Yazd: Wikis

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Coordinates: 31°54′N 54°22′E / 31.9°N 54.367°E / 31.9; 54.367

Yazd
يزد
Yazd is located in Iran
Yazd
Coordinates: 31°54′N 54°22′E / 31.9°N 54.367°E / 31.9; 54.367
Country  Iran
Province Yazd
Elevation 1,216 m (3,990 ft)
Population (2006)
 - Total 505,037
  estimate
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)

Yazd (pronounced /jæzd/) (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd province in Iran, and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. The city is located some 175 miles southeast of Isfahan. In 2005 it had an estimated population of 433,836 people.[1] In 2006 it had an estimated population of 505,037.[2] Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd is an architecturally unique city. It is also known in Iran for the high quality of its handicrafts, especially silk weaving, and its sweet shops.

Contents

Geography

The Amir Chakmak mosque

Yazd with the area of 131,551km² is situated at an oasis where the Dasht-e Kavir desert and the Dasht-e Lut desert meet, the city is sometimes called "the bride of the Kavir" because of its location, in a valley between Shir Kuh, the tallest mountain in the region at 4075 m. above sea level, and Kharaneq. The city itself is located at 1203 m. above sea-level, and covers 16,000 km².

According to the administrative division rules, the Yazd province is divided into 10 districts, each includes at least one town and a number of villages. These districts are: Abarkuh, Ardakan, Bafq, Khatam, Maybod, Mehriz, Tabas, Sadough, Taft and Yazd.

Various Yazd District
district area population cities villages
Abarkuh 5941 40000 2 4
Ardakan 6717 70000 2 5
Bafgh 15298 41000 2 6
Khatam 7931 32000 2 4
Mehriz 6717 74000 1 5
Sadough 5486 26300 3 3
Tabas 57337 63400 2 8
Taft 5948 56000 2 10
Yazd 2397 389000 4 4
Source:Geography Book of Yazd
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The Mountains

  • southern and Southern West Mountains

This mountains are widest than other groups of mountains. The most important mountain in these mountains is Shir Kuh

  • Eastern Mountains

This mountains are located in east of Yazd province and the highest mountains among this mountains are [bon lokht (3002m)] and [bajegan(2879m)].

  • Northern East Mountains

These mountains are located east of [Tabas]. This group also includes the mountains Shir Kuh

Climate

Yazd is the driest major city in Iran, with an average annual rainfall of only 60 millimetres (2.4 in), and also the hottest north of the Persian Gulf coast, with summer temperatures very frequently above 40 °C (104 °F) in blazing sunshine with no humidity. Even at night the temperatures in summer are rather uncomfortable. In the winter, the days remain mild and sunny, but in the morning the thin air and low cloudiness cause very cold temperatures that can sometimes fall well below 0 °C (32 °F).

Yazd
Climate chart (explanation)
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average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm

Governors

Hossain Khan Khan Baba Khan Sardar (around 1849-1850?)

History

The city has a history of over 3,000 years, dating back to the time of the Median empire, when it was known as Ysatis (or Issatis). The present city name has however been derived from Yazdegerd I, a Sassanid ruler. The city was definitely a Zoroastrian centre during Sassanid times. After the Arab Islamic conquest of Persia, many Zoroastrians fled to Yazd from neighbouring provinces. The city remained Zoroastrian even after the conquest by paying a levy, and only gradually did Islam come to be the dominant religion in the city.

Because of its remote desert location and the difficulty of approach, Yazd had remained largely immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages of war. For instance, it was a haven for those fleeing from destruction in other parts of Persia during the invasion of Genghis Khan. It was visited by Marco Polo in 1272 who remarked on the city's fine silk-weaving industry. It briefly served as the capital of the Muzaffarid Dynasty in the fourteenth century, and was sieged unsuccessfully in 1350–1351 by the Injuids under Shaikh Abu Ishaq. The Friday (or Congregation) Mosque, arguably the city's greatest architectural landmark, as well as other important buildings, date to this period. During the Qajar dynasty (18th Century AD) it was ruled by the Bakhtiari Khans.

Under the rule of the Safavis (16th century), some people emigrated from Yazd and settled in an area which is today on the Iran-Afghanistan border. The settlement was named Yazdi. This place is currently on the Iran-Afghanistan border in the province of Farah, in Farah city in Afghanistan. Even today, these people speak with an accent very similar to that of the people of Yazd.

