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Yeast
Yeast of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Typical divisions
.Yeasts are eukaryotic micro-organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species currently described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans.^ Fungal infections may be classified according to the type of tissues they infect and the extent of their infection.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Fungi, including those pathogenic to humans and animals, are eukaryotic microorganisms that can be conveniently separated into two basic groups, moulds and yeasts.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ As in other eukaryotic organisms, fungi have mitochondria, 80s ribosomes and centrioles.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Most reproduce asexually by budding, although a few do so by binary fission.^ Some species grow as single-celled yeasts that reproduce by budding or binary fission .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Yeasts are unicellular fungi that reproduce by binary fission though sometimes the cells become quite long and bear a superficial resemblance to mycelia.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Yeasts are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may become multicellular through the formation of a string of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae, or false hyphae as seen in most molds.^ Most recipes use 20-25% agave nectar, a lemon or two, some nutrients, and any wine yeast.

^ The prime consideration in using marbles that the marbles crush some of the dead yeast cells and cause yeast autolysis, which is fine for feeding leve yeast but not desired when all yeast are dead.

[3] .Yeast size can vary greatly depending on the species, typically measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can reach over 40 µm.^ Some species grow as single-celled yeasts that reproduce by budding or binary fission .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The lesions typically advance into the deep stroma of the cornea and contain hyphae that are 3-4 microns in diameter with some swollen cells.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Much smaller than commercial strawberries, they typically vary from the size of a pencil eraser to that of a woman's thumbnail.

[4]
.The yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used in baking and fermenting alcoholic beverages for thousands of years.^ There are about 7 species, the most common one is Saccharomyces cerevisiae .
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Because it fermented dry (0.998), I used a vinometer and measured about 10.5% alcohol.

^ Also, remember that using Lalvin 71B-1122 (Narbonne) yeast will result in lower post-fermentation acidity.

[5] It is also extremely important as a model organism in modern cell biology research, and is one of the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic microorganisms. .Researchers have used it to gather information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell and ultimately human biology.^ Several pivotal discoveries in biology were made by researchers using fungi as model organisms , that is, fungi that grow and sexually reproduce rapidly in the laboratory.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

[6] .Other species of yeast, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens and can cause infections in humans.^ Candida albicans is the most pathogenic and most commonly encountered species.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Candida albicans is a yeast causing candidiasis or "thrush" in humans.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The leading yeast cause of onychomycosis is Candida albicans .
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Yeasts have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells,[7] and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry.^ Fungi are used extensively to produce industrial chemicals like citric , gluconic , lactic , and malic acids , antibiotics, and even to make stonewashed jeans .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Baker's yeast or Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a single-celled fungus, is used to make bread and other wheat-based products, such as pizza dough and dumplings .
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Yeast species of the genus Saccharomyces are also used to produce alcoholic beverages through fermentation.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

Yeasts do not form an exact taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping. At present it is estimated that only 1% of all yeast species have been described.[8] .The term "yeast" is often taken as a synonym for S. cerevisiae,[9] but the phylogenetic diversity of yeasts is shown by their placement in both divisions Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.^ Phylogenetic diversity of yeast-producing basidiomycetes.
  • AGARICS, BOLETES AND CHANTERELLES - REFERENCES 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC www.naturewatch.ca [Source type: Academic]

The budding yeasts ("true yeasts") are classified in the order Saccharomycetales.[10]

Contents

History

The word "yeast" comes to us from Old English gist, gyst, and from the Indo-European root yes-, meaning boil, foam, or bubble.[11] Yeast microbes are probably one of the earliest domesticated organisms. .People have used yeast for fermentation and baking throughout history.^ Yeast species of the genus Saccharomyces are also used to produce alcoholic beverages through fermentation.
  • Fungi (Kingdom) 25 September 2009 1:53 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another advantage to using baking yeast in a low/non-alcoholic brew is that .

^ Also, remember that using Lalvin 71B-1122 (Narbonne) yeast will result in lower post-fermentation acidity.

Archaeologists digging in Egyptian ruins found early grinding stones and baking chambers for yeasted bread, as well as drawings of 4,000-year-old bakeries and breweries.[12] In 1680 the Dutch naturalist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek first microscopically observed yeast, but at the time did not consider them to be living organisms, but rather globular structures.[13] In 1857 French microbiologist Louis Pasteur proved in the paper "Mémoire sur la fermentation alcoolique" that alcoholic fermentation was conducted by living yeasts and not by a chemical catalyst.[12][14] .Pasteur showed that by bubbling oxygen into the yeast broth, cell growth could be increased, but the fermentation inhibited – an observation later called the Pasteur effect.^ Adding insulation to a house, for example, restricts air exchange with the outside and one effect of this may be increased humidity which encourages mold growth.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ As yeast cells die and break down, they gradually release a host of compounds into the wine that otherwise would be absent.

^ Morphology, capsule production, urease activity, ability to grow in presence of cycloheximide, growth pattern in Sabouraud broth and fermentation assimilation profiles help in differentiation of Candida from other yeasts.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.By the late 1700s, two yeast strains used in brewing had been identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, so called "high" or top yeast, and S.  carlsbergensis, "low" or bottom yeast.^ In fact, it is the originally isolated Champagne yeast and one of the most widely used strains in Champagne.

^ Because S. cerevisiae is top fermenting, it the active yeast can be .

^ Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the yeast found in ale barm.

.High yeast was sold commercially by the Dutch for bread making starting in 1780, while around 1800, the Germans started producing S. cerevisiae in the form of cream.^ None of the other three batches started with this yeast produced any noticeable foam at all.

In 1825 a method was developed to remove the liquid so the yeast could be prepared as solid blocks.[15] .The industrial production of yeast blocks was enhanced by the introduction of the filter press in 1867. In 1872, Baron Max de Springer develop a manufacturing process to create granulated yeast, a technique that was used until the first World War.^ The recipe I've selected is tried and true, but the final product's character is determined both by the plum[s] and the yeast used.

^ Germany leads the world in yeast isolation and production.

^ Environmental mycology covers areas that range from industrial environments where fungi impact manufacturing processes to home and work environments where human health may be an issue.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[16] .In the United States, naturally occurring airborne yeasts were used almost exclusively until commercial yeast was marketed at the Centennial Exposition in 1876 in Philadelphia, where Charles L. Fleischmann exhibited the product and a process to use it, as well as serving the resultant baked bread.^ United States until their antioxidant values were hyped and marketed.

