expensive and painful and can take years to complete.[8]
.Yakuza in prison sometimes perform pearlings: for each year spent in prison one pearl is inserted under the skin of the penis.^ The mastermind of the gang, one Hiroaki Kumitomo, a thirty-one-year-old yakuza, had earlier been found dead in a parked car in suburban Manila.
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^ The event prompted coverage by one Japanese weekly, under the title "Yakuza en Paris."
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^ That year, more than one hundred yakuza were turned away.
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[citation needed]
.When yakuza members play Oicho-Kabu cards with each other, they often remove their shirts or open them up and drape them around their waists.^ As police played catch-up to the new crooks in Japan, the yakuza continued to explore opportunities overseas.
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^ A Yakuza is after us, better hold on tight, I’ll try to lose them.” He whispered and got a nod as he picked up the speed when her grip around him tightened.
  • Yakuza Chapter 1: Bodyguard, a Naruto fanfic - FanFiction.Net 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.fanfiction.net [Source type: Original source]

This allows them to display their full-body tattoos to each other. .This is one of the few times that yakuza members display their tattoos to others, as they normally keep them concealed in public with long-sleeved and high-necked shirts.^ The third and final time the Yakuza guy falls (or dies apparently) is when one of the Mafia guys shoots and kills the hostage that the Yakuza boss was holding.
  • Yakuza vs. Mafia | SPIKE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Hey Max Geiger, I was wondering, how come in the simulation, one of the Yakuza guys falls to the ground/dies three times?
  • Yakuza vs. Mafia | SPIKE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ You must not alter, delete or conceal any copyright or other notices contained on the Site, including notices on any Material you download, transmit, display, print or reproduce from the Site.
  • Yakuza vs. Mafia | SPIKE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

Another prominent yakuza ritual is the sake-sharing ceremony. .This is used to seal bonds of brotherhood between individual yakuza members, or between two yakuza groups.^ The team inspected passport stamps from nearly two hundred yakuza and associates largely between 1986 to 1993.
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.For example, in August 2005, the Godfathers Kenichi Shinoda and Kazuyoshi Kudo held a sake-sharing ceremony, sealing a new bond between their respective gangs, the Yamaguchi-gumi and the Kokusui-kai.^ Japanese police learned he had planned to meet in Paris the Yamaguchi-gumi godfather himself, Yoshinori Watanabe, and two of his top deputies.
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^ The May 1988 funeral of an underworld boss attracted not only members of Taiwan's United Bamboo Gang and other local gangs, but also representatives of the Yamaguchi-gumi and Sumiyoshi-kai.
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^ Just one gang, a Matsuba-kai affiliate, smuggled in 2,300 Tokarevs between 1988 and 1991.
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[citation needed]

Principal families

.Although yakuza membership has declined following an antigang law aimed specifically at yakuza and passed by the Japanese government in 1992, there are thought to be more than 87,000 active yakuza members in Japan today.^ Through most of the decade, Japanese officials confiscated more Tokarevs than any other handgun model.
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^ More than 200,000 Latin Americans of Japanese descent poured into Japan during the 1990s.
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^ While foreign gangs are making their mark in Japan, organized crime there remains very much a yakuza affair.
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.Although there are many different Yakuza groups, together they form the largest organized crime group in the world.^ Along with the next-largest group, the Four Seas Gang, they control much of the nation's prostitution, gambling, and protection rackets.
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^ Former KGB and police agents are behind many of the gangs, and they have blazed a multinational trail that has brought them into contact with the world's top crime syndicates—including the yakuza.
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^ Brazil has its share of organized crime problems without the yakuza: a rising cocaine trade spilling over from nearby Bolivia and Peru, active associates of the Italian Mafiosi, and down-and-out members of the country's varied ethnic groups.
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.Most yakuza members belong to five principal families (see below.^ Triads are not the strict, hierarchical kind of crime families one sees in the yakuza or the Italian Mafia.
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)
Principal families Description Mon (crest)
Yamaguchi-gumi
(六代目山口組 Rokudaime Yamaguchi-gumi?)
Created in 1915, the Yamaguchi-gumi is the biggest yakuza family, 45% of all yakuza in Japan, with more than 45,000 members divided into 750 clans. Despite more than one decade of police repression, the Yamaguchi-gumi has continued to grow. From its headquarters in .Kobe, it directs criminal activities throughout Japan.^ But many have kept up ties with yakuza in Japan, and much of their criminal activity sounds surprisingly familiar.
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.It is also involved in operations in Asia and the United States.^ While not as plentiful as in the United States or parts of Asia, Western Eu-rope's gun dealers have long attracted the yakuza.
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Shinobu Tsukasa, also known as Kenichi Shinoda, is the Yamaguchi-gumi's current oyabun. .He follows an expansionist policy, and has increased operations in Tokyo (which has not traditionally been the territory of the Yamaguchi-gumi.^ Both times, the couriers had ties to Yamaguchi-gumi; one was a Tokyo yakuza member, another a retired cop.
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)
Yamabishi.svg
Yamabishi (山菱)
Sumiyoshi-rengo
(住吉連合?), sometimes known as Sumiyoshi-kai (住吉会?)
The Sumiyoshi-rengo is the second largest yakuza family, with 10,000 members divided into 177 clans. The Sumiyoshi-kai, as it is sometimes called, is a confederation of smaller yakuza groups. Its current oyabun is Shigeo Nishiguchi. Structurally, Sumiyoshi-kai differs from its principal rival, the Yamaguchi-gumi, in that it functions like a federation. The chain of command is more lax, and although Shigeo Nishiguchi is always the supreme oyabun, its leadership is distributed among several other people. Sumiyoshi-kai.svg
Inagawa-kai
(稲川会?)
The Inagawa-kaï is the third largest yakuza family in Japan, with roughly 7,400 members divided into 313 clans. It is based in the Tokyo-Yokohama area and was one of the first yakuza families to expand its operations to outside of Japan. Its current oyabun is Hideki Inagawa. Inagawa-kai.svg
Aizukotetsu-kai
(六代目会津小鉄会?)
The Aizukotetsu-kai is based in .Kyoto, is Japan's sixth-largest yakuza organization.^ While foreign gangs are making their mark in Japan, organized crime there remains very much a yakuza affair.
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^ As such, it is of no small importance that alliances have been struck, and business begun, between the yakuza and the triads—the largest criminal organizations of the world's largest continent.
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^ For the Japanese, who like to think of their society as homogenous, it came as a shock that organized crime in Japan was no longer the exclusive domain of the yakuza.
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.Its name comes from the Aizu region, "Kotetsu", a type of Japanese sword, and the suffix "-kai", or society.Rather than a stand-alone gang, the Aizukotetsu-kai is a federation of approximately 100 of Kyoto's various yakuza groups, comprising an estimated 4,500 members.In October 2005, the group formed an alliance with the Sixth Yamaguchi-gumi, Japan's largest yakuza gang.Its current oyabun is Mitsugu Baba.^ Along with the next-largest group, the Four Seas Gang, they control much of the nation's prostitution, gambling, and protection rackets.
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^ In 1988, Kyoto's Aizu Kotetsu syndicate even recruited five of the Filipino gunsmiths, who set up an underground factory in Japan.
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^ While foreign gangs are making their mark in Japan, organized crime there remains very much a yakuza affair.
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Aizukotetsu-kai.png
Toua Yuai Jigyo Kumiai
(東亜友愛事業組合?), sometimes called Tōa-kai (東亜会?)
Founded in 1948 by .Hisayuki Machii, an ethnic Korean, the Tao Yuai Jigyo Kumiai yakuza family quickly became one of most influential yakuza groups in Tokyo, specially Ginza and Roppongi.^ At one point, yakuza were even targeted for execution by Philippine guerilla groups.
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^ Or take Masaru Takumi, the notorious number two man in the Yamaguchi-gumi, one of the most successful keizai yakuza, nicknamed "the man who never sleeps."
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^ Triads are not the strict, hierarchical kind of crime families one sees in the yakuza or the Italian Mafia.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.It is composed of yakuza of Korean origin, and numbers more than 1,000 divided into 6 clans.^ More than 200,000 Latin Americans of Japanese descent poured into Japan during the 1990s.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ There were indications that the yakuza might be committing more than financial crimes, though.
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^ That year, more than one hundred yakuza were turned away.
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Its current oyabun is Satoru Nomura.
Toua Yuai Jigyo Kumiai.svg

