Yaoi: Wikis

  
  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Books on display at a San Francisco bookstore. Note that some titles are shrink wrapped, indicating sexually explicit content.
.Yaoi (やおい?)[nb 1] also known as Boys' Love, is a popular term for female-oriented fictional media that focus on homoerotic or homoromantic male relationships, usually created by female authors.^ Ususally called yaoi or shonen-ai ("boy love") in the West, the genre is currently known by the English term Boys Love in Japan.
  • Yaoi Guys - Television Tropes & Idioms 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Besides the Boys Love genre itself, which focuses specifically on male-male relationships for female readers, many stories for a more general audience feature " bishonen in love" subplots or homoerotic tease to appeal to female readers .
  • Yaoi Guys - Television Tropes & Idioms 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ A SHORT HISTORY OF YAOI In the mid-'70s, a group of women shoujo artists, known as "The Magnificent Forty-Niners," began to experiment with shounen-ai , which focused on platonic male/male relationships.
  • The Comics Journal: Essays 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.tcj.com [Source type: General]

.Originally referring to a specific type of dōjinshi (self-published works) parody of mainstream anime and manga works, yaoi came to be used as a generic term for female-oriented manga, anime, dating sims, novels and dōjinshi featuring idealized homosexual male relationships.^ There are also plans to publish non-yaoi/general interest manga.
  • Media Blasters Drops Shonen; Adds Yaoi - 3/13/2007 - Publishers Weekly 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.publishersweekly.com [Source type: General]

^ The anime and manga are considered yaoi classics.
  • ♥Yaoi Anime♥? - Yahoo! Answers 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Do female homosexuals have it easier than male homosexuals?
  • yaoi@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The main characters in yaoi usually conform to the formula of the seme (literally: attacker) who pursues the uke (literally: receiver).^ As for feminizing male characters, that is actually something that is not well received by a large portion of the yaoi fanfiction crowd.
  • yaoi@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I was reading this yaoi manga where the poor main character was sexually abused by the seme and this idea hit me.

^ Yaoi=Two men in love.Usually people who are bosses/co-workers/best childhood friends/etc.
  • Yaoi/Yuri Series - Anime Forum dot Com 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.animeforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Japan, the term has largely been replaced by the rubric Boys' Love (ボーイズラブ Bōizu Rabu?), which subsumes both parodies and original works, and commercial as well as dōjinshi works.^ Today commercial boys' love flourishes.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boys Love (DokiDoki) The replacement lover?

^ Ususally called yaoi or shonen-ai ("boy love") in the West, the genre is currently known by the English term Boys Love in Japan.
  • Yaoi Guys - Television Tropes & Idioms 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

.Although the genre is called Boys' Love (commonly abbreviated as "BL"), the males featured are pubescent or older.^ Love Mode is a manga about the romantic and sexual adventures of men associated with "Blue Boy," an all-male dating club.
  • ♥Yaoi Anime♥? - Yahoo! Answers 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Ususally called yaoi or shonen-ai ("boy love") in the West, the genre is currently known by the English term Boys Love in Japan.
  • Yaoi Guys - Television Tropes & Idioms 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Besides the Boys Love genre itself, which focuses specifically on male-male relationships for female readers, many stories for a more general audience feature " bishonen in love" subplots or homoerotic tease to appeal to female readers .
  • Yaoi Guys - Television Tropes & Idioms 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

Works featuring prepubescent boys are labeled shotacon, and seen as a distinct genre. .Yaoi (as it continues to be known among English-speaking fans) has spread beyond Japan: both translated and original yaoi is now available in many countries and languages.^ Impelled by the Web, yaoi has spread well beyond Japan's borders.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ususally called yaoi or shonen-ai ("boy love") in the West, the genre is currently known by the English term Boys Love in Japan.
  • Yaoi Guys - Television Tropes & Idioms 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Here you will find collected some of the most beautifully drawn and nastiest Yaoi (Boy/Boy) and Yuri (Girl/Girl) manga available, all faithfully translated into English Language and presented completely uncut and 100% uncensored, as they were indented to be.

.Yaoi began in the dōjinshi markets of Japan in the late 1970s/early 1980s as an outgrowth of shōnen-ai (少年愛?) (also known as "Juné" or "tanbi"), but whereas shōnen-ai (both commercial and dōjinshi) were original works, yaoi were parodies of popular "straight" shōnen anime and manga, such as Captain Tsubasa and Saint Seiya.^ Commercial anime produced from yaoi dōjinshi is exported to the West.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the anime and manga..
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ususally called yaoi or shonen-ai ("boy love") in the West, the genre is currently known by the English term Boys Love in Japan.
  • Yaoi Guys - Television Tropes & Idioms 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

.BL creators and fans are careful to distinguish the genre from bara, including “gay manga”, which are created by and for gay men.^ Sequential Tart: Did you work on other kinds of manga earlier in your career, either professionally or in doujinshi [self-published fan-created comics], or was yaoi always the genre you were most interested in?
  • Sequential Tart: Embracing Yaoi Manga (vol IX/iss 4/April 2006) 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.sequentialtart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American readers may also be surprised to know that these stories are intended for a female audience; works for gay men are generally considered a separate genre, sometimes called Bara in the West.
  • Yaoi Guys - Television Tropes & Idioms 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ The fact that the boys/men in yaoi are depicted as beautiful she related to the fact that women in shōjo manga are also depicted as beautiful, a mere characteristic of the entire genre of shōjo manga .
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[1][2] .However, some male manga creators have produced BL works.^ However, the results suggest that BL manga are not wholeheartedly dismissed by Western readers as pure fantasy, the “unicorns and elves” suggested by Johnson (2002).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of commercially produced YAOI manga is, however, small in relation to the vast number of privately circulated YAOI comics which are disseminated both in printed form and, increasingly, on the Internet.
  • Intersections: Male Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Modern Japan 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Readers of BL manga, however, seem to be older, falling primarily between ages 18 and 34.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Yuri is a wider blanket term than yaoi, because it refers to comics with lesbian relationships, regardless of the target audience, which may be (presumptively heterosexual) men, heterosexual women, or lesbian women.^ Men get turned on by lesbians much more than women get turned on by gay men .
  • yaoi@Everything2.com 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, unlike slash which is an amateur genre distributed privately by fans through self-produced 'zines' or on the Internet, YAOI comics are also commercially produced and on sale in bookstores throughout Japan where they are sold without restriction to their target audience of young women (from their mid-teens onward).
  • Intersections: Male Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Modern Japan 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi, outside of Japan, is an umbrella term for all male/male comics made for women .
  • Nocturne, yaoi series - Welcome to Nihonomaru! | Anime Network 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC forum.nihonomaru.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yuri for actual lesbians tends to resemble the opposite of bara, while men's yuri manga is more like yaoi manga, since both are targeted at the opposite sex and are not about reflecting gay reality.^ It’s not more about gay men, really, than a lesbian porn DVD is about lesbians.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

^ Yaoi and Yuri are like a romance without anything else, really.
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yaoi isn’t nasty, but the objectification of real gay men is hurtful.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Terminology

Usage

.Although different meanings are often ascribed to yaoi and boy's love (with yaoi generally said to be more explicit and BL generally said to being less so), there is conflicting information on their usage.^ The content of yaoi and boys' love are signs to which we have attached meaning.
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sure, there's a vibe of community in the Yaoi/BL world and a paddle with the words "YAOI", "SEME", or "UKE" are an interesting way to proudly declare yourself part of that community.
  • Start banning Yaoi paddles! - Otakon Web Boards 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC board.otakon.com [Source type: General]
  • Start banning Yaoi paddles! - Otakon Web Boards 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC board.otakon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The favored term in Japan for this subgenre is BL , an acronym for boys’ love, which is, in turn, a translation of the now-outdated Japanese phrase shonen-ai .
  • Romance by Any Other Name - 9/15/2007 - Library Journal 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.libraryjournal.com [Source type: General]

[4]
.Yaoi is an acronym created in the dōjinshi market of the late 1970s by Yasuko Sakata and Akiko Hatsu[5] and popularized in the 1980s[6] standing for Yama nashi, ochi nashi, imi nashi (ヤマなし、オチなし、意味なし?) "No climax, no point, no meaning".^ No climax, No point, No meaning?
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi stands for ya ma nashi , o chi nashi , i mi nashi , which means 'no climax [as in the climax of a story], no plot, no meaning.'
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ (No peak, no point, no meaning).
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

.This phrase refers to how yaoi, as opposed to the "difficult to understand" shōnen-ai of the Year 24 Group,[7] focused on "the yummy parts".[8] The phrase also parodies a classical style of plot structure.^ Year 24 group – Wikipedia.

^ Boys’ love may be referred to in the U.S. and Italy, variously and with different shades of meaning, boys’ love, shōnen-ai , juné , and yaoi (for details on the differences between these terms, see Mizoguchi, 2003; Sabucco, 2000; and Aestheticism.Com, n.d.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jump to: navigation , search This page hosts links to scholarly articles about yaoi / shōnen-ai topics.

[1] As of 1998, the term yaoi was considered "common knowledge to manga fans".[9] A joking alternative acronym among fujoshi (female yaoi fans) for yaoi is Yamete, oshiri ga itai (やめて お尻が 痛い?, "Stop, my butt hurts!").[3][10]
.Originally in Japan, much BL material was called "june" ジュネ ,[11] a name derived from June, a magazine that published male/male tanbi 耽美 ("aesthetic") romances, stories written for and about the worship of beauty,[11] and romance between older men and beautiful youths[12] using particularly flowery language and unusual kanji.^ Paul Gordon Schalow says Kitamura intended his work as "morally inspirational depictions of male love" and selected material reflecting a romanticized tradition of idealized relations between youths and men (1993:8).
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Originally developed in Japan, boys’ love is now a global phenomenon, but little is known about its Western readership.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of printed boys' love media in Japan, Keith Vincent (2002) says there are approximately nine magazines published monthly, 12 comic magazines and 30 paperback books published each month.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .Mori Mari in Koibito tachi no mori (恋人たちの森?, A Lovers' Forest), considered "the first work of BL per se",[13] used such unusual kanji for her characters' names that she converted to spelling their names in katakana.^ The first work of BL per se is generally agreed to be Koibitotachi no ori ( The Lover’s Forest ), published in 1961.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also like fanpairings and doujinshi (is this how you spell it, -_-;), these pairings and such are too numerous to name and are the result from all/mostly male casts in numerous manga/anime.
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I saw a nice character, didn't knw the name at first- but here, the name is Takahashi Misaki.
  • looking for gay characters - Anime Online 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC www.animeonline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Kaoru Kurimoto had also written shōnen ai mono stories in the late 1970s that have been described as "the precursors of yaoi".[5] June magazine, in turn, had been named after the French author Jean Genet, with "june" being a play on the Japanese pronunciation of his name.^ Kannazuki no Miko is also serialized in a magazine targeted at male audience(I forgot the name of the magazine) so it has shoujo-ai told in a shounen way but I don't think it will have any shounen-ai.
  • Recommend me other shoujo ai ai anime [Archive] - AnimeSuki Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC forums.animesuki.com [Source type: General]

^ Jump to: navigation , search This page hosts links to scholarly articles about yaoi / shōnen-ai topics.

^ June” or “Juné” is another term for BL, derived from the Japanese magazine June , launched in 1981, which specialized in this genre (Suzuki, 1998, p.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .Eventually the term "june" died out in favour of "BL," which remains the most common name.^ June” or “Juné” is another term for BL, derived from the Japanese magazine June , launched in 1981, which specialized in this genre (Suzuki, 1998, p.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although most respondents create original BL work, a number of the write-in responses to both surveys pointed out that creating original work is not the only contribution readers can make.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.Another term for yaoi is 801.[15] "801" can be read as "yaoi" in the following form: the "short" reading of the number 8 is "ya", 0 can be read as "o" - a western influence without doubt, while the short reading for 1 is "i" (see Japanese wordplay).^ The number of Western dōjinshi will probably increase, facilitated by artists' consortia such as Minkland and Umbrella Studios and events like Yaoi-Con .
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are no Japanese fat yaoi fangirls and there are no American otomes or fujoshi, because those terms refer to a specific kind of American and Japanese fan, respectively.

^ Oct 14, 2003, 18:15 YAOI. BE CAREFUL how you use this term.
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, an Internet manga called Tonari no 801-chan, about an otaku guy who dates a fujoshi, has been adapted into a serialized shōjo manga and a live-action film.^ The title character of Tonari no 801-chan .
  • Yaoi Fangirl - Television Tropes & Idioms 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ About ADDR! あ-chan Figurines Series .

^ I first saw it about 2 years ago when I was first seriously getting into anime, and just recently bought the box set, and it was so very much worth the money.
  • Recommend me other shoujo ai ai anime [Archive] - AnimeSuki Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC forums.animesuki.com [Source type: General]

.801-chan, the mascot of a Japanese shopping centre, is used in the manga.^ Commercial "boys' love" manga (the Japanese use the English words) is one of the largest niche markets in Japanese publishing.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.Yaoi has become an umbrella term in the West for women's manga or Japanese-influenced comics with male-male relationships,[11] and it is the term preferentially used by American manga publishers.^ Manga!: The world of Japanese comics.
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi, outside of Japan, is an umbrella term for all male/male comics made for women .
  • Yaoi-Yuri - Welcome to Nihonomaru! | Anime Network 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC forum.nihonomaru.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manga: Sixty years of Japanese comics .

[17] .The actual name of the genre aimed toward women in Japan is called 'BL' or 'Boy's Love'. BL is aimed at the shōjo and josei demographics, but is considered a separate category.^ Originally developed in Japan, boys’ love is now a global phenomenon, but little is known about its Western readership.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that the boys/men in yaoi are depicted as beautiful she related to the fact that women in shōjo manga are also depicted as beautiful, a mere characteristic of the entire genre of shōjo manga .
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ However, perhaps because BL is a relatively new publishing genre in the United States and its reader base is still comparatively small, readers have been able to communicate with and influence the handful of publishers currently licensing and translating boys’ love manga.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11][18] .Yaoi is used in Japan to include dōjinshi and sex scenes,[11] and does not include gei comi, which is by gay men and for gay men.^ Yaoi isn’t about gay men.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

^ Yaoi is predominantly made by straight females for straight females, and is not to be confused with gei comi, which is made by gay men for gay men.
  • A Dangerous Question: Yaoi Normalizes Rape? » Manga Worth Reading 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC comicsworthreading.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The driving force behind BL stories is not the men involved, but the relationships, sex, and romance—and because it involves only men, does not make it gay.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

[1][11]
.The terms yaoi and shōnen-ai are sometimes used by western fans to differentiate between the contents of the genre.^ Yaoi is often used as a term to describe both explicit context and goody-goody in anime, but more accurately Yaoi is R to pg-17, aka yes the horizontal mumbo.
  • Animazement Fan Forum • View topic - Yaoi Panel 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.animazement.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genre Hard Yaoi Publisher Biblos Published in Puapua Contents: A young man, struggling to make ends meet, rescues and revives a potted plant from the trash.

^ One of the key differences between the two genres may be the age of the media characters and of the fans creating erotic works about them.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this case, yaoi is used to describe titles that contain largely sex scenes and other sexually explicit themes and shōnen-ai is used to describe titles that focus more on romance and do not include explicit sexual content, although they may include implicit sexual content.^ They also include explicit, non-heteronormative sex, and graphic violence.