^ Commercial bread yeast is selectively grown from .

^ November 11th, 2009 We used to call it Armistice Day, but since 1954 it has been called Veterans Day in the United States.

Growth and nutrition

.Yeasts are chemoorganotrophs as they use organic compounds as a source of energy and do not require sunlight to grow.^ Fungi are carbon heterotrophs therefore they require preformed organic compounds as carbon sources.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ What is important is which phytochemicals that produce the scores are in the source and whether these compounds are metabolized extensively or absorbed effectively so that the antioxidants get used beneficially by our bodies.

^ As yeast cells die and break down, they gradually release a host of compounds into the wine that otherwise would be absent.

.Carbon is obtained mostly from hexose sugars such as glucose and fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose.^ Agave Nectar varies from 70-90% fructose sugars and 30-10% dextrose/glucose sugars.

^ They contain glucose, fructose, and sucrose sugars and are eaten raw, made into refreshing drinks, or dried for later use.

.Some species can metabolize pentose sugars like ribose,[17] alcohols, and organic acids.^ In judging balance, we look at body, sugar, acid, alcohol, and tannin both individually and in relation to one another.

^ She also baked some with brown sugar and spices like you would sweet potatoes, with marshmallows on top.

Yeast species either require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration (obligate aerobes), or are anaerobic but also have aerobic methods of energy production (facultative anaerobes). .Unlike bacteria, there are no known yeast species that grow only anaerobically (obligate anaerobes).^ Most of the fungal species recognised as capable of causing disease (mycosis) in man and animals are moulds but there are a number of pathogenic yeasts.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ These substances, mycotoxins, are produced when the fungus grows in specific environments, on particular substrates, under certain conditions and by only specific strains of the species.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

Yeasts grow best in a neutral or slightly acidic pH environment.
Yeasts vary in what temperature range they grow best. For example, Leucosporidium frigidum grows at -2 to 20 °C (28 to 68 °F), Saccharomyces telluris at 5 to 35 °C (41 to 95 °F) and Candida slooffi at 28 to 45 °C (82 to 113 °F).[18] .The cells can survive freezing under certain conditions, with viability decreasing over time.^ These substances, mycotoxins, are produced when the fungus grows in specific environments, on particular substrates, under certain conditions and by only specific strains of the species.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

Yeasts are generally grown in the laboratory on solid growth media or in liquid broths. .Common media used for the cultivation of yeasts include; potato dextrose agar (PDA) or potato dextrose broth, Wallerstein Laboratories nutrient (WLN) agar, yeast peptone dextrose agar (YPD), and yeast mould agar or broth (YM).^ A dozen or so years ago a couple wrote to me from Senegal, asking what could be used as a substitute for yeast nutrient.

^ It is fairly common to use coolers to slow the rise of yeast .

^ I assume you are using granulated dry active yeast, which is the most common .

.Homebrewers who cultivate yeast frequently use dried malt extract (DME) and agar as a solid growth medium.^ If you cannot get fresh elderberries you can use a tablespoon of dried elderberries, available in most homebrew shops.

^ For example, the new growth is cut, dried and placed on burning peat to create dense smoke that both dries and flavors the malt in certain Scotch whisky production.

^ I assume you are using granulated dry active yeast, which is the most common .

The antibiotic cycloheximide is sometimes added to yeast growth media to inhibit the growth of Saccharomyces yeasts and select for wild/indigenous yeast species. This will change the yeast process.
.The appearance of a white thready yeast commonly known as kahm yeast is often a byproduct of the lactofermentation (or pickling) of certain vegetables, usually the result of exposure to air.^ Rhinocerebral disease in acidotic patients usually results in death, often within a few days.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

Although harmless it can give pickled vegetables a bad flavour and so must be removed regularly during fermentation.[19]

Ecology

Yeasts are very common in the environment, but are usually isolated from sugar-rich material. .Examples include naturally occurring yeasts on the skins of fruits and berries (such as grapes, apples or peaches), and exudates from plants (such as plant saps or cacti).^ Most revolved around my statement, "You can [plant seeds], but you probably will not get a vine that produces fruit anything like the grapes you got the seed from."

^ The fungus is found naturally in fruit, pigeon manure and plants.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydrogen sulfide is controlled by avoidance of elemental sulfur on grapes or fruit and by yeast selection.

Some yeasts are found in association with soil and insects.[20][21] .The ecological function and biodiversity of yeast are relatively unknown compared to those of other microorganisms.^ Fungi, including those pathogenic to humans and animals, are eukaryotic microorganisms that can be conveniently separated into two basic groups, moulds and yeasts.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[22] .Yeasts including Candida albicans, Rhodotorula rubra, Torulopsis and Trichosporon cutaneum have been found living in between people's toes as part of their skin flora.^ VVC is caused by an overabundance or overgrowth of yeast cells, primarily Candida albicans , that normally colonize the vagina.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Candida should be differentiated from other clinically encountered yeasts, such as Blastoschizomyces , Cryptococcus , Geotrichum , Malassezia , Rhodotorula , Saccharomyces and Trichosporon .
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ As well as being an environmental saprobe, it is found in normal microbial flora of human skin, and digestive and respiratory tracts.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[23] Yeasts are also present in the gut flora of mammals and some insects.[24]
.An Indian study of seven bee species and 9 plant species found that 45 species from 16 genera colonise the nectaries of flowers and honey stomachs of bees.^ As well as being a pathogen and a colonizer, it is found in the environment, particularly on leaves, flowers, water, and soil.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Most were members of the Candida genus; the most common species in honey stomachs was Dekkera intermedia and in flower nectaries, Candida blankii.^ The most common organism is Candida albicans .
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common species of Candida causing problems is Candida albicans .
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Candida albicans is the most pathogenic and most commonly encountered species.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[25] Flowers that are colonised by yeasts have less nectar to bees in them. Yeast colonising nectaries of the Stinking Hellebore have been found to raise the temperature of the flower, which may aid in attracting pollinators by increasing the evaporation of volatile organic compounds.[22][26] .A black yeast has been recorded as a partner in a complex relationship between ants, their mutualistic fungus, a fungal parasite of the fungus and a bacterium that kills the parasite.^ The interaction between plant pathogenic fungi and their host plants is extremely complex and should be viewed from the perspectives of both the fungus and the plant.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.The yeast have a negative effect on the bacteria that normally produce antibiotics to kill the parasite and so may affect the ants' health by allowing the parasite to spread.^ These may kill the normal bacteria that keep the vagina acidic.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibiotic treatment can also alter the normal bacterial flora allowing Candida albicans to flourish.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[27]

Reproduction

The yeast cell's life cycle:
1. Budding
2. Conjugation
3. Spore
Yeasts have asexual and sexual reproductive cycles. .The most common mode of vegetative growth in yeast is asexual reproduction by budding.^ For the most part cellular and nuclear division are independent events especially with respect to vegetative growth.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ I assume you are using granulated dry active yeast, which is the most common .