Designated Bōryokudan

Designated Bōryokudan (指定暴力団 Shitei Bōryokudan) is large area group specified by Anti-Gangs Measures Law of Japan.
The numbers which precede the names of bōryokudan groups refer to the group's leadership. .For example, Yoshinori Watanabe headed the fifth Yamaguchi-gumi; on his retirement, Shinobu Tsukasa became head of the sixth Yamaguchi-gumi, and "Sixth Yamaguchi-gumi" is the group's formal name.^ United Bamboo members, for example, admit to having formed an important pact with the Yamaguchi-gumi.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Both times, the couriers had ties to Yamaguchi-gumi; one was a Tokyo yakuza member, another a retired cop.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Japanese police learned he had planned to meet in Paris the Yamaguchi-gumi godfather himself, Yoshinori Watanabe, and two of his top deputies.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

  • Sixth Yamaguchi-gumi (六代目山口組), led by Shinobu Tsukasa, designated from June, 1992
  • Inagawa-kai (稲川会), designated from June, 1992
  • Sumiyoshi-kai (住吉会), designated from June, 1992
  • Fourth Kudō-kai (四代目工藤會), designated from June, 1992
  • Third Kyokuryū-kai (三代目旭琉会), designated from June, 1992
  • Okinawa Kyokuryū-kai (沖縄旭琉会), designated from June, 1992
  • Fifth Aizukotetsu-kai (五代目会津小鉄会), designated from July, 1992
  • Fifth Kyōsei-kai (五代目共政会), designated from July, 1992
  • Sixth Gōda-ikka (六代目合田一家), designated from July, 1992
  • Fourth Kozakura-ikka (四代目小桜一家), designated from July, 1992
  • Third Asano-gumi (三代目浅野組), designated from December, 1992
  • Dōjin-kai (道仁会), designated from December, 1992
  • Second Shinwa-kai (二代目親和会), designated from December, 1992
  • Sōai-kai (双愛会), designated from December, 1992
  • Third Kyōdō-kai (三代目俠道会), designated from March, 1993
  • Taishū-kai (太州会), designated from March, 1993
  • Seventh Sakaume-gumi (七代目酒梅組), designated from May, 1993
  • Kyokutō-kai (極東会), designated from July, 1993
  • Azuma-gumi (東組), designated from August, 1993
  • Matsuba-kai (松葉会), designated from February, 1994
  • Third Fukuhaku-kai (三代目福博会), designated from February, 2000
  • Second Kyūshū Seidō-kai (二代目九州誠道会), designated from February, 2008

Other Bōryokudan

Current activities

Japan

.Much of the current activities of the yakuza can be understood in the light of their feudal origin.^ But many have kept up ties with yakuza in Japan, and much of their criminal activity sounds surprisingly familiar.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.First, they are not a secret society like their counterparts of the Italian mafia and Chinese triads.^ But triads are not strict discipline organizations like the Italian mafia."
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Triads are not the strict, hierarchical kind of crime families one sees in the yakuza or the Italian Mafia.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ As they have expanded, though, the yakuza have also had to learn a kind of underworld diplomacy, for their travels have introduced them to another, equally powerful set of criminal organizations: Chinese triad societies.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.Yakuza organizations often have an office with a wooden board on the front door, openly displaying their group name or emblem.^ Did the Japanese organized crime underworld known as the yakuza come from one of these two groups?
  • Teleport City » Blog Archive » Velvet Hustler 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC teleport-city.com [Source type: General]