^ Yes…there are many “graphic” scenes, but unlike many other yaoi, these scenes often contain the most important dialogue in the entire chapter, and moreover, they are not just a series of depictions of sex, but they depict the inner thoughts of the characters.
  • Robofish : Tp Article - TOKYOPOP 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.tokyopop.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s used to describe manga/anime focusing on male relationships, not avoiding strong, graphically portrayed homosexual themes.
  • AnimeA - Manga List 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC manga.animea.net [Source type: Original source]

[19][20][21] .When using the terms in this way, Gravitation is considered to be shōnen-ai due to its focus on the characters' careers rather than their love life, while the Gravitation Remix and Megamix doujinshi by the same author, which emphasize the characters' sexual relationships, would be considered yaoi.^ It would be a love-hate relationship.
  • The Shounen-Ai Fanclub [Archive] - Naruto Discussion Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC naruto.viz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi is often used as a term to describe both explicit context and goody-goody in anime, but more accurately Yaoi is R to pg-17, aka yes the horizontal mumbo.
  • Animazement Fan Forum • View topic - Yaoi Panel 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.animazement.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I like yaoi and yuri...I think it is awesome..I haven't watched any, but I have gotten to read the yaoi manga Gravitation and I really love it...what other yaoi or yuri mangas are there??
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sometimes the word hentai is used as an additional modifier with yaoi - "hentai yaoi" - to denote the most explicit titles.^ Yaoi is often used as a term to describe both explicit context and goody-goody in anime, but more accurately Yaoi is R to pg-17, aka yes the horizontal mumbo.
  • Animazement Fan Forum • View topic - Yaoi Panel 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.animazement.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In practice, the term yaoi is most commonly used inclusively to refer to all BLB manga , which has evidently led to the high figures of yaoi fans.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Seemingly a child can either a yaoi shota hentai cancel me yaoi shota hentai that it is nose to mash a faulty simplistic yaoi shota hentai using your .

[22] .However, Kaze to Ki no Uta[nb 2] was groundbreaking in its depictions of "openly sexual relationships", spurring the development of the shōnen-ai genre in shōjo manga.^ Furachi na Ai no Uta .
  • AnimeA - Manga List 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC manga.animea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Takemiya Keiko, Kaze to ki no uta , Shōgakukan, vol.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Yaoi, also referred to as Boys Love, is a genre of anime/manga that focuses on homosexual male relationships.
  • SPECTRUM NEXUS · Yaoi Manga Scans Online 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.thespectrum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .The use of yaoi to denote those works with explicit scenes sometimes clashes with use of the word to describe the genre as a whole.^ Yaoi is often used as a term to describe both explicit context and goody-goody in anime, but more accurately Yaoi is R to pg-17, aka yes the horizontal mumbo.
  • Animazement Fan Forum • View topic - Yaoi Panel 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.animazement.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A great deal of "s" words can be used to describe David Cronenberg's film, the top of that list including subtle and sexy.
  • 同志电影欣赏日gay movie:Sun,Aug 30,4pm:Priscilla Queen of the Desert 沙漠妖姬(页 1) - English Forum (国际版) - RL 彩虹联盟::Rainbow League 上海,上海彩虹联盟,彩虹,彩虹联盟,彩虹,联盟,新闻,资讯,股市,游泳,健身,羽毛球,健康,运动,活动,热点,笑话,兴趣,爱好,沙龙,游泳,健身,外语,HOMO,GAY,阳光,真情,同志,同性恋,同性爱 - Powered by Discuz! Archiver 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC w210821.s94.ufhost.com [Source type: General]

^ The brush and pen work is often fluid and sparing, though sometimes scenes are full of detail.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yaoi can be used by fans as a label for anime or manga-based slash fiction.^ MediaMiner.org - Anime Fan Fiction .
  • MediaMiner.org - Anime Fan Fiction 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.mediaminer.org [Source type: General]

^ I get really annoyed when people when label DNAngel "yaoi" when it's a shoujo anime just because so many fans are Daisuke x Satoshi fangirls even though the series makes it clear that Daisuke is straight and his main crush is Risa.
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]

^ Trinity Blood anime manga yaoi Portrait Poster Dietrich Enlarge .
  • eBay - Anime Cartoons Pokemon hentai Yaoi, Similar items search 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC shop.ebay.com [Source type: General]

[25]
.While shōnen-ai literally means boy's love, the two terms are not synonymous.^ Boys’ love may be referred to in the U.S. and Italy, variously and with different shades of meaning, boys’ love, shōnen-ai , juné , and yaoi (for details on the differences between these terms, see Mizoguchi, 2003; Sabucco, 2000; and Aestheticism.Com, n.d.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Boys' love" termed Shounen ai in Japanese, refers to dojinshi featuring highly romantic gentle, loving, and cuddly male/male relationships in which explicit sex is seldom suggested.
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The content of yaoi and boys' love are signs to which we have attached meaning.
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Japan, shōnen-ai used to refer to a now obsolete subgenre of shōjo manga about prepubescent boys in relationships ranging from the platonic to the romantic and sexual.^ Originally developed in Japan, boys’ love is now a global phenomenon, but little is known about its Western readership.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now this kind of yaoi manga should be censored not only for lack of taste but the horrid use of such a theme.
  • A Dangerous Question: Yaoi Normalizes Rape? » Manga Worth Reading 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC comicsworthreading.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that the boys/men in yaoi are depicted as beautiful she related to the fact that women in shōjo manga are also depicted as beautiful, a mere characteristic of the entire genre of shōjo manga .
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.The term was originally used to describe ephebophilia, and in scholarly contexts still is.^ However, use of this term is extremely loose and it can be used to describe a man who displays any transgender attribute.
  • Intersections: Male Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Modern Japan 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Japanese homosexual women are sometimes described using another 'pot' metaphor, onabe [meaning 'pan'] a parallel term to okama which only has meaning in relation to it.
  • Intersections: Male Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Modern Japan 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Okama are represented as the opposite of 'normal' men ( noomaru , a loan word from English and futsuu , the Japanese equivalent, are the main terms used to describe 'straight' men in Japanese).
  • Intersections: Male Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Modern Japan 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Boy's Love, on the other hand, is used as a genre's name and refers to all titles regardless of sexual content or the ages of characters in the story (with the exception of titles featuring prepubescent boys, which are categorized as shotacon, a distinct genre with only peripheral connections to BL).^ All Images, character names, and titles are by their respective copyright holders.

^ Yaoi, also referred to as Boys Love, is a genre of anime/manga that focuses on homosexual male relationships.
  • SPECTRUM NEXUS · Yaoi Manga Scans Online 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.thespectrum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no correlation between “enjoying pretty drawn boys that are in love with each other” and “enjoying real life guys doing the bump and grind”.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

[11]

Gei comi/Bara

.Although sometimes conflated with "yaoi" by Anglophone commentators, gei comi (also called "Mens' Love", ML, in Japan and "bara" in English) caters to a gay male audience rather than a female one and tends to be made primarily by homosexual male artists such as Gengoroh Tagame and serialized in gay men's magazines.^ One only appears to be female or male."
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi isn’t about gay men.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

^ Yaoi is predominantly made by straight females for straight females, and is not to be confused with gei comi, which is made by gay men for gay men.
  • A Dangerous Question: Yaoi Normalizes Rape? » Manga Worth Reading 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC comicsworthreading.com [Source type: Original source]

[26] .It is an even smaller niche genre in Japan than yaoi manga; none has been licensed in English and not much has been scanlated into English.^ Yaoi manga's not that much different from non-yaoi manga .
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm not going into much detail on this one, but I love how it shows how awkward and maybe even depressing their relationship could be at first.
  • Beyond the Eyes: The SasuHina FC [Archive] - Page 20 - Naruto Forums 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC forums.narutofan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that the boys/men in yaoi are depicted as beautiful she related to the fact that women in shōjo manga are also depicted as beautiful, a mere characteristic of the entire genre of shōjo manga .
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[27] .Considered a subgenre of seijin (men's erotica) for gay males, bara resembles comics for men (seinen) rather than comics for female readers (shoujo/josei).^ Although BL clearly appeals to heterosexual women, it also seems to be more popular with bisexual, gay, lesbian, and male readers than previous readership descriptions have suggested.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s not more about gay men, really, than a lesbian porn DVD is about lesbians.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

^ Simple- if they want to objectify real-life men, gay or no, make the Con female-only.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

.Recently a subgenre of BL have been introduced in Japan, so-called gachi muchi or "muscley-chubby" BL,[28] which offers more masculine body types and is more likely to have gay male authors and artists.^ Although BL clearly appeals to heterosexual women, it also seems to be more popular with bisexual, gay, lesbian, and male readers than previous readership descriptions have suggested.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also made no distinction between yaoi and the women who like to court gay men as friends, called okoge [fag hags], who also objectify handsome gay men.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ SO YES, I’d like more people to consider the male point of view on yaoi.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

.Although still marketed primarily to women,[28] it is also thought to attract a large crossover gay male audience.^ Although BL clearly appeals to heterosexual women, it also seems to be more popular with bisexual, gay, lesbian, and male readers than previous readership descriptions have suggested.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Answers to questions such as who reads the genre and why have been sought in women's resistance to patriarchy, [4] ignoring the fact that there are also many gay male readers.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The audience for BL manga in Japan is almost always described as being primarily women (e.g., Suzuki, 1998; McLelland, 2001; Mizoguchi, 2003).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .This material has been referred to as "bara" among English-speaking fans,[30][31] but it is distinct in publishing terms (and often in content and style), and should not be confused with gei comi proper.^ In an attempt to emphasize their community-minded, rather than profit-oriented, intentions to other fans and publishers, most English-language scanlation sites warn readers that their scanlations are intended for private use and should not be redistributed, especially for profit.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is obvious that Japanese has a wide variety of terms relating to what British sociologist James Valentine refers to as 'queer sexualities,' some indigenous and others borrowed from English.
  • Intersections: Male Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Modern Japan 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aug 10, 2004, 05:31 I think being a fan of yaoi/shounen ai should have an extent...
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

Seme and uke

A souvenir from Otome Road showing different character types in yaoi.
.The two participants in a yaoi relationship (sometimes also in yuri[32]) are often referred to as seme ("attacker",攻め or せめ) and uke ("receiver",受け).^ Yaoi, unfortunately, has this tendency to overly romanticize gay relationships to the point that most of the time, the uke or ‘bottom’ in the relationship is a man with too much oestrogen or a girl with man bits…” .
  • A Dangerous Question: Yaoi Normalizes Rape? » Manga Worth Reading 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC comicsworthreading.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yuri's my thing) Rin wrote: The only problem I have with yaoi fanfiction is that there is so much that it can sometimes be impossible to find a fanfic that's not yaoi related.
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]

^ As a yuri fan I encounter rabid yaoi fangirls all too often.
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]

These terms originated in martial arts and do not carry any degrading connotations. .Seme derives from the Japanese verb semeru (“to attack”) and uke from the Japanese verb ukeru (“to receive”).^ (In Japanese yaoi, the seme fucks the uke.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some ways Burning evokes a Japanese yaoi dōjinshi, with its clearly defined seme-uke roles, fragmented symbolic dialogue and sparely drawn panels.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Though gay males are often referred to in English as "tops" or "bottoms," seme and uke are more nearly analogous to "pitcher" and "catcher." The seme and uke are often drawn in the bishōnen style and are "highly idealised",[33] blending both masculine and feminine qualities.[9]
.The seme is often depicted as the stereotypical male of anime and manga culture: restrained, physically powerful, and/or protective.^ They are appropriating male characters from anime (cartoon animations) and manga (comics) produced for young people and putting them in homoerotic situations.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yuri denotes relationships, often represented explicitly, between girls or women in anime and manga.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also like fanpairings and doujinshi (is this how you spell it, -_-;), these pairings and such are too numerous to name and are the result from all/mostly male casts in numerous manga/anime.
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

.The seme is generally older and taller,[34] with a stronger chin, shorter hair, smaller eyes, and a more stereotypically masculine, even "macho",[35] demeanour than the uke.^ So much so he can´t act on his feelings for Andrew even though they are little more than an open secret.
  • 同志电影欣赏日gay movie:Sun,Aug 30,4pm:Priscilla Queen of the Desert 沙漠妖姬(页 1) - English Forum (国际版) - RL 彩虹联盟::Rainbow League 上海,上海彩虹联盟,彩虹,彩虹联盟,彩虹,联盟,新闻,资讯,股市,游泳,健身,羽毛球,健康,运动,活动,热点,笑话,兴趣,爱好,沙龙,游泳,健身,外语,HOMO,GAY,阳光,真情,同志,同性恋,同性爱 - Powered by Discuz! Archiver 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC w210821.s94.ufhost.com [Source type: General]

^ Even more authentic than Max & Sven, it should be part of every gay youth’s library.

^ Smaller than standard size, more like pocket manga sized.
  • Yu-Gi-Oh! Bakura themed Yaoi Doujinshi 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.alaerart.com [Source type: General]

The seme usually pursues the uke. .The uke usually has softer, androgynous, feminine features with bigger eyes and a smaller build, and is often physically weaker than the seme.^ He also insisted that yaoi manga often lack realism, as the female authors do not know how men feel, and that most of the yaoi authors were lesbian women, hence the feminine features.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[17][36][37] .Anal sex is a prevalent theme in yaoi, as nearly all stories feature it in some way.^ Very often, yaoi story focuses only on the sex, ignoring elements like true plot, emotions or characters development.
  • AnimeA - Manga List 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC manga.animea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Toby, realizing he has some type of feelings for Bree, proposes to have sex with her (as having sex is the only way he knows to express love and emotion), saying that he will marry her if she wants to.
  • 同志电影欣赏日gay movie:Sun,Aug 30,4pm:Priscilla Queen of the Desert 沙漠妖姬(页 1) - English Forum (国际版) - RL 彩虹联盟::Rainbow League 上海,上海彩虹联盟,彩虹,彩虹联盟,彩虹,联盟,新闻,资讯,股市,游泳,健身,羽毛球,健康,运动,活动,热点,笑话,兴趣,爱好,沙龙,游泳,健身,外语,HOMO,GAY,阳光,真情,同志,同性恋,同性爱 - Powered by Discuz! Archiver 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC w210821.s94.ufhost.com [Source type: General]

^ Ruru Black Magic 8 PG All cast- special intro book Yaoi themes/ Ultimate Powers .
  • Yu-Gi-Oh! Bakura themed Yaoi Doujinshi 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.alaerart.com [Source type: General]

[36] .The storyline where an uke is reluctant to have anal sex with a seme is considered to be similar to the reader's reluctance to have sexual contact with someone for the first time.^ The first (and sometimes many) time(s) that the protagonists have sex is usually preceded by the seme (top) coercing the uke into submission and like a pubescent virgin girl, the uke says no, it’s not right, blah, blah but one smouldering look from the seme and he stops and offers himself and they have hot sex.
  • A Dangerous Question: Yaoi Normalizes Rape? » Manga Worth Reading 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC comicsworthreading.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Part 4 , I mentioned the sex-negativity inherent in the statement that women authors and readers of m/m are voyeurs, fetishizing and objectifying gay men for our own sexual gratification .  .

^ The iyarashii [disgusting] sex in BLB manga can be liberating for gay men's sexuality in a manner similar to gay manga .
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[38] .One stereotype that is criticized is when the protagonists do not identify as gay, but rather are simply in love with that particular person.^ She interprets this as homophobia, as the characters are phobic towards a gay identity; they maintain that they are essentially straight but just developed erotic and loving feelings for one particular man.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ She claimed that she did not particularly like the depictions of beautiful gay men but rather liked particular characters in the manga as well as particular real life women.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The authors conclude that most women who read romances can enjoy a male-male romance and identify with one or both protagonists.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2][36] .This is said to heighten the theme of all-conquering love,[39] but is also pointed to as avoiding having to address prejudices against people who consider themselves to have been born homosexual.^ I want to thank all of you who've taken the time to read these posts.  I hope that some of you come away with some talking points to help you address misconceptions about m/m when you encounter them in your own lives.  And I hope what I've said will encourage those of you who disagree with me to do your own exploration of your relationship with m/m.