[28] .Here a small bud, or daughter cell, is formed on the parent cell.^ Moulds consist of those fungi that grow in a filamentous form, whereas yeasts are characterized by solitary cells that reproduce by budding.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

The nucleus of the parent cell splits into a daughter nucleus and migrates into the daughter cell. .The bud continues to grow until it separates from the parent cell, forming a new cell.^ Moulds consist of those fungi that grow in a filamentous form, whereas yeasts are characterized by solitary cells that reproduce by budding.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[29] .Some yeasts, including Schizosaccharomyces pombe, reproduce by binary fission instead of budding.^ Yeasts are unicellular fungi that reproduce by binary fission though sometimes the cells become quite long and bear a superficial resemblance to mycelia.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.Under high stress conditions haploid cells will generally die, however under the same conditions diploid cells can undergo sporulation, entering sexual reproduction (meiosis) and producing a variety of haploid spores, which can go on to mate (conjugate), reforming the diploid.^ Ascospores are the sexual spores produced by this genus.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ However, its property to produce annelloconidia as well as arthroconidia leaded to general acceptance of its classification in a new genus, Blastoschizomyce .
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ These substances, mycotoxins, are produced when the fungus grows in specific environments, on particular substrates, under certain conditions and by only specific strains of the species.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[30]

Uses

The useful physiological properties of yeast have led to their use in the field of biotechnology. Fermentation of sugars by yeast is the oldest and largest application of this technology. .Many types of yeasts are used for making many foods: baker's yeast in bread production; brewer's yeast in beer fermentation; yeast in wine fermentation and for xylitol production.^ I'm assuming you are using different yeasts for beers, ales and wines.

^ The Romans used grape must from wine making as bread leavening.

^ I'm fairly positive that beer yeast used to make bread will not have a taste .

[31] So-called red rice yeast is actually a mold, Monascus purpureus. .Yeasts include some of the most widely used model organisms for genetics and cell biology.^ In fact, it is the originally isolated Champagne yeast and one of the most widely used strains in Champagne.

^ Most recipes use 20-25% agave nectar, a lemon or two, some nutrients, and any wine yeast.

^ I learned some things about using yeast in solution over the weekend.

Alcoholic beverages

Alcoholic beverages are defined as beverages that contain ethanol (C2H5OH). .This ethanol is almost always produced by fermentation – the metabolism of carbohydrates by certain species of yeast under anaerobic or low-oxygen conditions.^ Champagne, which is a very specialized yeast designed to ferment .

^ These substances, mycotoxins, are produced when the fungus grows in specific environments, on particular substrates, under certain conditions and by only specific strains of the species.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Beverages such as wine, beer, or distilled spirits all use yeast at some stage of their production.^ I'm assuming you are using different yeasts for beers, ales and wines.

^ You can use baker's yeast, but it might stop fermenting before all the sugar has been converted into alcohol, leaving a sweeter wine than desired, and/or it might produce slightly yeasty off-flavors (although some people actually like this).

^ I made the wine my own way, in my own time, but pretty much used their ingredients (except yeast and the smoked oak).

Beer

A mixture of diatomaceous earth and yeast after filtering beer
."Brewer's yeast" (also known as "brewing yeast") can mean any live yeast used in brewing.^ Another advantage to using baking yeast in a low/non-alcoholic brew is that .

.It can also mean yeast obtained as a by-product of brewing, dried and killed, and used as a dietary supplement for its B vitamin content.^ The recipe I've selected is tried and true, but the final product's character is determined both by the plum[s] and the yeast used.

^ I mean, some recipes say to use a specific herb or flower, add sugar and other dry ingredients, and then add from 7-1/2 pints to a gallon of water.

^ However, if your dietary supplement choices are guided by balanced, credible research and weighted decision-making, then by all means exclude yourself from the faddish majority.

.Brewers classify yeasts as top-fermenting and bottom-fermenting.^ Most, if not all, of the top fermenting brewer's yeasts are variants of S. .

^ No actively fermenting, the yeast settles to the bottom.

^ Because S. cerevisiae is top fermenting, it the active yeast can be .

This distinction was introduced by the Dane Emil Christian Hansen. ."Top-fermenting yeasts" are so called because they form a foam at the top of the wort during fermentation.^ Slow growing, they form a gradually enlarging core called a pina from which the leaves grow.

^ They are going to completely disintegrate during fermentation, so failure to bag them would be a colossal error a result in great waste of mead later.

^ The entire surface was covered with thick yeast colonies and foam, with splotches of very fine pulp and pigment particulates lifted onto the top of the foam.

.They can produce higher alcohol concentrations and prefer higher temperatures, typically 16 to 24 °C (61 to 75 °F), producing fruitier, sweeter, ale-type beers.^ To thaw them, allow a full 24 hours so they thaw through and through and at least come close to assuming room temperature.

^ They produce abundant, smooth-walled, 3- to 5- celled, clavate conidia that occur typically in clusters.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.An example of a top-fermenting yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known to brewers as ale yeast.^ Because S. cerevisiae is top fermenting, it the active yeast can be .

^ Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the yeast found in ale barm.

^ Most, if not all, of the top fermenting brewer's yeasts are variants of S. .

."Bottom-fermenting yeasts" are typically used to produce lager-type beers, though can also produce ale-type beers.^ Also, remember that using Lalvin 71B-1122 (Narbonne) yeast will result in lower post-fermentation acidity.

.These yeasts ferment more sugars, leaving a crisper taste, and grow well at low temperatures.^ The first leaves presented a variety, but I was more interested in the third and fourth leaves, as these would prove the seedlings sporting them were thriving and would also be closer to what the adult leaves would look like.

^ In some people the yeast grows more actively and causes a red, itchy, scaling rash.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Add sugar, acid blend, yeast nutrient, and yeast energizer and stir well to dissolve.

.An example of bottom fermenting yeast is Saccharomyces pastorianus, formerly known as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis.^ No actively fermenting, the yeast settles to the bottom.