^ Japanese organized crime families adopted the name “yakuza” because of this hand.
  • Teleport City » Blog Archive » Velvet Hustler 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC teleport-city.com [Source type: General]

Members often wear sunglasses and colourful suits so that their profession can be immediately recognized by civilians (katagi). Even the way many Yakuza walk is different from ordinary citizens. Their arrogant, wide gait is markedly different from the quiet, unassuming way many Japanese prefer to adopt. .Alternatively, Yakuza can dress more conservatively and flash their tattoos to indicate their affiliation when the need arises.^ There were indications that the yakuza might be committing more than financial crimes, though.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

Sign outside a Sento in Kamata, prohibiting tattooed guests.
On occasion, they also sport insignia pins on their lapels. .One Yakuza family even printed a monthly newsletter with details on prisons, weddings, funerals, murders, and poems by leaders.^ At one point, yakuza were even targeted for execution by Philippine guerilla groups.
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^ Triads are not the strict, hierarchical kind of crime families one sees in the yakuza or the Italian Mafia.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ One daily even ran a huge box on "Spotting a Yakuza," complete with photos of a tattooed back and a hand sans pinkie.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.Until recently, the majority of Yakuza income came from protection rackets in shopping, entertainment and red-light districts within their territory.^ Within the Liberdade area they control gambling, drugs, prostitution, and protection rackets.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ The vast majority of racketeering, extortion, and organized vice crime remains very much in the hands of the yakuza.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

This is mainly due to the reluctance of such businesses to seek help from the police. .The Japanese police are also reluctant to interfere in internal matters in recognized communities such as shopping arcades, schools/universities, night districts and so on.^ As they have with Southeast Asian women, Japanese police have shown little inclination to interfere with the trade, and it is left to churches and nonprofit organizations to offer what little assistance there is.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

In this sense, yakuza are still regarded as semi-legitimate organizations. .For example, immediately after the Kobe earthquake, the Yamaguchi-gumi, whose headquarters are in Kobe, mobilized itself to provide disaster relief services (including the use of a helicopter), and this was widely reported by the media as a contrast to the much slower response by the Japanese government.^ Japanese police learned he had planned to meet in Paris the Yamaguchi-gumi godfather himself, Yoshinori Watanabe, and two of his top deputies.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

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  • Yakuza vs. Mafia | SPIKE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ We do not charge for these Mobile Application Services unless otherwise provided in the applicable Additional Terms.
  • Yakuza vs. Mafia | SPIKE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

For this reason, many Yakuza regard their income and hustle (shinogi) as a collection of a feudal tax.
.Yakuza are heavily involved in sex-related industries, such as smuggling uncensored pornography from Europe and America into Japan (as the local pornography is censored in ways Western pornography is not).^ It is not surprising, perhaps, that if the yakuza made their way to Colombia and Paraguay, they would turn up in Western Europe.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Back in 1980, Sumiyoshi-kai associates were smuggling out of Northern Europe hard-core porno films, which were then banned in Japan.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ The gangs have bribed their way into a lucrative, long-term relationship with both local businessmen and bureaucrats.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.They also control large prostitution rings throughout the country.^ Along with the next-largest group, the Four Seas Gang, they control much of the nation's prostitution, gambling, and protection rackets.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Within the Liberdade area they control gambling, drugs, prostitution, and protection rackets.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.In China, where the law restricts the number of children per household and the cultural preference is for boys, the yakuza can buy unwanted girls for as little as $5,000 and put them to work in the mizu shōbai, which means water trade and refers to the night entertainment business, in yakuza-controlled bars, nightclubs and restaurants.^ In tandem with yakuza from abroad, they have set up commercial businesses as fronts, with a preference for restaurants, bars, import-export companies, and floral shops.
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^ Su found dozens of yakuza active in the region, providing the capital for businesses like nightclubs and karaoke pubs, working with local gangsters and triad members from Taiwan and Hong Kong.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Authorities suspected Japanese mobsters had set up shop at several nightclubs and restaurants, and were engaged in not only extortion but also insider trading.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

The Philippines is another source of young women. .Yakuza trick girls from impoverished villages into coming to Japan, where they are promised respectable jobs with good wages.^ They were not small-time: the 1994 case involved a yakuza coming into Melbourne from Kuala Lumpur with thirteen kilograms of heroin.
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^ They are heavily into smuggling—Brazilian goods out of the country, and Japanese goods (mostly electronic items, on which Brazil has strict quotas) into the country.
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Instead, they are forced into becoming prostitutes and strippers.[9]
The alleys and streets of Shinjuku are a popular modern Tokyo Yakuza hangout.
Yakuza frequently engage in a uniquely Japanese form of extortion, known as sōkaiya (総会屋). .In essence, this is a specialized form of protection racket.^ If other rackets are thrown in—illicit logging, trading in protected species, other smuggling—the amount could reach 20 percent of GNP, the scholars estimated.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.Instead of harassing small businesses, the yakuza harasses a stockholders' meeting of a larger corporation.^ As such, it is of no small importance that alliances have been struck, and business begun, between the yakuza and the triads—the largest criminal organizations of the world's largest continent.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.They simply scare the ordinary stockholder with the presence of yakuza operatives, who obtain the right to attend the meeting by a small purchase of stock.^ The reason the yakuza presence is not larger in Thailand, quipped one scholar, is that they met a bigger mafia: the Bangkok police.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