^ People ship it because Neji is a bishie and by their logic needs a love interest, but Lee who is ugly needn't.
  • Beyond the Eyes: The SasuHina FC [Archive] - Page 20 - Naruto Forums 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC forums.narutofan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The song really has nothing at all to do with 9/11, it is a love song to someone who is probably far from the speaker.

[2] .In recent years, newer yaoi stories have characters that identify as gay.^ They contain romantic stories involving men who do not always identify as gays even if for most observers they are.

^ Very often, yaoi story focuses only on the sex, ignoring elements like true plot, emotions or characters development.
  • AnimeA - Manga List 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC manga.animea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ My favourite yaoi artists are Kai Nanase Ayano Yamane Kazuho Kaguyama for engaging story lines plus great looking characters.
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] Criticism of the stereotypically "girly" behavior of the uke has also been prominent.[37] .It has been questioned if yaoi is heteronormative, due to the masculine seme and feminine uke stereotypes.^ (In Japanese yaoi, the seme fucks the uke.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sure, there's a vibe of community in the Yaoi/BL world and a paddle with the words "YAOI", "SEME", or "UKE" are an interesting way to proudly declare yourself part of that community.
  • Start banning Yaoi paddles! - Otakon Web Boards 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC board.otakon.com [Source type: General]

^ In some ways Burning evokes a Japanese yaoi dōjinshi, with its clearly defined seme-uke roles, fragmented symbolic dialogue and sparely drawn panels.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17][40] Additionally, yaoi stories are often told from the uke's perspective.[17]
.Though these stereotypes are common, not all works adhere to them.^ I use quotes because part of the appeal is that all of these boys at the Con are nominally gay, though most aren’t in real life.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

[4][37] .Mark McLelland says that authors are "interested in exploring, not repudiating" the dynamics between the insertive partner and the receptive partner.^ McLelland (2000:78) says that the bishōnen "can be read as a figure of resistance: both to the notion that biology is destiny and to the correlation between biology and gender role."
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mark McLelland, 'Gay Men as a Woman's Ideal Partners in Japanese Popular Culture: Are Gay Men Really a Girls' Best Friends?'
  • Intersections: Male Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Modern Japan 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .The possibility of switching roles is often a source of playful teasing and sexual excitement for the characters, which has been said to show that the genre is aware of the "performative nature" of the roles.^ There is good-natured hilarity as players, often cross-dressed, sometimes erotically tease each other.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After all, he said, the readership wants sexual excitement.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[21] .Sometimes the bottom character will be the aggressor in the relationship,[nb 3] or the pair will switch their sexual roles.^ In the eighties yaoi became synonymous with M/M--parodies of popular manga and animation characters in what appear to be gay relationships in which explicit and sometimes violent sex is shown.
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Make-Out Paradise Discuss your favorite character pairings, anything to do with relationships, and who's cute/un-cute.
  • The Shounen-Ai Fanclub - Naruto Discussion Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC naruto.viz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why can't film reviewers say the word 'bisexual' when they see lead characters with sexual and romantic relationships with both men and women?
  • 同志电影欣赏日gay movie:Sun,Aug 30,4pm:Priscilla Queen of the Desert 沙漠妖姬(页 1) - English Forum (国际版) - RL 彩虹联盟::Rainbow League 上海,上海彩虹联盟,彩虹,彩虹联盟,彩虹,联盟,新闻,资讯,股市,游泳,健身,羽毛球,健康,运动,活动,热点,笑话,兴趣,爱好,沙龙,游泳,健身,外语,HOMO,GAY,阳光,真情,同志,同性恋,同性爱 - Powered by Discuz! Archiver 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC w210821.s94.ufhost.com [Source type: General]

[43] .Riba, リバ (a contraction of the English word "reversible") is used to describe a couple that yaoi fans think is still plausible when the partners switch their seme/uke roles.^ (In Japanese yaoi, the seme fucks the uke.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I hate the yaoi and yuri paddles myself, BUT I think there are too many people with them, that don't use them at con on people, let alone people that don't want it, to warrant banning.
  • Start banning Yaoi paddles! - Otakon Web Boards 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC board.otakon.com [Source type: General]

^ A great deal of "s" words can be used to describe David Cronenberg's film, the top of that list including subtle and sexy.
  • 同志电影欣赏日gay movie:Sun,Aug 30,4pm:Priscilla Queen of the Desert 沙漠妖姬(页 1) - English Forum (国际版) - RL 彩虹联盟::Rainbow League 上海,上海彩虹联盟,彩虹,彩虹联盟,彩虹,联盟,新闻,资讯,股市,游泳,健身,羽毛球,健康,运动,活动,热点,笑话,兴趣,爱好,沙龙,游泳,健身,外语,HOMO,GAY,阳光,真情,同志,同性恋,同性爱 - Powered by Discuz! Archiver 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC w210821.s94.ufhost.com [Source type: General]

[42] .In another common mode of characters, the author will forgo the stylisations of the seme and uke, and will portray both lovers as "equally attractive handsome men". In this case, whichever of the two who is ordinarily in charge will take the "passive role" in the bedroom.^ Originally Posted by Diocletian Yaoi=Two men in love.Usually people who are bosses/co-workers/best childhood friends/etc.
  • Yaoi/Yuri Series - Anime Forum dot Com 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.animeforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Faced with the unbearable truth that his lover is actually male, he himself takes on the role of Butterfly, the woman who died for the sake of an illusory love.
  • 同志电影欣赏日gay movie:Sun,Aug 30,4pm:Priscilla Queen of the Desert 沙漠妖姬(页 1) - English Forum (国际版) - RL 彩虹联盟::Rainbow League 上海,上海彩虹联盟,彩虹,彩虹联盟,彩虹,联盟,新闻,资讯,股市,游泳,健身,羽毛球,健康,运动,活动,热点,笑话,兴趣,爱好,沙龙,游泳,健身,外语,HOMO,GAY,阳光,真情,同志,同性恋,同性爱 - Powered by Discuz! Archiver 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC w210821.s94.ufhost.com [Source type: General]

^ The two young actors portray men of vastly different backgrounds, and the film subtly brings out issues of class structure, sexual orientation, and gay culture with both gravitas and good humor.
  • 同志电影欣赏日gay movie:Sun,Aug 30,4pm:Priscilla Queen of the Desert 沙漠妖姬(页 1) - English Forum (国际版) - RL 彩虹联盟::Rainbow League 上海,上海彩虹联盟,彩虹,彩虹联盟,彩虹,联盟,新闻,资讯,股市,游泳,健身,羽毛球,健康,运动,活动,热点,笑话,兴趣,爱好,沙龙,游泳,健身,外语,HOMO,GAY,阳光,真情,同志,同性恋,同性爱 - Powered by Discuz! Archiver 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC w210821.s94.ufhost.com [Source type: General]

[35]

Shōnen-ai

.Shōnen-ai (少年愛 boy-love?) originally meant ephebophilia or pederasty in Japan, but from the early 1970s to the late 1980s, was used to describe a new genre of shōjo manga, primarily by the Year 24 Group, about beautiful boys in love.^ Year 24 group – Wikipedia.

^ Indagine manga boy’s love.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boys’ love, which is an offshoot of shōjo , is a relatively new import.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Characteristics of shōnen-ai include that they were exotic, often taking place in Europe,[44] and idealistic.^ They identified 87 stories with rape or sexual assault, of which 80 "show the woman or others taking violent, often murderous, revenge on sexual attackers."
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taking issue with this ideology, Radway argued that reading is “an activity that takes place within a specific social context” that includes social characteristics and “a set of deliberate and complex strategies engaged in by communities of people” (p.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McLelland [2] takes the discussion further to include newer manga situated in the present but insists that the depictions are equally not representative of actual gay existence, as they are over-romantic.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[45] .Suzuki describes shōnen-ai as being "pedantic" and "difficult to understand",[7] saying that they required "knowledge of classic literature, history and science"[45] and were replete with "philosophical and abstract musings".[46] She says that this challenged the young readers and expanded their minds.^ Some readers of yaoi and boys' love manga say it has changed their lives, helping them better understand themselves and the world.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I see their interaction as being able to talk to one another because they can understand one another, and yet at the same time, they don't have to talk.
  • Beyond the Eyes: The SasuHina FC [Archive] - Page 20 - Naruto Forums 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC forums.narutofan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The audience for BL manga in Japan is almost always described as being primarily women (e.g., Suzuki, 1998; McLelland, 2001; Mizoguchi, 2003).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although they could not understand the works at first reading, as they grew older they would come to understand the works more.^ And, personally, I would find fan takes on our work very flattering, no matter where they showed up.
  • Free Comics : Yaoi 911 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.yaoi911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They're just rare although becoming more prevalent, especially with self-acclaimed bishonen .
  • Yaoi Fangirl - Television Tropes & Idioms 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Maybe one kid could have sharingan and the other could have byakugan, though I'm not sure how that would work with genetics.
  • Beyond the Eyes: The SasuHina FC [Archive] - Page 20 - Naruto Forums 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC forums.narutofan.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the meantime, "the readers' attention became focused on the figure of the male protagonist" and how he navigated his sexual relationships.^ CJ Michalski uses a staggering variety of panel shapes and sizes to keep the reader’s attention focused on the pages.

^ The ascendance of the medico-scientific model of sex had a profound impact on how Japanese understood male-male sexuality.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most depicts two male media characters involved in a sexual relationship with each other, though a small percentage is written about female couples.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .By the late 1980s, the popularity of professionally published shōnen-ai was declining, and yaoi dōjinshi was becoming more popular.^ There are no universally accepted definitions in English for "yaoi" and "shōnen-ai."
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gaki Deka 's popularity boosted sales of the children's manga Shōnen Champion by more than a million copies (1997:123).
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comi announced at their panel the yaoi-friendly 07-Ghost which comes from Zero-Sum , the magazine which published the infamously teasing shonen-ai manga Loveless .
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

[8]

Dōjinshi

.The dōjinshi subculture has been considered the Japanese equivalent of the English-language slash fandom, especially as they both do not have typical "narrative structure", science fiction works are particularly popular in both,[9] and they both originated in the 1970s.^ Men working on the street, in bathhouses, or parks are typically known as "hustlers"; men working in bars are called "bar hustlers" if they are not dancing, or "go-go boys" or "exotic dancers" if they are dancing or stripping at a club.
  • 同志电影欣赏日gay movie:Sun,Aug 30,4pm:Priscilla Queen of the Desert 沙漠妖姬(页 1) - English Forum (国际版) - RL 彩虹联盟::Rainbow League 上海,上海彩虹联盟,彩虹,彩虹联盟,彩虹,联盟,新闻,资讯,股市,游泳,健身,羽毛球,健康,运动,活动,热点,笑话,兴趣,爱好,沙龙,游泳,健身,外语,HOMO,GAY,阳光,真情,同志,同性恋,同性爱 - Powered by Discuz! Archiver 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC w210821.s94.ufhost.com [Source type: General]

^ They both live above the drug store they work, the mysterious Manager of the store, Kakei (Tall blond) keeps sending them on small jobs for him.
  • Clamp Manga Reviews 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC bane-huntress.com [Source type: General]

^ They were playing the English translation now, a good song but the original Japanese was better.
  • Shadowsong: a tale of shonen ai 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC tuxedomask.com [Source type: Original source]

[6][19] .Typical yaoi dōjinshi features male-male pairings from non-romantic, published manga and anime.^ Yaoi manga's not that much different from non-yaoi manga .
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yaoi, also referred to as Boys Love, is a genre of anime/manga that focuses on homosexual male relationships.
  • SPECTRUM NEXUS · Yaoi Manga Scans Online 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.thespectrum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s used to describe manga/anime focusing on male relationships, not avoiding strong, graphically portrayed homosexual themes.
  • AnimeA - Manga List 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC manga.animea.net [Source type: Original source]

.Much of the material derives from male-oriented shōnen and seinen works which contained male-male close friendships and are perceived by fans to imply homosexual attraction,[8] such as with Captain Tsubasa[1] and Saint Seiya, two titles which popularised yaoi in the 1980s.^ Yaoi, also referred to as Boys Love, is a genre of anime/manga that focuses on homosexual male relationships.
  • SPECTRUM NEXUS · Yaoi Manga Scans Online 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.thespectrum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two problems, though - Christian is falling in love with Aaron and the Mormons are not the biggest fans of the homosexual community.
  • 同志电影欣赏日gay movie:Sun,Aug 30,4pm:Priscilla Queen of the Desert 沙漠妖姬(页 1) - English Forum (国际版) - RL 彩虹联盟::Rainbow League 上海,上海彩虹联盟,彩虹,彩虹联盟,彩虹,联盟,新闻,资讯,股市,游泳,健身,羽毛球,健康,运动,活动,热点,笑话,兴趣,爱好,沙龙,游泳,健身,外语,HOMO,GAY,阳光,真情,同志,同性恋,同性爱 - Powered by Discuz! Archiver 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC w210821.s94.ufhost.com [Source type: General]

^ One thing I would like to discuss is my largely negative personal experience at Yaoi-Con as a homosexual male.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

[6] .Saint Seiya was particularly popular as it had a large cast of characters, most of them male, which allowed "an incredible number" of pairings between characters, although Andromeda Shun was one of the more popular characters to parody in yaoi, as he was presented in the original series as "fragile and sensible, with fine traits, long hair, doe eyes and the most feminine armour of the group".[47] For a time, yaoi dōjinshi was known as “Captain Tsubasa”.^ There were yaoi parodies of Gundam in the early 1980s, but, says Thorn, "it was the 1985 Captain Tsubasa boom [dōjinshi based on a popular manga about boys' soccer] and the subsequent Saint Seiya boom of 1987 that put the acronym into the vernacular."
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although BL clearly appeals to heterosexual women, it also seems to be more popular with bisexual, gay, lesbian, and male readers than previous readership descriptions have suggested.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi Ronsō : Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography Wim Lunsing Introduction A number of papers in English have discussed the genre of shōjo manga [Japanese girls' comics] known as BLB (boy loves boy) manga in which gay male characters figure prominently and which were first published in the 1970s.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[48] .Dōjinshi has been described by Comiket's co-founder Yoshihiro Yonezawa as being "girls playing with dolls";[38] yaoi fans may ship any male-male pairing, sometimes pairing off a favourite character, or creating a story about two men and fitting existing characters into the story.^ Yaoi isn’t about gay men.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

^ There are too few yaoi fans on BE just to have separate pairing FCs, so I (with encouragement from Yaoi_Otaku) decided to make a group where all bleach yaoi fans can talk about any yaoi couple they want.
  • [The Bleach Yaoi FC] shounen-ai FTW. - Bleach Exile Forums 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC forums.bleachexile.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very often, yaoi story focuses only on the sex, ignoring elements like true plot, emotions or characters development.
  • AnimeA - Manga List 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC manga.animea.net [Source type: Original source]

[1]
.Matt Thorn notes that unlike in slash fandom, a canonical homoerotic element "takes away the fun" of creating yaoi for that series, for example, From Eroica With Love is more popular with slash fans than it has been with dōjinshi artists.^ There's elements of both yuri and yaoi in a wide selection of anime series, so I don't really mind when I see it.
  • Yuri, Yaoi or Straight Anime? - HongFire Anime Network 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.hongfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, Thorn (forthcoming) describes cosplay at yaoi-centric events as queer.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It gets even more annoying when some anti-yaoi fans refuse to watch DNAngel because they don't like yaoi and I get tired of explaining that DNAngel is shoujo, not yaoi.
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]