.For both types, yeast is fully distributed through the beer while it is fermenting, and both equally flocculate (clump together and precipitate to the bottom of the vessel) when fermentation is finished.^ No actively fermenting, the yeast settles to the bottom.

^ Beers are bottom fermenting and usually are heavier and more bitter than .

.By no means do all top-fermenting yeasts demonstrate this behaviour, but it features strongly in many English ale yeasts which may also exhibit chain forming (the failure of budded cells to break from the mother cell) which is technically different from true flocculation.^ Most, if not all, of the top fermenting brewer's yeasts are variants of S. .

^ The cells may form branching chains.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ I'm assuming you are using different yeasts for beers, ales and wines.

Fermenting tanks with yeast being used to brew beer
.In industrial brewing, to ensure purity of strain, a "clean" sample of the yeast is stored refrigerated in a laboratory.^ Store yeast in a sealed container in the refrigerator.

^ Most home brew stores stock a refrigerator full of their products .

After a certain number of fermentation cycles, a full scale propagation is produced from this laboratory sample. .Typically, it is grown up in about three or four stages using sterile brewing wort and oxygen.^ After four hours, the stirred solution starter was about three times the .

.The most common top-fermenting brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is the same species as the common baking yeast.^ There are about 7 species, the most common one is Saccharomyces cerevisiae .
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Aspergillis fumigatus is one of the most common species causing disease.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of the fungal species recognised as capable of causing disease (mycosis) in man and animals are moulds but there are a number of pathogenic yeasts.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.However, baking and brewing yeasts typically belong to different strains, cultivated to favor different characteristics: baking yeast strains are more aggressive, in order to carbonate dough in the shortest amount of time possible; brewing yeast strains act slower, but tend to produce fewer off-flavors and tolerate higher alcohol concentrations (with some strains, up to 22%).^ This does, however, kill off some of the yeast.

^ Finally, because it will tolerate up to 18% alcohol, it is a favorite for clean, crisp sparkling varietals as well.

^ Some are more vigorous than others, and just about every yeast .

Brettanomyces
Brettanomyces is a genus of wild yeast important in brewing lambic, a beer produced not by the deliberate addition of brewer's yeasts, but by spontaneous fermentation by wild yeasts and bacteria. Brettanomyces lambicus, B. bruxellensis and B. claussenii are native to the Senne Valley region of Belgium, where lambic beer is produced.[32]

Distilled beverages

A distilled beverage is a beverage that contains ethanol that has been purified by distillation. .Carbohydrate-containing plant material is fermented by yeast, producing a dilute solution of ethanol in the process.^ Isolation from the environment is most likely when the sample contains soil and is rich in organic material such as animal feces, plant fragments, insect remains and dust.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

Spirits such as whiskey and rum are prepared by distilling these dilute solutions of ethanol. .Components other than ethanol are collected in the condensate, including water, esters, and other alcohols which account for the flavor of the beverage.^ It can be consumed earlier than that, at 3-4% alcohol, as a drink called agua miel (honey water), or it can be made much stronger but takes longer to ferment and is not as refreshing a drink.

Fresh grapes

Wine

.Yeast is used in winemaking where it converts the sugars present in grape juice or must into alcohol.^ Remove and discard the pieces of cob with a slotted spoon, stir in the corn syrup, lemon juice, yeast nutrient, and grape tannin and stir until dissolved.

^ Then must is cool add grape concentrate, yeast nutrient and then stir briefly.

^ I think many of the "old school" winemakers used 3 and even 4 pounds of sugar per gallon to ensure the wine was very sweet.

Yeast is normally already invisibly present on the grapes. .The fermentation can be done with this endogenous wild yeast;[33] however, this may give unpredictable results depending on the exact types of yeast species present.^ Champagne, which is a very specialized yeast designed to ferment .

^ Also, remember that using Lalvin 71B-1122 (Narbonne) yeast will result in lower post-fermentation acidity.

^ Systemic mycoses generally result from the inhalation of airborne spores of pathogenic moulds that may be present as saprophytes in soil and on plant material.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.For this reason a pure yeast culture is generally added to the must, which rapidly comes to dominate the fermentation.^ These can be added to a must prior to fermentation and fermented with the base.

^ The whole halves are then pureed, the resulting pulp and juice weighed, and twice the weight in water added to the must in a primary.

This represses wild yeasts and ensures a reliable and predictable fermentation.[34] .Most added wine yeasts are strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though not all strains of the species are suitable.^ There are about 7 species, the most common one is Saccharomyces cerevisiae .
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, it is the originally isolated Champagne yeast and one of the most widely used strains in Champagne.

^ Elderflower Wine The white or whitish-yellow flowers of all species and varieties of elder are pleasantly fragrant and impart a muscat flavor to wines, ciders and vinegars.

[34] .Different S. cerevisiae yeast strains have differing physiological and fermentative properties, therefore the actual strain of yeast selected can have a direct impact on the finished wine.^ Its attenuation is reported by brewers as 80%, which seems to me to be terribly low for a wine yeast and which I therefore question, flocculation is low, and alcohol tolerance is 15%.

^ On my page about wine yeast strains, I say the following about this yeast: "Assmannshausen is a German yeast strain.

[35] .Significant research has been undertaken into the development of novel wine yeast strains that produce atypical flavour profiles or increased complexity in wines.^ As yeast cells die and break down, they gradually release a host of compounds into the wine that otherwise would be absent.

^ On my page about wine yeast strains, I say the following about this yeast: "Assmannshausen is a German yeast strain.

^ It softens tough skin so the yeast can get into it and work on the pigments, tannins and other phenols beneficial to wine.

[36][37]
.The growth of some yeasts such as Zygosaccharomyces and Brettanomyces in wine can result in wine faults and subsequent spoilage.^ Most recipes use 20-25% agave nectar, a lemon or two, some nutrients, and any wine yeast.

^ While I do not have an actual recipe, I do have some excerpts from some old emails regarding such a wine.

[38] .Brettanomyces produces an array of metabolites when growing in wine, some of which are volatile phenolic compounds.^ Fast growing yeast produces unwanted compounds which could, for .

^ The only compound blend I did was I added some Niagara to the açai -pomegranate in an attempt to rescue it, but I really needed more açai wine to explore that avenue adequately.

Together these compounds are often referred to as "Brettanomyces character", and are often described as antiseptic or "barnyard" type aromas. Brettanomyces is a significant contributor to wine faults within the wine industry.[39]

Baking

.Yeast, most commonly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used in baking as a leavening agent, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in dough into the gas carbon dioxide.^ Lager yeast would be less useful as a leavening.