They also engage in simple blackmail, obtaining incriminating or embarrassing information about a company's practices or leaders. .Once the yakuza gain a foothold in these companies, they will work for them to protect the company from having such internal scandals exposed to the public.^ Once we post them on the Site, these changes become effective immediately and if you use the Site after they become effective it will signify your agreement to be bound by the changes.
  • Yakuza vs. Mafia | SPIKE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Such official sponsorship backfired badly, discrediting the government and allowing the gangs to gain deep footholds in the entertainment and construction industries.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ In tandem with yakuza from abroad, they have set up commercial businesses as fronts, with a preference for restaurants, bars, import-export companies, and floral shops.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

Some companies still include payoffs as part of their annual budget.
The Yakuza have a strong influence in Japanese professional wrestling, or puroresu. Most of their interest in wrestling activities and promotions is purely financial. The Yakuza have mostly gotten involved by financially supporting wrestling promotions with fading fortunes, or simple business loans.
.Many venues used by wrestling (arenas, stadiums, and so forth) are owned by or connected to the Yakuza, and as such, when a promotion uses one of their sites, the Yakuza receive a percentage of the gate.^ All use of such applications or features is governed by Additional Terms as set forth in the Virtual Reality Applications - Terms .
  • Yakuza vs. Mafia | SPIKE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Users are required to provide their consent to receive such information from Spike, either by registering on this Site or via their wireless Device.
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^ By participating in our Site activities, you certify that you meet the age and other eligibility requirements for this Site as set forth in our Terms of Use Agreement .
  • Yakuza vs. Mafia | SPIKE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

The Yakuza as a whole is regarded as a great supporter of both puroresu and MMA.
It's not unusual for wrestlers to receive specific instructions on what to do in their matches so as to appeal just to Yakuza members in the crowd. .It is thought in Japan that it is safe to say that none of the large wrestling promotions in Japan would fold, because they would be rescued by the Yakuza.^ They are a success because the yakuza allow them to be.
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^ Yakuza helped arranged boats, booked passage within Japan, and secured the aliens in safe houses.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ It is not surprising, perhaps, that if the yakuza made their way to Colombia and Paraguay, they would turn up in Western Europe.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

The pioneer of wrestling in Japan, Rikidōzan, was killed by the Yakuza. Former WWE wrestler Yoshihiro Tajiri was asked to start a Yakuza gimmick, an offer he quickly refused, fearing that he would be targeted by the real Yakuza. Professional wrestler Yoshiaki Fujiwara is often referred to as Kumicho (i.e., "Godfather") and his wrestling promotion was called the Pro Wrestling Fujiwara Gumi. He often portrays Yakuza figures as an actor on Japanese television comedies and dramas.
.Yakuza also have ties to the Japanese realty market and banking, through jiageya (地上げ屋).^ The yakuza have forged ties with Colombia's cocaine cartels, although, as noted earlier, this has yet to result in a flood of coke reaching Japanese shores.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.Jiageya specialize in inducing holders of small real estate to sell their property so that estate companies can carry out much larger development plans.^ You should check with your carrier to find out what plans your carrier offers and how much the plans cost.
  • Yakuza vs. Mafia | SPIKE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ The gangs, meanwhile, invested heavily in real estate and various import-export companies, moving everything from carrots and bananas to folk art.
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^ They have invested millions of dollars in real estate, set up various front companies, and continued to visit.
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Japan's bubble economy of the 1980s is often blamed on real estate speculation by banking subsidiaries. After the collapse of the Japanese property bubble, a manager of a major bank in Nagoya was assassinated, and much speculation ensued about the banking industry's indirect connection to the Japanese underworld.
Yakuza often take part in local festivals such as Sanja Matsuri where they often carry the shrine through the streets proudly showing off their elaborate tattoos.
.Yakuza have been known to make large investments in legitimate, mainstream companies.^ Police suspect considerable yakuza money has found its way to the region, but little is known about the precise investments.
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^ He was observed making various investments in land and Australian companies.
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.In 1989, Susumu Ishii, the Oyabun of the Inagawa-kai (a well known Yakuza group) bought US$ 255 million worth of Tokyo Kyuko Electric Railway's stock.^ Run by a former yakuza boss, the gang shipped over $20 million worth of cars before authorities caught up with them.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Employing some well-honed techniques from Japan, the yakuza have made important political connections among those who rule over the Philippines' 80 million people.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Perhaps that's what the Bubble Era's top yakuza, Susumu Ishii, had in mind when he reportedly doled out $360,000 in cash to then-president Noriega in 1989.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

[10] .Japan's Securities and Exchange Surveillance Commission has knowledge of more than 50 listed companies with ties to organized crime, and in March 2008, the Osaka Securities Exchange decided to review all listed companies and expel those with Yakuza ties.^ China's opening to the world in the 1980s brought more than just trade and industry; it ushered in levels of corruption and organized crime not seen since the pre-revolution days of Shanghai's infamous Green Gang.
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^ That year, more than one hundred yakuza were turned away.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ So influential were the yakuza that in 1993, when Japanese police held a seminar for their countrymen in Bangkok on how to deal with the gangs, more than 140 companies sent people.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