Marco Polo And Yazd

Here is Marco Polo writing about Yazd:

Yasdi also is properly in Persia; it is a good and noble city, and has a great amount of trade. They weave there quantities of a certain silk tissue known as Yasdi, which merchants carry into many quarters to dispose of. The people are worshippers of Mahommet. When you leave this city to travel further, you ride for seven days over great plains, finding harbour to receive you at three places only. There are many fine woods [producing dates] upon the way, such as one can easily ride through; and in them there is great sport to be had in hunting and hawking, there being partridges and quails and abundance of other game, so that the merchants who pass that way have plenty of diversion. There are also wild asses, handsome creatures. At the end of those seven marches over the plain you come to a fine kingdom which is called Kerman.

The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo, translated by Henry Yule

Architecture and heritage

Yazd has some of the finest examples of traditional desert Persian residential architecture.

Yazd is of foremost importance as a centre of Persian architecture. Because of its climate, it has one of the largest networks of qanats in the world, and Yazdi qanat makers are considered the most skilled in Iran. To deal with the extremely hot summers, many old buildings in Yazd have magnificent windcatchers, and large underground areas. The city is also home to prime examples of yakhchals, the latter of which were used to store ice retrieved from glaciers in the nearby mountains. Yazd is also one of the largest cities built almost entirely out of adobe.

Yazd's heritage as a centre of Zoroastrianism is also important. There is a Tower of Silence on the outskirts, and the city itself has a Fire Temple, which holds a fire that has been kept alight continuously since 470 AD. Presently, Zoroastrians make up a significant minority of the population, around 20 - 40,000 or 5 to 10%.

Built in 12th century and still being in use, Jame mosque of Yazd is an example of finest Persian mosaics and excellent architecture. It's minarets are the highest in the country.

Historical sites in Yazd City

Interior tile work of Jame Mosque's Dome
Roofed lane in the old city
  • Arab-ha House
  • Malek-altojjar House
  • Lari-ha House
  • Mullah Ismall mosque
  • sahl Ibn Ali Mausoleum
  • Khan Bazaar
  • Rasoulian House
  • Sheikh Ahmad Fahadan Mausoleum
  • Seyed Rokn-al din Mausoleum
  • Seyed Shams-al din Mausoleum
  • Masoudi Reservoir
  • Malak-al Tojjar House
  • Mortaz House
  • Iran Shahr School
  • Hajj Yusef Reservoir
  • Rig mosque
  • Fort mosque
  • Shah Tahmasb mosque
  • Zargari Bazzar
  • Mortaz House
  • Fortifications of Yazd
  • Zia iah school

Yazd today

Always known for the quality of its silk and carpets, Yazd today is one of Iran's industrial centers for textiles. There is also a considerable ceramics and construction materials industry and unique confectionery and jewelry industries. A significant portion of the population is also employed in other industries including agriculture, dairy, metal works and machine manufacturing. There are a number of companies involved in the growing information technology industry, mainly manufacturing primary materials such as cables and connectors. Currently Yazd is the home of the largest manufacturer of fibre optics in Iran.


Yazd's confectioneries have a tremendous following throughout Iran, which has been a source of tourism for the city. Workshops (experts or khalifehs) keep their recipes a guarded secret and there are many that have remained a private family business for many generations. Baghlava, ghotab and pashmak are the most popular sweets made in the city.

In 2000 the Yazd Water Museum opened;[3] it features exhibits of water storage vessels and historical technologies related to water.

Famous people from Yazd

  • Mohammad Reza Aref, Vice President of Iran from 2001 to 2005.
  • Mohammad Rahmati, Minister of roads and transportation from 2005 to Aug 2008.
  • Mirza Mohammad Farrokhi Yazdi, poet and politician.
  • Vahshi Bafghi, Poet
  • Saeed Mortazavi, General Prosecutor of Tehran.
  • Mohammad Ali Sadouqi, parlementary assistan in Mohammad Khatami's cabinet.
  • S. Mehdi Ezzabady, Scientist,Researcher,Inventor.
  • Mohammad Jafar Pouyandeh, Iranian dissident murdered in 1998.
  • Moshe Katsav, former president of Israel, was born in Yazd.
  • Habibollah Bitaraf, Former Minister of Energy
  • Seyyed Ziya-e-ddin Tabatabai, Iranian prime minister 21 Feb 1921-04 Jun 1921
  • Moshe Khokshourzadeh - Moe Arman, Iranian-American Scientist, Researcher, Inventor
  • Mohammad Ali Eslami Nodoshan, Iranian author
  • Mehdi Azar Yazdi, author of children's stories