[8] Kazuko Suzuki outlines the thematic development of the yaoi fandom, from curiosity about sexuality, to taking a parodic revenge against men, to a feminist protest, and lastly, exploring "ideal relationships".[49]
.Important characteristics of the early yaoi dōjinshi were that they were amateur publications not controlled by media restrictions, the stories were by teens for other teens, they were based on famous characters who were in their teens or early twenties, the same age as the yaoi fans.^ Glad to know other yaoi fans!
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, unlike slash which is an amateur genre distributed privately by fans through self-produced 'zines' or on the Internet, YAOI comics are also commercially produced and on sale in bookstores throughout Japan where they are sold without restriction to their target audience of young women (from their mid-teens onward).
  • Intersections: Male Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Modern Japan 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Suzuki says the dōjinshi created during the Captain Tsubasa boom were among the first to reflect four factors which gave the yaoi movement impetus: (1) amateur publications were outside mass media restrictions, (2) teenagers, who comprise the majority of yaoi readers, encouraged other teens to write, (3) yaoi is premised on widely known characters and settings, and (4) the characters were depicted as ordinary teenage boys or men in their twenties, the same age group as yaoi fans (Suzuki 1998:252).
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .During the early 1990s, dōjinshi played a part in popularising yaoi.^ Yukari Tsukino from Ai Kora is secretly part of a yaoi doujin group, as Maeda discovers when he goes to visit her during summer break.
  • Yaoi Fangirl - Television Tropes & Idioms 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

^ Yaoi is an activity of the young in part because anime did not became widely seen in America until the 1990s.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .Yaoi dōjinshi has been compared to the Plot, what Plot? subgenre of fan fiction.^ Male-male romance by and for women in Japan: A history and the subgenres of yaoi fictions.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the large number of yaoi dōjinshi published in the past 25 years, summarizing their plots is beyond this article's scope.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is probable that yaoi and other fan fiction fall within the copyright law's statutory exception for fair use, although this has not been adjudicated.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]
.Though collectors often focus on dōjinshi based on particular manga, any male character may become the subject of a yaoi dōjinshi, even characters from non-manga titles such as Harry Potter or The Lord of the Rings,[51] or video games such as Kingdom Hearts and Final Fantasy,[52][53] real people such as politicians, or personifications such as Hetalia Axis Powers, or complementary items such as salt and pepper.^ Every male character from the popular media becomes fair game.
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi is often too sappy and overemphasizes the effeminate aspect of the male characters.
  • Yuri, Yaoi or Straight Anime? - HongFire Anime Network 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.hongfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi manga's not that much different from non-yaoi manga .
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

Patrick W. Galbraith sums this up by saying "Among fujoshi, there seems no limit to the potential of transgressive intimacy imagined in yaoi relationships in pursuit of moe."[54]
.Most dōjinshi are created by amateurs who often work in "circles";[55] for example, the group CLAMP began as an amateur dōjinshi circle, drawing Saint Seiya yaoi.^ Anyone who creates derivative works of Yaoi 911 stories does not have any copyright in those stories/art — I do — and I reserve the right to shut them down and come after them with every legal recourse at my disposal.
  • Free Comics : Yaoi 911 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.yaoi911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term dojinshi has come to refer to both a club or circle of high school or college students who create their own comic books, and to the comic books themselves.
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the U.S., yaoi seems to be beyond the reach of those who would take it away from its creators.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .However, some professional artists, such as Kodaka Kazuma create dōjinshi as well.^ The number of Western dōjinshi will probably increase, facilitated by artists' consortia such as Minkland and Umbrella Studios and events like Yaoi-Con .
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .Some publishing companies have used dōjinshi published in the 1980s to spot talented amateurs,[19][36] such as Biblos hiring Yōka Nitta.^ Although it uses seiyū (voice talent), music and sound effects, these are available to resourceful amateurs.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Japan, according to Iwamoto, an editor at Biblos, a major publisher of boys' love titles, "boys' love" is used in preference to its Japanese counterpart, "shōnen-ai" (Iwamoto at Yaoi-Con press conference 19 October 2002).
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57]
.Convention when labelling stories differs between Japanese fandom and slash-influenced fandoms.^ Despite J. Z. Eglington's claim in March 1976 of "hundreds and hundreds" of Kirk/Spock slash stories (presumably in English), I have found no evidence of contact between the Japanese yaoi and Western slash communities before the mid-1980s.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Japanese BL and Western slash are often compared, it’s unclear whether they arose independently or if one genre influenced the other.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Japan, the labelling is to put the two names of the characters separated by a multiplication sign, with the seme's name being first, and the uke's being second.^ Monophobia Nov 5, 2003, 14:07 Aren't you supposed to put the seme name's first when u write a pairing?
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ V.I.B Nov 6, 2003, 02:31 Aren't you supposed to put the seme name's first when u write a pairing?
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have this habit of putting whichever character more favorable to me in front regardless of uke / seme..
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

[58]

Global BL

As Japanese yaoi gained popularity in the U.S., a few American artists began creating original English-language manga for female readers featuring beautiful male-male couples,[6][13] referred to as "American yaoi." The first known original English-language BL comic is Sexual Espionage #1 by Daria McGrain, published in May 2002.[59] What started as a small subculture in North America, has, since approximately 2004, become a burgeoning market, as new publishers began producing female-oriented male/male erotic comics and manga from creators outside Japan.[60] .Because creators from all parts of the globe are published in these 'original English language' works, the term 'American Yaoi' fell out of use; terms like 'Original English Language yaoi'[61] shortened to 'Global Yaoi'.[62] The term Global BL was coined by creators and newsgroups that wanted to distinguish the Asian specific content known as 'yaoi', from the original English content, and so the term Global BL was used.^ Their creators were influenced in part by European works.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reasons for creating original BL works varied.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genre Hard Yaoi Publisher Biblos Published in Puapua Contents: A young man, struggling to make ends meet, rescues and revives a potted plant from the trash.

[63][64] "Global BL" was shortened by comics author Tina Anderson in interviews and on her blog to the acronym 'GloBL'.[65][66]
.Current North American publishers of 'Global BL' are Yaoi Press, who in 2007 had over twenty titles on the market,[67] as well as newcomer Yaoi Generation who announced intentions to publish GloBL in the coming years.^ Genre Yaoi Publisher Take Shobou Published in Reijin 2009/03 Contents: Ten years of unrequited love is crushed as Andou's friend Tachikawa is taken by some nobody, who's a guy!

^ Also as a bonus to our readers who purchase titles directly from 801 Media Inc., all orders will come with a free gift with each order starting July 23, 2007.

^ In Japan, according to Iwamoto, an editor at Biblos, a major publisher of boys' love titles, "boys' love" is used in preference to its Japanese counterpart, "shōnen-ai" (Iwamoto at Yaoi-Con press conference 19 October 2002).
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68] .Publisher DramaQueen, which debuted its 'Global BL' quarterly anthology RUSH in 2006[69] has since ceased releasing RUSH and has been uncommunicative with creators involved in the project, as well as fans.^ We do not like to engage in legal wrangling with fans since we find that it is not productive and is not effective.” Nguyen said that if scanlations licensed by DramaQueen are found, “Usually we would email the group and politely and firmly ask them to cease scanlations once the work is published.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 23, 2006, DramaQueen reported in its forum that it had decided not to publish the manga’s sequel, Brother 2 (LadyQ, 2006).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70][71][72]
Former publishers include Iris Print.[73][74]
Prolific GloBL creators include Yayoi Neko,[75] Dany & Dany,[76][77] Tina Anderson,[78] Lara Yokoshima,[79] and Studio Kosen.[80]
.The most recent publishing boom in 'GloBL' is happening in Germany, with a handful of original German titles gaining popularity for being set in Asia.^ Japan's two most popular gay manga authors also began their manga careers by publishing in the context of shōjo manga .
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[81] .Some publishers of German GloBL are traditional manga publishers like Carlsen Manga,[82] and small press publishers specialising in GloBL like The Wild Side[83] and Fireangels Verlag.^ I wont list the manga, because all the OP mentioned was anime plus too many manga to list, but if anyone wants the names of some PM me with what you like and i can be of help.
  • Yaoi/Yuri Series - Anime Forum dot Com 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.animeforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later he admitted to liking BLB manga but he remained insistent that yaoi are homophobic and debase the tradition of BLB manga .
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Cerridwen Press (1) When Danger Calls (1) Wild Child Publishing (2) Wordless Wednesday (5) Writers Resources (1) Writing Communities (5) Writing Contest (25) YouTube (6) Zetta Brown (1) .
  • Alternative-Read.com: GUEST POST & GIVEAWAY: Shelley Munro Tea for Two! 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tjbook-list.blogspot.com [Source type: General]
  • Alternative-Read.com: REVIEW: Tea for Two by Shelley Munro 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tjbook-list.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

[84]

Publishing

Billboard for a Boys Love Drama CD on Otome Road.
.The earliest magazine about Boy's Love was June, which began in 1978 as a response to the success of commercially published manga such as the works of Keiko Takemiya, Moto Hagio and Yumiko Ōshima.^ Today commercial boys' love flourishes.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indagine manga boy’s love.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It includes an essay by the well-known boys' love manga artist Keiko Takemiya.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .Other factors was the rising popularity of depictions of bishōnen in the dōjinshi market and ambiguous musicians such as David Bowie and Queen.^ He cites the popularity of sexually ambiguous performers, visual erotica depicting gender anomalous situations and young male prostitutes who adopted a feminine persona.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

June was meant to have an underground, "cultish, guerilla-style" feeling – most of its mangaka were new talent. .Frederik L. Schodt describes June as "a kind of 'readers' magazine, created by and for the readers."^ Sagawa, (personal communication, June 6, 2002) offers an even more extreme interpretation applied to the readers of the magazine he edits.
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And Japanese comic readers, who are very much at home in their medium, rarely confuse the two worlds,” wrote Frederik L. Schodt (1983, p.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Essays about the characteristics of the June genre were published with the manga in June.^ The fact that the boys/men in yaoi are depicted as beautiful she related to the fact that women in shōjo manga are also depicted as beautiful, a mere characteristic of the entire genre of shōjo manga .
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ No Comments » June by Digital Manga Publishing Has New Titles for the Summer!

In 1982, Shōsetsu June ("Novel June"), a sister magazine to June began publication. Its content is text-only stories with male romance.[85] .Nagaike believes that the true "revolution" in BL culture was when it began to be commercially published en masse in the 1990s.^ I don’t believe, even though I’d like to, that the spread of BL will help the integration of gays in our society because it isn’t a true representation.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boursicot has stated that he began passing documents to Shi when the Chinese [url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_Revolution][color=#0000ff]Cultural Revolution[/color][/url] made it difficult for him to see her.
  • 同志电影欣赏日gay movie:Sun,Aug 30,4pm:Priscilla Queen of the Desert 沙漠妖姬(页 1) - English Forum (国际版) - RL 彩虹联盟::Rainbow League 上海,上海彩虹联盟,彩虹,彩虹联盟,彩虹,联盟,新闻,资讯,股市,游泳,健身,羽毛球,健康,运动,活动,热点,笑话,兴趣,爱好,沙龙,游泳,健身,外语,HOMO,GAY,阳光,真情,同志,同性恋,同性爱 - Powered by Discuz! Archiver 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC w210821.s94.ufhost.com [Source type: General]

[86] As of the mid-1990s, Shōsetsu June outsold June.[85] .As of 2008, June was still running,[87] although the target audience's ages have widened and the style of stories has changed from being "soft love" to more overtly pornographic.^ Although the boy-love genre in girls' comics has undergone a number of transformations, it is still very much alive today.
  • Intersections: Male Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Modern Japan 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After saving an old man from being run over by a car, he’s given an enchanted gun that shoots love beams and causes the person that’s shot to fall in love with him.

^ It is interesting to note that Keiko Takemiya, whose M/M stories stimulated countless Japanese girls and women to create their own yaoi and boys' love stories still works as an instructor in a manga correspondence school operated by June .
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .The magazine Allan (アラン Aran?) (1980-1984) which was more text-based than June was influential in cultivating a lesbian culture.^ More than half the respondents said they were bisexual or "open"; three described themselves as lesbian; the rest as heterosexual.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s not more about gay men, really, than a lesbian porn DVD is about lesbians.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

^ They named works such as Ikeda's Berusaiyu no bara , Takemiya's Kaze to ki no uta , the boys' love manga June and the tanbiha (cult of aestheticism) magazine Aran (Allan).
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88] .The Japanese publisher Biblos was a BL publisher established in 1988 but their bankruptcy due to failure of their parent company[36] caused them to fold in April 2006.[89] Most of their titles were picked up by Libre.^ Gardena, CA, February 2, 2007 – Juné by Digital Manga Publishing, one of the industry’s most innovative manga licensing and publishing companies, has announced two new yaoi titles for summer.

^ Assumptions that Japanese BL readers were only, or primarily, heterosexual women have been challenged by Lunsing (2006), who also argued that that BL manga do not merely “exist in a world of fantasy”: .
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, on March 19, 2007, Japanese publisher Libre posted a letter in Japanese and English on its B-Boy boys’ love website that accused Central Park Media’s Be Beautiful imprint of publishing unauthorized translations of its BL manga (Be-Boy, 2007).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[90] .A 2006 breakdown of the Japanese commercial BL market estimated it grosses approximately 12 billion yen annually, with novel sales generating 250 million yen per month, manga generating 400 million yen per month, CDs generating 180 million yen per month, and video games generating 160 million yen per month.^ Manga - General Comics & Graphic Novels - Akimoto entered the judo club because he was a huge fan of Saitoh.
  • Yaoi Comic Books at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Manga - General Comics & Graphic Novels - In the future, on a distant star lives a new society.
  • Yaoi Comic Books at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Manga - General Comics & Graphic Novels - As a lucky guy with nothing but an intimidating scar, Aoi Ichimura comes to love his fellow Yakuza deeply.
  • Yaoi Comic Books at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

[86]
.Japanese BL works are sold to English-speaking countries by companies that translate and print them in English; companies such as Digital Manga Publishing with their imprints 801 Media (for explicit BL) and June (for "romantic and sweet" BL),[19] as well as DramaQueen, Kitty Media, Central Park Media's Be Beautiful[17],Tokyopop under their imprint BLU, Broccoli under their Boysenberry imprint, Aurora Publishing under their imprint Deux Press, and Yaoi Generation.^ However, on March 19, 2007, Japanese publisher Libre posted a letter in Japanese and English on its B-Boy boys’ love website that accused Central Park Media’s Be Beautiful imprint of publishing unauthorized translations of its BL manga (Be-Boy, 2007).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Central Park Media’s Be Beautiful also reported direct reader influence on its publishing decisions: .
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first manga to be translated into English and published in the U.S. were aimed at boys.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first publisher of BL in translation may be ComicsOne, which released two volumes of shonen-ai manga as e-books in January 2000.[91] In 2001, the only BL-type manga available in print in English were the barely-suggestive Banana Fish and X/1999,[92] and in 2002, commercially translated BL was "not common".[93] According to McLelland, the earliest officially translated BL manga in print appeared in 2003, and as of 2006 there were about 130 English-translated works commercially available.^ The first manga to be translated into English and published in the U.S. were aimed at boys.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How many manga books are there?
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Publishers are marketing translations of Japanese commercial boys' love manga, such as Akimi Yoshida's Banana Fish and Sanami Matoh's FAKE .
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .In March 2007, Media Blasters stopped selling shōnen manga and increased their yaoi lines, anticipating to publish one or two titles per month that year.^ By 2007, BL had succeeded so well in the U.S. that Media Blasters decided to drop its shōnen manga, geared to young male readers, and increase the number of BL titles in its list (Cha, 2007).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One Italian-language respondent reported owning a comic-book shop that sells BL, and two English-language respondents reported writing articles about BL for mainstream publications.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, on March 19, 2007, Japanese publisher Libre posted a letter in Japanese and English on its B-Boy boys’ love website that accused Central Park Media’s Be Beautiful imprint of publishing unauthorized translations of its BL manga (Be-Boy, 2007).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94] .In 2007 following Biblos' bankruptcy, Libre published an open letter on their website which said that English-language publishers had to renegotiate publishing rights for Biblos' former series with Libre, specifically naming CPM's releases as "illegal".[95][96] Diamond Comic Distributors estimated the U.S. sales of yaoi manga as being approximately $US 6 million in 2007. In English-speaking countries explicit stories are either sold online or displayed in shrink wrap.^ Western yaoi fans publish their stories online in several languages.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That said, will Artifice be sold as an “online subscription webcomic” or will it be published as a book?
  • Free Comics : Yaoi 911 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.yaoi911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, on March 19, 2007, Japanese publisher Libre posted a letter in Japanese and English on its B-Boy boys’ love website that accused Central Park Media’s Be Beautiful imprint of publishing unauthorized translations of its BL manga (Be-Boy, 2007).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[97] .Mark McLelland surveyed 135 yaoi books published in North America between 2003 and 2006, and found that 14% was rated at 13 years or over, 39% was rated for readers aged 15 years or over, and 47% was rated for readers 18 years or older.^ Negotiating the mutually interdependent relationship between readers, scanlators, and publishers has been undertaken with great care within the BL fandom in the United States.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I put an English-language survey of yaoi readers online from June 28 to November 21, 2005, that attracted a total of 478 respondents.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KlahaXGackt Oct 14, 2003, 10:46 Spike...you're a guy and well not many guys are interested in Yaoi!
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