[11]
As a matter of principle, theft is not recognised as a legitimate activity of yakuza. This is in line with the idea that their activities are semi-open; theft by definition would be a covert activity. More importantly, such an act would be considered a trespass by the community. Also, yakuza usually do not conduct the actual business operation by themselves. .Core business activities such as merchandising, loan sharking or management of gambling houses are typically managed by non-yakuza members who pay protection fees for their activities.^ Their range of criminal activity rivals that of the yakuza: gambling, drugs, prostitution, counterfeiting, fraud, extortion, loan sharking, and smuggling of all sorts, as well as major interests in finance, construction, and the film and entertainment industries.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Although crime is strictly a triad affair on Macao, police there report yakuza involvement in laundering money through the casinos, and in loan sharking and extortion.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ As such, it is of no small importance that alliances have been struck, and business begun, between the yakuza and the triads—the largest criminal organizations of the world's largest continent.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.There is much evidence of Yakuza involvement in international crime.^ Although crime is strictly a triad affair on Macao, police there report yakuza involvement in laundering money through the casinos, and in loan sharking and extortion.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ While foreign gangs are making their mark in Japan, organized crime there remains very much a yakuza affair.
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^ There were indications that the yakuza might be committing more than financial crimes, though.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.There are many tattooed Yakuza members imprisoned in various Asian prisons for such crimes as drug trafficking and arms smuggling.^ By far the largest was illegal gambling, followed by prostitution and drug trafficking, and then, roughly, arms trading, diesel oil smuggling, and trafficking in people.
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^ Thai gangsters were smuggling drugs and, working with yakuza, running gambling dens for illegal Thai workers.
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^ Brazil has its share of organized crime problems without the yakuza: a rising cocaine trade spilling over from nearby Bolivia and Peru, active associates of the Italian Mafiosi, and down-and-out members of the country's varied ethnic groups.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.In 1997, one verified Yakuza member was caught smuggling 4 kilograms (8.82 pounds) of heroin into Canada.^ As early as 1965, an Air France pilot was caught smuggling guns to the yakuza.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Both times, the couriers had ties to Yamaguchi-gumi; one was a Tokyo yakuza member, another a retired cop.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ They were not small-time: the 1994 case involved a yakuza coming into Melbourne from Kuala Lumpur with thirteen kilograms of heroin.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

.In 1999, Italian-American Mafia Bonanno family member, Mickey Zaffarano, was overheard talking about the profits of the pornography trade that both families could profit from.^ Triads are not the strict, hierarchical kind of crime families one sees in the yakuza or the Italian Mafia.
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^ I cant believe this the Russian mafia was able to overthrow both the italian and the yakuza mafia...plus the american mafia..the hispanic mafia...and everyother mafia out there...
  • Yakuza vs. Mafia | SPIKE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[12] .Another Yakuza racket is bringing women of other ethnicities/races, especially East European[12] and Asian[12] to Japan under the lure of a glamourous position, then forcing the women into prostitution.^ While in Japan to recover the paintings, investigators from the French police's Office for the Repression of Art Theft found the yakuza actually helpful regarding the fate of another famous theft.
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^ Recruiters of prostitutes and hostesses have conned women from Mexico to Brazil into trips to Japan.
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^ Horror stories abound of those who fail to pay: the chopping off of ears and fingers, women forced into prostitution, kidnappings until family back in China comes up with the money.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

[citation needed]
.Because of their history as a legitimate feudal organization and their connection to the Japanese political system through the uyoku (extreme right-wing political groups), yakuza are somewhat a part of the Japanese establishment.^ And, like the yakuza, the triads have a history of heavy political involvement.
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^ Working through a front company, the group then exported the goods to Japan and sold them at a small loss—leaving the yakuza with plentiful cash that was now "clean."
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

^ Employing some well-honed techniques from Japan, the yakuza have made important political connections among those who rule over the Philippines' 80 million people.
  • Yakuza: CHAPTER TWELVE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: News]

In the early 80s in Fukuoka, a yakuza war spiraled out of control and a few civilians were hurt. .The police stepped in and forced the yakuza bosses on both sides to declare a truce in public.^ Both the triads and the yakuza responded in force.
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^ In 1994, Brazilian police were stunned to find a genuine yakuza boss from the Yamaguchi-gumi hiding out in the southern state of Parana.
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.At various times, people in Japanese cities have launched anti-yakuza campaigns with mixed and varied success.^ So influential were the yakuza that in 1993, when Japanese police held a seminar for their countrymen in Bangkok on how to deal with the gangs, more than 140 companies sent people.
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^ In a sign of the times, Tokyo police in 1991 found over 1,000 foreigners active as members or associates of the city's yakuza gangs.
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^ The yakuza have found their niche in the heart of Brazil's Japanese community, the Liberdade (Liberty) district of the huge city of Sao Paulo.
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.In March 1995, the Japanese government passed the Act for Prevention of Unlawful Activities by Criminal Gang Members which made traditional racketeering much more difficult.^ Along with the next-largest group, the Four Seas Gang, they control much of the nation's prostitution, gambling, and protection rackets.
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^ In the mid-1970s, reports began filtering in to Japanese police of gang activity not just in Thailand and the Philippines, but throughout Southeast Asia.
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^ The ties remain tentative, but the future offers great opportunity for Russo-Japanese criminal activity.
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United States

