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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Yigupai (Chinese: 疑古派pinyin: YígǔpàiWade-Giles: Ikup'ai; literally "the Doubting Antiquity School[1][2]") refers to a group of scholars and writers who show doubts and uncertainty of antiquity in the Chinese academia starting during the New Culture Movement. Most of their criticism concerns the authenticity of pre-Qin texts and deals with questions put forward by the past dynastic writers, as well as other subjects. Hu Shi (1891-1962) initiated the critical movement,[1] with his pupil Gu Jiegang and his friend Qian Xuantong continuing this school of thought.[3] Their writings also had influence on many western sinologists including Bernhard Karlgren and Samuel Griffith.


List of early modern scholars


Prominent figures


  • Chen Lisan (陈立三)
  • Chen Wenbo (陈文波)
  • Chen Zhu (陈柱)
  • Cui Shi (崔适)
  • Deng Sishan (邓思善)
  • Du Guoxiang (杜国庠)
  • Fan Wenlan (范文澜)
  • Feng Youlan
  • Feng Zhen (冯振)
  • Gao Heng (高亨)
  • Gu Shi (顾实)
  • Huang Yunmei (黄云眉)
  • Jin Dejian (金德建)
  • Li Jingchi (李镜池)
  • Liao Ping (廖平)
  • Liu Jie (刘节)
  • Liu Rulin (刘汝霖)
  • Liu Xianxin (刘咸炘)
  • Lu Simian (吕思勉)
  • Luo Genze (罗根泽)
  • Ma Xulun (马叙论)
  • Qian Daxin (钱大昕)
  • Qian Jibo (钱基博)
  • Qian Xuantong
  • Ren Jiyu (任继愈)
  • Rong Zhaozu (容肇祖)
  • Sun Cidan (孙次丹)
  • Tao Fangqi (陶方琦)
  • Tang Lan (唐兰)
  • Wang Zhengyi (王正已)
  • Wei Juxian (卫聚贤)
  • Wu Qichang (吴其昌)
  • Xu Renfu (徐仁甫)
  • Yang Yunru (杨筠如)
  • Yang Bojun (杨伯峻)
  • Yang Rongguo
  • Ye Guoqing (叶国庆)
  • Yin Tongyang (尹桐阳)
  • Yu Yongliang (余永梁)
  • Zhang Binglin
  • Zhang Jitong (张季同)
  • Zhang Qihuang (张其锽)
  • Zhang Shoulin (张寿林)
  • Zhang Xitang (张西堂)
  • Zhao Shouzheng (赵守正)
  • Zhu Xizhu (朱希祖)

More Recent Evidence

Reliability of the Old Texts

Joseph Needham wrote in 1954 that many scholars doubted that Sima's Records of the Grand Historian had contained accurate information about such distant history, including the thirty kings of the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600–c. 1050 BC). Many scholars argued that Sima couldn't possibly have had access to written materials which detailed history a millennium before his age. However, the discovery of oracle bones at an excavation of the Shang Dynasty capital at Anyang (Yinxu) matched twenty-three of the thirty Shang kings that Sima listed. Needham writes that this remarkable archaeological find proves that Sima Qian "did have fairly reliable materials at his disposal—a fact which underlines once more the deep historical-mindedness of the Chinese."[4]

See also


  1. ^ a b Wilkinson, Endymion Porter (2000). Chinese History: A Manual. Harvard Univ Asia Center. ISBN 0674002490. Page 345, see: [1]
  2. ^ Loewe, Michael and Edward L. Shaughnessy (1999). The Cambridge History of Ancient China Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521470307. Page 72, see: [2]
  3. ^ De Bary, William Theodore (2001). Sources of Chinese Tradition: From 1600 Through the Twentieth Century. Published by Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231112718. Page 364, see: [3]
  4. ^ Needham, Joseph. (1972). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 1, Introductory Orientations. Richmond: Kingprint Ltd., reprinted by permission of the Cambridge University Press with first publication in 1954. ISBN 052105799X. Page 88, see: here.

Further Reading

  • Liu, Jianguo (2004). Distinguishing and Correcting the pre-Qin Forged Classics. Xi'an: Shaanxi People's Press. ISBN 7-224-05725-8.


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