^ In fact, it is the originally isolated Champagne yeast and one of the most widely used strains in Champagne.

^ You can use baker's yeast, but it might stop fermenting before all the sugar has been converted into alcohol, leaving a sweeter wine than desired, and/or it might produce slightly yeasty off-flavors (although some people actually like this).

This causes the dough to expand or rise as gas forms pockets or bubbles. .When the dough is baked the yeast dies and the air pockets "set", giving the baked product a soft and spongy texture.^ Yeast dies at about 140 degrees F, so baked bread .

.The use of potatoes, water from potato boiling, eggs, or sugar in a bread dough accelerates the growth of yeasts.^ Bring 1 quart water to boil and dissolve sugar and yeast nutrient.

^ Put flowers, sugar and grape juice concentrate in a primary container and pour boiling water over them.

^ I replied that I use the boiling water extraction method and do not get a bitterness.

.Salt , hot water and fats such as butter slow yeast growth[citation needed].^ Adding the salt to the recipe would slow down the growth of the yeast.

^ Plain bread of flour, water, yeast and salt should rise properly as long as .

.Most yeasts used in baking are of the same species common in alcoholic fermentation.^ In fact, it is the originally isolated Champagne yeast and one of the most widely used strains in Champagne.

^ Aspergillis fumigatus is one of the most common species causing disease.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Most recipes use 20-25% agave nectar, a lemon or two, some nutrients, and any wine yeast.

.Additionally, Saccharomyces exiguus (also known as S. minor) is a wild yeast found on plants, fruits, and grains that is occasionally used for baking.^ Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the yeast found in ale barm.

^ Another advantage to using baking yeast in a low/non-alcoholic brew is that .

^ I have a lot of recipes, both adapted and original, that call for pouring boiling water in the primary, mostly to dissolve the sugar but also to kill wild yeast, bacteria and fungi that ride in on the skins of the fruit used to make good wine from.

Sugar and vinegar are the best conditions for yeast to ferment. .In bread making the yeast initially respires aerobically, producing carbon dioxide and water.^ This yeast makes less delicate bread than .

^ You can make bread by just putting flour and water (a little .

^ I'm fairly positive that beer yeast used to make bread will not have a taste .

.When the oxygen is depleted anaerobic respiration begins, producing ethanol as a waste product; however, this evaporates during baking.^ Some producers, however, exceed this temperature and heat their product to as high as 170 degrees F. .

[40]
A block of fresh yeast.
.It is not known when yeast was first used to bake bread.^ Pliny first noted the use of barm for leavening bread by the Germanic .

^ The Egyptians are the first people known to make leavened bread and from the .

^ Yeast dies at about 140 degrees F, so baked bread .

The first records that show this use came from Ancient Egypt.[41] .Researchers speculate that a mixture of flour meal and water was left longer than usual on a warm day and the yeasts that occur in natural contaminants of the flour caused it to ferment before baking.^ After ten minutes in warm water, the yeast .

^ Dissolving yeast in warm water or milk .

^ Dissolve the yeast and sugar in the warm potato water.

The resulting bread would have been lighter and tastier than the normal flat, hard cake.
Active dried yeast, a granulated form in which yeast is commercially sold.
.Today there are several retailers of baker's yeast; one of the best-known in North America is Fleischmann’s Yeast, which was developed in 1868. During World War II Fleischmann's developed a granulated active dry yeast, which did not require refrigeration and had a longer shelf life than fresh yeast.^ As Armistice Day it would now honor only the dead - the last known American World War I veteran passed away on January 21, 2007.

^ There are several rules of life you ought to memorize and follow.

^ New and unusual Agarics from North America II. Mycologia 33(1): 1-16.
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.The company created yeast that would rise twice as fast, reducing baking time.^ The fruit will rise to the top, pushed there by the CO 2 created by the yeast.

.Baker's yeast is also sold as a fresh yeast compressed into a square "cake". This form perishes quickly, and must therefore be used soon after production.^ That night, crush the Campden tablet very fine and stir it and all other ingredients into the must except the yeast starter solution and cover the primary.

^ They must be picked as soon as they are fully colored because they fall almost as soon as fully ripe, bruise badly and spoil quickly.

^ The recipe I've selected is tried and true, but the final product's character is determined both by the plum[s] and the yeast used.

.A weak solution of water and sugar can be used to determine if yeast is expired.^ You might be able to take a solution of water and sugar .

^ Bring 1 quart water to boil and dissolve sugar and yeast nutrient.

^ I recently used up my last dab of yeast (expired 3 mos .

.In the solution, active yeast will foam and bubble as it ferments the sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide.^ No actively fermenting, the yeast settles to the bottom.

^ Because S. cerevisiae is top fermenting, it the active yeast can be .

^ That night, crush the Campden tablet very fine and stir it and all other ingredients into the must except the yeast starter solution and cover the primary.

.Some recipes refer to this as proofing the yeast as it "proves" [tests] the viability of the yeast before the other ingredients are added.^ Some are more vigorous than others, and just about every yeast .

^ Adding the salt to the recipe would slow down the growth of the yeast.

^ That night, crush the Campden tablet very fine and stir it and all other ingredients into the must except the yeast starter solution and cover the primary.

.When using a sourdough starter, flour and water are added instead of sugar; this is referred to as proofing the sponge.^ I had made a yeast starter by hydrating a half-teaspoon of DV10 in 1/2 cup of warm water into which I had dissolved a pinch of yeast nutrient and a teaspoon of sugar.

^ I mean, some recipes say to use a specific herb or flower, add sugar and other dry ingredients, and then add from 7-1/2 pints to a gallon of water.

.When yeast is used for making bread, it is mixed with flour, salt, and warm water or milk.^ After ten minutes in warm water, the yeast .

^ You can make bread by just putting flour and water (a little .

^ Dissolving yeast in warm water or milk .

.The dough is kneaded until it is smooth, and then left to rise, sometimes until it has doubled in size.^ Cover and let rise until doubled (or for .

Some bread doughs are knocked back after one rising and left to rise again. .A longer rising time gives a better flavour, but the yeast can fail to raise the bread in the final stages if it is left for too long initially.^ As for giving away bread, I tend to bake 4 to 8 loaves at a time and spread .

^ Plain bread of flour, water, yeast and salt should rise properly as long as .