.The Yakuza have had presence in Los Angeles,[13] San Francisco,[14] San Bernardino, California,[citation needed] Seattle,[14] Las Vegas,[13] Arizona,[14] Houston,[citation needed] San Antonio, Texas[citation needed], Florida,[citation needed] Virginia,[14] and New York City.^ At least eight U.S. cities were visited; not just the likely targets in Hawaii and the West Coast, but also New York, Chicago, Detroit, Miami, and Washington, D.C. .
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^ The triads, in fact, comprise one of the key links in global organized crime today, with connections ranging from Sydney, Singapore, and San Francisco to Amsterdam, Yokohama, and New York.
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^ By the early 1970s, the yakuza were already setting up bases in the United States, embarking on a sometimes sloppy campaign of crime that would take them first to America's Pacific islands, and then on to Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York, and nationwide.
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[13]
.Yakuza activity in the United States is mostly relegated to Hawaii, but have made their presence known in other parts of the country.^ But like other Japanese businessmen, the more ambitious yakuza and their front men long ago set their sights on the United States.
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^ On the other hand, Australian officials found that at least two hundred known yakuza had entered the country during the decade from 1986 to 1996.
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^ The couple claimed to be the girl's relatives, but officials found they had false passports and had made multiple trips through Italy bound for the United States.
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.The Yakuza are said to use Hawaii as a way station between Japan and mainland America, smuggling crystal methamphetamine into the country and smuggling back firearms to Japan.^ Back in 1980, Sumiyoshi-kai associates were smuggling out of Northern Europe hard-core porno films, which were then banned in Japan.
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^ But it was not until the 1980s that ties between the yakuza and their Brazilian cousins mushroomed, when Japan imported more than 100,000 Brazilians to help ease a labor shortage.
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^ They are heavily into smuggling—Brazilian goods out of the country, and Japanese goods (mostly electronic items, on which Brazil has strict quotas) into the country.
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.They easily fit into the local population, since many tourists from Japan and other Asian countries visit the islands on a regular basis, and many Hawaii residents are of full or partial Japanese descent.^ Japanese have been migrating in large numbers to Brazil since the 1930s, when many went to work as agricultural laborers.
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^ So many Tokarevs spilled into Japan that the price plunged from some $2,000 to as little as $700.
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^ The agents found hundreds of entries into twenty-one nations, ranging from Pacific Island nations to such distant locales as Turkey and India.
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.They also work with local gangs, funneling Japanese tourists to gambling parlors and brothels.^ Along with the next-largest group, the Four Seas Gang, they control much of the nation's prostitution, gambling, and protection rackets.
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^ Working with the increasingly sophisticated Filipino gangs, the yakuza expanded into gambling, fraud, and money laundering.
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^ The Japanese shared with their collaborators the profits from prostitution and gambling, and allowed the gangs to control the opium trade in the colony.
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[13]
.In California, the Yakuza have made alliances with local Vietnamese and Korean gangs as well as Chinese triads.^ Other yakuza gangs have taken root as well.
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^ Employing some well-honed techniques from Japan, the yakuza have made important political connections among those who rule over the Philippines' 80 million people.
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^ As such, it is of no small importance that alliances have been struck, and business begun, between the yakuza and the triads—the largest criminal organizations of the world's largest continent.
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.In New York City, they appear to collect finders fees from American mafiosos and businessmen for guiding Japanese tourists to gambling establishments, both legal and illegal.^ Asked why they were traveling abroad, most said they were tourists, traveling for golf, sex, gambling, and gun-firing practice.
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^ At least eight U.S. cities were visited; not just the likely targets in Hawaii and the West Coast, but also New York, Chicago, Detroit, Miami, and Washington, D.C. .
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[13]
.Handguns manufactured in the U.S. account for a large share (33%) of handguns seized in Japan, followed by China (16%), and the Philippines (10%).^ Of even greater interest are handguns, which are illegal in Japan but abundant in the Philippines.
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^ Police in Japan have seized fake international driver's licenses, certification stamps used by the government, and Japanese 100-yen notes made in the Philippines.
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.In 1990, a Smith & Wesson .38 caliber revolver that cost $275 in the U.S. could sell for up to $4,000 in Tokyo, and by 1997 it could sell for $500 due to the proliferation of guns in Japan during the 1990s.^ During the early 1990s, yakuza associates smuggled more than 1,000 of the Brazilian guns and over 10,000 rounds of ammunition into Japanese ports aboard tuna boats from Capetown.
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^ Of greater impact for Japan was the meth trade, as Chinese drug lords set up factories in the south and northeast to feed underground markets in Tokyo and Osaka.
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^ More than 200,000 Latin Americans of Japanese descent poured into Japan during the 1990s.
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[14]
The FBI suspects that the Yakuza use various operations to launder money in the U.S.[11]
.In 2001, the FBI's representative in Tokyo arranged for Tadamasa Goto, the head of the group Goto-gumi, to receive a liver transplant in the United States, in return for information of Yamaguchi-gumi operations in the U.S. This was done without prior consultation of the NPA.^ And in 1988 the NPA reported that about thirty Yamaguchi-gumi members entered Australia on tourist visas and were surveilled as they frolicked on the Gold Coast beach.
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^ United Bamboo members, for example, admit to having formed an important pact with the Yamaguchi-gumi.
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^ The May 1988 funeral of an underworld boss attracted not only members of Taiwan's United Bamboo Gang and other local gangs, but also representatives of the Yamaguchi-gumi and Sumiyoshi-kai.
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The journalist who uncovered the deal received threats by Goto and was given police protection in the US and in Japan.[11]

Mexico

Yakuza in Mexico are most notably involved in illegal immigration. .There were cases in the 1990s of Yakuza recruiting young women (mainly with diplomas and good English knowledge) with promises of legitimate work in Japan.^ The early signs already are clear, with stolen cars and consumer goods heading to Russia, while arms, women, and pilfered seafood head to Japan.
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^ There, the yakuza can shop for guns and women and get needed rest and relaxation, too.
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^ While foreign gangs are making their mark in Japan, organized crime there remains very much a yakuza affair.
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.November 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] When the women arrived in Japan they were forced into prostitution.^ Recruiters of prostitutes and hostesses have conned women from Mexico to Brazil into trips to Japan.
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^ In most places, they have practiced a familiar pattern: the procurement of guns, drugs, and women; the investment and laundering of cash from Japan.
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^ Horror stories abound of those who fail to pay: the chopping off of ears and fingers, women forced into prostitution, kidnappings until family back in China comes up with the money.
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Some women were able to escape their employers and return home to Mexico and alert authorities. In some incidents, Mexican authorities were able to apprehend the Yakuza members and deported them as illegal immigrants.
Similar incidents have also occurred in Peru where women have been enticed to work in Japan. .The Association of Hispanic Women Against Discrimination and Gender Violence or "Women in Action" estimates nearly 3,000 Mexican women recruited by the various Yakuza clans prostitute themselves in Japan.^ One recruiter, when caught by Mexican police, had a list of 1,200 women with him.
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^ Every major syndicate from Japan was represented, as was nearly every crime: kidnapping, drugs, extortion, prostitution.
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^ Recruiters of prostitutes and hostesses have conned women from Mexico to Brazil into trips to Japan.
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[citation needed]