Higher education in Yazd

The University of Yazd was established in 1988. It has a college of Architecture specializing in traditional Persian Art and Architecture. Yazd and its nearby towns contain the following institutes of higher education:

  1. University of Yazd
  2. Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services
  3. Islamic Azad University of Bafq
  4. Islamic Azad University of Maybod
  5. Islamic Azad University of Yazd
  6. Yazd Sampad Information Center
  7. Yazd Science and Technology Park
  8. Yazd Jahad Daneshgahi
  9. University of Jame Elmi_Karbordi of Yazd

Sister cities

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Badgirs of water reservoir
Badgirs of water reservoir
A view of historical area in Yazd
A view of historical area in Yazd

Yazd is a city in Iran. Almost in the center of Iran, it is the capital of Yazd province. It is an ancient city, dating from Sassanian Period (224-651 AD). Acording to UNESCO, Yazd is the Second Historic City in the World.

Get in

Yazd is located midway between Isfahan and Kerman, 689 km (427 miles) southeast of Tehran.

Yazd is served by all means of transportation except boats, both airplanes, trains and buses are available for tourists who would like to visit the city of Yazd. Also,Yazd is said to have one of the most safest and fast automobile routes throughout Iran because of its steady and well-built roads.

By Plane

There are International flights to Dubai and Damascus and daily flights to Tehran.

Get around

Most places in the old town are within easy walking distance from each other. Otherwise taxis are inexpensive.Motorcycle Taxis are another faster and cheaper way to move around in the city,but try to settle on a price before going anywhere. Local buses are also available for travellers. or if you want more help ask Mohsen Hajisaeid (recommended tourguide by Lonely planet2008 Page 257&415)who is young,reliable,knowledgeable and his english is excellent(email:yazdguide@yahoo.com tel:+989133514460)

  • Masjid-e Jame (Friday Mosque), dating back to the fourteenth century, is well worth a visit. Admire it at night when it is lit up.
  • Atashkadeh is the Zoroastrian fire temple. The fire on the inside has supposedly been burning since 470 AD. Entrance is free, though donations are appreciated.
  • Yazd Tower of silence (Zoroastrian's Dakhmeh) - the name tower is misleading as they consist of huge circular walls, within those the dead were left to be picked clean by the vultures. This is done in accordance with Zoroastrian belief. However, the towers are not in use anymore and open to the public. A quiet, serene place.
  • Yazd Market Square's Clock
  • The cistern of Fatemeh-ye-Golshan
  • Amir Chakhmakh complex, a breathtaking construction and a must-see. Visitors can climb to the top.
  • Amir Chakmakh mosque, not to be confused with the complex of the same name, but nearby and easily visited when visiting the more famous complex.
  • Yazd Water museum lots of interesting information about the Canat water distribution system, admission free, a must-see
  • Hazireh mosque
  • water reservoir with its four badgirs (wind towers)
  • Khan-e-Lari, a historical house
  • Alexanders prison, which was neither built by Alexander the great nor a prison, but quite an interesting sight with a cafe in the 'prison room'
  • tomb of the 12 imams
  • Madrasse-e-Kamalieh
  • Bogeh-ye Seyed Rokamdin mosque
  • Dowlat Abad Gardens with a building with a beautiful large badgir.
  • Walk and relax in the parks and places the city of Yazd can offer for tourists and local iranians or you can hike in the beautiful mountains of Yazd that show a spectacular and beautiful view of the city.If you are a more sociable kind of person,you can chat with local Iranians at cafes,they would be interested and would love to have a dialogue with you.

Buy

The local bazaar is the best way to go. Iran's most famous snacks, nougat and cashews are available. Yazd is very famous in Iran for its various handicrafts, such as carpet, silk fabrics, cashemers and also for its pastries. If you are looking for Persian carpets at reasonable prices, there are many Persian carpets to choose from at the bazaar.

Eat

Tourists say old fashion Persian Restaurants are the best way to go if you want a more friendlier and more cultural atmosphere.If you are a Kebab lover,the city has many Kebab cuisines.There are a few international restaurants in Yazd which serve Italian,Indian,Arabic and Mexican food.