The dough is then shaped into loaves, left to rise until it is the correct size, and then baked. .Dried yeast is usually specified for use in a bread machine, however a (wet) sourdough starter can also work.^ I purchased two 64-ounce bottles of R.W. Knudsen unsweetened "Just Blueberries" and began the yeast starter solution yesterday morning before going to work.

^ I did not use Montrachet yeast (which I usually do with melon wines) but should have.

^ Use acid test kit to measure acid and adjust to 0.60 TA. Stir in yeast starter solution and re-cover primary.

Bioremediation

Some yeasts can find potential application in the field of bioremediation. .One such yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, is known to degrade palm oil mill effluent,[42] TNT (an explosive material),[43] and other hydrocarbons such as alkanes, fatty acids, fats and oils.^ Add acid blend, one finely crushed and dissolved Campden tablet and yeast nutrient, stirring briefly.

[44] It can also tolerate high concentrations of salt and heavy metals,[45] and is being investigated for its potential as a heavy metal biosorbent.[46]

Industrial ethanol production

.The ability of yeast to convert sugar into ethanol has been harnessed by the biotechnology industry to produce ethanol fuel.^ You can use baker's yeast, but it might stop fermenting before all the sugar has been converted into alcohol, leaving a sweeter wine than desired, and/or it might produce slightly yeasty off-flavors (although some people actually like this).

^ Its ability to adhere to host tissues, produce secretory aspartyl proteases and phospholipase enzymes and transform from yeast to hyphal phase are the major determinants of its pathogenicity.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ I had made a yeast starter by hydrating a half-teaspoon of DV10 in 1/2 cup of warm water into which I had dissolved a pinch of yeast nutrient and a teaspoon of sugar.

.The process starts by milling a feedstock, such as sugar cane, field corn, or cheap cereal grains, and then adding dilute sulfuric acid, or fungal alpha amylase enzymes, to break down the starches into complex sugars.^ Add the pectic enzyme, stir, re-cover the primary, and set aside another 6-8 hours; this will help break down the fruit so the sugars, flavors and other constituents are more easily extracted by the yeast.

^ Agave nectar is processed so an enzymatic process converts the complex fructose chain into simple monosaccharides -- fructose and dextrose (plant glucose).

^ Also, having researched making sugar cane wine, I remember reading that one of the problems encountered when processing sugar cane juice to clarity is the presence of starch.

.A gluco amylase is then added to break the complex sugars down into simple sugars.^ Agave nectar is processed so an enzymatic process converts the complex fructose chain into simple monosaccharides -- fructose and dextrose (plant glucose).

^ The sap is filtered and heated at low temperature (118 degrees F.), where enzymes break down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars.

^ Sweeten the wine with simple syrup made with two parts sugar dissolved into one part of boiling water.

.After this, yeasts are added to convert the simple sugars to ethanol, which is then distilled off to obtain ethanol up to 96% in concentration.^ I added the grape concentrate as an afterthought when I needed to top up.

^ Strain off solids and retain liquid only in primary and add grape concentrate, citrus juice and sugar.

[47]
.Saccharomyces yeasts have been genetically engineered to ferment xylose, one of the major fermentable sugars present in cellulosic biomasses, such as agriculture residues, paper wastes, and wood chips.^ If I follow the latter approach I'll add sugar to reach 1.085 s.g., 1-1/2 teaspoons of acid blend initially (probably will need to add a little more after fermentation), and one teaspoon of yeast nutrient.

[48][49] Such a development means that ethanol can be efficiently produced from more inexpensive feedstocks, making cellulosic ethanol fuel a more competitively priced alternative to gasoline fuels.[50]

Non-alcoholic beverages

A Kombucha culture fermenting in a jar
.Root beer and other sweet carbonated beverages can be produced using the same methods as beer, except that fermentation is stopped sooner, producing carbon dioxide, but only trace amounts of alcohol, and a significant amount of sugar is left in the drink.^ Pectins are found in trace amounts only.

^ They contain glucose, fructose, and sucrose sugars and are eaten raw, made into refreshing drinks, or dried for later use.

^ Do not sweeten after fermentation stops, but trust residual sweetness.

.Yeast in symbiosis with acetic acid bacteria is used in the preparation of Kombucha, a fermented sweetened tea.^ Use acid test kit to measure acid and adjust to 0.60 TA. Stir in yeast starter solution and re-cover primary.

^ Also, remember that using Lalvin 71B-1122 (Narbonne) yeast will result in lower post-fermentation acidity.

.Species of yeast found in the tea can vary, and may include: Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii.^ Candida infections may manifest in various clinical forms depending on the underlying immunological status of the patient.
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^ The genus Candida includes around 154 species.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[51] Kombucha is a popular beverage among Eastern Europe and some former soviet republics, under the name Kvas. Kefir and kumis are made by fermenting milk with yeast and bacteria.[52]

Nutritional supplements

.Yeast is used in nutritional supplements popular with vegans and the health conscious, where it is often referred to as "nutritional yeast". It is a deactivated yeast, usually Saccharomyces cerevisiae.^ I did not use Montrachet yeast (which I usually do with melon wines) but should have.

.It is an excellent source of protein and vitamins, especially the B-complex vitamins, whose functions are related to metabolism as well as other minerals and cofactors required for growth.^ Mineral nutrient requirements and ion uptake, water conditions like water related stress, internal transport processes for the manufacture and distribution of nutrients, the role of plant hormones, inhibitors, and phytochromes in the regulation of plant growth and development, must be understood.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.It is also naturally low in fat and sodium.^ This naturally brings up the question, what time did I consume the two very generous low sodium V8 Bloody Marys?

.Some brands of nutritional yeast, though not all, are fortified with vitamin B12, which is produced separately from bacteria.^ None of the other three batches started with this yeast produced any noticeable foam at all.

^ The prime consideration in using marbles that the marbles crush some of the dead yeast cells and cause yeast autolysis, which is fine for feeding leve yeast but not desired when all yeast are dead.

Nutritional yeast, though it has a similar appearance to brewer's yeast, is very different and has a very different taste.
.Nutritional yeast has a nutty, cheesy, creamy flavor which makes it popular as an ingredient in cheese substitutes.^ For people who want to make larger batches, all they have to do is multiply the ingredients (except yeast) by the number of gallons desired.

^ Add yeast, cover, and daily stir ingredients and press pulp in nylon bag to extract flavor.

^ A Substitute for Yeast Nutrient I am often asked if one can substitute something else for one or another winemaking ingredient.