[98] .BLU reports that although bookshops are becoming more willing to stock BL titles, they are conservative about how the books are labelled, leading to books being shrink wrapped and rated for over 18s which previously would have garnered an over 16 rating, and do not "really follow through on the [adult content] promise."^ As bookstores become more willing to take in BL titles, they are still conservative about how we label them, and content that used to get away with an Older Teen, +16 rating, now requires a Mature, +18 rating, with a warning label and shrinkwrap.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although originally a fake fortune teller, she has a natural gift as an intuitive listener and has become pretty good telling fortunes through tea leaves.
  • Alternative-Read.com: REVIEW: Tea for Two by Shelley Munro 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC tjbook-list.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ I think this is because although Byakuya seems dominate he is too uptight to be the aggressor in the relationship and Renji who is more free spirited would take control.
  • [The Bleach Yaoi FC] shounen-ai FTW. - Bleach Exile Forums 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC forums.bleachexile.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]

Thematic elements

.BL has similar themes to heterosexual shōjo manga, several exploring adolescent romance and the "interiority of the characters."^ Gender-variant themes in shōjo manga are another cultural element that probably helped pave the way for yaoi.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M.J. Johnson (2002) notes that today many shōjo manga/anime about a male-female relationship also show emotional connections among the male characters.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assumptions that Japanese BL readers were only, or primarily, heterosexual women have been challenged by Lunsing (2006), who also argued that that BL manga do not merely “exist in a world of fantasy”: .
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[99] Common characters in yaoi are schoolboys and yakuza.[100] .Sometimes, schoolboys are depicted in sexual situations, which is controversial when these titles are licensed in countries where underage sexuality and its depiction is taboo.^ He cites the popularity of sexually ambiguous performers, visual erotica depicting gender anomalous situations and young male prostitutes who adopted a feminine persona.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pornography, however, implies depictions of situations that sexually arouse viewers.
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101]

Female characters

.Female characters often have very minor roles in yaoi, or are absent altogether.^ Very often, yaoi story focuses only on the sex, ignoring elements like true plot, emotions or characters development.
  • AnimeA - Manga List 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC manga.animea.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He also insisted that yaoi manga often lack realism, as the female authors do not know how men feel, and that most of the yaoi authors were lesbian women, hence the feminine features.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words—if there were a third-gender out there that was neither male nor female, yaoi might very well be about that third-gender.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

[39][102] Suzuki notes that mothers, in particular, are portrayed badly, such as Takuto's mother from Zetsuai 1989, who killed her husband in front of her young son. .Suzuki suggests this is because the character and the reader are attempting to replace a mother's lacking "unconditional love" with the "forbidden" all-consuming love presented in yaoi.^ Reading is usually considered a private act, in what Radway (1994) characterized as the “ideology of the solitary reader.” This ideology suggests that “solitary reading is valorized as contemplative, meditative, and educational, and above all, as serious” (p.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many stories are not sexually explicit, but as sex underlies romantic love, sex is present in much of yaoi.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ None of the stories is yaoi and while boys' love is hinted at most of the stories are heterosexual in character.
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[103] .Nariko Enomoto, a yaoi author says she feels that when women are shown, "it can't help but become weirdly real".[104] When yaoi fan works are created from a series which originally contained females (such as Gundam Wing),[105] the female's role is either minimised or the character is killed off.^ But I'm not really a fan of yuri either.
  • Yuri, Yaoi or Straight Anime? - HongFire Anime Network 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.hongfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi mangas are created by female cartoonists and read by women in Japan.

^ There's elements of both yuri and yaoi in a wide selection of anime series, so I don't really mind when I see it.
  • Yuri, Yaoi or Straight Anime? - HongFire Anime Network 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.hongfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[102] .Early shōnen-ai and yaoi has been regarded as misogynistic, but Lunsing detects a decrease in misogynistic comments from characters and regards the development of the yuri genre as reflecting a reduction of internal misogyny.^ There are no universally accepted definitions in English for "yaoi" and "shōnen-ai."
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The thing that gets to me though is when people write HORRID HORRID yaoi/yuri/slash fanfiction that OOC's all of the characters.
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Simultaneously another development took place in the genre: the production of what came to be called yaoi .
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[3] .Alternately, the yaoi fandom is also viewed as a "refuge" from mainstream culture, which in this paradigm is viewed as inherently misogynistic.^ Hisako Takamatsu saw yaoi as a refuge from a misogynist culture.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Fumi Yoshinaga is regarded as a creator who usually includes at least one sympathetic female character in her works.^ Yaoi was conceived by women creating erotic fiction, comics, and art that allowed them to explore traditional female fantasies devoid of female characters.” .
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the key differences between the two genres may be the age of the media characters and of the fans creating erotic works about them.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yep – I was the one who created and listed the Japanese version of “A Shot in the Dark” (you can also find the link for the Japanese DLSite on the bottom of our Japanese language page ).
  • Free Comics : Yaoi 911 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.yaoi911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106]

Gachi muchi

.Recently a subgenre of BL has been introduced in Japan, so-called "muscley-chubby BL" or gachi muchi (from gacchiri, muscular, and muchimuchi, chubby)[28] which offers more masculine body types and is more likely to have gay male authors and artists.^ Although BL clearly appeals to heterosexual women, it also seems to be more popular with bisexual, gay, lesbian, and male readers than previous readership descriptions have suggested.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also made no distinction between yaoi and the women who like to court gay men as friends, called okoge [fag hags], who also objectify handsome gay men.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Extremely short became the most common hair style and the broad muscular body, soon to evolve to chubby and outright fat, became highly fashionable.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Although still marketed primarily to women,[28] it is also thought to attract a large crossover gay male audience.^ Although BL clearly appeals to heterosexual women, it also seems to be more popular with bisexual, gay, lesbian, and male readers than previous readership descriptions have suggested.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Answers to questions such as who reads the genre and why have been sought in women's resistance to patriarchy, [4] ignoring the fact that there are also many gay male readers.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The audience for BL manga in Japan is almost always described as being primarily women (e.g., Suzuki, 1998; McLelland, 2001; Mizoguchi, 2003).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[107] .Although this type of material has also been referred to as "bara" among English-speaking fans,[108][109] it is not equivalent to gei comi proper (although there is considerable overlap, as writers, artists and art styles cross over between the two genres).^ Write-in English-language responses explaining why fans offer scanlations generally fell into two categories: a desire to promote the genre (e.g., “builds fan-base for when they’re available in Eng.”) or the material’s lack of availability (e.g., “Where I live, BL would be confiscated by Customs”).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the BL genre has been popular in Japan since the ‘70s, until recent years, English- and Italian-language translations of BL manga were unavailable in bookstores; instead, fans sought out unofficial translations online.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is an overlap between the okoge [fag hag] and the female yaoi reader, even if they are not necessarily the same.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

.Prior to the development of gachi muchi, the greatest overlap between yaoi and bara authors has been in BDSM-themed publications[110] such as Zettai Reido, a yaoi anthology magazine which had a number of openly male contributors.^ Zettai Reido is a magazine consisting of explicit sadomasochist manga .
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ For instance, an article in the magazine Da buinchi (Da Vinci; March 1999), describes the relationship between a nuuyhaafu ['new half': male-to-female transsexual] and an onabe .
  • Intersections: Male Homosexuality and Popular Culture in Modern Japan 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A more typical example of yaoi in its more limited meaning is found in the magazine Zettai Reido .
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[3] .Several female yaoi authors who have done BDSM-themed yaoi have been recruited to contribute stories to BDSM-themed bara anthologies or special issues.^ He also insisted that yaoi manga often lack realism, as the female authors do not know how men feel, and that most of the yaoi authors were lesbian women, hence the feminine features.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The implicit assumption underlying yaoi stories is that the love between males is superior to ordinary forms of love than exist between males and females.
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Respondents obtained via questionnaires sent to authors who had posted stories to one slash archive site.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[110]

Idealism

.Most BL manga have been said to "foster an aesthetic of purity, even when depicting hard-core sex acts."^ Even as she acknowledges that erotic manga is misogynistic and "embed[s] and thereby foster[s] an ideology of gender chauvinism and crude masochism," she finds "a decentering of sex, gender, and even power from male genitalia."
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was an awkward situation because, even if I do appreciate BL and Yaoi manga and doujin, that sort of behavior is rude and disruptive.
  • Start banning Yaoi paddles! - Otakon Web Boards 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC board.otakon.com [Source type: General]

[111] .Many BL manga have fantastic, historic or futuristic settings, and many fans consider BL to be an "escapist fantasy".[112] Homophobia, when it is presented as an issue at all,[4] is used as a plot device to "heighten the drama",[113] or to show the purity of the leads’ love.^ However, the results suggest that BL manga are not wholeheartedly dismissed by Western readers as pure fantasy, the “unicorns and elves” suggested by Johnson (2002).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s more important than the actual manga, and the primary reason I’m in the fan communities”; and “I participate more in BL fandom online because of the quality of the other fans.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Respondents reported a number of considerations that affected their decision to buy, borrow, or download a particular issue of BL manga.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Matt Thorn has suggested that as BL is a romance narrative, having strong political themes may be a "turn off" to the readers.^ However, the results suggest that BL manga are not wholeheartedly dismissed by Western readers as pure fantasy, the “unicorns and elves” suggested by Johnson (2002).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As opposed to BL created in, for example, the United States or Europe, where, as this survey will suggest, BL fans are aware of the potential political implications of their fandom and overwhelmingly support gay rights — which could in turn inform their BL work.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There’s a ton of BL out there in Japan, and having fan suggestions to help sort the wheat from the chaff is very important.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] Yaoi narratives show characters "overcoming obstacles, often internal, to be together". The theme of the victory of the protagonists in yaoi has been compared favourably to Western fairy tales, as the latter intends to enforce the status quo, but yaoi is "about desire" and seeks "to explore, not circumscribe, possibilities."[114] Hisako Miyoshi, vice editor-in-chief for Libre Publishing, has said that she feels that boys love manga has become less realist, with more comedic elements or being "simply for entertainment". She thinks that earlier BL focused "more on the homosexual way of life with a realist perspective."[115] Makoto Tateno has said that she feels that BL with a focus on realistic gay issues "won't become a trend, because girls like fiction more than realism."[116]

Rape

.According to Suzuki, sexual intercourse in yaoi is a way of expressing commitment to a partner, and "apparent violence" in sex is a "measure of passion". Suzuki elaborates that when a woman is raped, she is stigmatised by society, but in yaoi, boys who are loved by their rapists are still "imbued with innocence", a theme she attributes to Kaze to Ki no Uta.^ Takemiya Keiko, Kaze to ki no uta , Shōgakukan, vol.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Yaoi, also referred to as Boys Love, is a genre of anime/manga that focuses on homosexual male relationships.
  • SPECTRUM NEXUS · Yaoi Manga Scans Online 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.thespectrum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no correlation between “enjoying pretty drawn boys that are in love with each other” and “enjoying real life guys doing the bump and grind”.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

[117] Rape fantasy themes have been said to free the protagonist of responsibility in sex, leading to the narrative climax of the story, where "the protagonist takes responsibility for his own sexuality".[101]

Tragedy

.June stories with suicide endings were popular,[85] as was "watching men suffer".[118] Matt Thorn theorises that depicting abuse in yaoi is a coping mechanism for some yaoi fans.^ And yes, I realize that not all yaoi fans are like that, some are sane and quite pleasant to be around.
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]

^ Yaoi goes West Yaoi's rise in the West has been driven by the increasing popularity of anime shown on commercial television for children and by the Web as a dissemination medium for fan-written stories.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm the kind of person who watches a series, and whatever happens is truth, end of story.
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]

[8] By the mid 1990s the fashion was for happy endings.[85] When tragic endings are shown, the cause is not infidelity, but "the cruel and intrusive demands of an uncompromising outside world."[119]

Critical attention

.Boys' Love manga has received considerable critical attention, especially after translations of BL became commercially available outside of Japan in the 21st century.^ Indagine manga boy’s love.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today commercial boys' love flourishes.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Commercial "boys' love" manga (the Japanese use the English words) is one of the largest niche markets in Japanese publishing.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .Different critics and commentators have had very different views of BL. In 1983, Frederik L. Schodt observed that “aesthetically” depicted male-male homosexual relationships had become popular among female readers as an extension of bisexual themes already present in shōjo manga.^ She observes that "male homosexuality was never popular among female writers of novels and short stories at it was among shōjo manga writers."
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although BL clearly appeals to heterosexual women, it also seems to be more popular with bisexual, gay, lesbian, and male readers than previous readership descriptions have suggested.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi Ronsō : Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography Wim Lunsing Introduction A number of papers in English have discussed the genre of shōjo manga [Japanese girls' comics] known as BLB (boy loves boy) manga in which gay male characters figure prominently and which were first published in the 1970s.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[120] .Japanese critics have seen BL as allowing girls to distance sex from their own bodies,[121] as allowing girls to avoid adult female sexuality while simultaneously creating greater fluidity in perceptions of gender and sexuality,[122] and as rejecting “socially mandated” gender roles as a “first step toward feminism.”[123] In more elaborate theorizing, Kazuko Suzuki sees BL manga emerging from girls' contempt and dislike for masculine heterosexism and from an effort to define "ideal relationships" among men.^ They were, says Kazuko Suzuki, "influential masterpiece[s]...one of the first attempts [in manga] to depict true bonding or ideal relationships through pure male homosexual love" (1999:251).
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi was conceived by women creating erotic fiction, comics, and art that allowed them to explore traditional female fantasies devoid of female characters.” .
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

^ Western readers of BL manga have formed an international online subculture that allows them to act as translators, publishers, producers, and critics of both official and unofficial works.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[124] BL has been compared to romance novels by English-speaking librarians.[34][113] .Parallels have also been noted in the popularity of lesbianism in pornography,[36][38] and yaoi has been called a form of "female fetishism".[125] Mariko Ōhara, a science fiction writer, has said that she wrote yaoi Kirk/Spock fiction as a teen because she could not enjoy "conventional pornography, which had been made for men", and that she had found a "limitless freedom" in yaoi, much like in science fiction.^ I much more enjoyed any opportunity to talk to men who liked yaoi as much as I did.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

^ I like yaoi in all forms!
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And like I said, not all yaoi fangirls are like this.
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]