Ethnic Korean Yakuza

.While Koreans in Japan comprise only 0.5% of the population, they are a prominent part of Yakuza, despite or perhaps because Koreans suffer severe discrimination in Japanese society along with burakumin.^ They are a success because the yakuza allow them to be.
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^ It is not surprising, perhaps, that if the yakuza made their way to Colombia and Paraguay, they would turn up in Western Europe.
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^ By the mid1980s, Japan had become a popular market for stolen art; not only did the Japanese have money and a taste for French paintings, but Japanese law made it almost impossible to recover them once they were stolen.
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[15][16] .In the early 1990s, 18 of 90 top bosses of Inagawa-kai were ethnic Koreans.^ In May 1990, Chun Yong I, a boss of the ethnic Korean gang Toa Yuai, entered Australia with nearly $100,000 in cash.
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^ A top Sumiyoshi-kai boss, head of the Shino-gumi, visited Australia six times, three of them as a guest of the Conrad Jupiters Casino.
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.National Police Agency (Japan) suggested Koreans comprised 10% along with 70% of burakumin in Yamaguchi-gumi.^ Still, it was a shock to a Japanese police commissioner visiting Paris for a seminar when he bumped into several leading members of the Yamaguchi-gumi.
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^ Japanese police learned he had planned to meet in Paris the Yamaguchi-gumi godfather himself, Yoshinori Watanabe, and two of his top deputies.
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^ In 1994, Brazilian police were stunned to find a genuine yakuza boss from the Yamaguchi-gumi hiding out in the southern state of Parana.
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[15] Some of the representatives of the designated Bōryokudan are also.[17] .The Korean significance had been an untouchable taboo in Japan and one of the reasons that the Japanese version of Kaplan and Dubro's Yakuza (1986) had not been published until 1991 with deletion of Korean-related description such as the component of Yamaguchi-gumi.^ Still, it was a shock to a Japanese police commissioner visiting Paris for a seminar when he bumped into several leading members of the Yamaguchi-gumi.
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^ With yakuza operating overseas in significant numbers, and foreign gangsters now based in Japan, the opportunities for cooperation have never been greater.
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^ Or take Masaru Takumi, the notorious number two man in the Yamaguchi-gumi, one of the most successful keizai yakuza, nicknamed "the man who never sleeps."
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[18]
Although Japanese-born people of Korean ancestry are a significant segment of the Japanese population, they are still considered resident aliens because of their nationality. .But Koreans, who are often shunned in legitimate trades, are embraced by the Japanese yakuza precisely because they fit the group's "outsider" image.^ They are a success because the yakuza allow them to be.
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^ As they have with Southeast Asian women, Japanese police have shown little inclination to interfere with the trade, and it is left to churches and nonprofit organizations to offer what little assistance there is.
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^ The yakuza apparently first caught the attention of the Brazilian media in the late 1970s, when violence erupted between Japanese and Korean gangs in Liberdade.
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[19]
.The man who paved the way for Korean-Japanese in Japan by organizing Tōsei-kai was the Korean-Japanese yakuza godfather Hisayuki Machii.^ Or take Masaru Takumi, the notorious number two man in the Yamaguchi-gumi, one of the most successful keizai yakuza, nicknamed "the man who never sleeps."
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^ The yakuza apparently first caught the attention of the Brazilian media in the late 1970s, when violence erupted between Japanese and Korean gangs in Liberdade.
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^ While foreign gangs are making their mark in Japan, organized crime there remains very much a yakuza affair.
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[20] Born Chong Gwon Yong in 1923 in Korea under Japanese rule, Machii was an ambitious street hood who saw opportunity in Japan and seized it.
After the Japanese surrender, Machii worked with the United States Counter Intelligence Corps, which valued his staunch anti-communist beliefs. .While leaders of the Japanese yakuza were imprisoned or under close scrutiny by the American occupying forces, the Korean yakuza were free to take over the lucrative black markets.^ While investigating one, he was caught by a pair of nefarious men in black that he was watching and forced to take a dangerous experimental drug.
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But rather than trying to rival the Japanese godfathers, Machii made alliances with them, and throughout his career, he remained close to both Kodama and Taoka.[20]
In 1948, Machii established the Tosei-kai (Voice of the East Gang) and soon took over Tokyo's Ginza district. The Tosei-kai became so powerful in Tokyo that they were known as the Ginza police, and even the Yamaguchi-gumi's all-powerful Taoka had to cut a deal with Machii to allow that group to operate in Tokyo.
Machii's vast empire included tourism, entertainment, bars and restaurants, prostitution, and oil importing. He and Kodama made a fortune on real estate investments alone. More importantly, he brokered deals between the Korean government and the yakuza that allowed Japanese criminals to set up rackets in Korea.
Thanks to Machii, Korea became the yakuza's home away from home. Befitting his role as fixer between the underworlds of both countries, Machii was allowed to acquire the largest ferry service between Shimonoseki, Japan, and Busan, South Korea—the shortest route between the two countries.
In the mid-1960s, pressure from the police forced Machii to officially disband the Tosei-kai. He formed two supposedly legitimate organizations around this time, the Toa Sogo Kigyo (East Asia Enterprises Company) and Toa Yuai Jigyo Kumiai (East Asia Friendship Enterprises Association), which became fronts for his criminal activities.
He was widely believed to have helped the Korean Central Intelligence Agency kidnap then-leading Korean opposition leader Kim Dae Jung from a Tokyo hotel (see kidnapping of Kim Dae-Jung). Kim was whisked out to sea where he was bound, gagged, blindfolded and fitted with weights so that his body would never surface.
The execution by drowning was abruptly cancelled when an aircraft buzzed the ship, and Kim was mysteriously delivered to his neighborhood in Seoul. American intervention is said to have saved his life. A police investigation revealed that Machii's people had rented every other room on the floor of the hotel where Kim had been staying, but Machii was never charged with any crime in connection with kidnapping. Machii "retired" in his 80s and was frequently seen vacationing in Hawaii. He died on September 14, 2002.
Also, Tokutaro Takayama was the kaicho of the Fourth Aizukotetsu yakuza gang. An ethnic Korean, he rose to power as the head of the Kyoto-based gang until his retirement in the 1990s.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Criminal Investigation: Fight Against Organized Crime (1)". Overview of Japanese Police. National Police Agency. June 2007. http://www.npa.go.jp/english/kokusai/pdf/Poj2007-33.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  2. ^ a b Kaplan, David, Dubro Alec. (2004)., page 18-21
  3. ^ Dubro, Alec and David Kaplan, Yakuza: The Explosive Account of Japan's Criminal Underworld (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1986).
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/gang/yakuza/2.html
  6. ^ The Yakuza, the Japanese Mafia - The Crime Library - Crime Library on truTV.com
  7. ^ http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/gang/yakuza/2.html
  8. ^ Japanorama, BBC Three, Series 2, Episode 3, first aired 21 September 2006
  9. ^ The Yakuza, the Japanese Mafia - The Crime Library - Crime Library on truTV.com
  10. ^ Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld by Alec Dubro, David E. Kaplan at Questia Online Library
  11. ^ a b c Jake Adelstein. This Mob Is Big in Japan, The Washington Post, 11 May 2008
  12. ^ a b c Kaplan and Dubro; Yakuza: Expanded Edition (2003, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-21562-1)
  13. ^ a b c d e Yakuza, Crimelibrary.com
  14. ^ a b c d e Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld (2003) Kaplan, D. & Dubro, A Part IV
  15. ^ a b Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld (2003) Kaplan, D. & Dubro, A. p. 133.
  16. ^ KRISTOF, NICHOLAS (1995-11-30). "Japan's Invisible Minority: Better Off Than in Past, but StillOutcasts". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B01E7DB1139F933A05752C1A963958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=3. Retrieved 2008-01-17. 
  17. ^ (Japanese) 平成19年上半期の暴力団情勢, National Police Agency, 2007, p. 22. See also Bōryokudan#Designated Bōryokudan.
  18. ^ Kaplan and Dubro (2003) Preface to the new edition.
  19. ^ Bruno, A. (2007). "The Yakuza, the Japanese Mafia" CrimeLibrary: Time Warner
  20. ^ a b Kaplan and Dubro (2003) p. 48, 228.