The traditional restaurant and tea house of Kohan Hotel is opened.There are served various kinds of iranian traditional foods,like FESSENJUN,GHEIME...and some delicious european,indian food,cooked by an Iranian lady!with a nice atmospher full of iranian paintings and tea house paintings,which gives you a different feeling!this place is strongly recommanded to all people,who want to enjoy their food near Alexander Prison.

Drink

Persian Tea is almost available anywhere in Yazd.Juice Vendors sell natural fresh Orange Juice which is considered very healthy.There are also Pomegrante Vendors who sell pomegrante juice for about the price of 0.10$ per cup.

Sleep

There are many nice, yet good value hotels to choose from. A number of grand, Old City houses have been recently refurbished into atmospheric hotels, some well, others not quite so well. Many of them offer immaculate, comfortable rooms arranged around tranquil garden courtyards where you can eat, drink tea or puff away on a ghalyan while gazing at the sky above. If you've been slumming it through questionable mosafekhanehs until Yazd, you're in for a pleasant surprise.

  • Hotel Dad ( 4-star )

Hotel Dad is an 80-year old treasure located at the heart of the historic city, Yazd. There are only few steps to historical features, monuments, business center and bazaars. The hotel's traditional structure reveals the earliest beauties of Iranian culture, and the elegant architecture blends well with the city's rustic design. The complex is well equipped with modern facilities which endow complete tranquility and leisure to the guests. Hotel Dad contains 54 single and double rooms, which can be connected to one another. Special suites are also available. Notable services of the hotel include: a swimming pool, which offers complete poolside service to the guests, a sauna and Jacuzzi. Guests can dine to a traditional Iranian cuisine or an International restaurant. Coffee shop in a cozy place with the stunning perspective of domes and hotel interior yard serves various ice creams, beverages and fast foods. Various salons have been designed for ceremonies, gatherings, and lectures. During the stay, guests have access to internet, gift shop, and telephone services. Other accommodations include tour guides and currency exchange. Hotel dad is one of the rare hotels in Yazd equipped with Wireless Internet.

address: No.214, 10th Farvardin Ave. Reservation tel: +98 351 6229426 , +98 911 9691607 web: www.hoteldadint.com e-mail: i_nightowl@yahoo.com

  • Silk Road Hotel, No 5, Tal-e Khakestary Alley, Masjed Jame St (Conveniently hidden in an alley near the Jameh Mosque; look for the signs pointing the way on the wall.), +98-351-625 2730 (), [1]. The cheapest and most popular of the Old City houses. Private rooms with private hammam, include a tasty buffet breakfast. Also serves traditional food in the courtyard restaurant. Offers free internet in the opposite Orient hotel for guests and a number of interesting desert tours. Roof in summer (IR 25,000), Dorms (IR 40,000), singles (IR 160,000), doubles (from IR 280,000) and triples (360.000) are available..  edit
  • Orient Hotel, (, in a small alley). From the owners of Silk Road Hotel, which is on the other side of the street. Is especially tailored to the needs of families and group travellers. Has a glass deck on the second floor with nice panoramas of the city, and the beautiful Jame' Mosque, and a background of desert and mountains.  edit
  • Traditional Hotel Kohan, (100 metres from Alexander's Prison), 6212485 (fax: 621 0393). Is a little pricer and difficult to find, but also worth the effort. They also have a beautiful courtyard restaurant, a underground qanat room (water management system) to explore, and good views of the old city can be had from the roof. The hotel is family run, and also there is a tourist information office, a young man,who speaks wonderfully perfect German, English and a little Spanish, he gives you complete information about Yazd and other cities of Iran, time table of buses,air planes and trains. Various tour programs of Yazd is also offered; camel riding, overnight in desert, bike riding in desert as well as adventureous tours in all Iran. Luxurious dorms (IR 50,000),singles (150,000 IR) doubles (IR 250,000) and triples are available..  edit
  • Another city close by is the Holy city of Qom,If you feel like visiting a place more cultural and beautiful, the ancient city of Isfahan is near Yazd.
  • Kavir National Park. The magnificent Iranian deserts embrace all those who are interested in adventurous journey or trekking across the intact beautiful nature. The desert vividly signifies the diverse and colourful features of the Iranian terrain. The white vast salt flats, the golden dunes as well as the striking mounds in bright green, yellow and red create a marvellous spectrum of spectacular colours for day travellers in the desert. Undoubtedly, the desert's night does surpass all expectations and further displays an spectacle of appealing stars--appearing so temptingly real and near.
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