[126]
.Other commentators have suggested that more radical gender-political issues underlie BL. Shihomi Sakakibara (1998) argued that yaoi fans, including herself, were homosexually oriented female-to-male transsexuals.^ Glad to know other yaoi fans!
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yaoi, also referred to as Boys Love, is a genre of anime/manga that focuses on homosexual male relationships.
  • SPECTRUM NEXUS · Yaoi Manga Scans Online 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.thespectrum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She observes that "male homosexuality was never popular among female writers of novels and short stories at it was among shōjo manga writers."
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[127] .For Sandra Buckley, bishōnen narratives champion “the imagined potentialities of alternative [gender] differentiations"[128] and James Welker described the bishōnen character as "queer", observing that manga critic Akiko Mizoguchi saw shōnen-ai as playing a role in how she herself had become a lesbian.^ Welker (2002) observes that in the manga Aran's lesbian-only personals section (called Yuri Tsūshin, or lily communication), some of the ads had photos in which the young women resemble bishōnen.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also insisted that yaoi manga often lack realism, as the female authors do not know how men feel, and that most of the yaoi authors were lesbian women, hence the feminine features.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Lunsing also noted that researcher Mizoguchi Akiko has criticized yaoi as being homophobic because in many stories the characters reject a gay identity even though they have fallen in love with a man (paragraph 27).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[129] .Dru Pagliassotti sees this and the yaoi ronsō as indicating that for Japanese gay and lesbian readers, BL is not as far removed from reality as heterosexual female readers like to claim.^ This isn’t to say that gay activists necessarily approve of BL. BL came under fire in the yaoi ronsō debate of 1992 to 1997 in the Japanese magazine Choisir , when gay activist Masaki protested against the genre and compared women reading yaoi to dirty old men watching lesbian pornography (Lunsing, 2006).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although BL clearly appeals to heterosexual women, it also seems to be more popular with bisexual, gay, lesbian, and male readers than previous readership descriptions have suggested.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ O_o Most yaoi fan couplings are non-canon anyway...I really don't see a big deal about couples being Canon or not, its JUST fanfiction, not a published novel/OT And that's YOUR OPINION. -_- Non-canon couplings in fanfiction/RP annoy me, and I don't like them.
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]
  • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]

[13] Welker added that shōnen-ai liberates readers "not just from patriarchy, but from gender dualism and heteronormativity."[129]
.Some gay and lesbian commentators have criticized how gay identity is portrayed in BL, most notably in the yaoi ronsō or "yaoi debate" of 1992-1997.[3][12] In May 1992, gay activist Masaki Satō criticized yaoi fans and artists in an open letter to the feminist zine (or minikomi in Japanese) Choisir.^ Dubbed the yaoi ronsō (controversy), it lasted from 1992 to 1997.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This isn’t to say that gay activists necessarily approve of BL. BL came under fire in the yaoi ronsō debate of 1992 to 1997 in the Japanese magazine Choisir , when gay activist Masaki protested against the genre and compared women reading yaoi to dirty old men watching lesbian pornography (Lunsing, 2006).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A debate broke out in the Japanese feminist magazine Choisir after a gay-identified man, Masaki Sato, complained that yaoi's characters had nothing to do with "real gay men."
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][12] .Satō said that yaoi failed to provide accurate information about gay men, promoted a destructive image of gay men as wealthy, handsome, and well-educated, ignored prejudice and discrimination against gay men in society, and co-opted gay men as masturbation fantasies.^ It happened to me in a club in Kyoto that a woman started grinding her crotch against my buttocks, like gay men may do when dancing in clubs.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ While Satō felt that the stories were impeding a positive validation of gay lifestyles, other gay men evaluated them in a more positive manner.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, compared to gay manga drawn by gay men for gay men, BLB manga cannot be said to be more abusive.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[12] .An extensive debate ensued, with yaoi fans and artists arguing that yaoi is entertainment for women, not education for gay men, and that yaoi characters are not meant to represent "real gay men."^ My favourite yaoi artists are Kai Nanase Ayano Yamane Kazuho Kaguyama for engaging story lines plus great looking characters.
  • YAOI ... Anime & Manga ... [Archive] - Japan Forum 20 September 2009 20:15 UTC www.jref.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact that the boys/men in yaoi are depicted as beautiful she related to the fact that women in shōjo manga are also depicted as beautiful, a mere characteristic of the entire genre of shōjo manga .
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ He also made no distinction between yaoi and the women who like to court gay men as friends, called okoge [fag hags], who also objectify handsome gay men.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

[12] .As internet resources for gay men developed in the 1990s, the yaoi debate waned[130] but has had later echoes, for example when Mizoguchi in 2003 characterised stereotypes in modern BL as being "unrealistic and homophobic".[131] There has been similar criticism to the Japanese yaoi debate in the English-speaking fandom.^ This isn’t to say that gay activists necessarily approve of BL. BL came under fire in the yaoi ronsō debate of 1992 to 1997 in the Japanese magazine Choisir , when gay activist Masaki protested against the genre and compared women reading yaoi to dirty old men watching lesbian pornography (Lunsing, 2006).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also made no distinction between yaoi and the women who like to court gay men as friends, called okoge [fag hags], who also objectify handsome gay men.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Lunsing also noted that researcher Mizoguchi Akiko has criticized yaoi as being homophobic because in many stories the characters reject a gay identity even though they have fallen in love with a man (paragraph 27).
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][132][133] In 1993 and 2004, Matt Thorn pointed to the complexity of these phenomena, and suggested that yaoi and slash fiction fans are discontented with “the standards of femininity to which they are expected to adhere and a social environment that does not validate or sympathize with that discontent.”[8][134]
.As women have greater economic power, commercial demand for the sexualization of men may correlate.^ If these men want to create and read about unrealistic scenarios with fake women, more power to them!
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

^ But yaoi is created and consumed by women--and some men--with diverse conceptions of sexuality.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He compared them to the 'dirty old men' [ hentai jijii ] who watch pornography including women engaging in sexual activities with each other.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

Korean manhwa writer Jin Seok Jeon wrote in a commentary to Vol. 5, Chp 2 of an Arabian Nights themed shonen-ai work, A Night of a Thousand Dreams, "Men are now marketable. It's also a time where women are big consumers and can buy almost anything they desire. .Some men think this is degrading...but the tables have turned, and I like the fact that men are just as commercialized now."^ Now I like my futuristic, dark manga as much as the next guy, but this is just boring...
  • Clamp Manga Reviews 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC bane-huntress.com [Source type: General]

^ When it comes down to the nitty-gritty a good deal of the fun is turning the tables on men, whether women will admit it.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

^ Diana – Do you think that just because something is labeled ‘for girls’ or ‘for guys’ that men/woman can’t complain about it?
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

.He jokes that after researching guresh wrestling, which requires extreme physical fitness, he does not feel as marketable, illustrating that yaoi and other pornography exploiting men is subject to traditional criticisms, such as the objectification human beings to sexual caricatures and creating unrealistic expectations and negative body images.^ He also insisted that yaoi manga often lack realism, as the female authors do not know how men feel, and that most of the yaoi authors were lesbian women, hence the feminine features.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ What she and probably more than a million other women, along with some men, are doing is called yaoi.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also want...to create images of male bodies as objects of desire."
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the same reasons, it may be celebrated for evening the field between genders and opening a fuller debate on personhood and sexuality.^ My position in the field is discussed in detail in Wim Lunsing, 'Life on Mars: love and sex in fieldwork on sexuality and gender in contemporary Japan,' in Sex, Sexuality and the Anthropologist , ed.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ There is an overlap between the okoge [fag hag] and the female yaoi reader, even if they are not necessarily the same.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Sasuke would have to choose between risking the sharingan going extinct and not being with the one he loves, or there may even be some kind of combination bloodline.
  • Beyond the Eyes: The SasuHina FC [Archive] - Page 20 - Naruto Forums 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC forums.narutofan.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.In China, BL became very popular in the late 1990s, attracting media attention, which became negative, focusing on the challenge it posed to "heterosexual hegemony". Publishing and distributing BL is illegal in mainland China.^ With regard to BL in particular, Sabucco (2003) noted that in 1995 “there were still very few fan pages focusing on june texts,” [5] but “by the late 1990s, URLs devoted to Japanese boys-love products, original or YAOI, reached the hundreds” (p.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As previously noted, scanlations are very popular among BL readers, with over a third to half the two surveys’ respondents reporting that they obtain most of their BL in scanlation form.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, U.S.-based manga publisher Digital Media Production (DMP) carries a BL imprint called Juné .
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[135]
.In 2001 a moral panic erupted in Thailand regarding homosexual male comics.^ Drawing on his analysis of women’s comments on Japanese BL sites and his previous research on BL in Japan that “male homosexuality in Japanese women’s comics, because it is represented in such a fantastic and idealized manner, does not have the same moral valence as it would in the west” (p.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi Ronso: Discussing depictions of male homosexuality in Japanese girl’s comics, gay comics and gay pornography.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Extending the argument to Korean fandom, Noh (2001) reported that in her ethnographic interviews with Korean fans of Japanese yaoi, readers “distinguish YAOI from actual male homosexuality.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Television reports labeled the comics as negative influences, while a newspaper falsely stated that most of the comics were not copyrighted as the publishers feared arrest for posting the content; in reality most of the titles were likely illegally published without permission from the original Japanese publishers.^ Considering how well the new title announcements have been covered on other blogs like A Geek by Any Other Name and Boys Next Door , I’m not going to devote most of this Yaoi-Con report to new title announcements.
  • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

^ PM Hello everyone: About the NaruHina issue: I really liked the post defending it...it was good...i admit it.
  • Beyond the Eyes: The SasuHina FC [Archive] - Page 20 - Naruto Forums 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC forums.narutofan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We also ran an English title naming contest for Midaresomenishi on our website, and realized that the original Japanese name was very meaningful to our readers.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The shōnen ai comics provided profits for the comic shops, which sold between 30 to 50 such comics per day. .The moral panic regarding the male homosexual comics subsided.^ Drawing on his analysis of women’s comments on Japanese BL sites and his previous research on BL in Japan that “male homosexuality in Japanese women’s comics, because it is represented in such a fantastic and idealized manner, does not have the same moral valence as it would in the west” (p.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yaoi Ronso: Discussing depictions of male homosexuality in Japanese girl’s comics, gay comics and gay pornography.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Thai girls felt too embarrassed to read heterosexual stories, so they read homosexual male-themed josei and shojo stories, which they saw as "unthreatening."^ Harvey Milk :"All over the country, they're reading about me, and the story doesn't center on me being gay.
  • 同志电影欣赏日gay movie:Sun,Aug 30,4pm:Priscilla Queen of the Desert 沙漠妖姬(页 1) - English Forum (国际版) - RL 彩虹联盟::Rainbow League 上海,上海彩虹联盟,彩虹,彩虹联盟,彩虹,联盟,新闻,资讯,股市,游泳,健身,羽毛球,健康,运动,活动,热点,笑话,兴趣,爱好,沙龙,游泳,健身,外语,HOMO,GAY,阳光,真情,同志,同性恋,同性爱 - Powered by Discuz! Archiver 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC w210821.s94.ufhost.com [Source type: General]