It is often used by vegans in place of Parmesan cheese. Another popular use is as a topping for popcorn. It can also be used in mashed and fried potatoes, as well as putting it into scrambled eggs. .It comes in the form of flakes, or as a yellow powder similar in texture to cornmeal, and can be found in the bulk aisle of most natural food stores.^ Given the neurotropic nature of the fungus, the most common clinical form of cryptococcosis is meningoencephalitis.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.In Australia it is sometimes sold as "savory yeast flakes". Though "nutritional yeast" usually refers to commercial products, inadequately fed prisoners have used "home-grown" yeast to prevent vitamin deficiency.^ The recipe I've selected is tried and true, but the final product's character is determined both by the plum[s] and the yeast used.

^ I did not use Montrachet yeast (which I usually do with melon wines) but should have.

[53]

Probiotics

.Some probiotic supplements use the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii to maintain and restore the natural flora in the large and small gastrointestinal tract.^ The etiologic agent grows as a large yeast within the giant cells as well as small cells that are typical of those seen in histoplasmosis capsulati.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Most recipes use 20-25% agave nectar, a lemon or two, some nutrients, and any wine yeast.

^ Candida albicans is part of the normal flora of the vagina and gastrointestinal tract and is termed a commensal .
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.S. boulardii has been shown to reduce the symptoms of acute diarrhea in children,[54][55] prevent reinfection of Clostridium difficile,[56] reduce bowel movements in diarrhea predominant IBS patients,[57] and reduce the incidence of antibiotic,[58] traveler's,[59] and HIV/AIDS[60] associated diarrheas.^ Within endemic areas, the incidence of disseminated histoplasmosis is about 5% in patients with AIDS. In hyperendemic areas, such as Indianapolis and Kansas City, the incidence has been over 25% during out-breaks.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Cryptococcus neoformans infection is more common in patients with AIDS than in non-HIV-infected persons.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

Aquarium hobby

Yeast is often used by aquarium hobbyists to generate carbon dioxide (CO2) to fertilize plants in planted aquariums. A homemade setup is widely used as a cheap and simple alternative to pressurized CO2 systems. While not as effective as these, the homemade setup is considerably cheaper for less demanding hobbyists.
.There are several recipes for homemade CO2, but they are variations of the basic recipe: Baking yeast is inserted in a plastic bottle together with sugar, baking soda and water.^ Rather than dump them, I used each in various cooking recipes in lieu of water.

^ Zingimel: Ginger Mead I recently mentioned that I had bottled a ginger mead and that very night received the first of several requests for the recipe.

^ There are several variants of the Malay Apple, most notable in fruit size and color - red fruit is usual but variegated varieties and a rare albino exist.

This produces CO2 for about 2 or 3 weeks. .The CO2 is injected in the aquarium via a narrow hose and released through a CO2 diffuser that helps dissolve the gas in the water.^ However, I did warm one quart of water to help dissolve and integrate the honey.

The CO2 is used by plants in the photosynthesis process.
.CO2 injection is very important to plant growth in planted aquariums.^ The effects of the physical environment where the plant is growing and how this impacts the plant's growth, development, and the correlation of biochemical changes that are occurring within the plant is likewise important.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[61]

Science

Diagram showing a yeast cell
.Several yeasts, particularly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been widely used in genetics and cell biology.^ In fact, it is the originally isolated Champagne yeast and one of the most widely used strains in Champagne.

^ The prime consideration in using marbles that the marbles crush some of the dead yeast cells and cause yeast autolysis, which is fine for feeding leve yeast but not desired when all yeast are dead.

.This is largely because S. cerevisiae is a simple eukaryotic cell, serving as a model for all eukaryotes including humans for the study of fundamental cellular processes such as the cell cycle, DNA replication, recombination, cell division and metabolism.^ Fungi, including those pathogenic to humans and animals, are eukaryotic microorganisms that can be conveniently separated into two basic groups, moulds and yeasts.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

Also yeasts are easily manipulated and cultured in the lab which has allowed for the development of powerful standard techniques, such as Yeast two-hybrid, Synthetic genetic array analysis and tetrad analysis. .Many proteins important in human biology were first discovered by studying their homologs in yeast; these proteins include cell cycle proteins, signaling proteins, and protein-processing enzymes.^ His observation was important because he was the first to incriminate a microorganism as the cause of human infection.
  • Aquatic Pathogens-Fungi 27 January 2010 23:54 UTC www.env.gov.bc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The study, published in the journal of the Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology ( FASEB Journal ), found that resveratrol blocks two major proteins that trigger inflammation.

On 24 April 1996 S. cerevisiae was announced to be the first eukaryote to have its genome, consisting of 12 million base pairs, fully sequenced as part of the Genome project.[62] .At the time it was the most complex organism to have its full genome sequenced and took 7 years and the involvement of more than 100 laboratories to accomplish.^ Cellar at least one year before tasting, but may require more time.

^ December 12th, 2009 As the year counts down a pending holiday vacation looms before me with much more to do before I depart than time seems to permit.

^ When they do work out, most wines have to be aged for 6 months to a year, and 5 bottles take less room to store during aging than 25 or 30.

[63] The second yeast species to have its genome sequenced was Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which was completed in 2002.[64][65] It was the sixth eukaryotic genome sequenced and consists of 13.8 million base pairs.

Yeast extract

Marmite and Vegemite have a distinctive dark colour
Vegemite and Marmite, products made from yeast extract
.Yeast extract is the common name for various forms of processed yeast products that are used as food additives or flavours.^ The recipe I've selected is tried and true, but the final product's character is determined both by the plum[s] and the yeast used.

.They are often used in the same way that monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used, and like MSG, often contain free glutamic acid.^ I like Knudsen juices because they contain only reconstituted juice from concentrate.

^ By the same token, adding a little acid will also often rescue a wine -- add the dominant acid of the fruit or acid blend.

^ They contain glucose, fructose, and sucrose sugars and are eaten raw, made into refreshing drinks, or dried for later use.

.The general method for making yeast extract for food products such as Vegemite and Marmite on a commercial scale is to add salt to a suspension of yeast making the solution hypertonic, which leads to the cells shrivelling up.^ Add activated yeast as a starter solution.

^ Add activated yeast in a starter solution.

^ Varietal Mead, Sweet 3 - 3-3/4 lbs quality varietal honey 1-1/2 tsp yeast nutrient 1-5/8 tsp citric acid 1/4 tsp yeast energizer Water to make up 1 gal (about 3 liters) 1 sachet Montrachet yeast Method: Same as for Varietal Mead, Dry.

