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Yersinia enterocolitica
Yersinia enterocolitica colonies growing on XLD agar plates.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Yersinia
Species: Y. enterocolitica
Binomial name
Yersinia enterocolitica
(Schleifstein & Coleman 1939)

Yersinia enterocolitica is a speices of gram-negative coccobacillus-shaped bacterium, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Primarily a zoonotic disease (cattle, deer, pigs, and birds), animals that recover frequently become asymptomatic carriers of the disease. [1]

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Acute Y. enterocolitica infections produce severe diarrhea in humans, along with Peyer's patch necrosis, chronic lymphadenopathy, and hepatic or splenic abscesses. Additional symptoms may include entero-colitis, fever, mesenteric adenitis, erythema nodosum and acute terminal ileitis, which may be confused with appendicitis or Crohn's disease. Because Yersinia is a siderophilic (iron-loving) bacteria, those with hereditary hemochromatosis (a disease resulting in high body iron levels) are more susceptible to infection with Yersinia (and other siderophilic bacteria). In fact, the most common contaminant of stored blood is Y. enterocolitica.[2] See yersiniosis for further details.

Treatment

Treatment of Y. enterocolitica infections often requires aggressive antibiotic therapy, typically involving ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and polymyxin.[1] However, some gastoenterologists, especially in Scandinavia, would say that antibiotic treatment should be initiated only when the patient has significant and persisting symptoms of gastroenteritis.

Prognosis

Y. enterocolitica infections are sometimes followed by chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis.[3]

Y. enterocolitica seems to be associated with autoimmune Graves-Basedow thyroiditis.[4] Whilst indirect evidence exists, direct causative evidence is limited,[5] and Y. enterocolitica is probably not a major cause of this disease, but may contribute to the development of thyroid autoimmunity arising for other reasons in genetically susceptible individuals.[6] It has also been suggested that Y. enterocolitica infection is not the cause of auto-immune thyroid disease, but rather is only an associated condition; with both having a shared inherited susceptibility.[7] More recently the role for Y. enterocolitica has been disputed.[8]

References

  1. ^ a b Collins FM (1996). Pasteurella, and Francisella. In: Barron's Medical Microbiology (Barron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.  
  2. ^ Goljan, Edward F. Rapid Review Pathology. Second Edition. Page 279, Table 15-1.
  3. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.  
  4. ^ Benvenga S, Santarpia L, Trimarchi F, Guarneri F (2006). "Human Thyroid Autoantigens and Proteins of Yersinia and Borrelia Share Amino Acid Sequence Homology That Includes Binding Motifs to HLA-DR Molecules and T-Cell Receptor". Thyroid 16 (3): 225–236. doi:10.1089/thy.2006.16.225. PMID 16571084.  
  5. ^ Tomer Y, Davies T (1993). "Infection, thyroid disease, and autoimmunity" (PDF). Endocr Rev 14 (1): 107–20. doi:10.1210/er.14.1.107. PMID 8491150. http://edrv.endojournals.org/cgi/reprint/14/1/107.pdf.  
  6. ^ Toivanen P, Toivanen A (1994). "Does Yersinia induce autoimmunity?". Int Arch Allergy Immunol 104 (2): 107–11. PMID 8199453.  
  7. ^ Strieder T, Wenzel B, Prummel M, Tijssen J, Wiersinga W (2003). "Increased prevalence of antibodies to enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica virulence proteins in relatives of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease". Clin Exp Immunol 132 (2): 278–82. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2249.2003.02139.x. PMID 12699417.  
  8. ^ Hansen P, Wenzel B, Brix T, Hegedüs L (2006). "Yersinia enterocolitica infection does not confer an increased risk of thyroid antibodies: evidence from a Danish twin study". Clin Exp Immunol 146 (1): 32–8. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2006.03183.x. PMID 16968395.  

External links

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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Yersinia enterocolitica

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Superregnum: Bacteria
Regnum: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Classis: Gamma Proteobacteria
Ordo: Enterobacteriales
Familia: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Yersinia
Species: Yersinia enterocolitica
Subspecies: Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:1) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:13) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:15) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:2) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:20) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:21) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:3) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:34) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:5) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:8) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:9) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:4) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:13,18) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:13a,13b) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:4,32) - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:5,27) - Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. enterocolitica - Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. palearctica - Yersinia enterocolitica (type O:2.3) -

Name

Yersinia enterocolitica (Schleifstein & Coleman, 1939)

References


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