^ Later, he noted, “perhaps the best illustration of the Japanese tolerance of fantasy, and of the unique dichotomy between fantasy and reality, is in stories of male homosexual love, currently popular among young girls” (p.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They seem to be little more than stories of relationships between two males, but is what appears so obvious even about males?
  • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[136]
.Youka Nitta has said that "even in Japan, reading boys' love isn't something that parents encourage" and encouraged any parents who had concerns about her works to read them.^ Originally developed in Japan, boys’ love is now a global phenomenon, but little is known about its Western readership.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I want to know, but I'm not sure Kishi is willing to give panel time to something who isn't Uchiha.:( .
  • Beyond the Eyes: The SasuHina FC [Archive] - Page 20 - Naruto Forums 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC forums.narutofan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Japanese boys are well aware of bishōnen since boys' love manga such as BeBoy can be bought at convenience stores in even small towns, according to Iwamoto.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[137] .Although in Japan, concern about manga has been mostly directed to shonen manga, in 2006, an email campaign was launched against the availability of BL manga in Sakai City's public library.^ (Although freely available in Japan, the illustration itself cannot be shown here, as the contents might contravene the server's anti-pornography regulations.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ As noted earlier, many articles about BL in Japan characterize their predominantly female readership as heterosexual.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the BL genre has been popular in Japan since the ‘70s, until recent years, English- and Italian-language translations of BL manga were unavailable in bookstores; instead, fans sought out unofficial translations online.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In August 2008, the library decided to stop buying more BL, and to keep its existing BL in a collection restricted to adult readers.^ It seems likely that more readers are buying their BL manga in print now, as the availability of titles in English has surged over the last two years.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assumptions that Japanese BL readers were only, or primarily, heterosexual women have been challenged by Lunsing (2006), who also argued that that BL manga do not merely “exist in a world of fantasy”: .
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other readers were more cautious about developing a link between BL manga and the reality of gay life.
  • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That November, the library was contacted by people who protested against the removal, regarding it as "a form of sexual discrimination". The Japanese media ran stories on how much BL was in public libraries, and emphasised that this sexual material had been loaned out to minors.^ Sabine Frühstück recounts how much of this control focused on young people's sexuality, especially masturbation, whose practice led to a "decadence of public morals" threatening the nation's stability.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Story-lines are not absent, but in general serve the depiction of sexual activity rather than having much import in their own right.
  • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Many stories are not sexually explicit, but as sex underlies romantic love, sex is present in much of yaoi.
  • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Debate ensued on Mixi, a Japanese social networking site, and eventually the library returned its BL to the public collection. Mark McLelland suggests that BL may become "a major battlefront for proponents and detractors of 'gender free' policies in employment, education and elsewhere."[138]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In careful Japanese enunciation, all three vowels are pronounced separately, for a three-mora word, [ja.o.i].
  2. ^ First serialised in Shōjo Comic in January 1976, Kaze has been called "the first commercially published boys' love story",[23] but this claim has been challenged, as the first male-male kiss was in the 1970 In the Sunroom, also by Keiko Takemiya.[24] Matt Thorn says that Kaze was "the first shōjo manga to portray romantic and sexual relationships between boys", and that Takemiya first thought of Kaze nine years before it was approved for publication. Takemiya attributes the gap between the idea and its publication to the sexual elements of the story.[8]
  3. ^ This character has been called an "Osoi uke" (襲い受け, "attacking uke"). He is usually paired with a "Hetare seme" (ヘタレ攻め, "wimpy seme").[42]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Wilson, Brent; Toku, Masami. "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 2003
  2. ^ a b c Noh, Sueen (2002). "Reading YAOI Comics: An Analysis of Korean Girls’ Fandom" (PDF). http://moongsil.com/study/yaoi_eng.pdf. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Lunsing, Wim. Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context Issue 12, January 2006 Accessed 12 August 2008.
  4. ^ a b c d Masaki, Lyle. (6 January 2008) “Yowie!”: The Stateside appeal of boy-meets-boy YAOI comics AfterElton.com
  5. ^ a b Kotani Mari, foreword to Saitō Tamaki (2007) "Otaku Sexuality" in Christopher Bolton, Istvan Csicsery-Ronay Jr., and Takayuki Tatsumi ed., page 223 Robot Ghosts and Wired Dreams University of Minnesota Press ISBN 978-0-8166-4974-7
  6. ^ a b c d e f McHarry, Mark (November 2003). "Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love". The Guide. http://www.guidemag.com/temp/yaoi/a/mcharry_yaoi.html. 
  7. ^ a b Suzuki, Kazuko. 1999. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". In Sherrie Inness, ed., Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. London: Rowman & Littlefield, p.252 ISBN 0847691365, ISBN 0847691373.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Thorn, Matthew. (2004) “Girls And Women Getting Out Of Hand: The Pleasure And Politics Of Japan's Amateur Comics Community.” pp. 169-186, In Fanning the Flames: Fans and Consumer Culture in Contemporary Japan, William W. Kelly, ed., State University of New York Press. ISBN 0791460320. Retrieved 12 August 2008.
  9. ^ a b c Kinsella, Sharon Japanese Subculture in the 1990s: Otaku and the Amateur Manga Movement Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Summer, 1998), pp. 289-316
  10. ^ Fujimoto, Yukari (1991) "Shōjo manga ni okeru 'shōnen ai' no imi" ("The Meaning of 'Boys' Love' in Shōjo Manga"). In N. Mizuta, ed. New Feminism Review, Vol. 2: Onna to hyōgen ("Women and Expression"). Tokyo: Gakuyō Shobō, ISBN 4313840427. http://matt-thorn.com/shoujo_manga/fujimoto.php (in Japanese). Accessed August 12, 2008. "やめ て、お尻が、いたいから" - "Stop, because my butt hurts"
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Definitions From Japan: BL, Yaoi, June". aestheticism.com. http://www.aestheticism.com/visitors/reference/jpnse_def/index.htm. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Vincent, Keith (2007) "A Japanese Electra and Her Queer Progeny" Mechademia 2 pp.64-79
  13. ^ a b c d Pagliassotti, Dru (November 2008) 'Reading Boys' Love in the West' Particip@tions Volume 5, Issue 2 Special Edition
  14. ^ "Digital Manga Names New Yaoi Imprint: A Tribute to Jean Genet". http://www.icv2.com/articles/news/8191.html. 
  15. ^ Aoyama, Tomoko (April 2009). "Eureka Discovers Culture Girls, Fujoshi, and BL: Essay Review of Three Issues of the Japanese Literary magazine, Yuriika (Eureka)". Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific 20. http://intersections.anu.edu.au/issue20/aoyama.htm. 
  16. ^ "Tonari no 801 chan Fujoshi Manga Adapted for Shōjo Mag". http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/news/2007-11-15/tonari-no-801-chan-fujoshi-manga-adapted-for-shojo-mag. 
  17. ^ a b c d e Jones, V.E. "He Loves Him, She Loves Them: Japanese comics about gay men are increasingly popular among women". Boston.com. April 2005.
  18. ^ Thorn, Matt What Shôjo Manga Are and Are Not - A Quick Guide for the Confused
  19. ^ a b c d Strickland, Elizabeth. "Drawn Together." The Village Voice. November 2, 2006.
  20. ^ Cha, Kai-Ming (7 March 2005) Yaoi Manga: What Girls Like? Publishers Weekly
  21. ^ a b Wood, Andrea. (Spring 2006). "Straight" Women, Queer Texts: Boy-Love Manga and the Rise of a Global Counterpublic. WSQ: Women's Studies Quarterly, 34 (1/2), pp. 394-414.
  22. ^ Thompson, David (8 September 2003) Hello boys New Statesman
  23. ^ a b Toku, Masami (2007) "Shojo Manga! Girls’ Comics! A Mirror of Girls’ Dreams" Mechademia 2 p. 27
  24. ^ Journalista - the news weblog of The Comics Journal » Blog Archive » Mar. 27, 2007: The first draft of history (some revisions may be necessary).Tcj.com. Retrieved on 2008-12-23
  25. ^ Aquila, Meredith (2007) "Ranma 1/2 Fan Fiction Writers: New Narrative Themes or the Same Old Story?" Mechademia 2 p.39
  26. ^ McLelland, Mark (2000). Male homosexuality in modern Japan. Routledge. pp. 131 and ff. ISBN 070071300X. 
  27. ^ Dirk Deppey. "A Comics Reader's Guide to Manga Scanlations". The Comics Journal. http://www.tcj.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=430&Itemid=70. Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  28. ^ a b c d "WeeklyAkibaWords: Gachi Muchi (ガチムチ)". WeeklyAkibaWords. 2009-02-27. http://en.akibablog.net/archives/2009/02/weeklyakibawords_gachi_muchi.html. Retrieved 4/5/09. 
  29. ^ Anderson, Tina (date unknown). "That Damn Bara Article!". Guns, Guys & Yaoi. http://ggymeta.wordpress.com/popular-gay-manga-posts/that-bara-article/. Retrieved 4/5/09. 
  30. ^ "GloBL and Gay Comics - Chicks On Anime". Anime News Network. 2008-11-25. http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/chicks-on-anime/2008-11-25. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  31. ^ "How To Find Bara In English". Yaoi 911. 2008-09-07. http://www.yaoi911.com/how-to-find-bara-in-english/. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  32. ^ Aoki, Deb (3 March, 2007) Interview: Erica Friedman - Page 2 "Because the dynamic of the seme / uke is so well known, it's bound to show up in yuri. ... In general, I'm going to say no. There is much less obsession with pursued/pursuer in yuri manga than there is in yaoi."
  33. ^ a b McLelland, Mark. "Male homosexuality and modern culture in modern Japan." Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context Issue 3, January 2000
  34. ^ a b Camper, Cathy (2006) Yaoi 101: Girls Love "Boys' Love."
  35. ^ a b Suzuki, Kazuko. 1999. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". In Sherrie Inness, ed., Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. London: Rowman & Littlefield, p.253 ISBN 0847691365, ISBN 0847691373.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g McLelland, Mark. Why are Japanese Girls' Comics full of Boys Bonking? Refractory: A Journal of Entertainment Media Vol.10, 2006/2007
  37. ^ a b c Keller, Katherine Seme and Uke? Make Me Puke Sequential Tart February 2008
  38. ^ a b c Avila, K. "Boy's Love and Yaoi Revisited". Sequential Tart. January 2005.
  39. ^ a b Lees, Sharon (June 2006). "Yaoi and Boys Love". Akiba Angels.
  40. ^ Linderström, Jenny Boys' Love: En studie av maskuliniteter och maktrelationer i yaoi manga
  41. ^ McLelland, Mark. The World of Yaoi: The Internet, Censorship and the Global “Boys’ Love” Fandom Australian Feminist Law Journal, 2005.
  42. ^ a b "fujyoshi.jp". http://fujyoshi.jp/fujyoshi_kouza0. 
  43. ^ Manry, Gia. (16 April 2008) It's A Yaoi Thing: Boys Who Love Boys and the Women Who Love Them The Escapist
  44. ^ Welker, James. 2006. "Beautiful, Borrowed, and Bent: 'Boys' Love' as Girls' Love in Shôjo Manga' Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society vol. 31, no. 3. page 842. doi:10.1086/498987
  45. ^ a b Suzuki, Kazuko. 1999. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". In Sherrie Inness, ed., Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. London: Rowman & Littlefield, p.250 ISBN 0847691365, ISBN 0847691373.
  46. ^ a b Suzuki, Kazuko. 1999. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". In Sherrie Inness, ed., Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. London: Rowman & Littlefield, p.251 ISBN 0847691365, ISBN 0847691373.
  47. ^ a b Kimbergt, Sébastien (2008). "Ces mangas qui utilisent le yaoi pour doper leurs ventes". in Brient, Hervé (in French). Homosexualité et manga : le yaoi. Manga: 10000 images. Editions H. pp. 113–115. ISBN 978-2-9531781-0-4. 
  48. ^ Thorn, Matt. "Unlikely Explorers: Alternative Narratives of Love, Sex, Gender, and Friendship in Japanese "Girls'" Comics". http://www.matt-thorn.com/shoujo_manga/sexual_ambiguity/index.html. Retrieved 2007-12-05. 
  49. ^ Suzuki, Kazuko. 1999. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". In Sherrie Inness, ed., Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. London: Rowman & Littlefield, p.260 ISBN 0847691365, ISBN 0847691373.
  50. ^ McLelland, Mark. (2006). "Manga" In Gaëtan Brulotte and John Phillips (eds.). Encyclopedia of Erotic Literature. New York: Routledge, pp. 849-851.
  51. ^ Granick, Jennifer (16 August 2006) Harry Potter Loves Malfoy Wired.com
  52. ^ Kingdom Hearts aestheticism.com
  53. ^ "Heavy Hero or Digital Dummy? Multimodal Player–Avatar Relations in Final Fantasy 7". http://vcj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/3/2/213. 
  54. ^ Galbraith, Patrick W. (31 October, 2009) Moe: Exploring Virtual Potential in Post-Millennial Japan
  55. ^ http://educa.lit.osaka-cu.ac.jp/~ggp/nakami/2008/Comparative%20Studies%20on%20Urban%20Cultures02.pdf#page=33
  56. ^ Lees, Sharon (July 2006). "Be Beautiful: Yaoi Publishers Interviews Part 3". Akiba Angels.
  57. ^ O’Connell, M. "Embracing Yaoi Manga: Youka Nitta". Sequential Tart. April 2006.
  58. ^ a b c Toku, Masami (6 June 2002) Interview with Mr. Sagawa
  59. ^ Pagliassotti, Dru (2 June 2008) Yaoi Timeline: Spread Through U.S.
  60. ^ "The Growth of Yaoi". http://sequentialtart.com/article.php?id=408. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  61. ^ Arrant, Chris (June 2006). Home-Grown Boys' Love from Yaoi Press. http://www.publishersweekly.com/article/CA6341172.html. 
  62. ^ Abraham, Yamila (April 2007). "Publisher Yaoi Press 'Global Yaoi' Amazon Listings". http://www.amazon.com/Yaoi-Press-Global/lm/R1JLG7ZSK38CGK. 
  63. ^ "Links to Yaoi-Con coverage". October 2007. http://www.icaruscomics.com/wp_web/?p=938. 
  64. ^ "German Publisher Licenses Global BL Titles". April 2008. http://comipress.com/news/2008/04/18/3508. 
  65. ^ "GloBL Previews and Other Stuff.". September 2007. http://ggymeta.wordpress.com/2007/09/17/globl-previews-and-other-stuff/. 
  66. ^ "Chicks on Anime: GloBL and Gay Comics". November 2008. http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/chicks-on-anime/2008-11-25. 
  67. ^ "Yaoi Press Moves Stores and Opens Doors". http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/press-release/2007-01-08/yaoi-press-moves-stores-and-opens-doors. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  68. ^ Manry, Gia (4 October 2008) The Next Generation Speaks! (Yaoi Generation, That Is)
  69. ^ "DramaQueen Announces New Yaoi & Manhwa Titles". http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/press-release/2006-08-07/dramaqueen-announces-new-yaoi-and-manhwa-titles. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  70. ^ "RUSH Seeks New Home". http://www.kuri-ousity.com/?p=512. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  71. ^ "RUSH Looking for a New Publisher". http://www.mangablog.net/?p=1766. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  72. ^ "Random News Bits". http://discarnate.com/boysnextdoor/blog/?p=65. Retrieved 2008-12-09. 
  73. ^ "A Year of Yaoi At Iris Print". http://www.publishersweekly.com/article/CA6423880.html. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  74. ^ "Iris Print Wilts". ICv2. 2008-06-17. http://www.icv2.com/articles/news/12751.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  75. ^ "Amazon listings". http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_ss_gw?url=search-alias%3Daps&field-keywords=yayoi+neko. Retrieved July 2009. 
  76. ^ "Amazon listings". http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_ss_b?url=search-alias%3Daps&field-keywords=Dany+%26+Dany+yaoi. Retrieved July 2009. 
  77. ^ "Active Anime Interviews Famous Italian Manga-Ka Duo Dany&Dany | Manga, Very, Were, Yaoi, Have". activeanime.com. 2008-08-17. http://www.activeanime.com/html/content/view/3727/36/. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  78. ^ "Amazon Author Page: Tina Anderson". http://www.amazon.com/Tina-Anderson/e/B002BML3ZG/ref=ntt_athr_dp_pel_3. Retrieved July 2009. 
  79. ^ http://www.yokoshima.com.mx/
  80. ^ "Barnes and Noble Listings". http://search.barnesandnoble.com/booksearch/results.asp?ATH=KOSEN. Retrieved July 2009. 
  81. ^ Malone, Paul M. (April 2009). "Home-grown Shōjo Manga and the Rise of Boys' Love among Germany's 'Forty-Niners'". Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific 20. http://intersections.anu.edu.au/issue20/malone.htm. 
  82. ^ "Anne Delseit, Martina Peters". http://www.carlsen.de/web/manga/buecher_von?aid=158478. Retrieved July 2009. 
  83. ^ "The Wildside Verlag Blog". http://wildsideverlag.wordpress.com/. Retrieved July 2009. 
  84. ^ "Fireangels.net Site". http://fireangels.net/. Retrieved July 2009. 
  85. ^ a b c d Schodt, Frederik L. (1996) Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga pages 120-123
  86. ^ a b Nagaike, Kazumi (April 2009). "Elegant Caucasians, Amorous Arabs, and Invisible Others: Signs and Images of Foreigners in Japanese BL Manga". Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific (Australian National University) (20). http://intersections.anu.edu.au/issue20/nagaike.htm. 
  87. ^ "June.net". http://www.june-net.com/. 
  88. ^ Welker, James (2008). "Lilies of the Margin: Beautiful Boys and Queer Female Identities in Japan". in Fran Martin, Peter Jackson, Audrey Yue. AsiaPacifQueer: Rethinking Genders and Sexualities. University of Illinois Press. pp. 46–66. ISBN 9780252075070. 
  89. ^ "Biblos Bankrupt". http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/news/2006-04-05/biblos-bankrupt. 
  90. ^ Cha, Kai-Ming and Reid, Calvin (29 March 2006) Japanese Publisher Claims CPM Infringes Publishers Weekly
  91. ^ Thompson, Jason (2007). Manga: The Complete Guide. Del Rey. pp. 417. ISBN 0345485904. 
  92. ^ http://www.icv2.com/articles/news/685.html
  93. ^ Perper, Timothy and Cornog, Martha (March 2002) Eroticism for the masses: Japanese manga comics and their assimilation into the U.S. Sexuality & Culture, 6 (1) pp. 3–126
  94. ^ Cha, Kai-Ming (13 March 2007) Media Blasters Drops Shonen; Adds Yaoi Publishers Weekly
  95. ^ BE-BOY.Libre-pub.co.jp. Retrieved on 2008-12-23
  96. ^ CPM Speaks on Manga License Dispute with Libre - Anime News Network.Animenewsnetwork.com. Retrieved on 2008-12-23
  97. ^ Cha, Kai-Ming (10 August 2008) Brokeback comics craze San Francisco Chronicle
  98. ^ McLelland, Mark; Yoo, Seunghyun (March 2007). "The International Yaoi Boys' Love Fandom and the Regulation of Virtual Child Pornography: The Implications of Current Legislation". Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC, Vol. 4, No. 1, pages 93–104. doi:10.1525/srsp.2007.4.1.93.
  99. ^ Shamoon, Deborah (July 2004) “Office Sluts and Rebel Flowers: The Pleasures of Japanese Pornographic Comics for Women” in Linda Williams ed. Porn Studies. Duke University Press p.85
  100. ^ Lee, Tammy (May 2001) Tantalizing Translations - M.J. Johnson Sequential Tart
  101. ^ a b Valenti, Kristy L. (2005). "'Stop, My Butt Hurts!' - The Yaoi Invasion". The Comics Journal, issue 269.
  102. ^ a b Fletcher, Dani (May 2002). Guys on Guys for Girls - Yaoi and Shounen Ai. Sequential Tart.
  103. ^ Suzuki, Kazuko. 1999. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". In Sherrie Inness, ed., Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. London: Rowman & Littlefield, pp.259-260 ISBN 0847691365, ISBN 0847691373.
  104. ^ Saitō Tamaki (2007) "Otaku Sexuality" in Christopher Bolton, Istvan Csicsery-Ronay Jr., and Takayuki Tatsumi ed., page 231 Robot Ghosts and Wired Dreams University of Minnesota Press ISBN 978-0-8166-4974-7
  105. ^ Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). '"A Very Pure Thing": Gay and Pseudo-Gay Themes' in Anime Explosion! The What, Why & Wow of Japanese Animation Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press p.95 ISBN 1-880656-72-8. "The five pilots of Gundam Wing (1995) have female counterparts, yet a lot of fan sites are produced as if these girls never existed."
  106. ^ Mayerson, Ginger (1 April 2007). "Ichigenme Volume 1". The Report Card. Sequential Tart. http://www.sequentialtart.com/reports.php?ID=5222&issue=2007-04-01. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  107. ^ Anderson, Tina (date unknown). "That Damn Bara Article!". Guns, Guys & Yaoi. http://ggymeta.wordpress.com/popular-gay-manga-posts/that-bara-article/. Retrieved 4/5/09. 
  108. ^ "GloBL and Gay Comics - Chicks On Anime". Anime News Network. 2008-11-25. http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/chicks-on-anime/2008-11-25. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  109. ^ "How To Find Bara In English". Yaoi 911. 2008-09-07. http://www.yaoi911.com/how-to-find-bara-in-english/. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  110. ^ a b Simona (05/13/2009). "Simona's BL Research Lab: Reibun Ike, Hyogo Kijima, Inaki Matsumoto". Akibanana. http://www.akibanana.com/?q=node/1670. Retrieved 2009-08-29. 
  111. ^ Shamoon, Deborah (July 2004) “Office Sluts and Rebel Flowers: The Pleasures of Japanese Pornographic Comics for Women” in Linda Williams ed. Porn Studies. Duke University Press p.97
  112. ^ Shamoon, Deborah (July 2004) “Office Sluts and Rebel Flowers: The Pleasures of Japanese Pornographic Comics for Women” in Linda Williams ed. Porn Studies. Duke University Press p. 86
  113. ^ a b Brenner, Robyn Romance by Any Other Name
  114. ^ McHarry, Mark. (2006) "Yaoi" in Gaëtan Brulotte and John Phillips (eds.). Encyclopedia of Erotic Literature. New York: Routledge, pp. 1445-1447.
  115. ^ de Bats, Hadrien (2008). "Entretien avec Hisako Miyoshi". in Brient, Hervé (in French). Homosexualité et manga : le yaoi. Manga: 10000 images. Editions H. pp. 17–19. ISBN 978-2-9531781-0-4. 
  116. ^ http://graphicnovelreporter.com/content/yaoi-love-interview-makoto-tateno-interview
  117. ^ Suzuki, Kazuko. 1999. "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". In Sherrie Inness, ed., Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. London: Rowman & Littlefield, pp.257-258 ISBN 0847691365, ISBN 0847691373.
  118. ^ Gravett, Paul (2004) Manga: 60 Years of Japanese Comics (Harper Design ISBN 1-85669-391-0) pages 80-81
  119. ^ McLelland, Mark (2000) "The love between 'beautiful boys' in women's comics" page 69 Male Homosexuality in Modern Japan: Cultural Myths and Social Realities Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press ISBN 0700714251
  120. ^ Schodt, Frederik L. (1983) Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. pages 100-101 Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International. ISBN 0-87011-752-1
  121. ^ Ueno, Chizuko (1989) "Jendaaresu waarudo no <ai> no jikken" ("Experimenting with <love> in a Genderless World"). In Kikan Toshi II ("Quarterly City II"), Tokyo: Kawade Shobō Shinsha, ISBN 4309902227. Cited and translated in Thorn, 2004.
  122. ^ Fujimoto, Yukari (1991) "Shōjo manga ni okeru 'shōnen ai' no imi" ("The Meaning of 'Boys' Love' in Shōjo Manga"). In N. Mizuta, ed. New Feminism Review, Vol. 2: Onna to hyōgen ("Women and Expression"). Tokyo: Gakuyō Shobō, ISBN 4313840427. http://matt-thorn.com/shoujo_manga/fujimoto.php (in Japanese). Accessed August 12, 2008.
  123. ^ Takemiya, Keiko. (1993) "Josei wa gei ga suki!?" (Women Like Gays!?) Bungei shunjū, June, pp. 82-83.
  124. ^ Suzuki, Kazuko. (1999) "Pornography or Therapy? Japanese Girls Creating the Yaoi Phenomenon". In Sherrie Inness, ed., Millennium Girls: Today's Girls Around the World. London: Rowman & Littlefield, p.246 ISBN 0847691365, ISBN 0847691373.
  125. ^ Hashimoto, Miyuki Visual Kei Otaku Identity—An Intercultural Analysis Intercultural Communication Studies XVI: 1 2007 pp.87–99
  126. ^ McCaffery, Larry; Gregory, Sinda; Kotani, Mari; Takayuki, Tatsumi (n.d.) The Twister of Imagination: An Interview with Mariko Ohara
  127. ^ Sakakibara, Shihomi (1998) Yaoi genron: yaoi kara mieta mono (An Elusive Theory of Yaoi: The view from Yaoi). Tokyo: Natsume Shobo, ISBN 4931391427.
  128. ^ Buckley, Sandra (1991) "'Penguin in Bondage': A Graphic Tale of Japanese Comic Books", pp. 163-196, In Technoculture. C. Penley and A. Ross, eds. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota ISBN 0-8166-1932-8
  129. ^ a b Welker, James. 2006. "Beautiful, Borrowed, and Bent: 'Boys' Love' as Girls' Love in Shôjo Manga' Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society vol. 31, no. 3. page 843. doi:10.1086/498987
  130. ^ Blackarmor (February 19, 2008) "A Follow-Up To the Yaoi Debate" http://blackarmor.exblog.jp/7508722/ (In Japanese.) Accessed August 14, 2008.
  131. ^ Mizoguchi, Akiko. (2003) "Homophobic Homos, Rapes of Love, and Queer Lesbians: Yaoi as a Conflicting Site of Homo/ Hetero-Sexual Female Sexual Fantasy". Session 187, Association for Asian Studies Annual Meeting, New York, March 27-30, 2003. http://www.aasianst.org/absts/2003abst/Japan/sessions.htm Accessed August 12, 2008.
  132. ^ Butcher, Christopher (18 August 2006). A Few Comments About The Gay/Yaoi Divide - Strong enough for a man, but made for a woman...
  133. ^ Johnson, M.J. (May 2002). "A Brief History of Yaoi". Sequential Tart.
  134. ^ Thorn, Matt. (1993) "Unlikely Explorers: Alternative Narratives of Love, Sex, Gender, and Friendship in Japanese Girls' Comics." New York Conference on Asian Studies, New Paltz, New York, October 16, 1993.
  135. ^ "Intersections: Conflicting Discourses on Boys’ Love and Subcultural Tactics in Mainland China and Hong Kong". Intersections.anu.edu.au. http://intersections.anu.edu.au/issue20/liu.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  136. ^ Pilcher, Tim and Brad Brooks. The Essential Guide to World Comics. Collins & Brown. 2005. 124-125.
  137. ^ http://www.publishersweekly.com/article/CA6332853.html
  138. ^ "Intersections: (A)cute Confusion: The Unpredictable Journey of Japanese Popular Culture". Intersections.anu.edu.au. http://intersections.anu.edu.au/issue20/mclelland.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 