.This triggers autolysis, where the yeast's digestive enzymes break their own proteins down into simpler compounds, a process of self-destruction.^ Add the pectic enzyme, stir, re-cover the primary, and set aside another 6-8 hours; this will help break down the fruit so the sugars, flavors and other constituents are more easily extracted by the yeast.

^ The sap is filtered and heated at low temperature (118 degrees F.), where enzymes break down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars.

^ As yeast cells die and break down, they gradually release a host of compounds into the wine that otherwise would be absent.

.The dying yeast cells are then heated to complete their breakdown, after which the husks (yeast with thick cell walls which would give poor texture) are separated.^ As yeast cells die and break down, they gradually release a host of compounds into the wine that otherwise would be absent.

Yeast autolysates are used in Vegemite and Promite (Australia); Marmite, Bovril and Oxo (the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and South Africa); and Cenovis (Switzerland).

Pathogenic yeasts

A photomicrograph of Candida albicans showing hyphal outgrowth and other morphological characteristics.
.Some species of yeast are opportunistic pathogens where they can cause infection in people with compromised immune systems.^ For people who want to make larger batches, all they have to do is multiply the ingredients (except yeast) by the number of gallons desired.

^ The prime consideration in using marbles that the marbles crush some of the dead yeast cells and cause yeast autolysis, which is fine for feeding leve yeast but not desired when all yeast are dead.

Cryptococcus neoformans is a significant pathogen of immunocompromised people causing the disease termed cryptococcosis. This disease occurs in about 7–9% of AIDS patients in the USA, and a slightly smaller percentage (3–6%) in western Europe.[66] The cells of the yeast are surrounded by a rigid polysaccharide capsule, which helps to prevent them from being recognised and engulfed by white blood cells in the human body.
Yeasts of the Candida genus are another group of opportunistic pathogens which causes oral and vaginal infections in humans, known as candidiasis. Candida is commonly found as a commensal yeast in the mucus membranes of humans and other warm-blooded animals. However, sometimes these same strains can become pathogenic. .Here the yeast cells sprout a hyphal outgrowth, which locally penetrates the mucosal membrane, causing irritation and shedding of the tissues.^ The prime consideration in using marbles that the marbles crush some of the dead yeast cells and cause yeast autolysis, which is fine for feeding leve yeast but not desired when all yeast are dead.

[66] The pathogenic yeasts of candidiasis in probable descending order of virulence for humans are: C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. stellatoidea, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. viswanathii, C. lusitaniae and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.[67] Candida glabrata is the second most common Candida pathogen after C. albicans, causing infections of the urogenital tract, and of the bloodstream (candidemia).[68]

Food spoilage

.Yeasts are able to grow in foods with a low pH, (5.0 or lower) and in the presence of sugars, organic acids and other easily metabolized carbon sources.^ Add the pectic enzyme, stir, re-cover the primary, and set aside another 6-8 hours; this will help break down the fruit so the sugars, flavors and other constituents are more easily extracted by the yeast.

^ Wines will not go bad sitting three months on their yeast lees, but could go bad sitting on gross lees containing bits of fruit pulp or other decomposing organic matter.

^ Add sugar, acid blend, yeast nutrient, and yeast energizer and stir well to dissolve.

[69] .During their growth, yeasts metabolize some food components and produce metabolic end products.^ Since grapes are only produced on the first 2-3 (rarely 4) nodes, 75-80% of that growth ends up shading the grapes of the adjoining vines.

^ Some producers, however, exceed this temperature and heat their product to as high as 170 degrees F. .

This causes the physical, chemical, and sensory properties of a food to change, and the food is spoiled.[70] The growth of yeast within food products is often seen on their surface, as in cheeses or meats, or by the fermentation of sugars in beverages, such as juices, and semi-liquid products, such as syrups and jams.[69] The yeast of the Zygosaccharomyces genus have had a long history as a spoilage yeast within the food industry. .This is mainly due to the fact that these species can grow in the presence of high sucrose, ethanol, acetic acid, sorbic acid, benzoic acid, and sulfur dioxide concentrations,[71] representing some of the commonly used food preservation methods.^ Even if some of them somehow manage to outlive the half-life of the sorbic acid, they are physiologically incapable of reproducing and kindling a wholesale refermentation.

^ Some may wonder why I used a white grape juice frozen concentrate and then added elderberries for color when I could have used red grape frozen concentrate and cinched the color without the elderberries.

^ Many contain sorbic acid or benzoic acid to prevent the syrups from fermenting, so obviously you do not want to add these to your must.

.Methylene blue is used to test for the presence of live yeast cells.^ Use acid test kit to measure acid and adjust to 0.60 TA. Stir in yeast starter solution and re-cover primary.

^ The prime consideration in using marbles that the marbles crush some of the dead yeast cells and cause yeast autolysis, which is fine for feeding leve yeast but not desired when all yeast are dead.

See also


Footnotes

  1. ^ Kurtzman, C.P., Fell, J.W. 2006. "Yeast Systematics and Phylogeny—Implications of Molecular Identification Methods for Studies in Ecology.", Biodiversity and Ecophysiology of Yeasts, The Yeast Handbook, Springer. Retrieved January 7, 2007.
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Cited texts

  • Alexopoulos CJ, Mims CW, Blackwell M. (1996). Introductory Mycology. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-52229-5. 
  • Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi. 10th ed. Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 0-85199-826-7. 
  • Moore-Landecker E. (1996). Fundamentals of the Fungi. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-376864-3. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

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Simple English

Yeasts
File:S cerevisiae under DIC
Yeast of the species Sacharomyces cerevisiae.
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Typical divisions

Ascomycota (sac fungi)

  • Saccharomycotina (true yeasts)
  • Taphrinomycotina
    • Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts)

Basidiomycota (club fungi)

  • Urediniomycetes
    • Sporidiales

Yeast are complex-celled microorganisms. They are classified as fungi. There are about 1,500 different species of yeast. Most reproduce asexually, by budding. Some use binary fission to reproduce.

A certain kind of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used for a very long time. It is used for baking bread, for example, or as an additive to help the fermentation of alcoholic drinks, such as beer. It is also considered to be a model organism for modern cell biology. Other yeasts can cause infections in humans (they are pathogens). Yeast has also been used to make electricity, or to make ethanol (as a biological fuel for cars). It is also used a lot in bread making.

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