Internet-based

  1. Bruno, A. (2007). "The Yakuza, the Japanese Mafia" CrimeLibrary: Time Warner

Books

  • Kaplan, David, Dubro Alec. (1986). "Yakuza" Addison-Wesley (ISBN 0-201-11151-9)
  • Kaplan, David, Dubro Alec. (2003). "Yakuza: Expanded Edition" University of California Press (ISBN 0-520-21562-1)
  • Hill, Peter B.E. (2003). ."The Japanese Mafia: Yakuza, Law, and the State" Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-925752-3)
  • Johnson, David T. (2001).^ Like none of the Yakuza's weapons were Japanese the Brittish machine gun, the German pistol.Hail the Mafia's double-barreled sawed offs hot gun and TOMMY GUN. .
    • Yakuza vs. Mafia | SPIKE 16 January 2010 11:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    "The Japanese Way of Justice: Prosecuting Crime in Japan" Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-511986-X)
  • Miyazaki, Manabu. (2005) "Toppamono: Outlaw. Radical. Suspect. My Life in Japan's Underworld" Kotan Publishing (ISBN 0-9701716-2-5)
  • Seymour, Christopher. (1996). "Yakuza Diary" Atlantic Monthly Press (ISBN 0-87113-604-X)
  • Saga, Junichi., Bester, John. (1991) "Confessions of a Yakuza: A Life in Japan's Underworld" Kodansha America
  • Schilling, Mark. (2003). "The Yakuza Movie Book" Stone Bridge Press (ISBN 1-880656-76-0)
  • Sterling, Claire. (1994). "Thieves' World" Simon & Schuster (ISBN 0-671-74997-8)
  • Sho Fumimura (Writer), Ryoichi Ikegami (Artist). (Series 1993-1997) "Sanctuary" Viz Communications Inc (Vol 1: ISBN 0-929279-97-2; Vol 2:ISBN 0-929279-99-9; Vol 3: ISBN 1-56931-042-4; Vol 4: ISBN 1-56931-039-4; Vol 5: ISBN 1-56931-112-9; Vol 6: ISBN 1-56931-199-4; Vol 7: ISBN 1-56931-184-6; Vol 8: ISBN 1-56931-207-9; Vol 9: ISBN 1-56931-235-4)
  • Tendo, Shoko (2007). "Yakuza Moon: Memoirs of a Gangster's Daughter" Kodansha International [2] (ISBN 978-4-7700-3042-9)

Documentaries

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to yakuza article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Etymology

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /jəˈkuːzə/, SAMPA: /je"ku:z@/

Noun

Singular
yakuza
Plural
yakuza
yakuza (plural yakuza)
  1. A Japanese organized crime gang
  2. A member of a Japanese organized crime gang

Translations

See also


Finnish

Noun

yakuza
  1. yakuza (organized crime group or its member)

Declension


French

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ja.ky.za/

Etymology

Noun

yakuza m. (plural yakuzas)
  1. yakuza

Japanese

Etymology

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Pronunciation

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Noun

yakuza (hiragana やくざ, katakana ヤクザ)
  1. yakuza

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 21, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Yakuza, which are similar to those in the above article.








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