Further reading

.
  • Aoyama, Tomoko (1988) "Male homosexuality as treated by Japanese women writers" in The Japanese Trajectory: Modernization and Beyond, Gavan McCormack, Yoshio Sugimoto eds.^ Male homosexuality as treated by Japanese women writers.
    • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ McCormack, Gavan and Yoshio Sugimoto, eds.
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Tomoko Aoyama, 'Male homosexuality as treated by Japanese women writers,' in The Japanese Trajectory: Modernization and Beyond , ed.
    • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    .Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-34515-4.
  • Butcher, Christopher (11 December 2007).^ Gavan McCormack and Yoshio Sugimoto, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp.
    • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, pp.
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Queer love manga style". Xtra!.
  • Camper, Cathy (2006), "Boys, Boys, Boys: Kazuma Kodaka Interview", Giant Robot (42): 60–63, ISSN 1534-9845 
  • Cooper, Lisa "Laugh it up" Newtype USA, October 2007 (Volume 6 Number 10)
  • Fujimoto Yukari (2004). ."Transgender: Female Hermaphrodites and Male Androgynes". U.S.-Japan Women’s Journal 27: 76.
  • Haggerty, George E. (2000).^ U.S. - Japan Women's Journal , English Supplement 20:151-178.
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ McLelland, Male Homosexuality in Modern Japan ; Jonathan Hall, 'Japan's progressive sex: male homosexuality, national competition, and the cinema,' in The Journal of Homosexuality , vol.
    • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Images of Women in Weekly Male Comics Magazines in Japan."
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Encyclopedia of Gay Histories and Cultures. Taylor & Francis. .ISBN 9780815318804.
  • Ingulsrud, John E.; Allen, Kate (2009), Reading Japan Cool: Patterns of Manga Literacy and Discourse, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0739127535 
  • Kakinuma Eiko, Kurihara Chiyo et al.^ These are staple themes in manga, which account for almost 40 percent of all printed media in Japan and are widely read by children.
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ De jonge Tezuka was toen al Japan’s populairste mangaka en had zo goed als op z’n eentje de moderne japanse manga uitgevonden.

    (eds.), Tanbi-Shosetsu, Gay-Bungaku Book Guide, 1993. ISBN 4893673238
  • Lees, Sharon (July 2006). "Be Beautiful: Yaoi Publishers Interviews Part 3". .Akiba Angels.
  • Levi, Antonia (1996) Samurai from Outer Space: Understanding Japanese Animation
  • Lewis, Marilyn Jaye (editor), Zowie!^ Samurai from Outer Space: Understanding Japanese Animation .
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It's Yaoi!: Western Girls Write Hot Stories of Boys' Love
    .^ One girl boasted in her blog that she locked out students from her high school's computer lab so she could upload her yaoi stories.
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Yaoi, and boys' love are signs of teenage power within the realm of visual cultural.
    • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The origins of the twin phenomena yaoi and boys' love are fascinating.
    • "Boys' Love," Yaoi, and Art Education: Issues of Power and Pedagogy 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.csuchico.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Philadelphia: Running Press, 2006. ISBN 1560259108.
  • Matsui, Midori. .(1993) "Little girls were little boys: Displaced Femininity in the representation of homosexuality in Japanese girls' comics," in Gunew, S. and Yeatman, A. (eds.^ Yaoi Ronsō : Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography Wim Lunsing Introduction A number of papers in English have discussed the genre of shōjo manga [Japanese girls' comics] known as BLB (boy loves boy) manga in which gay male characters figure prominently and which were first published in the 1970s.
    • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Satō Masaki, 'Shōjo manga to homofobia' [Girls'comics and homophobia], in Kuia Sutadiizu '96 [Queer Studies 1996], ed.
    • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Why Are Japanese Girls' Comics Full of Boys Bonking?"
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ) .Feminism and The Politics of Difference, pp. 177–196. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.
  • Mautner, Chris (2007) "Introduction to yaoi, part 1"
  • McCarthy, Helen, Jonathan Clements The Erotic Anime Movie Guide pub Titan (London) 1998 ISBN 1 85286 946 1
  • McHarry, Mark.^ No, for the most part yaoi will and has continued along perfectly fine… there will just be different views and voices.
    • Manga Recon » Blog Archive » Manga Recon @ Yaoi-Con 2008 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.popcultureshock.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Posted: Sun Aug 26, 2007 7:08 pm Post subject: I'm a yaoi fangirl ^^ I consider myself sane, for the most part.
    • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]
    • Sailor Moon Uncensored • View topic - Annoying yaoi fangirls? 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC www.smuncensored.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the United States, McHarry (2007) reported, “some gay-identified men have expressed unease about or opposition to yaoi” (p.
    • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Identity Unmoored: Yaoi in the West". In Thomas Peele, ed., Queer Popular Culture: Literature, Media, Film, and Television.^ For this, we must consider how yaoi came to prominence in the West, and first we need to understand some of the cultural factors which may have helped give rise to it in Japan.
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In John A. Lent, ed., Asian Popular Culture , Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, pp.
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Mass Media, Gender Roles, and Popular Culture in Japan and the United States."
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. ISBN 140397490X.
  • Mizoguchi Akiko (2003).^ Join Date: Mar 2003 Location: New York Posts: 4,309 .
    • Batman: The Brave And The Bold - Page 2 - CHUD Forums 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC chud.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    • 同志电影欣赏日gay movie:Sun,Aug 30,4pm:Priscilla Queen of the Desert 沙漠妖姬(页 1) - English Forum (国际版) - RL 彩虹联盟::Rainbow League 上海,上海彩虹联盟,彩虹,彩虹联盟,彩虹,联盟,新闻,资讯,股市,游泳,健身,羽毛球,健康,运动,活动,热点,笑话,兴趣,爱好,沙龙,游泳,健身,外语,HOMO,GAY,阳光,真情,同志,同性恋,同性爱 - Powered by Discuz! Archiver 19 September 2009 4:36 UTC w210821.s94.ufhost.com [Source type: General]
    • Particip@tions Vol. 5 (2): Article - Dru Pagliassotti 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.participations.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Male-Male Romance by and for Women in Japan: A History and the Subgenres of Yaoi Fictions". U.S.-Japan Women’s Journal, 25: 49.
  • Nagaike Kazumi (2003).^ U.S. - Japan Women's Journal , English Supplement 20:151-178.
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ McLelland, Male Homosexuality in Modern Japan ; Jonathan Hall, 'Japan's progressive sex: male homosexuality, national competition, and the cinema,' in The Journal of Homosexuality , vol.
    • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Images of Women in Weekly Male Comics Magazines in Japan."
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Perverse Sexualities, Perverse Desires: Representations of Female Fantasies and Yaoi Manga as Pornography Directed at Women.^ The fact that the boys/men in yaoi are depicted as beautiful she related to the fact that women in shōjo manga are also depicted as beautiful, a mere characteristic of the entire genre of shōjo manga .
    • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the early 1970s, with the emergence of influential women artists such as Moto Hagio and Keiko Takemiya, shōjo manga took a male homoerotic direction.
    • Yaoi: Redrawing Male Love 17 September 2009 1:30 UTC www.guidemag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He also insisted that yaoi manga often lack realism, as the female authors do not know how men feel, and that most of the yaoi authors were lesbian women, hence the feminine features.
    • Intersections: Yaoi Ronsō: Discussing Depictions of Male Homosexuality in Japanese Girls' Comics, Gay Comics and Gay Pornography 13 January 2010 18:46 UTC intersections.anu.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

    U.S.-Japan Women’s Journal, 25: 76.
  • Nishimura Mari (2001) Aniparo to Yaoi Ohta Publishing ISBN 978-4-87233-643-6
  • Newtype USA, August 2007 (Volume 6 Number 8) "Why we like it"
  • Pilcher, Tim; Moore, Alan; Kannenberg, Gene Jr. (2009). Erotic Comics 2: A Graphic History from the Liberated '70s to the Internet. Abrams ComicArts. ISBN 9780810972773. 
  • PiQ, June 2008 (Volume 1 Number 3)
  • PiQ, July 2008 (Volume 1 Number 4)
  • Salek, Rebecca (June 2005) More Than Just Mommy and Daddy: "Nontraditional" Families in Comics Sequential Tart
  • Solomon, Charles (30 June 2004) Young men in love Los Angeles Times
  • Simona's BL Research Lab @ Akibanana
  • Simona's BL for Dummies Crash Course
  • Simona's BL for Dummies Crash Course - Intermediate Level
  • Thompson, Jason (31 July, 2006) Boku no Shonen Ai (or "Jason overanalyzes something and takes all the fun out of it") livejournal.com

Simple English

Yaoi (やおい), is a term for fiction that shows homosexual male relationships, but, is usually created by females. Most yaoi fans are female.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 21, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Yaoi, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message